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Sample records for nanotunneling junction-based hyperspectal

  1. Nanotunneling Junction-based Hyperspectal Polarimetric Photodetector and Detection Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah (Inventor); Moon, Jeongsun J. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Liao, Anna (Inventor); Ting, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photodetector, detector array, and method of operation thereof in which nanojunctions are formed by crossing layers of nanowires. The crossing nanowires are separated by a few nm thick electrical barrier layer which allows tunneling. Each nanojunction is coupled to a slot antenna for efficient and frequency-selective coupling to photo signals. The nanojunctions formed at the intersection of the crossing wires defines a vertical tunneling diode that rectifies the AC signal from a coupled antenna and generates a DC signal suitable for reforming a video image. The nanojunction sensor allows multi/hyper spectral imaging of radiation within a spectral band ranging from terahertz to visible light, and including infrared (IR) radiation. This new detection approach also offers unprecedented speed, sensitivity and fidelity at room temperature.

  2. Hydrogen-induced nanotunnel opening within semiconductor subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, Patrick; Wimmer, Erich; Celasco, Edvige; Giallombardo, Claudia; Bonanni, Simon; Vattuone, Luca; Savio, Letizia; Tejeda, Antonio; Silly, Mathieu; D'Angelo, Marie; Sirotti, Fausto; Rocca, Mario

    2013-11-01

    One of the key steps in nanotechnology is our ability to engineer and fabricate low-dimensional nano-objects, such as quantum dots, nanowires, two-dimensional atomic layers or three-dimensional nano-porous systems. Here we report evidence of nanotunnel opening within the subsurface region of a wide band-gap semiconductor, silicon carbide. Such an effect is induced by selective hydrogen/deuterium interaction at the surface, which possesses intrinsic compressive stress. This finding is established with a combination of ab-initio computations, vibrational spectroscopy and synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission. Hydrogen/deuterium-induced puckering of the subsurface Si atoms marks the critical step in this nanotunnel opening. Depending on hydrogen/deuterium coverages, the nanotunnels are either metallic or semiconducting. Dangling bonds generated inside the nanotunnel offer a promising template to capture atoms or molecules. These features open nano-tailoring capabilities towards advanced applications in electronics, chemistry, storage, sensors or biotechnology. Understanding and controlling such a mechanism open routes towards surface/interface functionalization.

  3. Kissing and nanotunneling mediate intermitochondrial communication in the heart.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohu; Sun, Lei; Ji, Shuangxi; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Wanrui; Xu, Jiejia; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Xianhua; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Zheng, Ming; Cheng, Heping

    2013-02-19

    Mitochondria in many types of cells are dynamically interconnected through constant fusion and fission, allowing for exchange of mitochondrial contents and repair of damaged mitochondria. However, constrained by the myofibril lattice, the ∼6,000 mitochondria in the adult mammalian cardiomyocyte display little motility, and it is unclear how, if at all, they communicate with each other. By means of target-expressing photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) in the mitochondrial matrix or on the outer mitochondrial membrane, we demonstrated that the local PAGFP signal propagated over the entire population of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes on a time scale of ∼10 h. Two elemental steps of intermitochondrial communications were manifested as either a sudden PAGFP transfer between a pair of adjacent mitochondria (i.e., "kissing") or a dynamic nanotubular tunnel (i.e., "nanotunneling") between nonadjacent mitochondria. The average content transfer index (fractional exchange) was around 0.5; the rate of kissing was 1‰ s(-1) per mitochondrial pair, and that of nanotunneling was about 14 times smaller. Electron microscopy revealed extensive intimate contacts between adjacent mitochondria and elongated nanotubular protrusions, providing a structural basis for the kissing and nanotunneling, respectively. We propose that, through kissing and nanotunneling, the otherwise static mitochondria in a cardiomyocyte form one dynamically continuous network to share content and transfer signals.

  4. Hydrogen-induced nanotunnel opening within semiconductor subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Soukiassian, Patrick; Wimmer, Erich; Celasco, Edvige; Giallombardo, Claudia; Bonanni, Simon; Vattuone, Luca; Savio, Letizia; Tejeda, Antonio; Silly, Mathieu; D’angelo, Marie; Sirotti, Fausto; Rocca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    One of the key steps in nanotechnology is our ability to engineer and fabricate low-dimensional nano-objects, such as quantum dots, nanowires, two-dimensional atomic layers or three-dimensional nano-porous systems. Here we report evidence of nanotunnel opening within the subsurface region of a wide band-gap semiconductor, silicon carbide. Such an effect is induced by selective hydrogen/deuterium interaction at the surface, which possesses intrinsic compressive stress. This finding is established with a combination of ab-initio computations, vibrational spectroscopy and synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission. Hydrogen/deuterium-induced puckering of the subsurface Si atoms marks the critical step in this nanotunnel opening. Depending on hydrogen/deuterium coverages, the nanotunnels are either metallic or semiconducting. Dangling bonds generated inside the nanotunnel offer a promising template to capture atoms or molecules. These features open nano-tailoring capabilities towards advanced applications in electronics, chemistry, storage, sensors or biotechnology. Understanding and controlling such a mechanism open routes towards surface/interface functionalization.

  5. Kissing and nanotunneling mediate intermitochondrial communication in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaohu; Sun, Lei; Ji, Shuangxi; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Wanrui; Xu, Jiejia; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Xianhua; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Zheng, Ming; Cheng, Heping

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria in many types of cells are dynamically interconnected through constant fusion and fission, allowing for exchange of mitochondrial contents and repair of damaged mitochondria. However, constrained by the myofibril lattice, the ∼6,000 mitochondria in the adult mammalian cardiomyocyte display little motility, and it is unclear how, if at all, they communicate with each other. By means of target-expressing photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) in the mitochondrial matrix or on the outer mitochondrial membrane, we demonstrated that the local PAGFP signal propagated over the entire population of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes on a time scale of ∼10 h. Two elemental steps of intermitochondrial communications were manifested as either a sudden PAGFP transfer between a pair of adjacent mitochondria (i.e., “kissing”) or a dynamic nanotubular tunnel (i.e., “nanotunneling”) between nonadjacent mitochondria. The average content transfer index (fractional exchange) was around 0.5; the rate of kissing was 1‰ s−1 per mitochondrial pair, and that of nanotunneling was about 14 times smaller. Electron microscopy revealed extensive intimate contacts between adjacent mitochondria and elongated nanotubular protrusions, providing a structural basis for the kissing and nanotunneling, respectively. We propose that, through kissing and nanotunneling, the otherwise static mitochondria in a cardiomyocyte form one dynamically continuous network to share content and transfer signals. PMID:23386722

  6. Carbon nanotunnels form from single-walled carbon nanotubes interacting with a diamond (100)-(2 X 1) surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, D. A.; Sternberg, M.; Zapol, P.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2011-08-01

    A quantum chemical study of the interaction of (5,5), (7,7), (9,9) and (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes with a clean (100)-(2 x 1) diamond surface is reported. Stable structures with covalent bonds at the interface were found for carbon nanotubes oriented parallel or perpendicular to the dimer rows on the reconstructed (100) surface. The binding energy of the most stable (5,5) nanotube-diamond structure is 1.7 eV/{angstrom}, and is attributed to strong covalent bonds formed between the carbon nanotube and the diamond surface. The structure of the nanotube is distorted by adsorption on the surface such that it adopts a tunnel-like geometry. Two other nanotunnel geometries were found for the (5,5) nanotube, with binding energies of 1.39 and 1.09 eV/{angstrom}. In the most stable (5,5) nanotube-diamond structure the interaction between the nanotube and the diamond surface produces a 0.6 eV band gap near the Fermi level, but the metallic character of the nanotube is maintained in the two other, less strongly bound nanotunnel structures. No charge transfer occurs between the diamond surface and the nanotunnels in any of the three orientations. Binding energies decrease with increases in tube diameter, to the extent that one of the three nanotunnel structures is not formed by (9,9) carbon nanotubes.

  7. Simulation of HyperSPECT: a high-resolution small-animal system with in-line x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbelin, Sandra; Nillius, Peter; Danielsson, Mats

    2012-03-01

    SPECT has become an important tool in pre-clinical applications. Small-animal imaging systems based on the use of one or more pinhole collimators now reach sub-half-mm resolution but unfortunately suffer from a compromise between sensitivity and resolution due to the pinhole collimators. We propose a small-animal SPECT system based not on pinholes but on in-line x-ray optics, which is rare in medical imaging systems for nuclear medicine. The x-ray lenses are optimized for 27 keV for low-energy imaging with iodine-125. We believe that this new system, HyperSPECT, can simultaneously improve on sensitivity and resolution compared to today's state-of-the-art systems. A full three-dimensional simulation of the system has been performed including the prism-array lenses, pre- and post-collimators and scintillator-based detector. Images of capillary phantoms have been reconstructed using an iterative image reconstruction method. Sensitivity was uniformly 0.37% throughout the 1 cm diameter spherical field of view and rod sizes of around 100 μm diameter were distinguishable in the images of simulated capillary phantoms. These results indicate an increase in resolution by a factor of 5 during a simultaneous increase in sensitivity by a factor of 2 compared to the current state-of-the-art small-animal SPECT systems.

  8. Hydrogen-induced nanotunnel structure on the C-terminated β-SiC(0 0 1)-c(2 × 2) surface investigated by ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, E. F.; Baierle, R. J.; Orellana, W.; Miwa, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The structural and electronic properties of pristine and H-passivated C-terminated β-SiC(0 0 1)-c(2 × 2) surface are addressed by ab initio calculations. Here, we verify the formation of C chains composed by double-bonded dimers rows (Cdbnd C), separated by triple-bonded bridged dimers (Ctbnd C). The surface states near the bandgap are confined along the Cdbnd C dimer rows, with no electronic contribution from the Ctbnd C bridged dimers. After hydrogenation, the C-chains are strongly modified, forming subsurface voids or nanotunnel (NT) structures. By considering a plausible set of energy release steps for increasing hydrogenation, we obtain a C-rich NT ruled by the Cdbnd C dimer rows. Somewhat similar to that recently reported on the Si-rich termination, but 0.8 eV lower in energy. The electronic band structures of both Si-rich and C-rich NTs have been examined within the hybrid HSE06 functional, which are compared with those previously reported using a semilocal functional.

  9. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  10. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  11. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deymier, P. A.; Swinteck, N.; Runge, K.; Deymier-Black, A.; Hoying, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  12. Paramagnetic molecule induced strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling on a magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics device.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pawan; Baker, Collin; D'Angelo, Christopher

    2015-07-31

    This paper reports our Monte Carlo (MC) studies aiming to explain the experimentally observed paramagnetic molecule induced antiferromagnetic coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Recently developed magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) were prepared by chemically bonding the paramagnetic molecules between the FM electrodes along the tunnel junction's perimeter. These MTJMSDs exhibited molecule-induced strong antiferromagnetic coupling. We simulated the 3D atomic model analogous to the MTJMSD and studied the effect of molecule's magnetic couplings with the two FM electrodes. Simulations show that when a molecule established ferromagnetic coupling with one electrode and antiferromagnetic coupling with the other electrode, then theoretical results effectively explained the experimental findings. Our studies suggest that in order to align MTJMSDs' electrodes antiparallel to each other, the exchange coupling strength between a molecule and FM electrodes should be ∼50% of the interatomic exchange coupling for the FM electrodes.

  13. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  14. Programmable Schottky Junctions Based on Ferroelectric Gated MoS2 Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Song, Jingfeng; Drcharme, Stephen; Hong, Xia

    We report a programmable Schottky junction based on MoS2 field effect transistors with a SiO2 back gate and a ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene-fluoride-trifluorethylene) (PVDF) top gate. We fabricated mechanically exfoliated single layer MoS2 flakes into two point devices via e-beam lithography, and deposited on the top of the devices ~20 nm PVDF thin films. The polarization of the PVDF layer is controlled locally by conducting atomic force microscopy. The devices exhibit linear ID-VD characteristics when the ferroelectric gate is uniformly polarized in one direction. We then polarized the gate into two domains with opposite polarization directions, and observed that the ID-VD characteristics of the MoS2 channel can be modulated between linear and rectified behaviors depending on the back gate voltage. The nonlinear ID-VD relation emerges when half of the channel is in the semiconductor phase while the other half is in the metallic phase, and it can be well described by the thermionic emission model with a Schottky barrier of ~0.5 eV. The Schottky junction can be erased by re-write the entire channel in the uniform polarization state. Our study facilitates the development of programmable, multifunctional nanoelectronics based on layered 2D TMDs..

  15. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Ganesh

    2002-01-01

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35μ CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  16. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.; Hasan, T.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 μA) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 μA current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecture offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.

  17. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-11-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes' susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond 90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below 90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies.

  18. Robust integration schemes for junction-based modulators in a 200mm CMOS compatible silicon photonic platform (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelag, Bertrand; Abraham, Alexis; Brision, Stéphane; Gindre, Paul; Blampey, Benjamin; Myko, André; Olivier, Segolene; Kopp, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonic is becoming a reality for next generation communication system addressing the increasing needs of HPC (High Performance Computing) systems and datacenters. CMOS compatible photonic platforms are developed in many foundries integrating passive and active devices. The use of existing and qualified microelectronics process guarantees cost efficient and mature photonic technologies. Meanwhile, photonic devices have their own fabrication constraints, not similar to those of cmos devices, which can affect their performances. In this paper, we are addressing the integration of PN junction Mach Zehnder modulator in a 200mm CMOS compatible photonic platform. Implantation based device characteristics are impacted by many process variations among which screening layer thickness, dopant diffusion, implantation mask overlay. CMOS devices are generally quite robust with respect to these processes thanks to dedicated design rules. For photonic devices, the situation is different since, most of the time, doped areas must be carefully located within waveguides and CMOS solutions like self-alignment to the gate cannot be applied. In this work, we present different robust integration solutions for junction-based modulators. A simulation setup has been built in order to optimize of the process conditions. It consist in a Mathlab interface coupling process and device electro-optic simulators in order to run many iterations. Illustrations of modulator characteristic variations with process parameters are done using this simulation setup. Parameters under study are, for instance, X and Y direction lithography shifts, screening oxide and slab thicknesses. A robust process and design approach leading to a pn junction Mach Zehnder modulator insensitive to lithography misalignment is then proposed. Simulation results are compared with experimental datas. Indeed, various modulators have been fabricated with different process conditions and integration schemes. Extensive

  19. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

    SciTech Connect

    Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny

    2014-03-24

    We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature.

  20. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Kurniasih, Neny; Khairurrijal

    2014-03-01

    We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature.

  1. Low-energy spectra of differential conductivity and shot noise in tunnel junctions based on superconductors with suppression of the order parameter at the S-N interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogolovskii, M.; Zhitlukhina, E.; Egorov, O.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of an anomalous structure in the differential conductivity of tunnel junctions based on high-temperature superconductors as a result of degradation of their surface layer is analyzed. This feature is in the form of two peaks near an energy gap separated by a region of suppressed conductivity. One peak is usually high and sharp, while the other is much more spread out. Differential conductivity and shot noise spectra in contacts of a normal injector with s- and d-type superconductors are calculated and compared. It is shown that combined measurements of these two characteristics can provide new information on the kinetics of transport processes in these structures.

  2. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo study of three-terminal junctions based on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadi, Toufik; Dessenne, François; Thobel, Jean-Luc

    2009-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional (3D) semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation method to study T-branch junctions based on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures and obtain an accurate insight into the physics behind the operation of such structures. Electron transport in these devices is investigated and their rectifying behavior is demonstrated at 77 and 300 K and for different branch sizes. Detailed device analysis is performed to establish the relationship between the extent of ballistic transport and the rectifying behavior of the junctions and show the influence of surface charge effects, which are carefully included in the model. Results from the simulation of a T-branch junction with a Schottky gate terminal are presented, demonstrating the necessity of using 3D simulation models to study the physics of semiconductor junctions.

  3. Annealing stability of magnetic tunnel junctions based on dual MgO free layers and [Co/Ni] based thin synthetic antiferromagnet fixed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devolder, T.; Couet, S.; Swerts, J.; Liu, E.; Lin, T.; Mertens, S.; Furnemont, A.; Kar, G.

    2017-03-01

    We study the annealing stability of bottom-pinned perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions based on dual MgO free layers and thin fixed systems comprising a hard [Co/Ni] multilayer antiferromagnetically coupled to thin a Co reference layer and a FeCoB polarizing layer. Using conventional magnetometry and advanced broadband ferromagnetic resonance, we identify the properties of each sub-unit of the magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate that this material option can ensure a satisfactory resilience to the 400 °C thermal annealing needed in solid-state magnetic memory applications. The dual MgO free layer possesses an anneal-robust 0.4 T effective anisotropy and suffers only a minor increase of its Gilbert damping from 0.007 to 0.010 for the toughest annealing conditions. Within the fixed system, the ferro-coupler and texture-breaking TaFeCoB layer keeps an interlayer exchange above 0.8 mJ/m2, while the Ru antiferrocoupler layer within the synthetic antiferromagnet maintains a coupling above -0.5 mJ/m2. These two strong couplings maintain the overall functionality of the tunnel junction upon the toughest annealing despite the gradual degradation of the thin Co layer anisotropy that may reduce the operation margin in spin torque memory applications. Based on these findings, we propose further optimization routes for the next generation magnetic tunnel junctions.

  4. Application of Hyperspectal Techniques to Monitoring & Management of Invasive Plant Species Infestation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-09

    addition to chlorophyll, however, plants possess other accessory pigments , e.g., several carotenoid pigments like violaxanthin and zeathanthin. The... Pigment Index 680 430 R R carotenoid /chlorophyll a content Zarco-Tejada (1998) NPQI, Normalized Phaeophytinization Index 435415 435415 RR RR... carotenoid /chlorophyll a concentrations Zarco-Tejada (1998) PI1, Pigment Index 1 420 695 R R plant stress status Zarco-Tejada (1998) PI2, Pigment

  5. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  6. Sub-cycle optical phase control of nanotunnelling in the single-electron regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybka, Tobias; Ludwig, Markus; Schmalz, Michael F.; Knittel, Vanessa; Brida, Daniele; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    The high peak electric fields provided by single-cycle light pulses can be harnessed to manipulate and control charge motion in solid-state systems, resulting in electron emission out of metals and semiconductors or high harmonics generation in dielectrics. These processes are of a non-perturbative character and require precise reproducibility of the electric-field profile. Here, we vary the carrier-envelope phase of 6-fs-long near-infrared pulses with pJ-level energy to control electronic transport in a laterally confined nanoantenna with an 8 nm gap. Peak current densities of 50 MA cm-2 are achieved, corresponding to the transfer of individual electrons in a half-cycle period of 2 fs. The observed behaviours are made possible by the strong distortion of the effective tunnelling barrier due to the extreme electric fields that the nanostructure provides and sustains under sub-cycle optical biasing. Operating at room temperature and in a standard atmosphere, the performed experiments demonstrate a robust class of nanoelectronic switches gated by phase-locked optical transients of minute energy content.

  7. Supercurrent reversal in Josephson junctions based on bilayer graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameshti, Babak Zare; Zareyan, Malek; Moghaddam, Ali G.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the Josephson effect in a bilayer graphene flake contacted by two monolayer sheets deposited by superconducting electrodes. It is found that when the electrodes are attached to the different layers of the bilayer, the Josephson current is in a π state, if the bilayer region is undoped and there is no vertical bias. Applying doping or bias to the junction reveals π -0 transitions which can be controlled by varying the temperature and the junction length. The supercurrent reversal here is very different from the ferromagnetic Josephson junctions where the spin degree of freedom plays the key role. We argue that the scattering processes accompanied by layer and sublattice index change give rise to the scattering phases, the effect of which varies with doping and bias. Such scattering phases are responsible for the π -0 transitions. On the other hand, if both of the electrodes are coupled to the same layer of the flake or the flake has AA stacking instead of common AB, the junction will be always in 0 state since the layer or sublattice index is not changed.

  8. Magnetoresistive junctions based on epitaxial graphene and h-BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazyev, Oleg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2009-03-01

    Using a first-principles approach, we investigate the structural, magnetic and transport properties of interfaces based on epitaxially grown monolayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in combination with ferromagnetic transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni). Such structurally well defined interfaces based on (111) fcc or (0001) hcp transition metals can be produced using simple manufacturing processes. Our calculations predict magnetoresistance ratios over 100% for certain junction compositions. In addition, such systems feature strong antiparallel (Fe and Co) and parallel (Ni) exchange coupling across the interface combined with low junction resistance. The predicted properties position such magnetoresistive junctions as an interesting alternative to the currently used giant and tunneling magnetoresistance systems and make them suitable for practical applications.

  9. Polarity-tunable magnetic tunnel junctions based on ferromagnetism at oxide heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Thach D. N.; Chang, Jung-Won; Lee, Kyujoon; Han, Seungju; Lee, Joon Sung; Kim, Young Heon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Doh, Yong-Joo; Choi, Mahn-Soo; Song, Jonghyun; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-08-01

    Complex oxide systems have attracted considerable attention because of their fascinating properties, including the magnetic ordering at the conducting interface between two band insulators, such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, the manipulation of the spin degree of freedom at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface has remained elusive. Here, we have fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Co and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 ferromagnets with the insertion of a Ti layer in between, which clearly exhibit magnetic switching and the tunnelling magnetoresistance effect below 10 K. The magnitude and sign of the tunnelling magnetoresistance are strongly dependent on the direction of the rotational magnetic field parallel to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 plane, which is attributed to a strong Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Our study provides a further support for the existence of the macroscopic ferromagnetism at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces and opens a novel route to realize interfacial spintronics devices.

  10. High transmittance hetero junctions based on n-ITO/p-CuO bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2016-12-01

    Oxide based bilayered n-ITO/p-CuO crystalline diodes were fabricated by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The p-n hetero junction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibits rectifying I-V characteristics. The substrate temperature during fabrication of p-layer CuO was found to have a profound influence on I-V characteristics. The films deposited at substrate temperature of 150 °C and 230 °C exhibited diode ideality factors of (η value) 1.731 and 1.862 respectively. This high ideality factor, combined with an optical transparency of above 70% suggests the potential use of these bi-layers in optoelectronic applications.

  11. Polarity-tunable magnetic tunnel junctions based on ferromagnetism at oxide heterointerfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Thach D.N.; Chang, Jung-Won; Lee, Kyujoon; Han, Seungju; Lee, Joon Sung; Kim, Young Heon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Doh, Yong-Joo; Choi, Mahn-Soo; Song, Jonghyun; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Complex oxide systems have attracted considerable attention because of their fascinating properties, including the magnetic ordering at the conducting interface between two band insulators, such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, the manipulation of the spin degree of freedom at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface has remained elusive. Here, we have fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Co and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 ferromagnets with the insertion of a Ti layer in between, which clearly exhibit magnetic switching and the tunnelling magnetoresistance effect below 10 K. The magnitude and sign of the tunnelling magnetoresistance are strongly dependent on the direction of the rotational magnetic field parallel to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 plane, which is attributed to a strong Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Our study provides a further support for the existence of the macroscopic ferromagnetism at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces and opens a novel route to realize interfacial spintronics devices. PMID:26268611

  12. Multiple tunnel junctions based nanowire photodetector model for single charge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatbouri, Samir; Touati, A.; Troudi, M.; Sghaier, N.; Kalboussi, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new silicon nanowire photodetector model based on a single-electron transistor for single charge detection (photo-NWSET). In the first part of this work we present the two blocks of the device structure (reading and detection blocks). The presented model is consisting of two blocks capacitively coupled. The first SET (SET1) is supposed to read the charge whereas the detection block is represented by the nanowire (NW) system associated to an optical source. We modeled the NW by a series of seven islands separated by eight tunnel junctions (8TJs). In the second part of this work, we investigate the effects of photoexcitation on Id-Vg curves and we present results obtained on the output (photo-NWSET) characteristics after variation of power illumination and response time.

  13. Epidermal cell turnover across tight junctions based on Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Yokouchi, Mariko; Atsugi, Toru; van Logtestijn, Mark; Tanaka, Reiko J; Kajimura, Mayumi; Suematsu, Makoto; Furuse, Mikio; Amagai, Masayuki; Kubo, Akiharu

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cells adopt various shapes, from flattened sheets of endothelium to dendritic neurons, that allow the cells to function effectively. Here, we elucidated the unique shape of cells in the cornified stratified epithelia of the mammalian epidermis that allows them to achieve homeostasis of the tight junction (TJ) barrier. Using intimate in vivo 3D imaging, we found that the basic shape of TJ-bearing cells is a flattened Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron (f-TKD), an optimal shape for filling space. In vivo live imaging further elucidated the dynamic replacement of TJs on the edges of f-TKD cells that enables the TJ-bearing cells to translocate across the TJ barrier. We propose a spatiotemporal orchestration model of f-TKD cell turnover, where in the classic context of 'form follows function', cell shape provides a fundamental basis for the barrier homeostasis and physical strength of cornified stratified epithelia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19593.001 PMID:27894419

  14. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; ...

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based spin torque oscillator (STO) is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. Here, we find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layermore » is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. Lastly, these results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.« less

  15. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based spin torque oscillator (STO) is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. Here, we find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. Lastly, these results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  16. Electronic transport properties of molecular junctions based on the direct binding of aromatic ring to electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tran Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    We have used the non-equilibrium Green's function in combination with the density functional theory to investigate the quantum transport properties of the molecular junctions including a terminated benzene ring directly coupled to surface of metal electrodes (physisorption). The other side of molecule was connected to electrode via thiolate bond (chemisorption). Two different electrodes have been studied, namely Cu and Al. Rectification and negative differential resistance behavior have been observed. We found that the electron transport mechanism is affected by the nature of benzene-electrode coupling. In other words, the transport mechanism depends on the nature of metallic electrode. Changing from sp- to sd-metallic electrode, the molecular junction changes from the Schottky to p-n junction-like diode. The transmission spectra, projected density of state, molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian, transmission eigenchannel, and Muliken population have been analyzed for explanation of electronic transport properties. Understanding the transport mechanism in junction having direct coupling of π-conjugate to electrode will be useful to design the future molecular devices.

  17. Large magnetocapacitance effect in magnetic tunnel junctions based on Debye-Fröhlich model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiju, Hideo Takei, Masashi; Misawa, Takahiro; Nishii, Junji; Nagahama, Taro; Xiao, Gang

    2015-09-28

    The frequency dependence of tunneling magnetocapacitance (TMC) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. According to the calculation based on Debye-Fröhlich model combined with Julliere formula, the TMC ratio strongly depends on the frequency and it has the maximum peak at a specific frequency. The calculated frequency dependence of TMC is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained in MgO-based MTJs with a tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 108%, which exhibit a large TMC ratio of 155% at room temperature. This calculation also predicts that the TMC ratio can be as large as about 1000% for a spin polarization of 87%, while the TMR ratio is 623% for the same spin polarization. These theoretical and experimental findings provide a deeper understanding on AC spin-dependent transport in the MTJs and will open up wider opportunities for device applications, such as highly sensitive magnetic sensors and impedance-tunable devices.

  18. RKKY interaction in P-N junction based on surface states of 3D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    The RKKY interaction mediated by conduction electrons supplies a mechanism to realize the long-range coupling of localized spins which is desired for the spin devices. Here, we examine the controllability of RKKY interaction in P-N junction (PNJ) based on surface states of 3D topological insulator (3DTI). In this study, through quantum way but not usual classical analogy to light propagation, the intuitive picture for electron waves across the interface of PNJ is obtained, e.g., Klein tunneling, negative refraction and focusing. Moreover, we perform the numerical calculations for all kinds of RKKY interaction including the Heisenberg, Ising, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya terms. We find the focusing of surface states leads to the local augmentation of RKKY interaction. Most importantly, a dimension transition occurs, i.e., the decay rate of RKKY interaction from the deserved 1/R 2 to 1/ R . In addition, the quadratic gate-dependence of RKKY interaction is also beneficial to the application of 3DTI PNJ in the fields of spintronics and quantum computation. This work was supported by the MOST (Grant No. 2015CB921503, and No. 2014CB848700) and NSFC (Grant No. 11434010, No. 11274036, No. 11322542, and No. 11504018).

  19. Liquid-liquid ion transport junctions based on paired gold electrodes in generator-collector mode.

    PubMed

    French, Robert W; Chan, Yohan; Bulman-Page, Philip C; Marken, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Simultaneous electrochemically driven double anion transfer across liquid-liquid interfaces is demonstrated at a gold-gold junction electrode. In the presence of two closely spaced electrodes (generator and collector), anion uptake into the organic phase (oxidation) and anion expulsion into the aqueous phase (reduction) can be combined to result in a generator-collector anion transport system across the liquid-liquid interface. In this report we are employing a paired gold junction grown by electro-deposition to ca. 5 microm gap size with the N,N-diethyl-N',N'-didodecyl-phenylene-diamine water immiscible redox liquid immobilized into the gap to demonstrate simultaneous perchlorate anion uptake and expulsion. The effects of redox liquid volume and scan rate on the magnitude of currents and two mechanistic pathways for ion transport are discussed in the context of micro-electrophoretic processes.

  20. A dispersion-engineered Josephson junction-based travelling wave parametric amplifier with low loss dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutus, J.; White, T.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Fowler, A.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Quintana, C.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Travelling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise wide-band performance with high saturation power for amplifying microwave frequency signals. Designing a TWPA requires a careful balance of many parameters in order to approach quantum-limited noise performance with sufficient gain and saturation power. We present a design based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ / 4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal and idler in order to increase gain. The design and performance of the device will be presented, demonstrating high-gain, wide bandwidth and high dynamic range.

  1. Magnetic Tunnel Junction-Based On-Chip Microwave Phase and Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Xie, Yunsong; Kolodzey, James; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based microwave detector is proposed and investigated. When the MTJ is excited by microwave magnetic fields, the relative angle between the free layer and pinned layer alternates, giving rise to an average resistance change. By measuring the average resistance change, the MTJ can be utilized as a microwave power sensor. Due to the nature of ferromagnetic resonance, the frequency of an incident microwave is directly determined. In addition, by integrating a mixer circuit, the MTJ-based microwave detector can also determine the relative phase between two microwave signals. Thus, the MTJbased microwave detector can be used as an on-chip microwave phase and spectrum analyzer.

  2. Magnetic Tunnel Junction-Based On-Chip Microwave Phase and Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Xie, Yunsong; Kolodzey, James; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based microwave detector is proposed and investigated. When the MTJ is excited by microwave magnetic fields, the relative angle between the free layer and pinned layer alternates, giving rise to an average resistance change. By measuring the average resistance change, the MTJ can be utilized as a microwave power sensor. Due to the nature of ferromagnetic resonance, the frequency of an incident microwave is directly determined. In addition, by integrating a mixer circuit, the MTJ-based microwave detector can also determine the relative phase between two microwave signals. Thus, the MTJ-based microwave detector can be used as an on-chip microwave phase and spectrum analyzer.

  3. Normal metal tunnel junction-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Sophie Meissner, Martin; Blanc, Christophe; Ronzani, Alberto; Giazotto, Francesco

    2015-09-14

    We report the fabrication and characterization of an alternative design for a superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor (SQUIPT) based on a normal metal (N) probe. The absence of direct Josephson coupling between the proximized metal nanowire and the N probe allows us to observe the full modulation of the wire density of states around zero voltage and current via the application of an external magnetic field. This results into a drastic suppression of power dissipation which can be as low as a few ∼10{sup −17} W. In this context, the interferometer allows an improvement of up to four orders of magnitude with respect to earlier SQUIPT designs and makes it ideal for extra-low power cryogenic applications. In addition, the N-SQUIPT has been recently predicted to be the enabling candidate for the implementation of coherent caloritronic devices based on proximity effect.

  4. Gate-modulated transport properties and mechanism for nanowire cross junction based on SnO2 semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Tong, Yanhong; Wang, Guorui; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties and mechanism of the three-terminal field-effect nanowire cross junction have been systematically investigated. An interesting phenomenon, such as applied voltage bias on nanowire cross junction makes the ON/OFF current ratio of the transistor improved by over 2 orders of magnitude, has been observed. Different from the two-terminal nanowire cross junctions, the cross junction induced potential barrier in three-terminal counterparts is found to be capable to prevent the current of the top semiconductor nanowire from injecting into the bottom nanowire at off state, while to make the current of the top semiconductor nanowire contribute to the current of the bottom nanowire at on state, resulting in the current switch between on state and off state by the gate voltage modulation.

  5. Response of magnetic tunnel junction-based spin-torque oscillator to series of sub-nanosecond magnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Tazumi; Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2016-11-01

    Spin-torque oscillator (STO) read heads with a high data transfer rate for hard disk drives have been proposed. To investigate the oscillation stability and frequency agility of the STO under magnetic pulses, we measured the response waveforms of the STO to a series of sub-nanosecond magnetic pulses and calculated the delay-detection output signal from the STO waveforms. We found that stable oscillation was maintained under the magnetic pulses and that the delay-detection output signal reproduced the applied pulse pattern. The results indicate that the STO read heads can operate at data transfer rates higher than 2 Gbits/s.

  6. Sub-nanometer atomic layer deposition for spintronics in magnetic tunnel junctions based on graphene spin-filtering membranes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Weatherup, Robert S; Yang, Heejun; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bouzehouane, Karim; Petroff, Frédéric; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John; Fert, Albert; Seneor, Pierre

    2014-08-26

    We report on the successful integration of low-cost, conformal, and versatile atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectric in Ni–Al2O3–Co magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) where the Ni is coated with a spin-filtering graphene membrane. The ALD tunnel barriers, as thin as 0.6 nm, are grown layer-by-layer in a simple, low-vacuum, ozone-based process, which yields high-quality electron-transport barriers as revealed by tunneling characterization. Even under these relaxed conditions, including air exposure of the interfaces, a significant tunnel magnetoresistance is measured highlighting the robustness of the process. The spin-filtering effect of graphene is enhanced, leading to an almost fully inversed spin polarization for the Ni electrode of −42%. This unlocks the potential of ALD for spintronics with conformal, layer-by-layer control of tunnel barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions toward low-cost fabrication and down-scaling of tunnel resistances.

  7. New expressions for non-punch-through and punch-through abrupt parallel-plane junctions based on Chynoweth law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimeng, Huang; Xingbi, Chen

    2013-07-01

    The relations among the breakdown voltage, the width and the concentration of the voltage-sustaining layer for the non-punch-through (NPT) and punch-through (PT) abrupt parallel-plane junctions have been reestablished based on the ionization integral by the Chynoweth model, distinguished from the conventional results obtained by the Fulop model. The numerical calculation results indicate that the new expressions are more accurate than those in previous literature. While the breakdown voltage of the NPT case varied from 400 to 1600 V using the Chynoweth model, the value using the Fulop model is overestimated by 12% (478 V) to 18% (1895 V). For the PT case with optimum design of the specific on-resistance, when the breakdown voltage is varied from 400 to 1600 V, the width and concentration are from 81.0168% to 80.2416% and from 91.4341% to 91.6941% of those of the NPT cases, respectively. The relations between the specific on-resistance and the breakdown voltage for both the NPT and PT structures are also established. Simulation results by MEDICI show good agreement with the proposed expressions.

  8. Thermally stable pn-junctions based on a single transparent perovskite semiconductor BaSnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoon Min; Kim, Useong; Park, Chulkwon; Kwon, Hyukwoo; Char, Kookrin

    2016-05-01

    We report p-doping of the BaSnO3 (BSO) by replacing Ba with K. The activation energy of K-dopants is estimated to be about 0.5 eV. We have fabricated pn junctions by using K-doped BSO as a p-type and La-doped BSO as an n-type semiconductor. I-V characteristics of these devices exhibit an ideal rectifying behavior of pn junctions with the ideality factor between 1 and 2, implying high integrity of the BSO materials. Moreover, the junction properties are found to be very stable after repeated high-bias and high-temperature thermal cycling, demonstrating a large potential for optoelectronic functions.

  9. Magnetic tunnel junction based out-of-plane field sensor with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in reference layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Chao, C. T.; Li, L. C.; Suen, Y. W.; Horng, Lance; Wu, Te-Ho; Chang, C. R.; Wu, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with orthogonal magnetic anisotropy and consisting of Ta X/Co40Fe40B20 1.2 (reference)/MgO 2.0/Co20Fe60B20 2.3 (sensing)/Ta 5/Ru 5 (thickness in nanometers), where X ranges from 15 to 30, is proposed and investigated in response to the demand for out-of-plane field sensors. The reference layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) demonstrates tuneable coercivity ranging from 72 Oe to 175 Oe. The sensing layer exhibits in-plane anisotropy with the avoidance of exchange coupling from the PMA reference layer because of a thick MgO barrier layer. The magnetization reversal behavior of micron scale devices not only corresponds well to the sheet film, but is also independent in terms of shape and size. The magnetoresistance curve exhibits a ratio of ˜27% in the presence of a perpendicular field and is insensitive to the in-plane field. For perpendicular field sensing, the dynamic range with a sensitivity of ˜0.3%/Oe can achieve ±25 Oe with a coercive field of less than 3 Oe. Additionally, even when bias is applied up to 9.1 mV, magnetic fluctuation still stays below 0.15 mOe.

  10. All nitride magnetic tunnel junctions based on nitrogen-doped CoFe electrode and AlNx insulating barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Ja Bin; Shin, Il Jae; Koo, Ja hyun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2010-05-01

    The dependence of the structural and magnetic properties of nitrogen-doped CoFe (CoFeN) films as a function of the nitrogen gas flow rate was analyzed to investigate its potential use as ferromagnetic electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The addition of a small amount of nitrogen into the CoFe film was strongly associated with the formation of low coercivity and low magnetization in the CoFeN film. We also discuss the electrical and microstructural properties of the as-grown and postannealed CoFeN/AlN/CoFeN MTJs devices developed by using only nitride materials of CoFeN electrodes and AlNx tunneling barriers.

  11. Analysis and simulation of nonlinearity and effects of spontaneous emission in Schottky-junction-based plasmonic amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Livani, Abdolber Mallah; Kaatuzian, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    An amplifier that operates on surface plasmon polaritons has been analyzed and simulated. Nonlinearity behavior and the spontaneous emission effects of the plasmonic amplifier are investigated in this paper. A rate equations approach has been used in which parameters are derived from simulation results of the plasmonic amplifier (Silvaco/ATLAS). Details on the method of this derivation are included, which were not previously reported. Rate equations are solved numerically by MATLAB codes. These codes verify the Silvaco results. The plasmonic amplifier operates on surface plasmons with a free-space wavelength of 1550 nm. Results show that, even without the effect of spontaneous emission, gain of the plasmonic amplifier saturates in high input levels. Saturation power, which can be used for comparing nonlinearity of different amplifiers, is 2.1 dBm for this amplifier. Amplified spontaneous emission reduces the gain of the amplifiers, which is long. There is an optimum value for the length of the amplifier. For the amplifier of this work, the optimum length for the small signal condition is 265 μm.

  12. An all-perovskite p-n junction based on transparent conducting p-La1-xSrxCrO3 epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yingge; Li, Chen; Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; McBriarty, Martin E.; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Wu, Di; Chambers, Scott A.

    2017-08-01

    Transparent, conducting p-La1-xSrxCrO3 epitaxial layers were deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001) by oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form structurally coherent p-n junctions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a type II or "staggered" band alignment, with valence and conduction band offsets of 2.0 eV and 0.9 eV, respectively. Diodes fabricated from these heterojunctions exhibit rectifying behavior, and the I-V characteristics are different from those for traditional semiconductor p-n junctions. A rather large ideality factor is ascribed to the complex nature of the interface.

  13. Phase Offsets in the Critical-Current Oscillations of Josephson Junctions Based on Ni and Ni-(Ni81Fe19)xNby Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, B.; Schneider, M. L.; Pufall, M. R.; Rippard, W. H.

    2017-06-01

    We measure and compare the critical-current oscillation characteristics of Josephson junctions as a function of Ni thickness in different barrier structures. The characteristics dependent on the relative Ni thickness, such as the presence of nodes and the oscillation period, are consistent with a conventional, clean-limit magnetic Josephson-junction model. However, the oscillation phases have different offsets in the Ni thickness between single Ni and Ni - (Ni81Fe19)xNby -based barriers, which cannot be explained by the bulk exchange field effect alone. This effect does not originate from the ferromagnetism in (Ni81Fe19)xNby nor is it cumulative with an additional (Ni81Fe19)xNby layer. Our results present clear evidence that a nonmagnetic layer can affect the superconducting spin phase across the junction as strongly as the conventional exchange field effect.

  14. Design of a low-power nonvolatile flip-flop using three-terminal magnetic-tunnel-junction-based self-terminated mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    A nonvolatile flip-flop (NV-FF) using a three-terminal magnetic tunnel junction (3T-MTJ)-based self-terminated mechanism is proposed for a low-power logic LSI while maintaining almost the same performance as a conventional CMOS-based logic LSI. The use of a self-terminated mechanism, which continuously monitors the change in MTJ resistance, makes it possible not only to minimize the write energy consumption for the 3T-MTJ device but also to ensure a reliable write. Moreover, since the write current path is separated from the read current path in the 3T-MTJ device, the sensing circuit and the write driver are individually optimized, which makes it possible to minimize the performance overhead due to additional components. As a result, the write energy of the proposed NV-FF is reduced by 69% with a small performance overhead compared with that of a conventional NV-FF using a worst-case-oriented writing scheme.

  15. On the conditions for enhanced transport through molecular junctions based on metal centres ligated by pairs of pyridazino-derived ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Bei; Washington, Victoria; Dunietz, Barry D

    2010-10-10

    Transport properties of a Ni bis-η{sup 2} complex ligated by a pair of bi-pyridazino derivative are considered. This complex provides the opportunity to avoid perpendicular alignment of the ligand π planes. We study the effects of π-bonding and of intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the ligands as mediated by the metal centre on electron transport. The complicated effect of the electronic structure equilibration with the electrodes on the transport is discussed. The analysis at the electronic structure level provides guidelines to design a molecular bridge that is based on metal complexation with effective electronic transport.

  16. Investigation of TiO{sub x} barriers for their use in hybrid Josephson and tunneling junctions based on pnictide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Döring, S. Monecke, M.; Schmidt, S.; Schmidl, F.; Tympel, V.; Seidel, P.; Engelmann, J.; Kurth, F.; Iida, K.; Holzapfel, B.; Haindl, S.; Mönch, I.

    2014-02-28

    We tested oxidized titanium layers as barriers for hybrid Josephson junctions with high I{sub c}R{sub n}-products and for the preparation of junctions for tunneling spectroscopy. For that we firstly prepared junctions with conventional superconductor electrodes, such as lead and niobium, respectively. By tuning the barrier thickness, we were able to change the junction's behavior from a Josephson junction to tunnel-like behavior applicable for quasi-particle spectroscopy. Subsequently, we transferred the technology to junctions using Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition as base electrode and evaporated Pb as counter electrode. For barriers with a thickness of 1.5 nm, we observe clear Josephson effects with I{sub c}R{sub n}≈90 μV at 4.2 K. These junctions behave SNS'-like (SNS: superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor) and are dominated by Andreev reflection transport mechanism. For junctions with barrier thickness of 2.0 nm and higher, no Josephson but SIS'- (SIS: superconductor-insulator-superconductor) or SINS'-like (SINS: superconductor-normal conductor-insulator-superconductor) behavior with a tunnel-like conductance spectrum was observed.

  17. High-performance giant-magnetoresistance junctions based on the all-Heusler architecture with matched energy bands and Fermi surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhaoqiang; Cai, Yongqing; Shen, Lei; Han, Guchang; Feng, Yuanping

    2013-04-01

    We present an all-Heusler architecture which could be used as a rational design scheme for achieving high spin-filter efficiency in the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) devices. A Co2MnSi/Ni2NiSi/Co2MnSi trilayer stack is chosen as the prototype of such an architecture, of which the electronic structure and magnetotransport properties are systematically investigated by first principles approaches. Well matched energy bands and Fermi surfaces between the all-Heusler electrode-spacer pair are found, which, in combination with the electrode half-metallicity, indicate large bulk and interfacial spin-asymmetry, high spin-filter efficiency, and consequently good magnetoresistance performance. Transport calculations further confirm the superiority of the all-Heusler architecture over the conventional Heusler/transition-metal structure by comparing their transmission coefficients and interfacial resistances of parallel conduction electrons, as well as the macroscopic current-voltage characteristics. We suggest future theoretical and experimental efforts in developing high-performance all-Heusler CPP-GMR junctions for the read heads of the next generation high-density hard disk drives.

  18. Y-junctions based on circular depressed-cladding waveguides fabricated with femtosecond pulses in Nd:YAG crystal: A route to integrate complex photonic circuits in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajates, Javier G.; Romero, Carolina; Castillo, Gabriel R.; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.

    2017-10-01

    We have designed and fabricated photonic structures such as, Y-junctions (one of the basic building blocks for construction any integrated photonic devices) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, based on circular depressed-cladding waveguides by direct femtosecond laser irradiation in Nd:YAG crystal. The waveguides were optically characterized at 633 nm, showing nearly mono-modal behaviour for the selected waveguide radius (9 μm). The effect of the splitting angle in the Y structures was investigated finding a good preservation of the modal profiles up to more than 2°, with 1 dB of additional losses in comparison with straight waveguides. The dependence with polarization of these splitters keeps in a reasonable low level. Our designs pave the way for the fabrication of arbitrarily complex 3D photonic circuits in crystals with cladding waveguides.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on thin CoFeB free layer and Co-based multilayer synthetic antiferromagnet pinned layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajarathinam, A.; Zhu, R.; Visscher, P. B.; Gupta, S.

    2012-04-01

    We have previously reported on fully perpendicular Co/Pd multilayer (ML)-based CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). However, Co/Pd ML-based MTJs have rarely exhibited tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios greater than 10%. This has been attributed to the inability to pull a sufficiently thick CoFeB layer perpendicular on top of MgO, as well as the incomplete bcc templating of CoFeB from MgO owing to the adjacent fcc Co/Pd MLs. Other researchers have used amorphous thin Ta bridge layers to transition between the bcc and fcc layers. Thin CoFeB with various seed or capping layers have also shown fully perpendicular anisotropy, and thus have gained interest in use as a free layer. Here we report on fully perpendicular MTJs of this type, with a thin CoFeB free layer and a Co/Pd ML-based SAF pinned layer with a thin amorphous Ta bridge layer to transition from bcc CoFeB to the fcc multilayers. The experimentally measured M-H loops show excellent agreement with micromagnetic simulations. Current-in-plane tunneling measurements indicated TMR values of nearly 40% for fully perpendicular stacks annealed at 150 °C for 2 h. Annealing at higher temperatures degraded the magnetoresistance for these Co/Pd ML based SAF pinned MTJs.

  20. Design and fabrication of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction based nonvolatile programmable switch achieving 40% less area using shared-control transistor structure

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, D.; Natsui, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Miura, S.; Honjo, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Ikeda, S.; Endoh, T.; Ohno, H.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-01-01

    A compact nonvolatile programmable switch (NVPS) using 90 nm CMOS technology together with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) devices is fabricated for zero-standby-power field-programmable gate array. Because routing information does not change once it is programmed into an NVPS, high-speed read and write accesses are not required and a write-control transistor can be shared among all the NVPSs, which greatly simplifies structure of the NVPS. In fact, the effective area of the proposed NVPS is reduced by 40% compared to that of a conventional MTJ-based NVPS. The instant on/off behavior without external nonvolatile memory access is also demonstrated using the fabricated test chip. PMID:24753634

  1. Investigation of the electrical and ethanol-vapour sensing properties of the junctions based on ZnO nanostructured thin film doped with copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitre Tz.; Nikolaev, Nikolay K.; Papazova, Karolina I.; Krasteva, Lyudmila K.; Pronin, Igor A.; Averin, Igor A.; Bojinova, Assya S.; Georgieva, Angelina Ts.; Yakushova, Nadejda D.; Peshkova, Tatyana V.; Karmanov, Andrey A.; Kaneva, Nina V.; Moshnikov, Vyacheslav A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the investigation of ethanol sensing properties of the junctions composed by two plane-parallel nanostructured thin film electrodes. One of them consists of pure ZnO and the other one is composed of ZnO doped with Cu. The thickness of the lower layer was kept constant for all of the investigated structures. The thickness of the upper layer was varied. The samples were produced with different thickness of the top layer by changing the numbers of dip-coatings cycles. On produced junction structures we investigate the dependence of the potential difference on the temperature in the air flow and the changes that occur under exposure to flow of air with certain concentration of ethanol vapour. For ZnO/ZnO:Cu junction with top layer produced by two dip-coatings cycles, the potential difference under the air flow were getting more positive values up to 290 °C and then the values were decreasing, while for ZnO/ZnO:Cu junction with top layer produced by three dip-coatings cycles, the potential difference were getting more negative values with increasing the temperature. However in both cases the potential difference increases in value, when the structures are exposed to the vapour of ethanol. On this installation by the exchange the content of gas atmosphere at fixed temperature the ethanol concentration dependence of the potential difference of produced junction structures were evaluated. Both samples have shown nonlinear dependence of signal towards the concentration of ethanol vapour. The observed results for ZnO/ZnO:Cu were compared with those of the junctions composed by layers of ZnO doped with Ga and pure ZnO nanowires. The performed fractal analysis based on the SEM images showed a correlation between the fractal dimension of the surface of the upper layer of the samples and gas-sensitive properties of the sensing structures.

  2. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-13

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.

  3. Design and fabrication of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction based nonvolatile programmable switch achieving 40% less area using shared-control transistor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, D.; Natsui, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Miura, S.; Honjo, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Ikeda, S.; Endoh, T.; Ohno, H.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-05-01

    A compact nonvolatile programmable switch (NVPS) using 90 nm CMOS technology together with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) devices is fabricated for zero-standby-power field-programmable gate array. Because routing information does not change once it is programmed into an NVPS, high-speed read and write accesses are not required and a write-control transistor can be shared among all the NVPSs, which greatly simplifies structure of the NVPS. In fact, the effective area of the proposed NVPS is reduced by 40% compared to that of a conventional MTJ-based NVPS. The instant on/off behavior without external nonvolatile memory access is also demonstrated using the fabricated test chip.

  4. Modular Nuclease-Responsive DNA Three-Way Junction-Based Dynamic Assembly of a DNA Device and Its Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaowen; Wei, Haiping; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-05

    Here, we explored a modular strategy for rational design of nuclease-responsive three-way junctions (TWJs) and fabricated a dynamic DNA device in a "plug-and-play" fashion. First, inactivated TWJs were designed, which contained three functional domains: the inaccessible toehold and branch migration domains, the specific sites of nucleases, and the auxiliary complementary sequence. The actions of different nucleases on their specific sites in TWJs caused the close proximity of the same toehold and branch migration domains, resulting in the activation of the TWJs and the formation of a universal trigger for the subsequent dynamic assembly. Second, two hairpins (H1 and H2) were introduced, which could coexist in a metastable state, initially to act as the components for the dynamic assembly. Once the trigger initiated the opening of H1 via TWJs-driven strand displacement, the cascade hybridization of hairpins immediately switched on, resulting in the formation of the concatemers of H1/H2 complex appending numerous integrated G-quadruplexes, which were used to obtain label-free signal readout. The inherent modularity of this design allowed us to fabricate a flexible DNA dynamic device and detect multiple nucleases through altering the recognition pattern slightly. Taking uracil-DNA glycosylase and CpG methyltransferase M.SssI as models, we successfully realized the butt joint between the uracil-DNA glycosylase and M.SssI recognition events and the dynamic assembly process. Furthermore, we achieved ultrasensitive assay of nuclease activity and the inhibitor screening. The DNA device proposed here will offer an adaptive and flexible tool for clinical diagnosis and anticancer drug discovery.

  5. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.

  6. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses. PMID:27405788

  7. Peach maturity/quality assessment using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to measure the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of peaches, using a hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved method, for their maturity/quality assessment. A newly developed optical property measuring instrument was used for acquiring hyperspect...

  8. Fabrication of a magnetic-tunnel-junction-based nonvolatile logic-in-memory LSI with content-aware write error masking scheme achieving 92% storage capacity and 79% power reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Masanori; Tamakoshi, Akira; Endoh, Tetsuo; Ohno, Hideo; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    A magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ)-based video coding hardware with an MTJ-write-error-rate relaxation scheme as well as a nonvolatile storage capacity reduction technique is designed and fabricated in a 90 nm MOS and 75 nm perpendicular MTJ process. The proposed MTJ-oriented dynamic error masking scheme suppresses the effect of write operation errors on the operation result of LSI, which results in the increase in an acceptable MTJ write error rate up to 7.8 times with less than 6% area overhead, while achieving 79% power reduction compared with that of the static-random-access-memory-based one.

  9. A 600-µW ultra-low-power associative processor for image pattern recognition employing magnetic tunnel junction-based nonvolatile memories with autonomic intelligent power-gating scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    A novel associative processor using magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based nonvolatile memories has been proposed and fabricated under a 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-MTJ (p-MTJ) hybrid process for achieving the exceptionally low-power performance of image pattern recognition. A four-transistor 2-MTJ (4T-2MTJ) spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory was adopted to completely eliminate the standby power. A self-directed intelligent power-gating (IPG) scheme specialized for this associative processor is employed to optimize the operation power by only autonomously activating currently accessed memory cells. The operations of a prototype chip at 20 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The proposed processor can successfully carry out single texture pattern matching within 6.5 µs using 128-dimension bag-of-feature patterns, and the measured average operation power of the entire processor core is only 600 µW. Compared with the twin chip designed with 6T static random access memory, 91.2% power reductions are achieved. More than 88.0% power reductions are obtained compared with the latest associative memories. The further power performance analysis is discussed in detail, which verifies the special superiority of the proposed processor in power consumption for large-capacity memory-based VLSI systems.

  10. Continuously-tuned tunneling behaviors of ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Xin; Xu, Bo Yin, Qiaonan; Xia, Yidong; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Gong, Changjie; Lan, Xuexin

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we fabricate BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (BTO/LSMO) ferroelectric tunnel junction on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Combining piezoresponse force and conductive-tip atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate robust and reproducible polarization-controlled tunneling behaviors with the resulting tunneling electroresistance value reaching about 10{sup 2} in ultrathin BTO films (∼1.2 nm) at room temperature. Moreover, local poling areas with different conductivity are finally achieved by controlling the relative proportion of upward and downward domains, and different poling areas exhibit stable transport properties.

  11. Multifractal analysis of satellite images. (Polish Title: Multifraktalna analiza zobrazowan satelitarnych)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, A.; Krupiński, M.; Drzewiecki, W.; Aleksandrowicz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Research presented in this paper is focused on the efficiency assessment of multifractal description as a tool for Image Information Mining. Large datasets of very high spatial resolution satellite images (WorldView-2 and EROS-A) have been analysed. The results have confirmed the superiority of multifractals as global image descriptors in comparison to monofractals. Moreover, their usefulness in image classification by using decision trees classifiers was confirmed, also in comparison with textural features. Filtration process preceding fractal and multifractal features estimations was also proved to improve classification results. Additionally, airborne hyperspectral data have been initially analysed. Fractal dimension shows high potential for the description of hyperspectral data. To summarise all conducted tests indicate the usefulness of multifractal formalism in various aspects of remote sensing. Prepared methodology can be further developed and used for more specific tasks, for example in change detection or in the description of hyperspectal data complexity.

  12. Correlation analysis of simulated MODIS vegetation indices and the red edge and rice agricultural parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2007-10-01

    In this study, Hyperspectral data of two variety of rice (common rice and hybrid rice) in whole growing stage during 2002 and 2003 was measured using the ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer with resolution of 3 nm, and the LAI and leaf chlorophyll content of rice agricultural parameter were obtained. Analyses of the correlation between rice agricultural parameter, and hyperspectal data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and the red-edge position (REP) were studied. Results showed that a strong non-linear correlation was found between the rice LAI of two varieties and REP. The REP, EVI and NDVI were well related with LAI for the common rice, but the REP and EVI were more sensitive than the NDVI to rice LAI for the hybrid rice because of different body for two variety rice.

  13. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Composite Electrolytes Filled with Periodic Mesoporous Silica for Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Yoichi; Morita, Masahiro; Asai, Shigeo; Sumita, Masao

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) was used for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes as novel inorganic filler. For improvement in ionic conductivity in solid state, a room temperature ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, was introduced into periodic nano-tunnels of MPS, and the modified MPS (IL-MPS) was filled with PEO-LiBF4 electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of neat-MPS-filled composites was approximately 4-fold higher than that of the original electrolyte. On the other hand, the conductivity was more than 11-fold enhanced by addition of IL-MPS, to be more than 10-6 S/cm at 30°C and at least 10 wt% silica contents. The conductivity increased with increasing IL-MPS contents, to be a maximum value of approximately 3×10-6 S/cm at 30°C and at 40 wt%. Dynamic mechanical measurements for neat- and IL-MPS composites revealed that the addition of fillers improves storage modulus of PEO-based electrolytes at room temperature. The addition of IL-MPS was able to realize the improvement in both ionic conductivity and storage modulus.

  14. Design of nanoporous materials with optimal sorption capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Urita, Koki; Moriguchi, Isamu; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2015-06-01

    Modern technological advances have enabled one to manufacture nanoporous materials with a prescribed pore structure. This raises a possibility of using controllable pore-scale parameters (e.g., pore size and connectivity) to design materials with desired macroscopic properties (e.g., diffusion coefficient and adsorption capacity). By relating these two scales, the homogenization theory (or other upscaling techniques) provides a means of guiding the experimental design. To demonstrate this approach, we consider a class of nanoporous materials whose pore space consists of nanotunnels interconnected by nanotube bridges. Such hierarchical nanoporous carbons with mesopores and micropores have shown high specific electric double layer capacitances and high rate capability in an organic electrolyte. We express the anisotropic diffusion coefficient and adsorption coefficient of such materials in terms of the tunnels' properties (pore radius and inter-pore throat width) and their connectivity (spacing between the adjacent tunnels and nanotube-bridge density). Our analysis is applicable for solutes that undergo a non-equilibrium Langmuir adsorption reaction on the surfaces of fluid-filled pores, but other homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions can be handled in a similar fashion. The presented results can be used to guide the design of nanoporous materials with optimal permeability and sorption capacity.

  15. Characterization of Microdialysis Acidification for Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Microelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liyu; Lee, Cheng S.; Hofstadler, Steven A. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    1998-01-01

    A microdialysis junction, based on a microdialysis membrane connecting a separate capillary and a short, sharply tapered microelectrospray emitter capillary, is demonstrated for on-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  16. Theory of back-surface-field solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonroos, O.

    1979-01-01

    Report describes simple concise theory of back-surface-field (BSF) solar cells (npp + junctions) based on Shockley's depletion-layer approximation and cites superiority of two-junction devices over conventional unijunction cells.

  17. Theory of back-surface-field solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonroos, O.

    1979-01-01

    Report describes simple concise theory of back-surface-field (BSF) solar cells (npp + junctions) based on Shockley's depletion-layer approximation and cites superiority of two-junction devices over conventional unijunction cells.

  18. Defect Related Dark Currents in III-V MWIR nBn Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    detectors are found to be more tolerant of defects compared to pn-junction based devices. Defects more weakly increase dark currents, and cooling reduces...to pn-junction based devices. Defects more weakly increase dark currents, and cooling reduces the defect- produced dark currents more rapidly in nBn...Hawkinsc, T. R. Fortunec, A. Tauke-Pedrettic, G. W. Wicks*a aThe Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY

  19. [Advance in the study of the powdered weathering profile of sandstone on China Yungang Grottoes based on VIS/NIR hyperspectral imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Ai-wu; Zhou, Ke-chao

    2012-03-01

    Yungang Grottoes were built in the mid-5th century A. D., and named as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001. Most of the grottoes were built on the feldspathic quartz sandstones. They were seriously damaged due to the environmental impact. The main form of the weathering is the powdered weathering. The weathering conditions are generally characterized by electrical sounding, penetration resistance, molecular spectroscopy, etc. However, although these methods can give good results about the weathering conditions for a specified sample or site, they are not suitable for providing a global profile of the weathering conditions. The present paper provides a method for effectively and roundly assessing the overall powdered weathering conditions of the Yungang Grottoes based on hyperspectral imaging. Powdered weathering could change the structure and granularity of the sandstone, and thus change the spectral reflectance of the sandstone surface. Based on the hyperspectral data collected from 400 nm to 1 000 nm and normalized by log residuals method, the powdered weathering conditions of the sandstones were classified into strong weathering and weak weathering. The weathering profile was also mapped in the Envi platform. The mapping images were verified using the measured hyperspectal data of the columns in front of the 9th and 10th grottoes as the examples. The mapping images were substantially fitted to the real observations, showing that hyperspectral imaging can be used to estimate the overall powdered weathering of the sandstones.

  20. Hyperspectral-LIDAR system and data product integration for terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Campbell, Petya K. E.

    2009-08-01

    This manuscript details the development and validation of a unique forward thinking instrument and methodology for monitoring terrestrial carbon dynamics through synthesis of existing hyperspectal sensing and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technologies. This technology demonstration is directly applicable to linking target mission concepts identified as scientific priorities in the National Research Council (NRC, 2007) Earth Science Decadal Survey; namely, DESDynI and HyspIRI. The primary components of the Hyperspec-LIDAR system are the ruggedized imaging spectrometer and a small footprint LIDAR system. The system is mounted on a heavy duty motorized pan-tilt unit programmed to support both push-broom style hyperspectral imaging and 3-D canopy LIDAR structural profiling. The integrated Hyperspec-LIDAR sensor system yields a hypserspectral data cube with up to 800 bands covering the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm and a 3-D scanning LIDAR system accurately measuring the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces within a range of 150 m with an accuracy of 15 mm. Preliminary field tests of the Hyperspec-LIDAR sensor system were conducted at a mature deciduous mixed forest tower site located at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. The goal of this research is to produce integrated science and data products from ground observations that will support satellite-based hybrid spectral/structural profile linked through appropriate models to monitor Net Ecosystem Exchange and related parameters such as ecosystem Light Use Efficiency.

  1. Research on method of geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiping; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2012-11-01

    Development and application of airborne and aerospace hyperspectral imager press for high precision geometry and spectral calibration of pixels of image cube. The research of geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom hyperspectral imager, its target is giving the coordinate of angle field of view and center wavelength of each detect unit in focal plane detector of hyperspectral imager, and achieves the high precision, full field of view, full channel geometry and spectral calibration. It is importance for imaging quantitative and deep application of hyperspectal imager. The paper takes the geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager as case study, and research on the constitution and analysis of imaging mathematical model. Aimed especially at grating-dispersive hyperspectral imaging, the specialty of the imaging mode and dispersive method has been concretely analyzed. Based on the analysis, the theory and feasible method of geometry and spectral calibration of dispersive hyperspectral imager is set up. The key technique has been solved is As follows: 1). the imaging mathematical model and feasible method of geometry and spectral calibration for full pixels of image cube has been set up, the feasibility of the calibration method has been analyzed. 2). the engineering model and method of the geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager has been set up and the calibration equipment has been constructed, and the calibration precision has been analyzed.

  2. Photoresponse enhancement in graphene/silicon infrared detector by controlling photocarrier collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Hengkai; Tang, Xiaobing; Lai, King W. C.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene/silicon junction based photodetectors have attracted great interest due to their superior characteristics like large photosensitive area, fast photocarrier collection and low dark current. Currently, the weak optical absorption and short photocarrier lifetime of graphene remain major limitations for detection of infrared light with wavelengths above 1.2 μm. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of photocarrier transport in graphene/silicon junction based photodetector and propose a theoretical model to study the design and effect of finger-electrode structures on the photocurrent in graphene. We demonstrate that the top finger-like electrode in graphene/silicon photodetector can be designed to enhance the photocarrier collection efficiency in graphene by reducing the average transport distance of photocarriers. Therefore, the photoresponsivity of the graphene/silicon junction based photodetector can be increased. Our results have successfully demonstrated that by optimizing the design of finger electrodes, 4 times enhancement of photocurrents in graphene can be obtained at room temperature.

  3. Server-side Filtering and Aggregation within a Distributed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currey, J. C.; Bartle, A.

    2015-12-01

    Intercalibration, validation, and data mining use cases require more efficient access to the massive volumes of observation data distributed across multiple agency data centers. The traditional paradigm of downloading large volumes of data to a centralized server or desktop computer for analysis is no longer viable. More analysis should be performed within the host data centers using server-side functions. Many comparative analysis tasks require far less than 1% of the available observation data. The Multi-Instrument Intercalibration (MIIC) Framework provides web services to find, match, filter, and aggregate multi-instrument observation data. Matching measurements from separate spacecraft in time, location, wavelength, and viewing geometry is a difficult task especially when data are distributed across multiple agency data centers. Event prediction services identify near coincident measurements with matched viewing geometries near orbit crossings using complex orbit propagation and spherical geometry calculations. The number and duration of event opportunities depend on orbit inclinations, altitude differences, and requested viewing conditions (e.g., day/night). Event observation information is passed to remote server-side functions to retrieve matched data. Data may be gridded, spatially convolved onto instantaneous field-of-views, or spectrally resampled or convolved. Narrowband instruments are routinely compared to hyperspectal instruments such as AIRS and CRIS using relative spectral response (RSR) functions. Spectral convolution within server-side functions significantly reduces the amount of hyperspectral data needed by the client. This combination of intelligent selection and server-side processing significantly reduces network traffic and data to process on local servers. OPeNDAP is a mature networking middleware already deployed at many of the Earth science data centers. Custom OPeNDAP server-side functions that provide filtering, histogram analysis (1D

  4. Electronic Transport Properties of Transition Metal (Cu, Fe) Phthalocyanines Connecting to V-Shaped Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Liling; Yang, Bingchu; Li, Xinmei; He, Jun; Long, Mengqiu

    2014-11-01

    Using nonequlilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-functional theory, we investigate the spin transport properties of molecular junction based on metal (Cu, Fe) phthalocyanines between V-shaped zigzag-edged graphene nanorribons. The results show that the electronic transport properties mainly depend on the center transition metal. The negative differential resistance behaviors and spin splitting phenomenon can be observed.

  5. Eight-phase alkali feldspars: low-temperature cryptoperthite, peristerite and multiple replacement reactions in the Klokken intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Heizler, Matthew T.; Heizler, Lynn L.; Ivanic, Tim; Lee, Martin R.

    2013-05-01

    Eight feldspar phases have been distinguished within individual alkali feldspar primocrysts in laminated syenite members of the layered syenite series of the Klokken intrusion. The processes leading to the formation of the first four phases have been described previously. The feldspars crystallized as homogeneous sodian sanidine and exsolved by spinodal decomposition, between 750 and 600 °C, depending on bulk composition, to give fully coherent, strain-controlled braid cryptoperthites with sub-μm periodicities. Below ~500 °C, in the microcline field, these underwent a process of partial mutual replacement in a deuteric fluid, producing coarse (up to mm scale), turbid, incoherent patch perthites. We here describe exsolution and replacement processes that occurred after patch perthite formation. Both Or- and Ab-rich patches underwent a new phase of coherent exsolution by volume diffusion. Or-rich patches began to exsolve albite lamellae by coherent nucleation in the range 460-340 °C, depending on patch composition, leading to film perthite with ≤1 μm periodicities. Below ~300 °C, misfit dislocation loops formed, which were subsequently enlarged to nanotunnels. Ab-rich patches (bulk composition ~Ab91Or1An8), in one sample, exsolved giving peristerite, with one strong modulation with a periodicity of ~17 nm and a pervasive tweed microtexture. The Ab-rich patches formed with metastable disorder below the peristerite solvus and intersected the peristerite conditional spinodal at ~450 °C. This is the first time peristerite has been imaged using TEM within any perthite, and the first time peristerite has been found in a relatively rapidly cooled geological environment. The lamellar periodicities of film perthite and peristerite are consistent with experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and a calculated cooling history of the intrusion. All the preceding textures were in places affected by a phase of replacement correlating with regions of extreme optical

  6. Hyper-Cam automated calibration method for continuous hyperspectral imaging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Habte, Zewdu; George, Jacks; Farley, Vincent; Tremblay, Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Romano, Joao; Rosario, Dalton

    2010-04-01

    COTS hyperspectal sensors that allows for full autonomous data collection capability for the user. The accuracy of the automatic calibration was characterized and is presented in this paper.

  7. Quantifying the variability of surface reflectance and estimating canopy chlorophyll content and green leaf biomass using hyperspectral close-range data and airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Tarlan

    Advances in agricultural studies have benefited from the use of remote sensing in generating and analyzing datasets, efficiently. Remotely sensed images facilitate a diverse array of non-intrusive agricultural investigations including new approaches such as high-throughput phenotyping. This research examines the variability of surface reflectance and estimates two biophysical parameters associated with crops. The first goal of the project was to provide an estimation of reflectance variability within low-resolution satellite imagery. The quantified variability of intra-pixel spectral reflectance can then be used to determine the level of uncertainty in estimating biophysical characteristics of plants. The study revealed how the variability in a composite spectral signal emanating from a large pixel was influenced by crop type, phenological stage, and irrigation method. A second goal of this study was to examine algorithms developed using multi-temporal airborne hyperspectal imagery for estimation and mapping of canopy Chl content in irrigated and rainfed maize and soybean fields. The optimal spectral range for two conceptual models, Chlorophyll Index and Normalized Difference, were determined and calibrated for the spectral bands of AISA, Sentinel-2 MSI and Sentinel-3 OLCI sensors. The results showed that CI red edge model derived solely from airborne imagery was capable of accurately estimating canopy Chl in fields with different crop management practices, field history and climatic conditions. The spatial and temporal dynamics of canopy Chl content were elucidated for maize and soybean fields at different phenological stages and rainfall regimes. The final goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of several vegetation indices for estimating green leaf biomass (GLB) in maize and soybean fields using canopy reflectance collected at close-range and airborne imagery. It was determined that models containing red edge and near-infrared bands were capable of

  8. Potential Application of Novel Hyperspectral LIDAR for Monitoring Crops Nitrogen Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Precision agriculture has always been the research hotspot around the world. And the optimization of nitrogen fertilization for crops is the core concerns. It is not only to improve the productivity of crops but also to avoid the environmental risks caused by over-fertilization. Therefore, accurate estimation of nitrogen status is crucial for determining an nitrogen recommendation. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to monitor crops for years, and they could offer estimations for stress status diagnosis through obtaining vertical structure parameters and spectral reflectance properties of crops. As an active remote sensing technology, lidar is particularly attractive for 3-dimensional information at a high point density. It has unique edges in obtaining vertical structure parameters of crops. However, capability of spectral reflectance properties is what the current lidar technology lacks because of single wavelength detection. To solve this problem, the concept of novel hyperspectral lidar (HSL), which combines the advantages of hyperspectal reflectance with high 3-dimensional capability of lidar, was proposed in our study. The design of instrument was described in detail. A broadband laser pulse was emitted and reflectance spectrum with 32 channels could be detected. Furthermore, the experiment was carried out by the novel HSL system to testify the potential application for monitoring nitrogen stress. Rice under different levels of nitrogen fertilization in central China were selected as the object of study, and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (N1-N4) were divided. With the detection of novel lidar system, high precision structure parameters of crops could be provided. Meanwhile, spectral reflectance properties in 32 wavebands were also obtained. The high precision structure parameters could be used to evaluate the stress status of crops. And abundant spectral information in 32 wavebands could improve the capacity of lidar system significantly

  9. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively

  10. Effect of eccentricity on junction and junctionless based silicon nanowire and silicon nanotube FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlet, S. Priscilla; Ambika, R.; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of eccentricity on Junction-based Silicon Nanowire FET, Junction-based Silicon Nanotube FET, Junctionless-based Silicon Nanowire FET, and Junctionless-based Silicon Nanotube FET is investigated. Three kinds of eccentric structures are considered here. The impact of eccentricity on effective gate oxide thickness thereby gate oxide capacitance, and effective channel width are studied using 3D numerical simulations. Average radius of an ellipse is used to generate a model which captures the impact of eccentricity on gate oxide capacitance, and verified using TCAD simulations in MOS nanowire structure. The impact of eccentricity on ON current (ION), OFF current (IOFF), ION/IOFF ratio, and Unity gain cutoff frequency are investigated. Eccentricity increases the effective gate oxide thickness, the effective channel width, ION, and IOFF but reduces ION/IOFF ratio.

  11. Josephson junction microwave modulators for qubit control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaman, O.; Strong, J. A.; Ferguson, D. G.; Egan, J.; Bailey, N.; Hinkey, R. T.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Josephson junction based double-balanced mixer and phase shifter circuits operating at 6-10 GHz and integrate these components to implement both a monolithic amplitude/phase vector modulator and an I/Q quadrature mixer. The devices are actuated by flux signals, dissipate no power on chip, exhibit input saturation powers in excess of 1 nW, and provide cryogenic microwave modulation solutions for integrated control of superconducting qubits.

  12. Electronic Properties of Grain Boundaries in GaAs: A Study of Oriented Bicrystals Prepared by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-10

    formed near the illuminated surface, an ohmic contact bar and fingers on this surface, and an ohmic contact covering the entire back surface. The basic...EFECTION COATING TOP LAYER (n -Regioni JUNCTION BASE LAYER lp-Region) BACK CONTACT Fig. 2-1. Diagram of typical jun~ction photovoltaic device. 7 and Ao...the homojunction structure discussed above, other photovoltaic device structures have been fabricated (such as Schottky barrier , metal-insulator

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: A CrO2-based magnetic tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, A.; Coey, J. M. D.; Viret, M.

    2000-02-01

    A tunnel junction based on the half-metallic oxide CrO2 uses a native oxide barrier layer and a cobalt top electrode. The I :V characteristic is fitted to the Simmons model with icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.76 eV and t = 2.0 nm. The magnetoresistance is positive with icons/Journals/Common/Delta" ALT="Delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> R /R = 1.0% at 77 K.

  14. Automated position control of a surface array relative to a liquid microjunction surface sampler

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ford, Michael James

    2007-11-13

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the probe-to-surface distance of a liquid junction-based surface sampling system for use with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach enables a hands-free formation of the liquid microjunction used to sample solution composition from the surface and for re-optimization, as necessary, of the microjunction thickness during a surface scan to achieve a fully automated surface sampling system.

  15. Translation of Hecker's 1922 "the occipital-atlanto-axial ligament system": A study in comparative anatomy.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Peter C; Sardi, Juan Pablo; Iwanaga, Joe; Topale, Nitsa; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    In 1922, Paul Hecker, a French physician and Head of Anatomy at the Medical College of Strasbourg, published a sentinel thesis on the ligaments of the craniocervical junction based on a study of comparative anatomy. Unfortunately, this dissertation has been lost to history and until now, was unavailable in the English language. Herein, we present a translation of Hecker's work with an update in its nomenclature, which with modern imaging capabilities of the craniocervical junction is germane and timely. Clin. Anat. 30:322-329, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Photovoltaic nanopillar radial junction diode architecture enhanced by integrating semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals as light harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güzeltürk, Burak; Mutlugün, Evren; Wang, Xiaodong; Pey, Kin Leong; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2010-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate colloidal quantum dot hybridized, radial p-n junction based, nanopillar solar cells with photovoltaic performance enhanced by intimately integrating nanocrystals to serve as light harvesting agents around the light trapping pillars. By furnishing Si based nanopillar photovoltaic diodes with CdSe quantum dots, we experimentally showed up to sixfold enhancement in UV responsivity and ˜13% enhancement in overall solar conversion efficiency. The maximum responsivity enhancement achieved by incorporation of nanocrystals in the nanopillar architecture is found to be spectrally more than four times larger than the responsivity enhancement obtained using planar architecture of the same device.

  17. Specific features of current flow mechanisms in the semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter with an n +- p-junction and an antireflective porous silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregulov, V. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Litvinov, V. G.; Ermachikhin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature dependence of forward and reverse branches of the current-voltage characteristic of the semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter with an n +- p-junction based on single-crystal silicon and an antireflective porous silicon film on the front surface has been studied. The presence of several current flow mechanisms has been revealed. It has been demonstrated that traps that emerge in the process of the formation of the porous silicon film have a considerable effect on the current flow processes in the semiconductor structure under consideration.

  18. Stacking fault induced tunnel barrier in platelet graphite nanofiber

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Yann-Wen E-mail: ywlan@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Chang, Chia-Seng; Chen, Chii-Dong E-mail: ywlan@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Wen-Hao; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2014-09-08

    A correlation study using image inspection and electrical characterization of platelet graphite nanofiber devices is conducted. Close transmission electron microscopy and diffraction pattern inspection reveal layers with inflection angles appearing in otherwise perfectly stacked graphene platelets, separating nanofibers into two domains. Electrical measurement gives a stability diagram consisting of alternating small-large Coulomb blockade diamonds, suggesting that there are two charging islands coupled together through a tunnel junction. Based on these two findings, we propose that a stacking fault can behave as a tunnel barrier for conducting electrons and is responsible for the observed double-island single electron transistor characteristics.

  19. Resonant Andreev transmission in two-dimensional array of SNS junctions.

    SciTech Connect

    Baturina, T. I.; Mironov, A. Yu.; Vinokur, V. M.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Glatz, A.; Nasimov, D. A.; Latyshev, A. V.; Materials Science Division; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; Russian Academy of Science; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology

    2010-12-01

    We present an experimental study of transport properties of a large two-dimensional array of superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junctions comprised of the nanopatterned superconducting film, ensuring that NS interfaces of our SNS junctions are highly transparent. We find the anomalously high charge transmission at certain applied voltages commensurate with the magnitude of the gap in superconducting islands. This indicates the nonlocal nature of the charge transfer in multiply connected SNS systems. We propose the mechanism of the correlated transmission of Cooper pairs in large arrays of SNS junctions based on the combined action of the proximity effect and the simultaneous Andreev conversion processes at many NS-interfaces.

  20. Modeling study of peak-dip-hump structure in tunneling spectra of high-temperature superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiev, Orifjon K.

    2016-12-01

    We propose new specific model for quasiparticle (QP) tunneling across the superconductor-insulator-normal metal (SIN) junction based on two mechanisms. Origin of the many features of the tunneling spectra, such as peak-dip-hump (PDH) structure, U- and V-shapes, temperature dependence of differential tunneling conductance, asymmetric conductance peaks, zero-bias conductance, subgap feature and gap inhomogeneity have been explained by the proposed model. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs are identified by pseudogap (PG) crossover temperature on the cuprate phase diagram.

  1. Current phase relation in nanowire based Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szombati, Daniel; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Geresdi, Attila; Mourik, Vincent; Zuo, Kun; Woerkom, David; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2015-03-01

    Junctions based on small band-gap nanowires are convenient platform for studying Josephson effect in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. As predicted by theory, due to the interplay between strong Zeeman interaction and large spin orbing coupling in these nanowires, the critical current and in particular current phase relation exhibits rich set of features in the presence of external magnetic field and electrostatic gating. We study supercurrent transport through Indium Antimonide nanowires contacted using Niobium-Titanium-Nitride leads using both current and phase bias measurements. Our results provide useful insights into superconductor/semiconductor hybrid systems capable of hosting Majorana fermions, potential building blocks for topological quantum computing.

  2. High field magnetic resonance imaging of normal and pathologic human medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Vandersteen, M; Beuls, E; Gelan, J; Adriaensens, P; Vanormelingen, L; Palmers, Y; Freling, G

    1994-02-01

    High field proton magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been applied to depict the MR appearance of the normal excised human cervicomedullary junction, based on which neuropathologic specimens can be described. More specifically, two normal cases and one case of Chiari deformity were imaged in the transverse, sagittal, and coronal dimensions using a 9.4 Tesla vertical bore magnet. The MR images of the normal specimens reveal most of the neuroanatomical microstructures described in literature. An accurate description of the Chiari deformity could be made by comparing the MR reference images with those of the pathologic specimen. All MR detected abnormalities were confirmed by histopathology, by which no additional lesions could be found.

  3. Solar cells made by laser-induced diffusion directly from phosphine gas

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.B.; Tarrant, D.; Pollock, G.; Pressley, R.; Press, R.

    1981-12-15

    A new method for making p-n junctions based on immersion in a transparent dopant gas followed by irradiation with a pulsed laser is presented. An alexandrite laser was used, operating at 0.73 ..mu..m where photolysis of the dopant gas PH/sub 3/ does not occur. Multiple pulses of 2.2--2.7 J/cm/sup 2/ were used to make Si solar cells with total area efficiencies up to 8.6% without benefit of antireflection coatings.

  4. [Prescription parsing of miao medicine Polygonum capitatum and kelintong capsule].

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Cheng, Long

    2014-04-01

    By literature survey searching references and parsing prescriptions, the auther has analyze the clinical advantage of Miao medicine in the treatment of symptom heat stranguria. Guizhou Miao medicine Polygonum capitatum has many advantages such as resources and clinical. After companying with Phellodendri Cortex, the compound prescription plays the pharmacological activity of antipyretic and diuretic, especially for the symptom heat stranguria, damp and hot junction based in the bladder. Miao medicine Kelintong capsule showed clinical advantage in the treatment of symptom heat stranguria, having a clinical advantage in improving the overall effectiveness and improve the overall aspects of the patient's symptoms.

  5. Molecular modeling of inelastic electron transport in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi

    2008-09-01

    A quantum chemical approach for the modeling of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of molecular junctions based on scattering theory is presented. Within a harmonic approximation, the proposed method allows us to calculate the electron-vibration coupling strength analytically, which makes it applicable to many different systems. The calculated inelastic electron transport spectra are often in very good agreement with their experimental counterparts, allowing the revelation of detailed information about molecular conformations inside the junction, molecule-metal contact structures, and intermolecular interaction that is largely inaccessible experimentally.

  6. Efficient photonic crystal Y-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rab; Karle, Tim J.; Moerman, I.; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2003-07-01

    A highly efficient Y-junction based on a planar photonic crystal (PhC) platform is presented. The PhC consists of a triangular array of holes etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, with a typical period of 322 nm and ~35% fill factor. The Y-junction has smaller holes positioned at the centre of the junction, giving rise to very uniform splitting and high transmission. The performance is very encouraging, with experimental transmission of approximately 40% for each arm of the Y-splitter relative to a comparable single-defect PhC waveguide.

  7. Electronic interaction and bipolar resistive switching in copper oxide-multilayer graphene hybrid interface: Graphene as an oxygen ion storage and blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B. R.; Govind, Feng, X.; Müllen, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    This study reports a bipolar resistive switching device based on copper oxide (CuO)-multilayer graphene (MLG) hybrid interface in complete contrast to the ohmic and rectifying characteristics of junctions based on individual MLG and CuO layers. The observed shift and the occurrence of additional O1s, Cu2p, and C1s core level peaks indicate electronic interaction at the hybrid interfacial layer. Large changes in the resistive switching parameters on changing the ambient conditions from air to vacuum establish the important role of MLG as oxygen ion storage and blocking layer towards the observed resistive switching effect.

  8. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  9. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  10. Engineering ferroelectric tunnel junctions through potential profile shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Boyn, S.; Garcia, V. Fusil, S.; Carrétéro, C.; Garcia, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the influence of the top electrode materials (W, Co, Ni, Ir) on the electronic band profile in ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on super-tetragonal BiFeO{sub 3}. Large variations of the transport properties are observed at room temperature. In particular, the analysis of current vs. voltage curves by a direct tunneling model indicates that the metal/ferroelectric interfacial barrier height increases with the top-electrode work function. While larger metal work functions result in larger OFF/ON ratios, they also produce a large internal electric field which results in large and potentially destructive switching voltages.

  11. Energetic initiators with narrow firing thresholds using Al/CuO Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhu, Peng; Li, Jie; Hu, Bo; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua

    2016-07-01

    We designed and prepared Schottky-junction-based Al/CuO energetic initiators with narrow firing thresholds according to Schottky barrier theory. Using various characterization methods, we preliminarily investigated the electrical breakdown property, withstand strike current ability, and multiple-firing performance of the energetic initiators. The breakdown voltage of the Al/CuO Schottky junction was ~8 V; and electrical breakdown in the initiators occurred one by one rather than simultaneously. The withstand strike current ability of the initiator mainly depended on the heat capacity of its ceramic plug when the electrical stimulus is more than ~8 V, its breakdown voltage. The ceramic plug can absorb heat from the initiator chip, letting the initiator withstand a constant current of 0.5 A for 20 s. More importantly, the initiators might be able to withstand hard electromagnetic interference by coupling the multiple-firing performance with an out-of-line slider in the explosive train. This knowledge of the characteristics of Schottky-junction-based Al/CuO energetic initiators will help in preparing highly insensitive, efficient initiating explosive devices for weapon systems.

  12. Photodetectors based on junctions of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Yan, Fa-Guang; Shen, Chao; Lv, Quan-Shan; Wang, Kai-You

    2017-03-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have gained considerable attention because of their novel properties and great potential applications. The flakes of TMDCs not only have great light absorptions from visible to near infrared, but also can be stacked together regardless of lattice mismatch like other two-dimensional (2D) materials. Along with the studies on intrinsic properties of TMDCs, the junctions based on TMDCs become more and more important in applications of photodetection. The junctions have shown many exciting possibilities to fully combine the advantages of TMDCs, other 2D materials, conventional and organic semiconductors together. Early studies have greatly enriched the application of TMDCs in photodetection. In this review, we investigate the efforts in photodetectors based on the junctions of TMDCs and analyze the properties of those photodetectors. Homojunctions based on TMDCs can be made by surface chemical doping, elemental doping and electrostatic gating. Heterojunction formed between TMDCs/2D materials, TMDCs/conventional semiconductors and TMDCs/organic semiconductor also deserve more attentions. We also compare the advantages and disadvantages of different junctions, and then give the prospects for the development of junctions based on TMDCs.

  13. Enhanced Magnetoresistance in Molecular Junctions by Geometrical Optimization of Spin-Selective Orbital Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rakhmilevitch, David; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Bitton, Ora; Kronik, Leeor; Tal, Oren

    2016-03-09

    Molecular junctions based on ferromagnetic electrodes allow the study of electronic spin transport near the limit of spintronics miniaturization. However, these junctions reveal moderate magnetoresistance that is sensitive to the orbital structure at their ferromagnet-molecule interfaces. The key structural parameters that should be controlled in order to gain high magnetoresistance have not been established, despite their importance for efficient manipulation of spin transport at the nanoscale. Here, we show that single-molecule junctions based on nickel electrodes and benzene molecules can yield a significant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to ∼200% near the conductance quantum G0. The measured magnetoresistance is mechanically tuned by changing the distance between the electrodes, revealing a nonmonotonic response to junction elongation. These findings are ascribed with the aid of first-principles calculations to variations in the metal-molecule orientation that can be adjusted to obtain highly spin-selective orbital hybridization. Our results demonstrate the important role of geometrical considerations in determining the spin transport properties of metal-molecule interfaces.

  14. Characteristics of strong ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with epitaxial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C.; Loloee, R.; Burnell, G.; Blamire, M. G.

    2005-05-01

    We present the measurement of superconductor/ferromagnetic Josephson junctions, based on an epitaxial Nb bottom electrode and epitaxial Fe20Ni80 barrier. Uniform junctions have been fabricated with a barrier thicknesses in the range 2-12nm . The maximum critical current density ˜2.4±0.2×109Am-2 was found for a device with a 3-nm -thick barrier at 4.2K , corresponding to an average characteristic voltage ICRN˜16μV . The ICRN showed a nonmonotonic behavior with Fe20Ni80 thickness. The variation of the resistance of a unit area ARN , of the junctions with barrier thickness gave a Nb/Py specific interface resistance of 6.0±0.5fΩm2 and Fe20Ni80 resistivity of 174±50nΩm , consistent with other studies in polycrystalline samples.

  15. Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Chu, F.-C.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    We predict a giant field-like spin torque, , in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF’s exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds.

  16. Formation of single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon pn junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiyuan, Wang; Yongguang, Huang; Dewei, Liu; Xiaoning, Zhu; Xiao, Cui; Hongliang, Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Pn junctions based on single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon were formed by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). P type silicon wafers were implanted with 245 keV 126Te+ to a dose of 2 × 1015 ions/cm2, after a PLM process (248 nm, laser fluence of 0.30 and 0.35 J/cm2, 1-5 pulses, duration 30 ns), an n+ type single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon layer with high carrier density (highest concentration 4.10 × 1019 cm-3, three orders of magnitude larger than the solid solution limit) was formed, it shows high broadband optical absorption from 400 to 2500 nm. Current—voltage measurements were performed on these diodes under dark and one standard sun (AM 1.5), and good rectification characteristics were observed. For present results, the samples with 4-5 pulses PLM are best.

  17. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure.

  18. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2017-02-01

    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  19. Current rectification in a single molecule diode: the role of electrode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Siya; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Coronado, Eugenio; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Agraït, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate large rectification ratios (\\gt 100) in single-molecule junctions based on a metal-oxide cluster (polyoxometalate), using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) both at ambient conditions and at low temperature. These rectification ratios are the largest ever observed in a single-molecule junction, and in addition these junctions sustain current densities larger than 105 A cm-2. By following the variation of the I-V characteristics with tip-molecule separation we demonstrate unambiguously that rectification is due to asymmetric coupling to the electrodes of a molecule with an asymmetric level structure. This mechanism can be implemented in other type of molecular junctions using both organic and inorganic molecules and provides a simple strategy for the rational design of molecular diodes.

  20. Hybrid-free Josephson Parametric Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattini, N. E.; Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    A necessary component for any quantum computation architecture is the ability to perform efficient quantum operations. In the microwave regime of superconducting qubits, these quantum-limited operations can be realized with a non-degenerate Josephson junction based three-wave mixer, the Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). Currently, the quantum signal of interest must pass through a lossy 180 degree hybrid to be presented as a differential drive to the JPC. This hybrid therefore places a limit on the quantum efficiency of the system and also increases the device footprint. We present a new design for the JPC eliminating the need for any external hybrid. We also show that this design has nominally identical performance to the conventional JPC. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR and YINQE.

  1. Structure-dependent magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xingtao; Tang, Huimin; Wang, Shizhuo; Qin, Minghui

    2017-02-01

    We predict large magnetoresistance (MR) and spin transfer torque (STT) in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions based on first-principles scattering theory. MR as large as ˜100 % is found in one junction. Magnetic dynamic simulations show that STT acting on the antiferromagnetic order parameter dominates the spin dynamics, and an electronic bias of order 10-1mV and current density of order 105Acm-2 can switches a junction of three-layer MgO, they are about one order smaller than that in Fe |MgO |Fe junction with the same barrier thickness, respectively. The multiple scattering in the antiferromagnetic region is considered to be responsible for the enhanced spin torque and smaller switching current density.

  2. Frequency shift keying by current modulation in a MTJ-based STNO with high data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Calaforra, A.; Purbawati, A.; Brächer, T.; Hem, J.; Murapaka, C.; Jiménez, E.; Mauri, D.; Zeltser, A.; Katine, J. A.; Cyrille, M.-C.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.

    2017-08-01

    Spin torque nano-oscillators are nanoscopic microwave frequency generators which excel due to their large frequency tuning range and agility for amplitude and frequency modulation. Due to their compactness, they are regarded as suitable candidates for applications in wireless communications, where cost-effective and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible standalone devices are required. In this work, we study the ability of a magnetic-tunnel-junction based spin torque nano-oscillator to respond to a binary input sequence encoded in a square-shaped current pulse for its application as a frequency-shift-keying (FSK) based emitter. We demonstrate that below the limit imposed by the spin torque nano-oscillator intrinsic relaxation frequency, an agile variation between discrete oscillator states is possible. For this kind of devices, we demonstrate FSK up to data rates of 400 Mbps, which is well suited for the application of such oscillators in wireless networks.

  3. Josephson ϕ0-junction in nanowire quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szombati, D. B.; Nadj-Perge, S.; Car, D.; Plissard, S. R.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The Josephson effect describes supercurrent flowing through a junction connecting two superconducting leads by a thin barrier. This current is driven by a superconducting phase difference ϕ between the leads. In the presence of chiral and time-reversal symmetry of the Cooper pair tunnelling process, the current is strictly zero when ϕ vanishes. Only if these underlying symmetries are broken can the supercurrent for ϕ = 0 be finite. This corresponds to a ground state of the junction being offset by a phase ϕ0, different from 0 or π. Here, we report such a Josephson ϕ0-junction based on a nanowire quantum dot. We use a quantum interferometer device to investigate phase offsets and demonstrate that ϕ0 can be controlled by electrostatic gating. Our results may have far-reaching implications for superconducting flux- and phase-defined quantum bits as well as for exploring topological superconductivity in quantum dot systems.

  4. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy in molecular junctions showing quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhani, C.; Della Rocca, M. L.; Bessis, C.; Bonnet, R.; Barraud, C.; Lafarge, P.; Chevillot, A.; Martin, P.; Lacroix, J.-C.

    2017-04-01

    Destructive quantum interference effect is implemented in large area molecular junctions to improve signatures of electron-phonon interaction. Vertical molecular junctions based on a cross-conjugated anthraquinone layer were fabricated and low-noise transport measurements were performed by acquiring simultaneously the current-voltage characteristics, its second derivative, and the differential conductance. Signatures of vibrational modes excited by inelastic events are present in the whole measured voltage range and superpose to the conductance suppression induced by destructive quantum interference. As a consequence vibrational modes have improved visibility in the low energy window (<80 meV ). Inelastic electron transport spectroscopy data are compared to infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy on Au/anthraquinone thin films. Common vibrational modes can be clearly identified, but inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy reveals the existence of vibrational modes in a wider energy range (0 -400 meV ) where infrared spectroscopy is lacking.

  5. Resonant electron tunnelling assisted by charged domain walls in multiferroic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Tornos, Javier; Hernandez-Martin, David; Beltran, Juan I.; Munuera, Carmen; Cabero, Mariona; Perez-Muñoz, Ana; Ricote, Jesus; Mompean, Federico; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Leon, Carlos; Pennycook, Steve J.; Muñoz, Maria Carmen; Varela, Maria; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2017-07-01

    The peculiar features of domain walls observed in ferroelectrics make them promising active elements for next-generation non-volatile memories, logic gates and energy-harvesting devices. Although extensive research activity has been devoted recently to making full use of this technological potential, concrete realizations of working nanodevices exploiting these functional properties are yet to be demonstrated. Here, we fabricate a multiferroic tunnel junction based on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric BaTiO3 tunnel barrier, where a head-to-head domain wall is constrained. An electron gas stabilized by oxygen vacancies is confined within the domain wall, displaying discrete quantum-well energy levels. These states assist resonant electron tunnelling processes across the barrier, leading to strong quantum oscillations of the electrical conductance.

  6. SuperTools Test and Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mannos, Tom J.

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting electronics (SCE) represents a potential path to efficient exascale computing for HPC and data center applications, but SCE-based circuit design lags far behind its CMOS equivalent. IARPA’s ongoing C3 program and its developing SuperTools program aim to jumpstart SCE R&D with the near-term goal of producing a high-speed, low-energy, 64-bit RISC processor using Josephson Junction based logic cells. SuperTools performers will develop software tools for efficient SCE design and accurate simulation and characterization of JJ-based circuits, which include the RSFQ, RQL, and AQFP logic families. T&E teams from NIST, MIT Lincoln Lab, Berkeley Lab, and Sandia National Labs will evaluate the tools and fabricate test circuits to compare with simulated results. The five-year, three-phase program includes 48 performer deliverables, three annual technical exchange meetings, and annual site visits.

  7. Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y-H; Chu, F-C; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2015-06-22

    We predict a giant field-like spin torque, T[symbol in text], in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF's exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of T[symbol in text] via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both 'reading' and 'writing' processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds.

  8. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  9. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  10. Castleman disease of the mesentery as the great mimic: Incidental finding of one case and the literature review.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Hao, Chunyi; Qian, Honggang; Leng, Jiahua; Liu, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Castleman disease is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles. More commonly described in the mediastinum, its occurrence in the mesentery is exceedingly rare, which is easily to be ignored in differential diagnosis when an abdominal mass is found. We report the case of an asymptomatic 71-year-old woman with a homogenous and hypervascular mass at the inner side of duodenojejunal junction. Based on the clinical suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a surgical resection was performed. Final diagnosis of the mass was hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. Here, we summarize the clinicopathological and radiological features of this disease by literature review, which may be helpful to bring awareness of this entity and improve the clinical decision making when similar scenarios are encountered.

  11. The interplay between the Aharonov-Bohm interference and parity selective tunneling in graphene nanoribbon rings.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V Hung; Niquet, Y-M; Dollfus, P

    2014-05-21

    We report on a numerical study of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect and parity selective tunneling in pn junctions based on rectangular graphene rings where the contacts and ring arms are all made of zigzag nanoribbons. We find that when applying a magnetic field to the ring, the AB interference can reverse the parity symmetry of incoming waves and hence can strongly modulate the parity selective transmission through the system. Therefore, the transmission between two states of different parity exhibits the AB oscillations with a π-phase shift, compared to the case of states of the same parity. On this basis, it is shown that interesting effects, such as giant (both positive and negative) magnetoresistance and strong negative differential conductance, can be achieved in this structure. Our study thus presents a new property of the AB interference in graphene nanorings, which could be helpful for further understanding the transport properties of graphene mesoscopic systems.

  12. Investigation of the regimes of mixing of superconducting tunneling structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, K. V.; Artanov, A. A.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    The regimes of operation of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction based on three-layer structures Nb/AlOx/Nb and Nb/AlN/NbN as a harmonic mixer (for frequencies of the order of 600 and 20 GHz, respectively) and a frequency up-converter (in the frequency range from 0.1 to 5.0 GHz) have been investigated experimentally. The quasiparticle and Josephson mixing regimes have been compared. It has been shown that, in some practical applications, such as the use of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction as a cryogenic harmonic phase detector, the Josephson mixing regime is more preferable, because it can provide a higher signal and a greater signal-to-noise ratio as compared to the quasiparticle mixing regime. It has also been demonstrated that the Josephson mixing regime is promising for the use in signal multiplexing systems for superconducting detectors.

  13. Modulation-mediated unlocking of a parametrically phase-locked spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-12-22

    Modulation of an oscillator is crucial for its application in communication devices. While the output power and linewidth of single magnetic tunnel junction-based spin-torque oscillators (MTJ-STO) are not yet adequate for practical uses, the synchronization of such devices can overcome these limitations. Here, we investigate the modulation behavior of a parametrically synchronized MTJ-STO and show experimentally that modulation of the synchronized state preserves synchronization as long as the modulation frequency, f{sub mod}, is above a characteristic frequency, f{sub unlock}. The unlocking frequency increases with the modulation amplitude in agreement with analytical estimates and numerical simulations. These phenomena are described as a non-resonant unlocking mechanism, whose characteristics are directly related to inherent parameters of the oscillator.

  14. Enhancement of Spin-transfer torque switching via resonant tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterji, Niladri; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2014-12-08

    We propose the use of resonant tunneling as a route to enhance the spin-transfer torque switching characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions. The proposed device structure is a resonant tunneling magnetic tunnel junction based on a MgO-semiconductor heterostructure sandwiched between a fixed magnet and a free magnet. Using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism coupled self consistently with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, we demonstrate enhanced tunnel magneto-resistance characteristics as well as lower switching voltages in comparison with traditional trilayer devices. Two device designs based on MgO based heterostructures are presented, where the physics of resonant tunneling leads to an enhanced spin transfer torque thereby reducing the critical switching voltage by up to 44%. It is envisioned that the proof-of-concept presented here may lead to practical device designs via rigorous materials and interface studies.

  15. Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y. -H.; Chu, F. -C.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We predict a giant field-like spin torque, , in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF’s exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds. PMID:26095146

  16. Vibrational properties of fractionally charged molecules and their relevance for molecular electronics and electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bâldea, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    Important insight into the charge transfer across interfaces can be gained in situations wherein, for given adsorbate and substrate species, the (fractional) charge state of the adsorbed molecules can be varied in a controlled way. Applied biases can continuously tune the charge of molecules embedded in nanojunctions and/or in electrochemical setups but information on the fractional charges of the corresponding partial oxidized/reduced states cannot be directly accessed in experiments. Here, we present theoretical results revealing that information on the fractional molecular charge can be obtained by monitoring molecular vibrational properties, which can be measured by means of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). To this aim, we performed DFT calculations for the benchmark 1,4-benzenedithiol molecule. The changes in the vibrational frequencies are considerably larger than those recently measured in combined transport-SERS studies on molecular junctions based on fullerene. We believe that this theoretical result is an encouraging message to experimentalists.

  17. Accurate determination of plasmonic fields in molecular junctions by current rectification at optical frequencies.

    PubMed

    Arielly, Rani; Ofarim, Ayelet; Noy, Gilad; Selzer, Yoram

    2011-07-13

    Current rectification, i.e., induction of dc current by oscillating electromagnetic fields, is demonstrated in molecular junctions at an optical frequency. The magnitude of rectification is used to accurately determine the effective oscillating potentials in the junctions induced by the irradiating laser. Since the gap size of the junctions used in this study is precisely determined by the length of the embedded molecules, the oscillating potential can be used to calculate the plasmonic enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the junctions. With a set of junctions based on alkyl thiolated molecules with identical HOMO-LUMO gap and different lengths, an exponential dependence of the plasmonic field enhancement on gap size is observed.

  18. Skyrmion based microwave detectors and harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Finocchio, G.; Giordano, A.; Ricci, M.; Burrascano, P.; Tomasello, R.; Lanuzza, M.; Puliafito, V.; Azzerboni, B.; Carpentieri, M.

    2015-12-28

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected states that are very promising for the design of the next generation of ultra-low-power electronic devices. In this letter, we propose a magnetic tunnel junction based spin-transfer torque diode with a magnetic skyrmion as ground state and a perpendicular polarizer patterned as nano-contact for a local injection of the current. The key result is the possibility to achieve sensitivities (i.e., detection voltage over input microwave power) larger than 2000 V/W for optimized contact diameters. We also pointed out that large enough voltage controlled magnetocrystalline anisotropy could significantly improve the sensitivity. Our results can be very useful for the identification of a class of spin-torque diodes with a non-uniform ground state and to understand the fundamental physics of the skyrmion dynamical properties.

  19. Frequency control of a spin-torque oscillator using magnetostrictive anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Min Gyu Albert; Lee, Seok-Hee E-mail: shlee@kaist.edu; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Park, Byong-Guk E-mail: shlee@kaist.edu

    2016-01-11

    We report the working principle of a spin-torque oscillator, of which the frequency is efficiently controlled by manipulating the magnetostrictive anisotropy. To justify the scheme, we simulate a conventional magnetic-tunnel junction-based oscillator which is fabricated on a piezoelectric material. By applying mechanical stress to a free layer using a piezoelectric material, the oscillation frequency can be controlled to ensure a broad tuning range without a significant reduction of the dynamic resistance variation. Such controllability, which appears in the absence of an external magnetic field, will not only enable the integration of spin-torque oscillators and conventional complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor technology but will also broaden the applicability of spin-torque oscillators.

  20. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

    PubMed

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2008-11-05

    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

  1. Atomically Resolved Band Bending Effects in a p-n Heterojunction of Cu2O and a Cobalt Macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Dominik Simon; Zabka, Wolf-Dietrich; Shah, Oliver-F Raymond; Schnidrig, Stephan; Probst, Benjamin; Alberto, Roger; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2017-10-03

    We present a hetero junction based on macrocyclic hydrogen evolution catalysts (HEC) physisorbed on a single crystalline Cu2O(111) surface. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) provides spatial resolution of the band bending within the first nanometer of the subsurface region. Oxygen vacancies on the Cu2O(111) surface cause a downward band bending which is conserved upon adsorption of HEC layers of various thicknesses. This allows photo-excited electrons to be directed towards the surface where they can be made available for the reduction of protons by the HEC. Furthermore, Poisson's equation relates more subtle changes in the measured ARXPS spectra to the local charge density profile within the first 7 Å away from the surface and with atomic resolution. All observations are consistent with a polarization of the molecular layer in response to the electrical field at the oxide surface, which should be a general phenomenon at such organic-oxide heterointerfaces.

  2. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  3. Optimization on photoelectric detection based on stacked La0.9Sr0.1MnO3-δ/LaAlO3-δ multijunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jie; Ying Hao, Hui; Jia Guo, Er; Yang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Three multijunctions consisting of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3-δ and LaAlO3-δ on Si substrate have been fabricated under different oxygen pressures by laser molecular beam epitaxy. They exhibit nonlinear and rectifying current-voltage characteristics and evident photocurrent response to He-Ne laser illumination. Experimental results indicate that the periodically stacked multijunction grown under lower oxygen pressure shows a better rectification behavior and a higher photocurrent. The photovoltaic responsivities of the multijunctions are enhanced greatly at reverse bias and are much higher than that of a similarly grown single p-n junction. Based on the band structure of the multilayers, a possible mechanism of the photovoltaic process was proposed. A high photovoltage responsivity of 168.6 mV/mW has been achieved at - 6 V bias; this demonstrates the potential of the present multijunction configuration for photodetectors operating at room temperature.

  4. Piezotronic interface engineering on ZnO/Au-based Schottky junction for enhanced photoresponse of a flexible self-powered UV detector.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengnan; Qi, Junjie; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zengze; Lin, Pei; Liao, Qingliang; Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Yue

    2014-08-27

    Exploiting piezoelectric effect to engineer material interface has been confirmed as a promising way to optimize the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, by using this effect, we have greatly improved the photoresponse of the fabricated ZnO/Au Schottky junction based self-powered UV detector. A 440% augment of photocurrent, together with 5× increased sensitivity, was obtained when the device was subjected to a 0.580% tensile strain. The enhancement can be attributed to the facility separation and extraction of photoexcites due to the formation of the stronger and expanding built-in field, which is a result of charge redistribution induced by piezoelectric polarization at the ZnO/Au interface. This study not only can strengthen the understanding of piezoelectric effects on energy devices but also can be extended to boost performances of optoelectronic devices made of piezoelectric semiconductor materials.

  5. Monolithic integration of enhancement-mode vertical driving transistorson a standard InGaN/GaN light emitting diode structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Liu, Chao; Jiang, Huaxing; Zou, Xinbo; Zhang, Anping; Lau, Kei May

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (VMOSFET) drivers have been proposed and demonstrated. The VMOSFET was achieved by simply regrowing a p- and n-GaN bilayer on top of a standard LED structure. After fabrication, the VMOSFET is connected with the LED through the conductive n-GaN layer, with no need of extra metal interconnections. The junction-based VMOSFET is inherently an enhancement-mode (E-mode) device with a threshold voltage of 1.6 V. By controlling the gate bias of the VMOSFET, the light intensity emitted from the integrated VMOSFET-LED device could be well modulated, which shows great potential for various applications, including solid-state lighting, micro-displays, and visible light communications.

  6. Materials studies related to the Cu/sub 2/S/ZnCdS heterojunction. First quarter report, March 15, 1980-June 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, L. C.

    1980-07-01

    Work over the first quarter was directed toward compositional measurements of Cu/sub 2/S/ZnCdS junctions by AAS and AES, and modelling of the junction based on these measurements. AAS and AES measurements both indicate an accumulation of Zn under the interface. AES profiles indicate Zn and Cd in the Cu/sub 2/S, although AAS indicates concentrations below 5 x 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/. A model based on lateral composition variation at the interface is presented. This model can account for some of the trends seen in Cu/sub 2/S/ZnCdS cells, especially the decrease in short circuit current at higher Zn compositions.

  7. Resonant electron tunnelling assisted by charged domain walls in multiferroic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Tornos, Javier; Hernandez-Martin, David; Beltran, Juan I; Munuera, Carmen; Cabero, Mariona; Perez-Muñoz, Ana; Ricote, Jesus; Mompean, Federico; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Leon, Carlos; Pennycook, Steve J; Muñoz, Maria Carmen; Varela, Maria; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2017-07-01

    The peculiar features of domain walls observed in ferroelectrics make them promising active elements for next-generation non-volatile memories, logic gates and energy-harvesting devices. Although extensive research activity has been devoted recently to making full use of this technological potential, concrete realizations of working nanodevices exploiting these functional properties are yet to be demonstrated. Here, we fabricate a multiferroic tunnel junction based on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric BaTiO3 tunnel barrier, where a head-to-head domain wall is constrained. An electron gas stabilized by oxygen vacancies is confined within the domain wall, displaying discrete quantum-well energy levels. These states assist resonant electron tunnelling processes across the barrier, leading to strong quantum oscillations of the electrical conductance.

  8. Cavity QED based on collective magnetic dipole coupling: spin ensembles as hybrid two-level systems.

    PubMed

    Imamoğlu, Atac

    2009-02-27

    We analyze the magnetic dipole coupling of an ensemble of spins to a superconducting microwave stripline structure, incorporating a Josephson junction based transmon qubit. We show that this system is described by an embedded Jaynes-Cummings model: in the strong coupling regime, collective spin-wave excitations of the ensemble of spins pick up the nonlinearity of the cavity mode, such that the two lowest eigenstates of the coupled spin wave-microwave cavity-Josephson junction system define a hybrid two-level system. The proposal described here enables new avenues for nonlinear optics using optical photons coupled to spin ensembles via Raman transitions. The possibility of strong coupling cavity QED with magnetic dipole transitions also opens up the possibility of extending quantum information processing protocols to spins in silicon or graphene, without the need for single-spin confinement.

  9. Cell Junctions in the Specialized Conduction System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Mezzano, Valeria; Pellman, Jason; Sheikh, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Anchoring cell junctions are integral in maintaining electro-mechanical coupling of ventricular ‘working’ cardiomyocytes; however, their role in cardiomyocytes of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) remains less clear. Recent studies in genetic mouse models and humans highlight the appearance of these cell junctions alongside gap junctions in the CCS and also show that defects in these structures and their components are associated with conduction impairments in the CCS. Here we outline current evidence supporting an integral relationship between anchoring and gap junctions in the CCS. Specifically we focus on (1) molecular and ultrastructural evidence for cell-cell junctions in specialized cardiomyocytes of the CCS, (2) genetic mouse models specifically targeting cell-cell junction components in the heart which exhibit CCS conduction defects and (3) human clinical studies from patients with cell-cell junction-based diseases that exhibit CCS electrophysiological defects. PMID:24738884

  10. Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Thin Film Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Mantovani, J. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Hepp, A. F.; Gordon, E. M.; Haraway, R.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) which have been grown by electrochemical deposition. CIS is a leading candidate for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method for producing thin-film CIS. We have produced both p and n type CIS thin films from the same aqueous solution by simply varying the deposition potential. A CIS pn junction was deposited using a step-function potential. Stoichiometry of the single layer films was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Carrier densities of these films increased with deviation from stoichiometry, as determined by the capacitance versus voltage dependence of Schottky contacts. Optical bandgaps for the single layer films as determined by transmission spectroscopy were also found to increase with deviation from stoichiometry. Rectifying current versus voltage characteristics were demonstrated for the Schottky barriers and for the pn junction.

  11. Electrochemical metallization switching with a platinum group metal in different oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongrui; Jiang, Hao; Hyung Jang, Moon; Lin, Peng; Ribbe, Alexander; Xia, Qiangfei; Yang, J. Joshua

    2016-07-01

    In a normal electrochemical metallization (ECM) switch, electrochemically active metals, such as Ag and Cu are used to provide mobile ions for the conducting filament. In both ECM and valence change memory (VCM) devices, platinum group metals, such as Pt and Pd, are typically used as the counter electrode and assumed to be chemically and physically inert. In this study, we explore whether the so-called inert metal itself can form a conducting filament and result in repeatable resistance switching. Pd and different oxide host matrices are used for this purpose. We have observed that the transport of oxygen anions dominates over Pd metal cations in ALD deposited AlOx and HfOx. However, in sputtered SiOx, Pd cation transport was revealed, accompanied by the formation of nano-crystalline Pd filament(s) in the junctions. Based on these observations, memristors with reversible and repeatable switching were obtained by using Pd doped SiOx as the switching material.In a normal electrochemical metallization (ECM) switch, electrochemically active metals, such as Ag and Cu are used to provide mobile ions for the conducting filament. In both ECM and valence change memory (VCM) devices, platinum group metals, such as Pt and Pd, are typically used as the counter electrode and assumed to be chemically and physically inert. In this study, we explore whether the so-called inert metal itself can form a conducting filament and result in repeatable resistance switching. Pd and different oxide host matrices are used for this purpose. We have observed that the transport of oxygen anions dominates over Pd metal cations in ALD deposited AlOx and HfOx. However, in sputtered SiOx, Pd cation transport was revealed, accompanied by the formation of nano-crystalline Pd filament(s) in the junctions. Based on these observations, memristors with reversible and repeatable switching were obtained by using Pd doped SiOx as the switching material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  12. Effect of Heteroatom Substitution on Transport in Alkanedithiol-Based Molecular Tunnel Junctions: Evidence for Universal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zuoti; Bâldea, Ioan; Oram, Stuart; Smith, Christopher E; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2017-01-24

    The transport properties of molecular junctions based on alkanedithiols with three different methylene chain lengths were compared with junctions based on similar chains wherein every third -CH2- was replaced with O or S, that is, following the general formula HS(CH2CH2X)nCH2CH2SH, where X = CH2, O, or S and n = 1, 2, or 3. Conducting probe atomic force microscopy revealed that the low bias resistance of the chains increased upon substitution in the order CH2 < O < S. This change in resistance is ascribed to the observed identical trend in contact resistance, Rc, whereas the exponential prefactor β (length sensitivity) was essentially the same for all chains. Using an established, analytical single-level model, we computed the effective energy offset εh (i.e., Fermi level relative to the effective HOMO level) and the electronic coupling strength Γ from the current-voltage (I-V) data. The εh values were only weakly affected by heteroatom substitution, whereas the interface coupling strength Γ varied by over an order of magnitude. Consequently, we ascribe the strong variation in Rc to the systematic change in Γ. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that the HOMO density shifts from the terminal SH groups for the alkanedithiols to the heteroatoms in the substituted chains, which provides a plausible explanation for the marked decrease in Γ for the dithiols with electron-rich heteroatoms. The results indicate that the electronic coupling and thus the resistance of alkanedithiols can be tuned by substitution of even a single atom in the middle of the molecule. Importantly, when appropriately normalized, the experimental I-V curves were accurately simulated over the full bias range (±1.5 V) using the single-level model with no adjustable parameters. The data could be collapsed to a single universal curve predicted by the model, providing clear evidence that the essential physics is captured by this analytical approach and supporting its utility for molecular

  13. Uncovering a law of corresponding states for electron tunneling in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bâldea, Ioan; Xie, Zuoti; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Laws of corresponding states known so far demonstrate that certain macroscopic systems can be described in a universal manner in terms of reduced quantities, which eliminate specific substance properties. To quantitatively describe real systems, all these laws of corresponding states contain numerical factors adjusted empirically. Here, we report a law of corresponding states deduced analytically for charge transport via tunneling in molecular junctions, which we validate against current-voltage measurements for conducting probe atomic force microscope junctions based on benchmark molecular series (oligophenylenedithiols and alkanedithiols) and electrodes (silver, gold, and platinum), as well as against transport data for scanning tunneling microscope junctions. Two salient features distinguish the present law of corresponding states from all those known previously. First, it is expressed by a universal curve free of empirical parameters. Second, it demonstrates that a universal behavior is not necessarily affected by strong stochastic fluctuations often observed in molecular electronics. An important and encouraging message of this finding is that transport behavior across different molecular platforms can be similar and extraordinarily reproducible.Laws of corresponding states known so far demonstrate that certain macroscopic systems can be described in a universal manner in terms of reduced quantities, which eliminate specific substance properties. To quantitatively describe real systems, all these laws of corresponding states contain numerical factors adjusted empirically. Here, we report a law of corresponding states deduced analytically for charge transport via tunneling in molecular junctions, which we validate against current-voltage measurements for conducting probe atomic force microscope junctions based on benchmark molecular series (oligophenylenedithiols and alkanedithiols) and electrodes (silver, gold, and platinum), as well as against transport data

  14. Thermoelectricity at the molecular scale: a large Seebeck effect in endohedral metallofullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, See Kei; Buerkle, Marius; Yamada, Ryo; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tada, Hirokazu

    2015-12-01

    Single molecule devices provide a unique system to study the thermoelectric energy conversion at an atomistic level and can provide valuable information for the design of organic thermoelectric materials. Here we present a comprehensive study of the thermoelectric transport properties of molecular junctions based on C82, Gd@C82, and Ce@C82. We combine precise scanning tunneling microscope break-junction measurements of the thermopower and conductance with quantitatively accurate self-energy-corrected first-principles transport calculations. We find that all three fullerene derivatives give rise to a negative thermopower (n-conducting). The absolute value, however, is much larger for the Gd@C82 and Ce@C82 junctions. The conductance, on the other hand, remains comparable for all three systems. The power factor determined for the Gd@C82 based junction is so far the highest obtained for a single-molecule device. Although the encapsulated metal atom does not directly contribute to the transport, we show that the observed enhancement of the thermopower for Gd@C82 and Ce@C82 is elucidated by the substantial changes in the electronic- and geometrical structure of the fullerene molecule induced by the encapsulated metal atom.Single molecule devices provide a unique system to study the thermoelectric energy conversion at an atomistic level and can provide valuable information for the design of organic thermoelectric materials. Here we present a comprehensive study of the thermoelectric transport properties of molecular junctions based on C82, Gd@C82, and Ce@C82. We combine precise scanning tunneling microscope break-junction measurements of the thermopower and conductance with quantitatively accurate self-energy-corrected first-principles transport calculations. We find that all three fullerene derivatives give rise to a negative thermopower (n-conducting). The absolute value, however, is much larger for the Gd@C82 and Ce@C82 junctions. The conductance, on the other hand

  15. Lateral graphene p-n junctions formed by the graphene/MoS2 hybrid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Song, Hua-Ding; Li, Cai-Zhen; Jin, Yibo; Tang, Lei; Liu, Dameng; Liao, Zhi-Min; Xiu, Faxian; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene/two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to possess many advantages for electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, there are few reports about the utilization of a 2D semiconductor monolayer to tune the properties of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene p-n junctions based on graphene/MoS2 hybrid interfaces. Monolayered graphene across the monolayered MoS2 boundary is divided into n-type regions on the MoS2 and p-type regions on the SiO2 substrate. Such van der Waals heterostructure based graphene p-n junctions show good photoelectric properties. The photocurrent modulation of such devices by a single back gate is also demonstrated for the first time, which shows that the graphene on and off MoS2 regions have different responses to the gate voltage. Our results suggest that the atomic thin hybrid structure can remarkably extend the device applications.Graphene/two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to possess many advantages for electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, there are few reports about the utilization of a 2D semiconductor monolayer to tune the properties of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene p-n junctions based on graphene/MoS2 hybrid interfaces. Monolayered graphene across the monolayered MoS2 boundary is divided into n-type regions on the MoS2 and p-type regions on the SiO2 substrate. Such van der Waals heterostructure based graphene p-n junctions show good photoelectric properties. The photocurrent modulation of such devices by a single back gate is also demonstrated for the first time, which shows that the graphene on and off MoS2 regions have different responses to the gate voltage. Our results suggest that the atomic thin hybrid structure can remarkably extend the device applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More details on device fabrication, control

  16. Understanding the failure mechanisms of microwave bipolar transistors caused by electrostatic discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liu; Yongguang, Chen; Zhiliang, Tan; Jie, Yang; Xijun, Zhang; Zhenxing, Wang

    2011-10-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomena involve both electrical and thermal effects, and a direct electrostatic discharge to an electronic device is one of the most severe threats to component reliability. Therefore, the electrical and thermal stability of multifinger microwave bipolar transistors (BJTs) under ESD conditions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. 100 samples have been tested for multiple pulses until a failure occurred. Meanwhile, the distributions of electric field, current density and lattice temperature have also been analyzed by use of the two-dimensional device simulation tool Medici. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and failure analysis. In the case of a thermal couple, the avalanche current distribution in the fingers is in general spatially unstable and results in the formation of current crowding effects and crystal defects. The experimental results indicate that a collector-base junction is more sensitive to ESD than an emitter-base junction based on the special device structure. When the ESD level increased to 1.3 kV, the collector-base junction has been burnt out first. The analysis has also demonstrated that ESD failures occur generally by upsetting the breakdown voltage of the dielectric or overheating of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. In addition, fatigue phenomena are observed during ESD testing, with devices that still function after repeated low-intensity ESDs but whose performances have been severely degraded.

  17. Expression of an anti-botulinum toxin A neutralizing single-chain Fv recombinant antibody in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Kurt C; McLean, Michael D; Niu, Yongqing; Byrne, Greg; Olea-Popelka, Fernando C; Murrant, Coral; Barclay, Jack; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances known and are thus classified as high-risk threats for use as bioterror agents. To examine the potential of transgenic plants as bioreactors for the production of BoNT antidotes, we transformed tobacco with an optimized, synthetic gene encoding a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) recombinant antibody fragment. In vitro mouse muscle twitch assays demonstrated the functional utility of this scFv extracted from tobacco for neutralizing the paralytic effects of BoNT/A at neuromuscular junctions. Based on the efficiency of the scFv capture process and the dose required to antidote a human being, 1-2 ha of this tobacco could yield up to 4 kg of scFv, which would be enough to contribute to the manufacture of 1,000,000 therapeutic doses of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail capable of neutralizing the effects of BoNT poisoning. Transgenic plants could provide an inexpensive production platform for expression of multiple mAbs toward the creation of polyclonal therapies (i.e. pooled mAbs) as the next improvement in recombinant antibody therapy.

  18. Concurrent and Accurate Short Read Mapping on Multicore Processors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Héctor; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Barrachina, Sergio; Castillo, Maribel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a parallel aligner with a work-flow organization for fast and accurate mapping of RNA sequences on servers equipped with multicore processors. Our software, HPG Aligner SA (HPG Aligner SA is an open-source application. The software is available at http://www.opencb.org, exploits a suffix array to rapidly map a large fraction of the RNA fragments (reads), as well as leverages the accuracy of the Smith-Waterman algorithm to deal with conflictive reads. The aligner is enhanced with a careful strategy to detect splice junctions based on an adaptive division of RNA reads into small segments (or seeds), which are then mapped onto a number of candidate alignment locations, providing crucial information for the successful alignment of the complete reads. The experimental results on a platform with Intel multicore technology report the parallel performance of HPG Aligner SA, on RNA reads of 100-400 nucleotides, which excels in execution time/sensitivity to state-of-the-art aligners such as TopHat 2+Bowtie 2, MapSplice, and STAR.

  19. Spin electronic magnetic sensor based on functional oxides for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solignac, A.; Kurij, G.; Guerrero, R.; Agnus, G.; Maroutian, T.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2015-09-01

    To detect magnetic signals coming from the body, in particular those produced by the electrical activity of the heart or of the brain, the development of ultrasensitive sensors is required. In this regard, magnetoresistive sensors, stemming from spin electronics, are very promising devices. For example, tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) junctions based on MgO tunnel barrier have a high sensitivity. Nevertheless, TMR also often have high level of noise. Full spin polarized materials like manganite La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) are attractive alternative candidates to develop such sensors because LSMO exhibits a very low 1/f noise when grown on single crystals, and a TMR response has been observed with values up to 2000%. This kind of tunnel junctions, when combined with a high Tc superconductor loop, opens up possibilities to develop full oxide structures working at liquid nitrogen temperature and suitable for medical imaging. In this work, we investigated on LSMO-based tunnel junctions the parameters controlling the overall system performances, including not only the TMR ratio, but also the pinning of the reference layer and the noise floor. We especially focused on studying the effects of the quality of the barrier, the interface and the electrode, by playing with materials and growth conditions.

  20. The k-junction motif in RNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Daldrop, Peter; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The k-junction is a structural motif in RNA comprising a three-way helical junction based upon kink turn (k-turn) architecture. A computer program written to examine relative helical orientation identified the three-way junction of the Arabidopsis TPP riboswitch as an elaborated k-turn. The Escherichia coli TPP riboswitch contains a related k-junction, and analysis of >11 000 sequences shows that the structure is common to these riboswitches. The k-junction exhibits all the key features of an N1-class k-turn, including the standard cross-strand hydrogen bonds. The third helix of the junction is coaxially aligned with the C (canonical) helix, while the k-turn loop forms the turn into the NC (non-canonical) helix. Analysis of ligand binding by ITC and global folding by gel electrophoresis demonstrates the importance of the k-turn nucleotides. Clearly the basic elements of k-turn structure are structurally well suited to generate a three-way helical junction, retaining all the key features and interactions of the k-turn. PMID:24531930

  1. Optimization on photoelectric detection based on stacked La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}/LaAlO{sub 3-{delta}} multijunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Xing; Hui Yinghao; Er Jiaguo; Fang Yang

    2011-08-01

    Three multijunctions consisting of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} and LaAlO{sub 3-{delta}} on Si substrate have been fabricated under different oxygen pressures by laser molecular beam epitaxy. They exhibit nonlinear and rectifying current-voltage characteristics and evident photocurrent response to He-Ne laser illumination. Experimental results indicate that the periodically stacked multijunction grown under lower oxygen pressure shows a better rectification behavior and a higher photocurrent. The photovoltaic responsivities of the multijunctions are enhanced greatly at reverse bias and are much higher than that of a similarly grown single p-n junction. Based on the band structure of the multilayers, a possible mechanism of the photovoltaic process was proposed. A high photovoltage responsivity of 168.6 mV/mW has been achieved at - 6 V bias; this demonstrates the potential of the present multijunction configuration for photodetectors operating at room temperature.

  2. Investigating photoresponse in graphene by light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eginligil, M.; Cao, B. C.; Wang, Z. L.; Soci, C.; Yu, T.

    2014-03-01

    We report our photocurrent studies on single layer graphene (SLG), bilayer graphene (BLG) and trilayer graphene (TLG) by exciting with circularly polarized light. In addition to p-n junctions based on gated graphene field-effect-transistor (g-FET), it was recently demonstrated that in the graphene/metal interface large photocurrent (PC) can be generated and this PC can be manipulated by backgate voltage in a simple g-FET. In this work we fabricated g-FETs from mechanically exfoliated graphene and explored backgate voltage dependence of photon drag effect (PDE), linear and circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) of SLG, BLG and TLG. In BLG, we noticed a cos θ dependence of the measured PC, where θ is the angle of incident light polarization, in addition to PDE and CPGE effects which have cos4 θ and sin2 θ dependence, respectively. This cos θ dependence is attributed to the Berry curvature related valley PC, which can be induced as a result of broken inversion symmetry and asymmetry in the two low energy valleys of BLG. The latter is absent in SLG and peculiar for ABA stacked TLG. By varying backgate voltage we distinguish all helicity dependent PC contributions. Our data show good agreement with the theory. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Singapore under Award No. NRF-RF2010-07 and MOE Tier 2 MOE2012-T2-2-049.

  3. Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit. PMID:24599096

  4. Resolving metal-molecule interfaces at single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nakamura, Hisao; Tada, Tomofumi; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-05-01

    Electronic and structural detail at the electrode-molecule interface have a significant influence on charge transport across molecular junctions. Despite the decisive role of the metal-molecule interface, a complete electronic and structural characterization of the interface remains a challenge. This is in no small part due to current experimental limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Contrary to conventional conductance studies, this I-V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both, the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface, and the energy alignment between the conduction orbital and the Fermi level of the electrode. This exhaustive statistical approach was employed to study single-molecule junctions of 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA), 1,4-butanediamine (C4DA), and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). A single interfacial configuration was observed for both BDA and C4DA junctions, while three different interfacial arrangements were resolved for BDT. This multiplicity is due to different molecular adsorption sites on the Au surface namely on-top, hollow, and bridge. Furthermore, C4DA junctions present a fluctuating I-V curve arising from the greater conformational freedom of the saturated alkyl chain, in sharp contrast with the rigid aromatic backbone of both BDA and BDT.

  5. Derivation of the spin Hamiltonians for Fe in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrón, A.; Delgado, F.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2015-03-01

    A method to calculate the effective spin Hamiltonian for a transition metal impurity in a non-magnetic insulating host is presented and applied to the paradigmatic case of Fe in MgO. In the first step we calculate the electronic structure employing standard density functional theory (DFT), based on generalized gradient approximation (GGA), using plane waves as a basis set. The corresponding basis of atomic-like maximally localized Wannier functions is derived and used to represent the DFT Hamiltonian, resulting in a tight-binding model for the atomic orbitals of the magnetic impurity. The third step is to solve, by exact numerical diagonalization, the N electron problem in the open shell of the magnetic atom, including both effects of spin-orbit and Coulomb repulsion. Finally, the low energy sector of this multi-electron Hamiltonian is mapped into effective spin models that, in addition to the spin matrices S, can also include the orbital angular momentum L when appropriate. We successfully apply the method to Fe in MgO, considering both the undistorted and Jahn-Teller (JT) distorted cases. Implications for the influence of Fe impurities on the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO are discussed.

  6. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-08-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events.

  7. Modeling and theoretical efficiency of a silicon nanowire based thermoelectric junction with area enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, M; Sadhu, JS; Ma, J; Ghossoub, MG; Sinha, S

    2012-06-15

    Recent experimental work suggests that individual silicon nanowires with rough surfaces possess a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as 0.6 near room temperature. This paper addresses the possibility of using an array of such nanowires in a thermoelectric junction for generation. Employing a model of frequency dependent phonon boundary scattering, we estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the array and investigate heat flow through the junction. We show that charge transport is largely unaffected by the roughness scales considered. Enhancing the area for heat exchange at an individual 200 mu m x 200 mu m p-n junction yields significant temperature differences across the junction leading to power >0.6 mW and efficiency >1.5% for a junction with effective thermal conductivity <5 W/mK, when the source and sink are at 450 K and 300 K, respectively. We show that relatively short nanowires of similar to 50 mu m length are sufficient for obtaining peak power and reasonable efficiency. This substantially reduces the challenge of engineering low resistivity electrical contacts that critically affect power and efficiency. This paper provides insight into how fundamental transport in relation to bulk heat transfer and charge transport, affects the performance of thermoelectric junctions based on nanostructured materials. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4728189

  8. Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions: spontaneous and cumulative syntheses of epithelial marker molecules and their assemblies to novel cell junctions connecting human hematopoietic tumor cells to carcinomatoid tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Franke, Werner W; Rickelt, Steffen

    2011-12-01

    Using biochemical as well as light- and electron-microscopic immunolocalization methods, in cultures of unicellular human blood tumor cells, we have studied the phenomenon of spontaneous and cumulative syntheses of certain epithelial proteins and glycoproteins and their assemblies to two major kinds of novel cell-cell junctions, adhering junctions (AJs) and junctions based on the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). More than two decades, we have selected and characterized clonal sublines of multipotential hematopoietic K562 cells, which are enriched in newly formed AJs based on cis-clusters of desmoglein Dsg2, in some sublines accompanied by desmocollin Dsc2. Both desmosomal cadherins can be anchored in a submembranous plaque containing plakoglobin and plakophilins Pkp2 and Pkp3, with or without other armadillo proteins and desmoplakin. Also, these cells are often connected by an additional, extended junction system, in which the transmembrane epithelial glycoprotein EpCAM is associated with a cytoplasmic plaque rich in several actin-binding proteins such as afadin, α-actinin, ezrin and vinculin. Both kinds of junctions contribute to connections of K562 cells into epithelioid monolayers or even three-dimensional, tissue-like structures, thus markedly changing the cell biological nature and behavior of the resulting tumor subforms (mesenchymal-epithelial transitions). We discuss molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and function of these junctions, also with respect to tumor spread and metastasis, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic consequences.

  9. Very large thermophase in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Giazotto, F; Heikkilä, T T; Bergeret, F S

    2015-02-13

    The concept of thermophase refers to the appearance of a phase gradient inside a superconductor originating from the presence of an applied temperature bias across it. The resulting supercurrent flow may, in suitable conditions, fully counterbalance the temperature-bias-induced quasiparticle current therefore preventing the formation of any voltage drop, i.e., a thermovoltage, across the superconductor. Yet, the appearance of a thermophase is expected to occur in Josephson-coupled superconductors as well. Here, we theoretically investigate the thermoelectric response of a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a ferromagnetic insulator. In particular, we predict the occurrence of a very large thermophase that can reach π/2 across the contact for suitable temperatures and structure parameters; i.e., the quasiparticle thermal current can reach the critical current. Such a thermophase can be several orders of magnitude larger than that predicted to occur in conventional Josephson tunnel junctions. In order to assess experimentally the predicted very large thermophase, we propose a realistic setup realizable with state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques and well-established materials, based on a superconducting quantum interference device. This effect could be of strong relevance in several low-temperature applications, for example, for revealing tiny temperature differences generated by coupling the electromagnetic radiation to one of the superconductors forming the junction.

  10. Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daeshik; Pikhitsa, Peter V.; Choi, Yong Whan; Lee, Chanseok; Shin, Sung Soo; Piao, Linfeng; Park, Byeonghak; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Kim, Tae-Il; Choi, Mansoo

    2014-12-01

    Recently developed flexible mechanosensors based on inorganic silicon, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene platelets, pressure-sensitive rubber and self-powered devices are highly sensitive and can be applied to human skin. However, the development of a multifunctional sensor satisfying the requirements of ultrahigh mechanosensitivity, flexibility and durability remains a challenge. In nature, spiders sense extremely small variations in mechanical stress using crack-shaped slit organs near their leg joints. Here we demonstrate that sensors based on nanoscale crack junctions and inspired by the geometry of a spider's slit organ can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and serve multiple purposes. The sensors are sensitive to strain (with a gauge factor of over 2,000 in the 0-2 per cent strain range) and vibration (with the ability to detect amplitudes of approximately 10 nanometres). The device is reversible, reproducible, durable and mechanically flexible, and can thus be easily mounted on human skin as an electronic multipixel array. The ultrahigh mechanosensitivity is attributed to the disconnection-reconnection process undergone by the zip-like nanoscale crack junctions under strain or vibration. The proposed theoretical model is consistent with experimental data that we report here. We also demonstrate that sensors based on nanoscale crack junctions are applicable to highly selective speech pattern recognition and the detection of physiological signals. The nanoscale crack junction-based sensory system could be useful in diverse applications requiring ultrahigh displacement sensitivity.

  11. Anomalous Fraunhofer interference in epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, H. J.; Danon, J.; Kjaergaard, M.; Flensberg, K.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Nichele, F.; Marcus, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate patterns of critical current as a function of perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (SNS) junctions based on InAs/InGaAs heterostructures with an epitaxial Al layer. This material system is of interest due to its exceptionally good superconductor-semiconductor coupling, as well as large spin-orbit interaction and g factor in the semiconductor. Thin epitaxial Al allows the application of large in-plane field without destroying superconductivity. For fields perpendicular to the junction, flux focusing results in aperiodic node spacings in the pattern of critical currents known as Fraunhofer patterns by analogy to the related interference effect in optics. Adding an in-plane field yields two further anomalies in the pattern. First, higher-order nodes are systematically strengthened, indicating current flow along the edges of the device, as a result of confinement of Andreev states driven by an induced flux dipole; second, asymmetries in the interference appear that depend on the field direction and magnitude. A model is presented, showing good agreement with experiment, elucidating the roles of flux focusing, Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and disorder in producing these effects.

  12. Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-03-06

    We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit.

  13. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei; ...

    2017-09-05

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. Here, we report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO.more » Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. Lastly, the reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.« less

  14. Loss of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome-associated gene RSK2 alters ERK activity, synaptic function and axonal transport in Drosophila motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katherina; Ehmann, Nadine; Andlauer, Till F M; Ljaschenko, Dmitrij; Strecker, Katrin; Fischer, Matthias; Kittel, Robert J; Raabe, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Plastic changes in synaptic properties are considered as fundamental for adaptive behaviors. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated signaling has been implicated in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) acts as a regulator and downstream effector of ERK. In the brain, RSK2 is predominantly expressed in regions required for learning and memory. Loss-of-function mutations in human RSK2 cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is characterized by severe mental retardation and low IQ scores in affected males. Knockout of RSK2 in mice or the RSK ortholog in Drosophila results in a variety of learning and memory defects. However, overall brain structure in these animals is not affected, leaving open the question of the pathophysiological consequences. Using the fly neuromuscular system as a model for excitatory glutamatergic synapses, we show that removal of RSK function causes distinct defects in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. Based on histochemical and electrophysiological analyses, we conclude that RSK is required for normal synaptic morphology and function. Furthermore, loss of RSK function interferes with ERK signaling at different levels. Elevated ERK activity was evident in the somata of motoneurons, whereas decreased ERK activity was observed in axons and the presynapse. In addition, we uncovered a novel function of RSK in anterograde axonal transport. Our results emphasize the importance of fine-tuning ERK activity in neuronal processes underlying higher brain functions. In this context, RSK acts as a modulator of ERK signaling.

  15. Coherent-state storage and retrieval between superconducting cavities using parametric frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, A. J.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; DeFeo, M. P.; Ranzani, L.; Lecocq, F.; Simmonds, R. W.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.

    2015-04-27

    In superconducting quantum information, machined aluminum superconducting cavities have proven to be a well-controlled, low-dissipation electromagnetic environment for quantum circuits such as qubits. They can possess large internal quality factors, Q{sub int} > 10{sup 8}, and present the possibility of storing quantum information for times far exceeding those of microfabricated circuits. However, in order to be useful as a storage element, these cavities require a fast “read/write” mechanism—in other words, they require tunable coupling between other systems of interest such as other cavity modes and qubits, as well as any associated readout hardware. In this work, we demonstrate these qualities in a simple dual cavity architecture in which a low-Q “readout” mode is parametrically coupled to a high-Q “storage” mode, allowing us to store and retrieve classical information. Specifically, we employ a flux-driven Josephson junction-based coupling scheme to controllably swap coherent states between two cavities, demonstrating full, sequenced control over the coupling rates between modes.

  16. Transverse spin current in the s-wave/p-wave Josephson junction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Chan, K S; Lin, Zijing; Wang, J

    2011-10-19

    We report a theoretical study on spin transport in the hybrid Josephson junction composed of singlet s-wave and triplet p-wave superconductor. The node of the triplet pair potential is considered perpendicular to the interface of the junction. Based on a symmetry analysis, we predict that there is no net spin density at the interface of the junction but instead a transverse mode-resolved spin density can exist and a nonzero spin current can flow transversely along the interface of the junction. The predictions are numerically demonstrated by means of the lattice Matsubara Green's function method. It is also shown that, when a normal metal is sandwiched in between two superconductors, both spin current and transverse mode-resolved spin density are only residing at two interfaces due to the smearing effect of the multimode transport. Our findings are useful for identifying the pairing symmetry of the p-wave superconductor and generating spin current. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  17. Magneto-tunable photocurrent in manganite-based heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Z G; Nakamura, M; Koshibae, W; Makino, T; Tokura, Y; Kawasaki, M

    2014-08-01

    Correlated electron oxide heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effect have attracted increasing attention from the viewpoints of both possible application to novel devices and basic science. In such junctions, correlated electron physics has to be taken into account in addition to conventional semiconductor modelling to explain distinctively emerging features. However, extracting novel functionalities has not been easy because it is not possible to predict their interfacial properties solely from their bulk characteristics. Here we describe a magneto-tunable photocurrent in a pn junction based on a correlated electron oxide La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 combined with a semiconducting SrTiO3 substrate. On applying an epitaxial strain, the photocurrent is enhanced threefold, which is increased 30% further by a magnetic field. Such a magneto-tunable effect is possible for only a narrow window of the correlated gap, which is itself adjusted by bandwidth and temperature. These results provide a guideline for utilization of correlated phenomena into the novel electronic devices.

  18. Improving photovoltaic performance through radiative cooling in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Safi, Taqiyyah S; Munday, Jeremy N

    2015-09-21

    The method of detailed balance, introduced by Shockley and Queisser, is often used to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of semiconductor pn-junction based photovoltaics. Typically the solar cell is assumed to be at an ambient temperature of 300 K. In this paper, we describe and analyze the use of radiative cooling techniques to lower the solar cell temperature below the ambient to surpass the detailed balance limit for a cell in contact with an ideal heat sink. We show that by combining specifically designed radiative cooling structures with solar cells, efficiencies higher than the limiting efficiency achievable at 300 K can be obtained for solar cells in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. We show that our proposed structure yields an efficiency 0.87% higher than a typical PV module at operating temperatures in a terrestrial application. We also demonstrate an efficiency advantage of 0.4-2.6% for solar cells in an extraterrestrial environment in near-earth orbit.

  19. Importance of fixation angle in posterior instrumented occipitocervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Takami, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Tsutomu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Goto, Takeo; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Occipitocervical fusion with the head in a functionally neutral position is critically important. Various methods have been proposed for measuring the angle of the craniovertebral junction based on lateral radiography. We describe a simple and reliable measurement of fixation angle during occipitocervical fusion using the line parallel to the bony palate and the posterior longitudinal line of the C2 vertebra. The normal range of the angle of the craniovertebral junction was measured in 30 normal healthy volunteers, 15 males and 15 females aged from 17 to 77 years (mean 45.1 years), without symptoms of neck pain or limitations of neck movement. The angle ranged from 85 to 118 degrees. The mean angle was 97.1 degrees in males and 102.6 degrees in females, with overall mean +/- standard deviation of 99.9 +/- 8.1 degrees. Careful adjustment of the angle of the craniovertebral junction can help to avoid postoperative complications such as dysphagia, dyspnea, and subaxial subluxation.

  20. Novel transport function of adherens junction revealed by live imaging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chiao; Yang, Wen-Ting; Cheng, Lien-Chieh; Lin, Chiao-Ming; Ho, Yu-Huei; Lin, Pei-Yi; Chen, Bi-Chang; Rickoll, Wayne L; Hsu, Jui-Chou

    2015-08-07

    Adherens junctions are known for their role in mediating cell-cell adhesion. DE-cadherin and Echinoid are the principle adhesion molecules of adherens junctions in Drosophila epithelia. Here, using live imaging to trace the movement of endocytosed Echinoid vesicles in the epithelial cells of Drosophila embryos, we demonstrate that Echinoid vesicles co-localize and move with Rab5-or Rab11-positive endosomes. Surprisingly, these Echinoid-containing endosomes undergo directional cell-to-cell movement, through adherens junctions. Consistent with this, cell-to-cell movement of Echinoid vesicles requires the presence of DE-cadherin at adherens junctions. Live imaging further revealed that Echinoid vesicles move along adherens junction-associated microtubules into adjacent cells, a process requiring a kinesin motor. Importantly, DE-cadherin- and EGFR-containing vesicles also exhibit intercellular movement. Together, our results unveil a transport function of adherens junctions. Furthermore, this adherens junctions-based intercellular transport provides a platform for the exchange of junctional proteins and signaling receptors between neighboring cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards sub-nanometer real-space observation of spin and orbital magnetism at the Fe/MgO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thersleff, Thomas; Muto, Shunsuke; Werwiński, Mirosław; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Hjӧrvarsson, Björgvin; Eriksson, Olle; Rusz, Ján; Leifer, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    While the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions based on metal/oxide interfaces is determined by hybridization, charge transfer, and magnetic properties at the interface, there are currently only limited experimental techniques with sufficient spatial resolution to directly observe these effects simultaneously in real-space. In this letter, we demonstrate an experimental method based on Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) that will allow researchers to simultaneously map magnetic transitions and valency in real-space over interfacial cross-sections with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. We apply this method to an Fe/MgO bilayer system, observing a significant enhancement in the orbital to spin moment ratio that is strongly localized to the interfacial region. Through the use of first-principles calculations, multivariate statistical analysis, and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), we explore the extent to which this enhancement can be attributed to emergent magnetism due to structural confinement at the interface. We conclude that this method has the potential to directly visualize spin and orbital moments at buried interfaces in magnetic systems with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES Tunneling Conductance in a Normal Metal/Ferromagnetic Superconductor Nano-Junction at a Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza, Emamipour; M. R., Abolhassani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the tunneling conductance at a finite temperature in a normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor nano-junction where the ferromagnetic superconductor (FS) is in three different cooper pairing states: spin singlet s-wave pairing (SWP), spin triplet opposite spin pairing (OSP), and spin triplet equal spin pairing (ESP) while including Fermi wave mismatch (FWM) and effective mass mismatch (EMM) in two sides of the nano-junction. We find that the conductance shows clearly different behaviors all depending on the symmetries of cooper pairing in a manner that the conductance spectra shows a gap-like structure, two interior dips structure and zero bias peak for SWP, OSP, and ESP, respectively. Also, the effective FS gap (Δeff) is a linear and decreasing function of exchange field. The slope of (Δeff) versus exchange field for OSP is twice the SWP. Thus, we can determine the spin polarization of N/FS nano-junction based on the dependence of (Δeff) to exchange field.

  3. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers using Bulk Absorbers Coupled to Mo/Cu Multilayer Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.T.; Loshak, A.; Van Den Berg, M.L.; Frank, M.; Barbee Jr., T.W.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-07-04

    In x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is desirable to have detectors with high energy resolution and high absorption efficiency. At LLNL, we have developed superconducting tunnel junction-based single photon x-ray detectors with thin film absorbers that have achieved these goals for photon energies up to 1 keV. However, for energies above 1 keV, the absorption efficiency of these thin-film detectors decreases drastically. We are developing the use of high-purity superconducting bulk materials as microcalorimeter absorbers for high-energy x-rays and gamma rays. The increase in absorber temperature due to incident photons is sensed by a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) composed of a Mo/Cu multilayer thin film. Films of Mo and Cu are mutually insoluble and therefore very stable and can be annealed. The multilayer structure allows scaling in thickness to optimize heat capacity and normal state resistance. We measured an energy resolution of 70 eV for 60 keV incident gamma-rays with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber. We present x-ray and gamma-ray results from this detector design with a Sn absorber. We also propose the use of an active negative feedback voltage bias to improve the performance of our detector and show preliminary results.

  4. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-07

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells.

  5. Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza

    2014-03-01

    Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.

  6. The ω-SQUIPT as a tool to phase-engineer Josephson topological materials.

    PubMed

    Strambini, E; D'Ambrosio, S; Vischi, F; Bergeret, F S; Nazarov, Yu V; Giazotto, F

    2016-12-01

    Multi-terminal superconducting Josephson junctions based on the proximity effect offer the opportunity to tailor non-trivial quantum states in nanoscale weak links. These structures can realize exotic topologies in several dimensions, for example, artificial topological superconductors that are able to support Majorana bound states, and pave the way to emerging quantum technologies and future quantum information schemes. Here we report the realization of a three-terminal Josephson interferometer based on a proximized nanosized weak link. Our tunnelling spectroscopy measurements reveal transitions between gapped (that is, insulating) and gapless (conducting) states that are controlled by the phase configuration of the three superconducting leads connected to the junction. We demonstrate the topological nature of these transitions: a gapless state necessarily occurs between two gapped states of different topological indices, in much the same way that the interface between two insulators of different topologies is necessarily conducting. The topological numbers that characterize such gapped states are given by superconducting phase windings over the two loops that form the Josephson interferometer. As these gapped states cannot be transformed to one another continuously without passing through a gapless condition, they are topologically protected. The same behaviour is found for all of the points of the weak link, confirming that this topology is a non-local property. Our observation of the gapless state is pivotal for enabling phase engineering of different and more sophisticated artificial topological materials.

  7. Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daeshik; Pikhitsa, Peter V; Choi, Yong Whan; Lee, Chanseok; Shin, Sung Soo; Piao, Linfeng; Park, Byeonghak; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Kim, Tae-il; Choi, Mansoo

    2014-12-11

    Recently developed flexible mechanosensors based on inorganic silicon, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene platelets, pressure-sensitive rubber and self-powered devices are highly sensitive and can be applied to human skin. However, the development of a multifunctional sensor satisfying the requirements of ultrahigh mechanosensitivity, flexibility and durability remains a challenge. In nature, spiders sense extremely small variations in mechanical stress using crack-shaped slit organs near their leg joints. Here we demonstrate that sensors based on nanoscale crack junctions and inspired by the geometry of a spider's slit organ can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and serve multiple purposes. The sensors are sensitive to strain (with a gauge factor of over 2,000 in the 0-2 per cent strain range) and vibration (with the ability to detect amplitudes of approximately 10 nanometres). The device is reversible, reproducible, durable and mechanically flexible, and can thus be easily mounted on human skin as an electronic multipixel array. The ultrahigh mechanosensitivity is attributed to the disconnection-reconnection process undergone by the zip-like nanoscale crack junctions under strain or vibration. The proposed theoretical model is consistent with experimental data that we report here. We also demonstrate that sensors based on nanoscale crack junctions are applicable to highly selective speech pattern recognition and the detection of physiological signals. The nanoscale crack junction-based sensory system could be useful in diverse applications requiring ultrahigh displacement sensitivity.

  8. Asymmetric angular dependence of spin-transfer torques in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ling; Xu, Zhi-Jun; Zuo, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ze-Jin; Gao, Qing-He; Linghu, Rong-Feng; Guo, Yun-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Using a first-principles noncollinear wave-function-matching method, we studied the spin-transfer torques (STTs) in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), where three different types of B-doped MgO in the spacer are considered, including B atoms replacing Mg atoms (Mg3BO4), B atoms replacing O atoms (Mg4BO3), and B atoms occupying interstitial positions (Mg4BO4) in MgO. A strong asymmetric angular dependence of STT can be obtained both in ballistic CoFe/Mg3BO4 and CoFe/Mg4BO4 based MTJs, whereas a nearly symmetric STT curve is observed in the junctions based on CoFe/Mg4BO3. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the angular dependence of STT can be suppressed significantly by the disorder of B distribution. Such skewness of STTs in the CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe MTJs could be attributed to the interfacial resonance states induced by the B diffusion into MgO spacer.

  9. Electron transfer mediating properties of hydrocarbons as a function of chain length: a differential scanning conductive tip atomic force microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Denis; Castronovo, Matteo; Casalis, Loredana; Scoles, Giacinto

    2008-03-01

    The development of novel molecular and biomolecular devices relies on the understanding of charge transport across molecule-substrate interfaces. However, different strategies adopted so far for fabricating and studying transport through metal-molecule-metal junctions yield values for the transport coefficients that differ by up to orders of magnitude even for the same junction. Conductive tip atomic force microscopy (CT-AFM) allows for the simultaneous measurement of transport and morphological properties of molecular assemblies, but absolute transport measurements depend on the nature of the AFM tip-molecule contact. In this work we present a differential approach to the study of metal-molecule-metal junctions based on the combination of AFM-driven nanolithography and CT-AFM. We nanograft patches of alkanethiol molecules in a self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiol molecules of different chain length and measure by CT-AFM the morphology and the transport properties of the nanopatches and of the reference layer. The method allows for the determination of the differential resistance between the two molecular layers and is thus independent of environmental factors. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by measuring the tunneling decay constant of alkanethiols as a function of their length.

  10. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei; Kim, Yong-Jin; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-09-01

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. We report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. The reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.

  11. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei; Kim, Yong-Jin; Joon Hong, Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-09-27

    ZnO radial p-n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. We report on ZnO radial p-n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p-n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. The reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p-n junction LEDs.

  12. Topological strings linking with quasiparticle exchange in superconducting Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Pedro L. e. S.; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Ryu, Shinsei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s -wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers (NΦ,N ) , accounting how many units NΦ of magnetic fluxes h c /4 e and how many N chiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant, which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasiparticles, either Majorana zero modes, or e /2 quasiparticles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be Z8 classified. While NΦ and N are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by SO(3) 3 -like conformal field theories with quasiparticle exchanges of more exotic types.

  13. Fabrication of p-type ZnSe:Sb nanowires for high-performance ultraviolet light photodetector application.

    PubMed

    Nie, Biao; Luo, Lin-Bao; Chen, Jing-Jing; Hu, Ji-Gang; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Li; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Zhi-Feng; Jie, Jian-Sheng

    2013-03-08

    p-type ZnSe nanowires (NWs) with tunable electrical conductivity were fabricated on a large scale by evaporating a mixed powder composed of ZnSe and Sb in different ratios. According to the structural characterization, the Sb-doped ZnSe NWs are of single crystalline form and grow along the [001] direction. The presence of Sb in the ZnSe NWs was confirmed by XPS spectra. Electrical measurement of a single ZnSe:Sb NW based back-gate metal-oxide field-effect-transistor reveals that all the doped NWs exhibit typical p-type conduction characteristics, and the conductivity can be tuned over eight orders of magnitude, from 6.36 × 10(-7) S cm(-1) for the undoped sample to ∼37.33 S cm(-1) for the heavily doped sample. A crossed p-n nano-heterojunction photodetector made from the as-doped nanostructures displays pronounced rectification behavior, with a rectification ratio as high as 10(3) at ±5 V. Remarkably, it exhibits high sensitivity to ultraviolet light illumination with good reproducibility and quick photoresponse. Finally, the work mechanism of such a p-n junction based photodetector was elucidated. The generality of the above result suggests that the as-doped p-type ZnSe NWs will find wide application in future optoelectronics devices.

  14. Tunable GaTe-MoS2 van der Waals p-n Junctions with Novel Optoelectronic Performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Xu, Kai; Wang, Fengmei; Wang, Qisheng; Huang, Yun; Yin, Lei; He, Jun

    2015-11-11

    P-n junctions based on vertically stacked van der Waals (vdW) materials have attracted a great deal of attention and may open up unforeseen opportunities in electronics and optoelectronics. However, due to the lack of intrinsic p-type vdW materials, most previous studies generally adopted electrical gating, special electrode contacts, or chemical doping methods to realize p-n vdW junctions. GaTe is an intrinsic p-type vdW material with a relatively high charge density, and it has a direct band gap that is independent of thickness. Here, we report the construction of ultrathin and tunable p-GaTe/n-MoS2 vdW heterostructure with high photovoltaic and photodetecting performance. The rectification ratio, external quantum efficiency, and photoresponsivity are as high as 4 × 10(5), 61.68%, and 21.83 AW(-1), respectively. In particular, the detectivity is up to 8.4 × 10(13) Jones, which is even higher than commercial Si, InGaAs photodetectors. This study demonstrates the promising potential of p-GaTe/n-MoS2 heterostructures for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Resolving metal-molecule interfaces at single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nakamura, Hisao; Tada, Tomofumi; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Electronic and structural detail at the electrode-molecule interface have a significant influence on charge transport across molecular junctions. Despite the decisive role of the metal-molecule interface, a complete electronic and structural characterization of the interface remains a challenge. This is in no small part due to current experimental limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Contrary to conventional conductance studies, this I-V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both, the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface, and the energy alignment between the conduction orbital and the Fermi level of the electrode. This exhaustive statistical approach was employed to study single-molecule junctions of 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA), 1,4-butanediamine (C4DA), and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). A single interfacial configuration was observed for both BDA and C4DA junctions, while three different interfacial arrangements were resolved for BDT. This multiplicity is due to different molecular adsorption sites on the Au surface namely on-top, hollow, and bridge. Furthermore, C4DA junctions present a fluctuating I-V curve arising from the greater conformational freedom of the saturated alkyl chain, in sharp contrast with the rigid aromatic backbone of both BDA and BDT. PMID:27221947

  16. Long-wavelength VCSELs with AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb Bragg mirrors lattice-matched on InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuneau, Guilhem; Hall, Eric M.; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Kim, Jin K.; Coldren, Larry A.

    2000-05-01

    The characterization of 1.55 micrometer room temperature (RT) electrically pumped monolithic vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on InP is reported. By combining high refractive index-contrast AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg mirrors (DBRs) and Esaki-junction-based active region, these results demonstrate that VCSELs operating at 1.55 micrometer and employing a reasonable number of mirror periods can be grown in a single epitaxial step. Regarding our first results with the same type of structure, some improvements have been achieved on the threshold current density (approximately equals 1 kA/cm2), and on the voltage drop in the DBRs. We also present in this paper the thermal conductivity of the As- Sb materials measured on both bulk layers and DBR stacks. The main performance-limiting factor appears to be the combination between the low thermal conduction of the quaternary alloys lattice-matched to InP, and the high energy-band offset between the high- and the low-index materials.

  17. Biological Derived Nanomotors in a ``Domino Fashion''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    For disproportionation of H2 O2 , we also considers an electrokinetic mechanism they appear.So far, the more efficient micro/nanoscale motors are derived from biological systems [2003]. Besides, a control experimenting using 3 stripped Au/Pt/Au rods with catalyzed the composition of H2 O2 , at a similar rate-Walter F Paxton: ``Catalytic Nanomotors,'' JACS, 2004. We also intended to accomaplishes the HCCI quotes from Marcin Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, just in several characters seems as twin of IGNITION through IceCube document project held since Oct 11, 2001 ever concludes as ``saw none'' so they can be follows the ITER/IFMIF. Refers to S29286 file in UI retrieved: ``magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata which is nonvolatile & lower power consist of nanomagnets. Since they are magnetically coupled, logic can be performed by switching, on the other hand in a DOMINO fashion..'' [A. Klenm: ``Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction-based Spintronic Devices..,'' convocation, Aug 11-14, 2010]. Acknowledgments devotes to BB Mandelbrot: ``Fractal Geometry: What is it & What Does it do?''.

  18. Towards sub-nanometer real-space observation of spin and orbital magnetism at the Fe/MgO interface.

    PubMed

    Thersleff, Thomas; Muto, Shunsuke; Werwiński, Mirosław; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Hjӧrvarsson, Björgvin; Eriksson, Olle; Rusz, Ján; Leifer, Klaus

    2017-03-24

    While the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions based on metal/oxide interfaces is determined by hybridization, charge transfer, and magnetic properties at the interface, there are currently only limited experimental techniques with sufficient spatial resolution to directly observe these effects simultaneously in real-space. In this letter, we demonstrate an experimental method based on Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) that will allow researchers to simultaneously map magnetic transitions and valency in real-space over interfacial cross-sections with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. We apply this method to an Fe/MgO bilayer system, observing a significant enhancement in the orbital to spin moment ratio that is strongly localized to the interfacial region. Through the use of first-principles calculations, multivariate statistical analysis, and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), we explore the extent to which this enhancement can be attributed to emergent magnetism due to structural confinement at the interface. We conclude that this method has the potential to directly visualize spin and orbital moments at buried interfaces in magnetic systems with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  19. Towards sub-nanometer real-space observation of spin and orbital magnetism at the Fe/MgO interface

    PubMed Central

    Thersleff, Thomas; Muto, Shunsuke; Werwiński, Mirosław; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Hjӧrvarsson, Björgvin; Eriksson, Olle; Rusz, Ján; Leifer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    While the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions based on metal/oxide interfaces is determined by hybridization, charge transfer, and magnetic properties at the interface, there are currently only limited experimental techniques with sufficient spatial resolution to directly observe these effects simultaneously in real-space. In this letter, we demonstrate an experimental method based on Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) that will allow researchers to simultaneously map magnetic transitions and valency in real-space over interfacial cross-sections with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. We apply this method to an Fe/MgO bilayer system, observing a significant enhancement in the orbital to spin moment ratio that is strongly localized to the interfacial region. Through the use of first-principles calculations, multivariate statistical analysis, and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), we explore the extent to which this enhancement can be attributed to emergent magnetism due to structural confinement at the interface. We conclude that this method has the potential to directly visualize spin and orbital moments at buried interfaces in magnetic systems with unprecedented spatial resolution. PMID:28338011

  20. Giant interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/capping layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Zhao, Weisheng; Qiao, Junfeng; Su, Li; Zhou, Jiaqi; Yang, Hongxin; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Youguang; Grezes, Cecile; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic tunnel junction based on the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structures is of great interest due to its application in the spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Large interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is required to achieve high thermal stability. Here, we use the first-principles calculations to investigate the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of the MgO/CoFe/capping layer structures, where the capping materials include 5d metals Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au and 6p metals Tl, Pb, and Bi. We demonstrate that it is feasible to enhance PMA by using proper capping materials. Relatively large PMA is found in the structures with the capping materials of Hf, Ta, Os, Ir, and Pb. More importantly, the MgO/CoFe/Bi structure gives rise to giant PMA (6.09 mJ/m2), which is about three times larger than that of the MgO/CoFe/Ta structure. The origin of the MAE is elucidated by examining the contributions to MAE from each atomic layer and orbital. These findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards the possibility to achieve the advanced-node STT-MRAM with high thermal stability.

  1. Shift current bulk photovoltaic effect in polar materials—hybrid and oxide perovskites and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Zheng, Fan; Young, Steve M.; Wang, Fenggong; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-08-01

    The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) refers to the generation of a steady photocurrent and above-bandgap photovoltage in a single-phase homogeneous material lacking inversion symmetry. The mechanism of BPVE is decidedly different from the typical p-n junction-based photovoltaic mechanism in heterogeneous materials. Recently, there has been renewed interest in ferroelectric materials for solar energy conversion, inspired by the discovery of above-bandgap photovoltages in ferroelectrics, the invention of low bandgap ferroelectric materials and the rapidly improving power conversion efficiency of metal halide perovskites. However, as long as the nature of the BPVE and its dependence on composition and structure remain poorly understood, materials engineering and the realisation of its true potential will be hampered. In this review article, we survey the history, development and recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of BPVE, with a focus on the shift current mechanism, an intrinsic BPVE that is universal to all materials lacking inversion symmetry. In addition to explaining the theory of shift current, materials design opportunities and challenges will be discussed for future applications of the BPVE.

  2. Gate-controlled energy barrier at a graphene/molecular semiconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parui, S.; Pietrobon, L.; Ciudad, D.; Velez, S.; Sun, X.; Stoliar, P.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    The formation of an energy barrier at a metal/molecular semiconductor junction is both a ubiquitous phenomenon as well as the subject of intense research in order to improve the performance of molecular semiconductor-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. For these devices, a junction with a large energy barrier provides rectification, leading to a diode behavior, whereas a relatively small energy barrier provides nearly-ohmic behavior, resulting in efficient carrier injection (extraction) into the molecular semiconductor. Typically, a specific metal/molecular semiconductor combination leads to a fixed energy barrier; therefore, the possibility of a gate-controlled energy barrier is very appealing for advanced applications. Here, we present a graphene/C60 junction-based vertical field-effect transistor in which we demonstrate control of the interfacial energy-barrier such that the junction switches from a highly rectifying diode at negative gate voltages to a nearly-ohmic behavior at positive gate voltages and at room temperature. We extract an energy-barrier modulation of up to 660 meV, a transconductance of up to five orders of magnitude and a gate-modulated photocurrent.

  3. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events. PMID:27574102

  4. Correlation of anomalous write error rates and ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in spin-transfer-torque-magnetic-random-access-memory devices containing in-plane free layers

    SciTech Connect

    Evarts, Eric R.; Rippard, William H.; Pufall, Matthew R.; Heindl, Ranko

    2014-05-26

    In a small fraction of magnetic-tunnel-junction-based magnetic random-access memory devices with in-plane free layers, the write-error rates (WERs) are higher than expected on the basis of the macrospin or quasi-uniform magnetization reversal models. In devices with increased WERs, the product of effective resistance and area, tunneling magnetoresistance, and coercivity do not deviate from typical device properties. However, the field-swept, spin-torque, ferromagnetic resonance (FS-ST-FMR) spectra with an applied DC bias current deviate significantly for such devices. With a DC bias of 300 mV (producing 9.9 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}) or greater, these anomalous devices show an increase in the fraction of the power present in FS-ST-FMR modes corresponding to higher-order excitations of the free-layer magnetization. As much as 70% of the power is contained in higher-order modes compared to ≈20% in typical devices. Additionally, a shift in the uniform-mode resonant field that is correlated with the magnitude of the WER anomaly is detected at DC biases greater than 300 mV. These differences in the anomalous devices indicate a change in the micromagnetic resonant mode structure at high applied bias.

  5. Thermoelectricity at the molecular scale: a large Seebeck effect in endohedral metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, See Kei; Buerkle, Marius; Yamada, Ryo; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tada, Hirokazu

    2015-12-28

    Single molecule devices provide a unique system to study the thermoelectric energy conversion at an atomistic level and can provide valuable information for the design of organic thermoelectric materials. Here we present a comprehensive study of the thermoelectric transport properties of molecular junctions based on C(82), Gd@C(82), and Ce@C(82). We combine precise scanning tunneling microscope break-junction measurements of the thermopower and conductance with quantitatively accurate self-energy-corrected first-principles transport calculations. We find that all three fullerene derivatives give rise to a negative thermopower (n-conducting). The absolute value, however, is much larger for the Gd@C(82) and Ce@C(82) junctions. The conductance, on the other hand, remains comparable for all three systems. The power factor determined for the Gd@C(82) based junction is so far the highest obtained for a single-molecule device. Although the encapsulated metal atom does not directly contribute to the transport, we show that the observed enhancement of the thermopower for Gd@C(82) and Ce@C(82) is elucidated by the substantial changes in the electronic- and geometrical structure of the fullerene molecule induced by the encapsulated metal atom.

  6. Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Justin R.; Sazio, Pier J. A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.

    2013-07-01

    Chemical deposition is a powerful technology for fabrication of planar microelectronics. Optical fibers are the dominant platform for telecommunications, and devices such as fiber lasers are forming the basis for new industries. High-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) allows for conformal layers and void-free wires of precisely doped crystalline unary and compound semiconductors inside the micro-to-nanoscale-diameter pores of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Drawing the fibers to serve as templates into which these semiconductor structures can be fabricated allows for geometric design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with planar fabrication. Seamless coupling of semiconductor optoelectronic and photonic devices with existing fiber infrastructure thus becomes possible, facilitating all-fiber technological approaches. The deposition techniques also allow for a wider range of semiconductor materials compositions to be exploited than is possible by means of preform drawing. Gigahertz bandwidth junction-based fiber devices can be fabricated from doped crystalline semiconductors, for example. Deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon, which cannot be drawn, allows for the exploitation of strong nonlinear optical function in fibers. Finally, crystalline compound semiconductor fiber cores hold promise for high-power infrared light-guiding fiber devices and subwavelength-resolution, large-area infrared imaging.

  7. The memristive magnetic tunnel junction as a nanoscopic synapse-neuron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andy; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Münchenberger, Jana; Reiss, Günter; Schäfers, Markus

    2012-02-01

    Memristors cover a gap in the capabilities of basic electronic components by remembering the history of the applied electric potentials, and are considered to bring neuromorphic computers closer by imitating the performance of synapses. We used memristive magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO to demonstrate that the synaptic functionality is complemented by neuron-like behavior in these nanoscopic devices. The synaptic functionality originates in a resistance change caused by a voltage-driven oxygen vacancy motion within the MgO layer. The additional functionality provided by magnetic electrodes enabled a current-driven resistance modulation due to spin-transfer torque. We report on memristive magnetic tunnel junctions characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of resistive switching and tunnel magnetoresistance. Since resistivity provides a natural measure of the synaptic strength, and because of the bipolar nature of the resistance change, long term potentiation and long term depression were emulated. Furthermore, we show that the flux is a good variable for describing voltage-induced resistance variation, which provides the scope for the emulation of spike timing dependend plasticity as well.

  8. Light induced double ‘on’ state anti-ambipolar behavior and self-driven photoswitching in p-WSe2/n-SnS2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Huang, Le; Xia, Congxin; Tang, Li-Ming; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Li, Jingbo; Wei, Zhongming

    2017-06-01

    P-n junctions based on vertically stacked van der Waals (vdW) materials have attracted extensive attentions and may offer novel physical performances for the design of next-generation electronics. Here, vertically stacked p-WSe2/n-SnS2 heterostructures have been fabricated by a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-assisted transfer method. The unique electronical properties and self-driven photoelectric characteristics of the heterostructures are measured. The transfer current of the heterostructures show gate-tunable ‘anti-ambipolar’ behavior under dark condition with the maximum of the on/off ratio exceeding 105, while under light illumination it triggers double ‘on’ state anti-ambipolar behavior. The ‘anti-ambipolar’ behavior under dark condition and the ‘on’ state I under light illumination is originating from the in series of p-channel in WSe2 and n-channel in SnS2, while the ‘on’ state II can be attributed to the gate-controlled Schottky barrier modulation between the heterostructure and the Au electrodes. The heterostructure also shows self-driven photoswitching performance under 532 nm laser, which can be attributed to the type-II band alignment and the build-in potential of p-n heterostructure.

  9. Epitaxial growth of ultrathin MgO layers on Fe3O4(0 0 1) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, T.; Kuschel, O.; Wollschläger, J.

    2016-09-01

    The initial growth stages of MgO on Fe3O4 films are studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction to clarify stoichiometric and structural properties of these layered structures. This bilayer structure is important to fabricate high quality magnetic tunnel junctions based on Fe3O4 electrodes and MgO tunneling barriers. For this purpose, the deposition temperature of MgO has been varied between 100 °C and 250 °C. Initially, MgO grows layer-by-layer on Fe3O4/MgO(0 0 1) forming a wetting layer. Depending on the growth temperature, after growth of a 2-3 nm thick laminar wetting layer, the MgO films finally start to roughen during growth. Thus the growth of MgO on Fe3O4/MgO(0 0 1) is described by a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Diffraction experiments show that the magnetite (√{ 2} ×√{ 2})R45° superstructure is removed already during the initial stages of MgO deposition. Furthermore, these experiments show that MgO films are rougher for growth at low deposition temperatures.

  10. The ω-SQUIPT as a tool to phase-engineer Josephson topological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strambini, E.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Vischi, F.; Bergeret, F. S.; Nazarov, Yu. V.; Giazotto, F.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-terminal superconducting Josephson junctions based on the proximity effect offer the opportunity to tailor non-trivial quantum states in nanoscale weak links. These structures can realize exotic topologies in several dimensions, for example, artificial topological superconductors that are able to support Majorana bound states, and pave the way to emerging quantum technologies and future quantum information schemes. Here we report the realization of a three-terminal Josephson interferometer based on a proximized nanosized weak link. Our tunnelling spectroscopy measurements reveal transitions between gapped (that is, insulating) and gapless (conducting) states that are controlled by the phase configuration of the three superconducting leads connected to the junction. We demonstrate the topological nature of these transitions: a gapless state necessarily occurs between two gapped states of different topological indices, in much the same way that the interface between two insulators of different topologies is necessarily conducting. The topological numbers that characterize such gapped states are given by superconducting phase windings over the two loops that form the Josephson interferometer. As these gapped states cannot be transformed to one another continuously without passing through a gapless condition, they are topologically protected. The same behaviour is found for all of the points of the weak link, confirming that this topology is a non-local property. Our observation of the gapless state is pivotal for enabling phase engineering of different and more sophisticated artificial topological materials.

  11. YBCO step-edge junctions with high IcRn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. E.; Foley, C. P.

    2010-06-01

    Step-edge junctions represent one type of grain boundary Josephson junction employed in high-temperature superconducting junction technology. To date, the majority of results published in the literature focus on [001]-tilt grain boundary junctions (GBJs) produced using bicrystal substrates. We investigate the step morphology and YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) film structure of YBCO-based step-edge junctions on MgO [001] substrates which structurally resemble [100]-tilt junctions. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals a clean GBJ interface of width ~ 1 nm and a single junction at the top edge. The dependence of the transport properties on the MgO step-edge and junction morphology is examined at 4.2 K, to enable direct comparison with results for other junction studies such as [001]-tilt and [100]-tilt junctions and building on previously published 77 K data. MgO step-edge junctions show a slower reduction in critical current density with step angle compared with [001]-tilt junctions. For optimized step parameters, transport measurements revealed large critical current and normal resistance (IcRN) products (~3-5 mV), comparable with the best results obtained in other kinds of [100]-tilt GBJs in YBCO at 4.2 K. Junction-based devices such as SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) and THz imagers show excellent performance when MgO-based step-edge junctions are used.

  12. Single-Molecule Diodes with High On/Off Ratios Through Environmental Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Dell, Emma; Adak, Olgun; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey; Campos, Luis; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-03-01

    Single-Molecule diodes were first proposed with an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Progress in molecular electronics has led to the realization of several single-molecule diodes; these have relied on asymmetric molecular backbones, asymmetric molecule-electrode linkers, or asymmetric electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for functional applications due to several pitfalls, including low rectification ratios (``on''/``off'' current ratios <10). Here, we introduce a powerful approach for inducing rectification in conventionally symmetric single-molecule junctions, taking advantage of environmental factors about the junction. By utilizing an asymmetric environment instead of an asymmetric molecule, we reproducibly achieve high rectification ratios at low operating voltages for molecular junctions based on a family of symmetric small-gap molecules. This technique serves as an unconventional approach for developing functional molecular-scale devices and probing their charge transport characteristics. Furthermore, this technique should be applicable to other nanoscale devices, providing a general route for tuning device properties.

  13. Molecules on si: electronics with chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vilan, Ayelet; Yaffe, Omer; Biller, Ariel; Salomon, Adi; Kahn, Antoine; Cahen, David

    2010-01-12

    Basic scientific interest in using a semiconducting electrode in molecule-based electronics arises from the rich electrostatic landscape presented by semiconductor interfaces. Technological interest rests on the promise that combining existing semiconductor (primarily Si) electronics with (mostly organic) molecules will result in a whole that is larger than the sum of its parts. Such a hybrid approach appears presently particularly relevant for sensors and photovoltaics. Semiconductors, especially Si, present an important experimental test-bed for assessing electronic transport behavior of molecules, because they allow varying the critical interface energetics without, to a first approximation, altering the interfacial chemistry. To investigate semiconductor-molecule electronics we need reproducible, high-yield preparations of samples that allow reliable and reproducible data collection. Only in that way can we explore how the molecule/electrode interfaces affect or even dictate charge transport, which may then provide a basis for models with predictive power.To consider these issues and questions we will, in this Progress Report, review junctions based on direct bonding of molecules to oxide-free Si.describe the possible charge transport mechanisms across such interfaces and evaluate in how far they can be quantified.investigate to what extent imperfections in the monolayer are important for transport across the monolayer.revisit the concept of energy levels in such hybrid systems.

  14. Josephson current in a normal-metal nanowire coupled to a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Hiromi; Lu, Bo; Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Golubov, Alexander A.; Tanaka, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a superconducting nanowire proximity coupled to a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) junction, where the magnetization penetrates into a superconducting segment in a nanowire decaying as ˜exp[-∣n/∣ ξ ] , where n is the site index and the ξ is the decay length. We tune chemical potential and spin-orbit coupling so that the topological superconducting regime hosting the Majorana fermion is realized for long ξ . We find that when ξ becomes shorter, zero energy state at the interface between a superconductor and a ferromagnet splits into two states at nonzero energy. Accordingly, the behavior of the Josephson current is drastically changed due to this "zero mode-nonzero mode crossover." By tuning the model parameters, we find an almost second-harmonic current-phase relation sin2 φ , where φ is the phase difference of the junction. Based on the analysis of Andreev bound state (ABS), we clarify that the current-phase relation is determined by coupling of the states within the energy gap. We find that the emergence of crossing points of ABS is a key ingredient to generate sin2 φ dependence in the current-phase relation. We further study both the energy and φ dependence of pair amplitudes in the ferromagnetic region. For large ξ , an odd-frequency spin-triplet s -wave component is dominant. The magnitude of the odd-frequency pair amplitude is enhanced at the energy level of ABS.

  15. The dynamic organic p-n junction.

    PubMed

    Matyba, Piotr; Maturova, Klara; Kemerink, Martijn; Robinson, Nathaniel D; Edman, Ludvig

    2009-08-01

    Static p-n junctions in inorganic semiconductors are exploited in a wide range of today's electronic appliances. Here, we demonstrate the in situ formation of a dynamic p-n junction structure within an organic semiconductor through electrochemistry. Specifically, we use scanning kelvin probe microscopy and optical probing on planar light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with a mixture of a conjugated polymer and an electrolyte connecting two electrodes separated by 120 microm. We find that a significant portion of the potential drop between the electrodes coincides with the location of a thin and distinct light-emission zone positioned >30 microm away from the negative electrode. These results are relevant in the context of a long-standing scientific debate, as they prove that electrochemical doping can take place in LECs. Moreover, a study on the doping formation and dissipation kinetics provides interesting detail regarding the electronic structure and stability of the dynamic organic p-n junction, which may be useful in future dynamic p-n junction-based devices.

  16. Semiconducting ferroelectric perovskites with intermediate bands via B-site Bi5+ doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Grinberg, Ilya; Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Davies, Peter K.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2014-08-01

    We propose B-site Bi5+-doped ferroelectric perovskite materials as suitable candidates for the bulk photovoltaic effect and related solar applications. The low-lying 6s empty states of the electronegative Bi atom produce empty bands in the energy gap of the parent materials, effectively lowering the band gap by 1-2 eV, depending on the composition of the ferroelectric end member and the concentration of Bi5+ in the solid solution. The polarization decreases but survives upon doping, which enables the "shift-current" mechanism for photocurrent generation, while the decreased band gap allows absorption of much of the visible spectrum. The magnitude of shift-current response is calculated for 0.75Pb2InNbO6-0.25Ba2InBiO6 (PIN-BIB) and 0.75Pb2ScNbO6-0.25Ba2ScNbO6 (PSN-BSB) and is predicted to exceed the visible-light bulk photovoltaic response of all previously reported materials, including BiFeO3. Furthermore, the existence of their intermediate bands and multiple band gaps, combined with Fermi-level tuning by A-site co-doping, also allows for their potential application in traditional p -n junction-based solar cells as broad-spectrum photoabsorbers.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Sheet as Top Contact Electrode for Nanowires: Highly Versatile and Simple Process.

    PubMed

    Ternon, Céline; Dupas, Florence; Stein, Sergio; Aguirre, Carla; Dhalluin, Florian; Baron, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    In the past years, lots of research works were dedicated to nanowires and their integration into functional devices. However, despite the great potential of such materials, no device based on nanowires has been transferred in all-day-life. In fact, the vertical device integration is slowed down by the difficulty to contact easily the top electrode. With this work, we present a simple, elegant and versatile process for creating a top electrode contact on nanowires: a carbon nanotube sheet is suspended at the top of the nanowire field. The proof of concept is made through the realization of photovoltaic devices composed of an assembly of vertical PN-junctions based on silicon nanowires. For an illumination density of 100 mW . cm-2, our devices exhibit short circuit current density as high as 15 mA . cm-2. Due to the numerous advantages of the carbon nanotube sheets as top electrode, such as transparency, porosity, good mechanical performance and no need to embed nanowires, such simple and elegant technology should definitely find developments in every field of nanotechnology.

  18. Physical model of the contact resistivity of metal-graphene junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaves, Ferney A. Jiménez, David; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-04-28

    While graphene-based technology shows great promise for a variety of electronic applications, including radio-frequency devices, the resistance of the metal-graphene contact is a technological bottleneck for the realization of viable graphene electronics. One of the most important factors in determining the resistance of a metal-graphene junction is the contact resistivity. Despite the large number of experimental works that exist in the literature measuring the contact resistivity, a simple model of it is still lacking. In this paper, we present a comprehensive physical model for the contact resistivity of these junctions, based on the Bardeen Transfer Hamiltonian method. This model unveils the role played by different electrical and physical parameters in determining the specific contact resistivity, such as the chemical potential of interaction, the work metal-graphene function difference, and the insulator thickness between the metal and graphene. In addition, our model reveals that the contact resistivity is strongly dependent on the bias voltage across the metal-graphene junction. This model is applicable to a wide variety of graphene-based electronic devices and thus is useful for understanding how to optimize the contact resistance in these systems.

  19. Loss of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome-associated gene RSK2 alters ERK activity, synaptic function and axonal transport in Drosophila motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Katherina; Ehmann, Nadine; Andlauer, Till F. M.; Ljaschenko, Dmitrij; Strecker, Katrin; Fischer, Matthias; Kittel, Robert J.; Raabe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plastic changes in synaptic properties are considered as fundamental for adaptive behaviors. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated signaling has been implicated in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) acts as a regulator and downstream effector of ERK. In the brain, RSK2 is predominantly expressed in regions required for learning and memory. Loss-of-function mutations in human RSK2 cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is characterized by severe mental retardation and low IQ scores in affected males. Knockout of RSK2 in mice or the RSK ortholog in Drosophila results in a variety of learning and memory defects. However, overall brain structure in these animals is not affected, leaving open the question of the pathophysiological consequences. Using the fly neuromuscular system as a model for excitatory glutamatergic synapses, we show that removal of RSK function causes distinct defects in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. Based on histochemical and electrophysiological analyses, we conclude that RSK is required for normal synaptic morphology and function. Furthermore, loss of RSK function interferes with ERK signaling at different levels. Elevated ERK activity was evident in the somata of motoneurons, whereas decreased ERK activity was observed in axons and the presynapse. In addition, we uncovered a novel function of RSK in anterograde axonal transport. Our results emphasize the importance of fine-tuning ERK activity in neuronal processes underlying higher brain functions. In this context, RSK acts as a modulator of ERK signaling. PMID:26398944

  20. Asymmetric angular dependence of spin-transfer torques in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ling Xu, Zhi-Jun Zuo, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ze-Jin; Gao, Qing-He; Linghu, Rong-Feng; Guo, Yun-Dong

    2016-04-28

    Using a first-principles noncollinear wave-function-matching method, we studied the spin-transfer torques (STTs) in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), where three different types of B-doped MgO in the spacer are considered, including B atoms replacing Mg atoms (Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4}), B atoms replacing O atoms (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}), and B atoms occupying interstitial positions (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4}) in MgO. A strong asymmetric angular dependence of STT can be obtained both in ballistic CoFe/Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4} and CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4} based MTJs, whereas a nearly symmetric STT curve is observed in the junctions based on CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the angular dependence of STT can be suppressed significantly by the disorder of B distribution. Such skewness of STTs in the CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe MTJs could be attributed to the interfacial resonance states induced by the B diffusion into MgO spacer.

  1. Signatures of time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in the Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellars, Ehren; Béri, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    For Josephson junctions based on s -wave superconductors, time-reversal symmetry is known to allow for powerful relations between the normal-state junction properties, the excitation spectrum, and the Josephson current. Here we provide analogous relations for Josephson junctions involving one-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors supporting Majorana-Kramers pairs, considering both topological-topological and s -wave-topological junctions. Working in the regime where the junction is much shorter than the superconducting coherence length, we obtain a number of analytical and numerical results that hold for arbitrary normal-state conductance and the most general forms of spin-orbit coupling. The signatures of topological superconductivity we find include the fractional ac Josephson effect, which arises in topological-topological junctions provided that the energy relaxation is sufficiently slow. We also show, for both junction types, that robust signatures of topological superconductivity arise in the dc Josephson effect in the form of switches in the Josephson current due to zero-energy crossings of Andreev levels. The junction spin-orbit coupling enters the Josephson current only in the topological-topological case and in a manner determined by the switch locations, thereby allowing quantitative predictions for experiments with the normal-state conductance, the induced gaps, and the switch locations as inputs.

  2. Nonequilibrium and relaxation effects in tunnel superconducting junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, E. V.; Vasenko, A. S.; Bratus', E. N.

    2017-02-01

    The specific property of a planar tunnel junction with thin-film diffusive plates and long enough leads is an essential enhancement of its transmission coefficient compared to the bare transparency of the tunnel barrier [1, 2]. In voltage-biased junctions, this creates favorable conditions for strong nonequilibrium of quasiparticles in the junction plates and leads, produced by multiparticle tunneling. We study theoretically the interplay between the nonequilibrium and relaxation processes in such junctions and found that nonequilibrium in the leads noticeably modifies the current-voltage characteristic at {eV}> 2{{Δ }}, especially the excess current, whereas strong diffusive relaxation restores the result of the classical tunnel model. At {eV}≤slant 2{{Δ }}, the diffusive relaxation decreases the peaks of the multiparticle currents. The inelastic relaxation in the junction plates essentially suppresses the n-particle currents (n> 2) by the factor n for odd and n/2 for even n. The results may be important for the problem of decoherence in Josephson-junction based superconducting qubits.

  3. Hippo pathway elements Co-localize with Occludin: A possible sensor system in pancreatic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cravo, Ana Santos; Carter, Edward; Erkan, Mert; Harvey, Emma; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Mrsny, Randall

    2015-01-01

    External adherens junction-based cell-cell contacts involving E-cadherin interactions function to sense planar cell status and modulate epithelial cell proliferation through Hippo (Hpo) and non-canonical Wnt pathways signaling. We hypothesized these regulatory processes should also be sensitive to a similar cell-cell contact sensor associated with apical-basal polarity events at epithelial surfaces. We used 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines to explore this hypothesis: one with the capacity to form functional tight junction structures and polarize (HPAFII) and one lacking this capacity (AsPc1). Occludin (Ocln), a tetraspanning protein associated with TJ structures and capable of establishing external cell-cell contacts, was observed to partially co-localize with Hpo elements YAP (c-yes associated protein) and TEAD (TEA-dependent), which function to drive a proliferative transcription program. Treatment with dobutamine, known to affect YAP, was shown to suppress proliferation in an Ocln-dependent manner. Blockade of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ) diminished transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of HPAFII monolayers that was not corrected by dobutamine treatment while the loss of TER resulting from inhibition of ROCK1 could be partially recovered. Examination of normal and cancerous human pancreatic biopsies showed that the cellular localization of Ocln, c-Yes, YAP, and TEAD were similar to HPAFII for normal cells and AsPc1 for cancerous cells. Together, these results suggest a link between Hpo and signals emanating from cell-cell contacts involving Ocln that may regulate pancreatic cell proliferation through the coordination of planar cell polarity with apical-basal polarity events. PMID:26451343

  4. ZO-1 and -2 Are Required for TRPV1-Modulated Paracellular Permeability.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Xiang, R L; Mei, M; Yang, N Y; Su, Y C; Choi, S; Park, K; Zhang, L W; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2015-12-01

    The tight junction-based paracellular pathway plays an important role in saliva secretion. Zonula occludens (ZO) proteins are submembranous proteins of tight junction complex; however, their function in salivary epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we found that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin increased rat saliva secretion both in vivo and ex vivo. Meanwhile, TRPV1 activation enlarged the width of tight junctions between neighboring acinar cells, increased the paracellular flux of 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran in submandibular gland (SMG) tissues, and decreased transepithelial electric resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells. ZO-1, -2, and -3 were distributed principally to the apical lateral region of acinar cells in SMG tissues and continuously encircled the peripheries of SMG-C6 cells in the untreated condition. TRPV1 activation obviously diminished ZO-1 and -2 staining, but not ZO-3 or β-catenin, at the cell-cell contacts ex vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in untreated SMG-C6 cells, ZO-1 and -2 single or double knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased the paracellular flux of 4-kDa FITC-dextran. In capsaicin-treated cells, ZO-1 and -2 single or double knockdown abolished, whereas their re-expression restored, the capsaicin-induced increase in paracellular permeability. Furthermore, TRPV1 activation increased RhoA activity, and inhibition of either RhoA or Rho kinase (ROCK) abolished the capsaicin-induced TER decrease as well as ZO-1 and -2 redistribution. These results indicate that ZO-1 and -2 play crucial roles in both basal salivary epithelial barrier function and TRPV1-modulated paracellular transport. RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway is responsible for TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability as well as ZO-1 and -2 redistribution. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. IMGT standardization for statistical analyses of T cell receptor junctions: the TRAV-TRAJ example.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Kevin; Giudicelli, Véronique; Wu, Yan; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Biau, Gérard

    2006-01-01

    The diversity of immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) chains depends on several mechanisms: combinatorial diversity, which is a consequence of the number of V, D and J genes and the N-REGION diversity, which creates an extensive and clonal somatic diversity at the V-J and V-D-J junctions. For the IG, the diversity is further increased by somatic hypermutations. The number of different junctions per chain and per individual is estimated to be 10(12). We have chosen the human TRAV-TRAJ junctions as an example in order to characterize the required criteria for a standardized analysis of the IG and TR V-J and V-D-J junctions, based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY concepts, and to serve as a first IMGT junction reference set (IMGT, http://imgt.cines.fr). We performed a thorough statistical analysis of 212 human rearranged TRAV-TRAJ sequences, which were aligned and analysed by the integrated IMGT/V-QUEST software, which includes IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, then manually expert-verified. Furthermore, we compared these 212 sequences with 37 other human TRAV-TRAJ junction sequences for which some particularities (potential sequence polymorphisms, sequencing errors, etc.) did not allow IMGT/JunctionAnalysis to provide the correct biological results, according to expert verification. Using statistical learning, we constructed an automatic warning system to predict if new, automatically analysed TRAV-TRAJ sequences should be manually re-checked. We estimated the robustness of this automatic warning system.

  6. Theory based design and optimization of materials for spintronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianyi

    The Spintronics industry has developed rapidly in the past decade. Finding the right material is very important for Spintronics applications, which requires good understanding of the physics behind specific phenomena. In this dissertation, we will focus on two types of perpendicular transport phenomena, the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant-magneto-resistance (CPP-GMR) phenomenon and the tunneling phenomenon in the magnetic tunnel junctions. The Valet-Fert model is a very useful semi-classical approach for understanding the transport and spin-flip process in CPP-GMR. We will present a finite element based implementation for the Valet-Fert model which enables a practical way to calculate the electron transport in real CPP-GMR spin valves. It is very important to find high spin polarized materials for CPP-GMR spin valves. The half-metal, due to its full spin polarization, is of interest. We will propose a rational way to find half-metals based on the gap theorem. Then we will focus on the high-MR TMR phenomenon. The tunneling theory of electron transport in mesoscopic systems will be covered. Then we will calculate the transport properties of certain junctions with the help of Green's function under the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, also known as the scattering formalism. The damping constant determines the switching rate of a device. We can calculate it using a method based on the Extended Huckel Tight-Binding theory (EHTB). The symmetry filtering effect is very helpful for finding materials for TMR junctions. Based upon which, we find a good candidate material, MnAl, for TMR applications.

  7. G4-FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Travis; Fijany, Amir; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Vatan, Farrokh; Toomarian, Nikzad; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Blalock, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of a patented generic silicon- on-insulator (SOI) electronic device called a G4-FET has revealed that the device could be designed to function as a universal and programmable logic gate. The universality and programmability could be exploited to design logic circuits containing fewer discrete components than are required for conventional transistor-based circuits performing the same logic functions. A G4-FET is a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G4-FET can also be regarded as a single transistor having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of the SOI substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. With proper choice of the specific dimensions for the gates, channels, and ancillary features of the generic G4-FET, the device could be made to function as a three-input, one-output logic gate. As illustrated by the truth table in the top part of the figure, the behavior of this logic gate would be the inverse (the NOT) of that of a majority gate. In other words, the device would function as a NOT-majority gate. By simply adding an inverter, one could obtain a majority gate. In contrast, to construct a majority gate in conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, one would need four three-input AND gates and a four-input OR gate, altogether containing 32 transistors.

  8. Hippo pathway elements Co-localize with Occludin: A possible sensor system in pancreatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Ana Santos; Carter, Edward; Erkan, Mert; Harvey, Emma; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Mrsny, Randall

    2015-01-01

    External adherens junction-based cell-cell contacts involving E-cadherin interactions function to sense planar cell status and modulate epithelial cell proliferation through Hippo (Hpo) and non-canonical Wnt pathways signaling. We hypothesized these regulatory processes should also be sensitive to a similar cell-cell contact sensor associated with apical-basal polarity events at epithelial surfaces. We used 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines to explore this hypothesis: one with the capacity to form functional tight junction structures and polarize (HPAFII) and one lacking this capacity (AsPc1). Occludin (Ocln), a tetraspanning protein associated with TJ structures and capable of establishing external cell-cell contacts, was observed to partially co-localize with Hpo elements YAP (c-yes associated protein) and TEAD (TEA-dependent), which function to drive a proliferative transcription program. Treatment with dobutamine, known to affect YAP, was shown to suppress proliferation in an Ocln-dependent manner. Blockade of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ) diminished transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of HPAFII monolayers that was not corrected by dobutamine treatment while the loss of TER resulting from inhibition of ROCK1 could be partially recovered. Examination of normal and cancerous human pancreatic biopsies showed that the cellular localization of Ocln, c-Yes, YAP, and TEAD were similar to HPAFII for normal cells and AsPc1 for cancerous cells. Together, these results suggest a link between Hpo and signals emanating from cell-cell contacts involving Ocln that may regulate pancreatic cell proliferation through the coordination of planar cell polarity with apical-basal polarity events.

  9. Substrate engineering by hexagonal boron nitride/SiO2 for hysteresis-free graphene FETs and large-scale graphene p-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Wu, Juanxia; Chen, Yabin; Zhang, Haoli; Zhang, Jin

    2013-10-01

    We have explored an approach for the fabrication of intrinsic and hysteresis-free graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) and for the construction of graphene p-n junctions based on substrate engineering by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/SiO2. The effect of various interfaces on the performance of the graphene FETs was systematically studied by constructing four types of graphene devices (graphene/SiO2 FETs, graphene/h-BN FETs, h-BN/graphene/SiO2 FETs, and h-BN/graphene/h-BN FETs). Graphene/SiO2 FETs and h-BN/graphene/SiO2 FETs always exhibit large hysteresis before and after annealing, whereas graphene/h-BN FETs and h-BN/graphene/h-BN FETs show intrinsic properties after annealing. Raman measurements also indicate that graphene on a SiO2 substrate contains large amounts of p-doping, whereas that on a h-BN substrate is intrinsic. Thus, the graphene/h-BN interface gives intrinsic and hysteresis-free graphene FETs, whilst the graphene/SiO2 interface affords p-doping and a hysteresis effect in the graphene FETs. This result is because h-BN serves as an insulation layer, which prevents charge trapping between the graphene and the charge traps at the graphene/SiO2 interface, which cause the hysteresis. In addition, the negligible electrostatic doping of h-BN into graphene also ensures the intrinsic and hysteresis-free properties of graphene/BN/SiO2 FETs. Moreover, benefitting from the p-doped and intrinsic features of graphene on SiO2 and h-BN substrates, respectively, large-scale graphene p-n junction superlattices with great potential difference are constructed and integrated into photodetector arrays by substrate engineering with h-BN/SiO2. Efficient hot carrier-assisted photocurrent was generated by laser excitation at the junction under ambient conditions.

  10. Bipolar resistive switching properties of Ti-CuO/(hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene)-Cu hybrid interface device: Influence of electronic nature of organic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B. R.; Varandani, Deepak; Govind; Narita, A.; Feng, X.; Müllen, K.

    2013-05-01

    This study reports the change in the structural and junction properties of Ti-CuO-Cu structure on incorporation of a 2-dimensional (2D) organic layer comprising of n-type hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (6F-HBC). A bipolar resistive switching is observed in the device having interface between sputter deposited copper oxide (CuO) and vacuum sublimated 6F-HBC hybrid interface. The CuO/6F-HBC hybrid interface exhibits rectifying I-V characteristics in complete contrast to the ohmic and rectifying characteristics of junctions based on individual 6F-HBC and CuO layers. Large change in resistive switching property from unipolar resistive switching in CuO/HBC to bipolar resistive switching in CuO/6F-HBC interface was observed. At the CuO/6F-HBC interface, C1s peak corresponding to fluorinated carbon is shifted by 0.68 eV towards higher binding energy (BE) side and O1s peak due to non-lattice oxygen is shifted by 0.6 eV towards lower BE, confirming the interaction of O2- ion in CuO with fluorinated carbon atoms in 6F-HBC at the hybrid interface. Correlation between conductive atomic force microscopy images and atomic force microscopy topography images, I-V characteristics in conducting, non-conducting, and pristine regions along with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results establishes the important role of hybrid interface to determining the resistive switching properties. This study demonstrates that the resistive switching and interface properties of a hybrid device based on inorganic and organic 2D materials can be modified by changing the electronic properties of organic layer by attaching suitable functional groups.

  11. Analysis and Suppression of Dark Currents in Mid-Wave Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, Gregory Robert

    Mid-wave infrared photodetectors have wide-ranging civilian and military applications but remain complicated and expensive to produce. Maximizing detector performance while also reducing costs is critical for furthering the efficacy of the technology. Understanding the causes of dark current generation in infrared detectors, the limitations defects impose on performance, and strategies for suppression of dark currents is important for maximizing performance and creating detector architectures that are more robust and cost effective. Ideal infrared detectors are expected to be limited by fundamental material properties rather than specific device architecture or material quality considerations. When defect concentrations are sufficiently low, a carefully engineered detector will exhibit the best possible performance; however, maintaining low defect concentrations is not always feasible. Detectors with elevated defect concentrations are subject to a series of defect-induced dark current mechanisms dependent on device architecture. Defect-dominated unipolar barrier detector architectures are typically subject to Shockley-Read-Hall generation and subsequent diffusion of carriers in quasi-neutral regions. Defect-dominated conventional photodiodes are also subject to neutral region Shockley-Read-Hall generation but Shockley-Read-Hall generation and trap-assisted-tunneling in the depletion layer will have a far greater effect on the overall dark current of a device. Unipolar barrier architecture detectors show greatly improved performance compared to conventional pn junction-based photodiodes. The performance of defect-limited nBn detectors is demonstrated, showing the effects of quasi-neutral region Shockley-Read-Hall in these devices and improved performance over conventional photodiodes. The unipolar barrier photodiode combines the advantages of the nBn with a pn junction architecture. A properly engineered unipolar barrier photodiode will suppress both surface leakage

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy, orbital-mediated tunneling spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of metal(II) tetraphenylporphyrins deposited from vapor.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, L; Barlow, D E; Mazur, U; Hipps, K W

    2001-05-02

    Thin films of vapor-deposited Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP and CoTPP) were studied supported on gold and embedded in Al-Al(2)O(3)-MTPP-Pb tunnel diodes, where M = Ni or Co. Thin films deposited onto polycrystalline gold were analyzed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) using He I radiation. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and orbital-mediated tunneling spectroscopy (STM-OMTS) were performed on submonolayer films of CoTPP and NiTPP supported on Au(111). Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) and OMTS were measured in conventional tunnel diode structures. The highest occupied pi molecular orbital of the porphyrin ring was seen in both STM-OMTS and UPS at about 6.4 eV below the vacuum level. The lowest unoccupied pi molecular orbital of the porphyrin ring was observed by STM-OMTS and by IETS-OMTS to be located near 3.4 eV below the vacuum level. The OMTS spectra of CoTPP had a band near 5.2 eV (below the vacuum level) that was attributed to transient oxidation of the central Co(II) ion. That is, it is due to electron OMT via the half-filled d(z)(2) orbital present in Co(II) of CoTPP. The NiTPP OMTS spectra show no such band, consistent with the known difficulty of oxidation of the Ni(II) ion. The STM-based OMTS allowed these two porphyrin complexes to be easily distinguished. The present work is the first report of the observation of STM-OMTS, tunnel junction OMTS, and UPS of the same compounds. Scanning tunneling microscope-based orbital-mediated tunneling provides more information than UPS or tunnel junction-based OMTS and does so with molecular-scale resolution.

  13. Oriented multiscale spatial filtering and contrast normalization: a parsimonious model of brightness induction in a continuum of stimuli including White, Howe and simultaneous brightness contrast.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, Barbara; Pasieka, Wren; McCourt, Mark E

    2005-03-01

    The White effect [Perception 8 (1979) 413] cannot be simply explained as due to either brightness contrast or brightness assimilation because the direction of the induced brightness change does not correlate with the amount of black or white border in contact with the gray test patch. This has led some investigators to abandon spatial filtering explanations not only for the White effect but for brightness perception in general. Offered instead are explanations based on a variety of junction analyses and/or perceptual organization schemes which in the case of the White effect are usually based on T-junctions. Recently, Howe [Perception 30 (2001) 1023] challenged T-junction based explanations with a novel variation of White's effect in which the T-junctions were constant while the brightness effect was eliminated or reversed, and proposed an alternative explanation in terms of illusory contours. The present study argues that an analysis at the level of illusory contours is not necessary and that a much simpler spatial filtering based explanation is sufficient. Brightness induction was measured in a set of stimuli chosen to illustrate the relationship between the Howe stimulus [Perception 30 (2001) 1023], the White stimulus [Perception 8 (1979) 413] and the classical simultaneous brightness contrast (SBC) stimulus. The White stimulus and the SBC stimulus occupy opposite ends of a continuum of stimuli in which the Howe stimulus is the mid-point. The psychophysical measurements were compared with the predictions of the oriented difference-of-Gaussians (ODOG) computational model of Blakeslee and McCourt [Vision Research 39 (1999) 4361]. The ODOG model parsimoniously accounted for both the direction and relative magnitude of the brightness effects suggesting that more complex mechanisms are not required to explain them.

  14. Bottom-up proteomics of Escherichia coli using dynamic pH junction preconcentration and capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-07-01

    We report the use of the dynamic pH junction based capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS/MS) for bottom-up proteomics with an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) interface and both LTQ-XL and LTQ-Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometers. Conventional injection of 20 nL of a 1 mg/mL BSA digest identified 37 peptides and produced 66% sequence coverage. In contrast, pH junction injection of 130 nL (or larger) of a 0.05 mg/mL BSA digest identified 40 peptides and produced 70% coverage using a pH 6.5 sample buffer and the LTQ. A 20 nL conventional injection of a 1 mg/mL Escherichia coli digest identified 508 peptides and 199 proteins with the LTQ. A 400 nL pH junction injection of a 0.1 mg/mL E. coli digest identified 527 peptides and 179 proteins with the LTQ. Triplicate technical replicates of a 0.01 mg/mL sample with 400-nL injection volume using a pH junction identified 288 ± 9 peptides and 121 ± 5 proteins with the LTQ. There was outstanding concordance in migration time between the pH junction and normal injection. The pH junction produced narrower peaks and significant concentration for all but the most acidic components in the sample. Compared with the conventional stacking method, the pH junction method can generate comparable performance for small injection volume (20 nL) and significantly better concentration performance for a large injection volume (200 nL). We also applied the pH junction to three intact standard proteins and observed a >10× increase in peak intensity compared to conventional injection.

  15. Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 81 optimal logic circuits based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)4FETs) have been designed to implement all Boolean functions of up to three variables. The purpose of this development was to lend credence to the expectation that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. A G(sup 4)FET a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G(sup 4)FET can also be regarded as a single device having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. One such option is to design a G(sup 4)FET to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. Optimal NOT-majority-gate, G(sup 4)FET-based logic-circuit designs were obtained in a comparative study that also included formulation of functionally equivalent logic circuits based on NOR and NAND gates implemented by use of conventional transistors. In the study, the problem of finding the optimal design for each logic function and each transistor type was solved as an integer-programming optimization problem. Considering all 81 non-equivalent Boolean functions included in the study, it was found that in 63% of the cases, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors) would be needed in the G(sup 4)FET-based implementations.

  16. Visualization of Anatomic Variation of the Anterior Septal Vein on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengzhen; Qiao, Huihuang; Guo, Yu; Li, Jiance; Miao, Huizhong; Wen, Caiyun; Wen, Xindong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Yang, Xindong; Chen, Chengchun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Understanding the anatomy of the anterior septal vein (ASV) is critical for minimally invasive procedures to the third ventricle and for assessing lesion size and venous drainage in the anterior cranial fossa. Accordingly, this study evaluated topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods Sixty volunteers were examined using a 3.0T MR system. The diameter of the ASV and distance between bilateral septal points were measured. ASVs were divided into types 1 (only drains frontal lobe) and 2 (drains both frontal lobe and head of the caudate nucleus). We evaluated the ASV-internal cerebral vein (ICV) junction based on its positional relationship with the appearance of a venous angle or a false venous angle and the foramen of Monro. Fused SW and T1-weighted images were used to observe positional relationships between the course of the ASV and the surrounding brain structures. Results The ASV and its small tributaries were clearly visualized in 120 hemispheres (100%). The average diameter of ASVs was 1.05±0.17 mm (range 0.9–1.6 mm). The average distance between bilateral septal points was 2.23±1.03 mm (range 1.3–6.6 mm). The ASV types 1 and 2 were in 77 (64.2%) and 43 (35.8%) hemispheres, respectively. In 83 (69.2%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated at the venous angle and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. In 37 (30.8%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated beyond the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. The average distance between the posteriorly located ASV-ICV junction and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro was 6.41±3.95 mm (range 2.4–15.9 mm). Conclusion Using SWI, the topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV were clearly demonstrated. Preoperative assessment of anatomic variation of the ASV may be advantageous for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. PMID:27716782

  17. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Marsen, B.; Paluselli, D.; Rocheleau, R.

    2004-11-17

    The scope of this photoelectrochemical hydrogen research project is defined by multijunction photoelectrode concepts for solar-powered water splitting, with the goal of efficient, stable, and economic operation. From an initial selection of several planar photoelectrode designs, the Hybrid Photoelectrode (HPE) has been identified as the most promising candidate technology. This photoelectrode consists of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) junction and a solid-state photovoltaic (PV) junction. Immersed in aqueous electrolyte and exposed to sunlight, these two junctions provide the necessary voltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The efficiency of the conversion process is determined by the performance of the PEC- and the PV-junctions and on their spectral match. Based on their stability and cost effectiveness, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been studied and developed as candidate semiconductor materials for the PEC junction (photoanode). High-temperature synthesis methods, as reported for some high-performance metal oxides, have been found incompatible with multijunction device fabrication. A low-temperature reactive sputtering process has been developed instead. In the parameter space investigated so far, the optoelectronic properties of WO3 films were superior to those of Fe2O3 films, which showed high recombination of photo-generated carriers. For the PV-junction, amorphous-silicon-based multijunction devices have been studied. Tandem junctions were preferred over triple junctions for better stability and spectral matching with the PEC junction. Based on a tandem a-SiGe/a-SiGe device and a tungsten trioxide film, a prototype hybrid photoelectrode has been demonstrated at 0.7% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency. The PEC junction performance has been identified as the most critical element for higher-efficiency devices. Research into sputter-deposited tungsten trioxide films has yielded samples with higher photocurrents of

  18. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  19. Mechanistic Basis for the Bypass of a Bulky DNA Adduct Catalyzed by a Y-Family DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Rajan; Efthimiopoulos, Georgia; Tokarsky, E. John; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Suo, Zucai

    2015-01-01

    1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), an environmental pollutant, induces DNA damage in vivo and is considered to be carcinogenic. The DNA adducts formed by the 1-NP metabolites stall replicative DNA polymerases but are presumably bypassed by error-prone Y-family DNA polymerases at the expense of replication fidelity and efficiency in vivo. Our running start assays confirmed that a site-specifically placed 8-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-1-aminopyrene (dG1,8), one of the DNA adducts derived from 1-NP, can be bypassed by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), although this representative Y-family enzyme was paused strongly by the lesion. Pre-steady-state kinetic assays were employed to determine the low nucleotide incorporation fidelity and establish a minimal kinetic mechanism for the dG1,8 bypass by Dpo4. To reveal a structural basis for dCTP incorporation opposite dG1,8, we solved the crystal structures of the complexes of Dpo4 and DNA containing a templating dG1,8 lesion in the absence or presence of dCTP. The Dpo4·DNA-dG1,8 binary structure shows that the aminopyrene moiety of the lesion stacks against the primer/template junction pair, while its dG moiety projected into the cleft between the Finger and Little Finger domains of Dpo4. In the Dpo4·DNA-dG1,8·dCTP ternary structure, the aminopyrene moiety of the dG1,8 lesion, is sandwiched between the nascent and junction base pairs, while its base is present in the major groove. Moreover, dCTP forms a Watson–Crick base pair with dG, two nucleotides upstream from the dG1,8 site, creating a complex for “-2” frameshift mutation. Mechanistically, these crystal structures provide additional insight into the aforementioned minimal kinetic mechanism. PMID:26327169

  20. Development of a D genome specific marker resource for diploid and hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Drader, Thomas; Tiwari, Vijay K; Dong, Lingli; Kumar, Ajay; Huo, Naxin; Ghavami, Farhad; Iqbal, M Javed; Lazo, Gerard R; Leonard, Jeff; Gill, Bikram S; Kianian, Shahryar F; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q

    2015-08-28

    Mapping and map-based cloning of genes that control agriculturally and economically important traits remain great challenges for plants with complex highly repetitive genomes such as those within the grass tribe, Triticeae. Mapping limitations in the Triticeae are primarily due to low frequencies of polymorphic gene markers and poor genetic recombination in certain genetic regions. Although the abundance of repetitive sequence may pose common problems in genome analysis and sequence assembly of large and complex genomes, they provide repeat junction markers with random and unbiased distribution throughout chromosomes. Hence, development of a high-throughput mapping technology that combine both gene-based and repeat junction-based markers is needed to generate maps that have better coverage of the entire genome. In this study, the available genomics resource of the diploid Aegilop tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat, were used to develop genome specific markers that can be applied for mapping in modern hexaploid wheat. A NimbleGen array containing both gene-based and repeat junction probe sequences derived from Ae. tauschii was developed and used to map the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic lines and deletion bin lines of the D genome chromosomes. Based on these mapping data, we have now anchored 5,171 repeat junction probes and 10,892 gene probes, corresponding to 5,070 gene markers, to the delineated deletion bins of the D genome. The order of the gene-based markers within the deletion bins of the Chinese Spring can be inferred based on their positions on the Ae. tauschii genetic map. Analysis of the probe sequences against the Chinese Spring chromosome sequence assembly database facilitated mapping of the NimbleGen probes to the sequence contigs and allowed assignment or ordering of these sequence contigs within the deletion bins. The accumulated length of anchored sequence contigs is about 155 Mb, representing ~ 3.2 % of the D genome. A specific

  1. Novel Optoelectronic Devices Using Intersubband Transitions in Gallium Arsenide/aluminum Gallium Arsenide Quantum Wells and Superlattices: Theory, Fabrication, and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siao, Sueh-Wen

    shows interesting transport physics, but also potential for ultra-high speed circuit applications. Using MQW emitter, a high speed infrared phototransistor is proposed and investigated in this thesis. The other interesting HEMT-type phototransistor with 2DEG is also designed for potential high speed IR phototransistor applications. All-optical IR modulator by interband pumping is also studied. Since the electron-hole pairs are induced by optical pumping, the magnitude of the intersubband absorption can be directly modulated by the power of the pump light. One novel approach to populate the quantum well to required density level is also studied by electrical injection. As semiconductor lasers and LED's, the carrier density (electrons and holes) as high as 10^ {19} cm^{-3} can be injected from the PN junction. Based on these results, normal incidence IR spatial light modulator can be possible. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  2. The Preparation and Properties of Niobium Superconducting Structures Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation in Uhv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Martin S.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This work has achieved the development of a fabrication method for the realisation of superconductor-insulator -superconductor (SIS) junctions based on niobium thin films with an artificial barrier layer. Such devices are likely to have advantages over lead alloy devices because of the enhanced mechanical and chemical stability. A principal objective was to attempt to exploit the offset mask technology developed by Dolan that has been successfully employed by Davies et.al. in the realisation of lead alloy SIS junction heterodyne mixers. In order to transfer this technology to niobium based devices it is essential that an evaporation method is used to allow shadow formation beneath the offset mask. As a result of the chemical reactivity and the low vapour pressure of niobium, a UHV system has been developed which incorporates an electrostatically focussed electron beam evaporation source. This is capable of providing deposition rates of close to 10A/sec. with a source to substrate distance of 120mm. During deposition the system pressure is below 5 times 10 ^{-9} mbar. These process parameters have been recorded, for a number of depositions, on a specially built data acquisition system controlled by a BBC microcomputer. Such recording allows detailed comparison of conditions which helps in the understanding of differences between the superconducting behaviour of various films. A further extremely important aspect of these real time measurements is that it helps to ensure optimum settings of the focus conditions of the electron beam source. The results of the depositions are extremely encouraging with critical temperatures of between 9.1 and 9.3K being achieved. These results compare well with expected values for bulk niobium. An all-metal offset mask technology has been developed to replace the photo-resist technique pioneered by Dolan. This new method is needed because the photo-resist is not compatible

  3. Surface engineered two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials for electronic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiang

    CO3) and MoO3, respectively. Cs2CO3 was found to strongly electron dope black phosphorus. The electron mobility of black phosphorus was significantly enhanced to ˜27 cm2V-1s-1 after 10 nm Cs2CO3 modification, indicating a greatly improved electron transport behavior. In contrast, MoO3 decoration demonstrated a giant hole doping effect. In situ PES characterization confirms the interfacial charge transfer between black phosphorus and doping layers. This doping can also modulate the Schottky junctions formed between metal contacts and black phosphorus flakes, and hence to enhance the responsivity of black phosphorus based photodetectors. These findings coupled with the tunable nature of the surface transfer doping scheme ensure black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary logic electronics. Following the same surface transfer doping technique, I will demonstrate a remarkable performance enhancement of graphene/Si Schottky junction based self-powered photodetectors via surface modification with MoO3 thin film. It was found that the photocurrent responsivity of MoO3 doped graphene/Si photodetectors was highly increased under a wide spectrum of illuminated light from ultraviolet to near infrared. The current on-off ratio reached up to ˜104 under illumination of 500 nm light with intensity of ˜62 muWcm-2. More importantly, the external quantum efficiency of graphene/Si devices was significantly enhanced up to ˜80% by almost four times in the visible light region after MoO3 functionalization. The largely improved photodetecting performance originates from the increased Schottky barrier height at the graphene/Si interface as well as the reduced series resistance after MoO3 modification, which was further corroborated by the in situ PES and electrical transport characterizations. These observations promise a simple method to effectively modify the graphene/Si Schottky junction based self-powered photodetectors and thus significantly enhance their

  4. Point Defects in Two-Dimensional Layered Semiconductors: Physics and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Joonki

    thermoelectric materials are thoroughly investigated. Point defects can potentially beat the undesired coupling, often term "thermoelectric Bermuda triangle", among electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower. The maximum thermoelectric performance is demonstrated with an intermediate density of defects when they beneficially and multi-functionally act as electron donors, as well as strongly energy-dependent electron and phonon scatterers. Therefore, this is a good example of how fundamental defect physics can be applied for practical devices toward renewable energy technology. Another interesting field of layered nanomaterials is on transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), sensational candidates for 2D semiconductor physics and applications. At the reduced dimensionality of 2D where a far stronger correlation between point defects and charge carriers is expected, it is studied how chalcogen vacancies alter optical properties of monolayer TMDs. A new, sub-bandgap broad emission lines as well as increase in the overall photoluminescence intensity at low temperatures are reported as a result of high quantum efficiency of excitons, i.e., bound electron-hole pairs, localized at defect sites. On electrical transport, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction while typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, MoS2 is natively n-type, thus the lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS2. To address this issue, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS2 by substitutional Nb doping up to the degenerate level. Proof-of-concept, van der Waals p-n homo-junctions based on vertically stacked MoS2 layers are also fabricated which enable gate-tuneable current rectification. Various electronic devices fabricated are stable in ambient air even without additional treatment such as capping layer protection, thanks to the substitutionality nature

  5. Four-Quadrant Analog Multipliers Using G4-FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Blalock, Benjamin; Christoloveanu, Sorin; Chen, Suheng; Akarvardar, Kerem

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and some experiments have shown that the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) 4-gate transistors known as G4-FETs can be used as building blocks of four-quadrant analog voltage multiplier circuits. Whereas a typical prior analog voltage multiplier contains between six and 10 transistors, it is possible to construct a superior voltage multiplier using only four G4-FETs. A G4-FET is a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It can be regarded as a single transistor having four gates, which are parts of a structure that affords high functionality by enabling the utilization of independently biased multiple inputs. The structure of a G4-FET of the type of interest here (see Figure 1) is that of a partially-depleted SOI MOSFET with two independent body contacts, one on each side of the channel. The drain current comprises of majority charge carriers flowing from one body contact to the other that is, what would otherwise be the side body contacts of the SOI MOSFET are used here as the end contacts [the drain (D) and the source (S)] of the G4-FET. What would otherwise be the source and drain of the SOI MOSFET serve, in the G4-FET, as two junction-based extra gates (JG1 and JG2), which are used to squeeze the channel via reverse-biased junctions as in a JFET. The G4-FET also includes a polysilicon top gate (G1), which plays the same role as does the gate in an accumulation-mode MOSFET. The substrate emulates a fourth MOS gate (G2). By making proper choices of G4-FET device parameters in conjunction with bias voltages and currents, one can design a circuit in which two input gate voltages (Vin1,Vin2) control the conduction characteristics of G4-FETs such that the output voltage (Vout) closely approximates a value proportional to the product of the input voltages. Figure 2 depicts two such analog multiplier circuits. In each circuit, there is the following: The input and output

  6. Evaluation of Barrett esophagus by multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxin; Wong, Serena; Nathanson, Michael H; Jain, Dhanpat

    2014-02-01

    foveolar-type mucous cells, and parietal cells in the area of gastroesophageal junction. Based on the cell types identified, the mucosa was defined as squamous, columnar gastric type (cardia/fundic-type), and metaplastic columnar intestinal-type/BE. Various types of mucosa seen in the study of 35 biopsies included normal squamous mucosa only (n = 14; 40%), gastric cardia-type mucosa only (n = 2; 6%), gastric fundic mucosa (n = 6; 17%), and both squamous and gastric mucosa (n = 13; 37%). Intestinal metaplasia was identified by the presence of goblet cells in 10 of 25 cases (40%) leading to a diagnosis of BE on MPM imaging and only in 7 cases (28%) by histopathology. In 3 of 35 biopsies (9%), clear-cut goblet cells were seen by MPM imaging but not by histopathology, even after the entire tissue block was sectioned. Based on effective 2-photon excitation fluorescence of elastin and second-harmonic generation of collagen, connective tissue in the lamina propria and the basement membrane was also visualized with MPM. Multiphoton microscopy has the ability to accurately distinguish squamous epithelium and different cellular elements of the columnar mucosa obtained from biopsies around the gastroesophageal junction, including goblet cells that are important for the diagnosis of BE. Thus, use of MPM in the endoscopy suite might provide immediate microscopic images during endoscopy, improving screening and surveillance of patients with BE.

  7. CONFERENCE SUMMARY: Summary and comment on superconducting analogue electronics research, including materials and fabrication, as presented at ISEC 07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2007-11-01

    -micron Josephson junctions using laser etching (Büttner et al) and the development of passivation layers using amorphous YBCO and SiO2 (Seidel et al) were also presented. Characterization methods using Raman and photo-emission spectroscopy (Kikunaga et al) emerged as fresh approaches. Josephson junction (JJ) research covered the areas of critical current fluctuations where results on Tl-based junctions suggested a 40 times lower δI/Ic, and LTS junctions for voltage standards using a Nb-Si barrier for improved SNS junctions (Kieler et al). Development of MTS junctions based on MgB2 are yet to be realized with the interface barrier appearing to be the limiting factor. HTS Josephson junctions were reviewed by asking the question: `Are all HTS JJs the same?' with a clear `no' as the answer. Research on intrinsic stacked junctions, sub-micron junctions, the manipulation of electronic band structure to increase energy gap and mid-gap states was also presented. Developments in packaging and cooling were not as dominant at this conference as in previous years. However, there was research reported on the importance of non-magnetic structures in packaging, the design of magnetic shielding improvement by using finite element analysis to optimize design (Tanaka et al) and the use of cryocoolers (Vernik et al). SQUID research reported some breakthrough developments with new ideas presented on nano-SQUIDs with the possible detection of a ferritin spin-flip, a successful airborne trial using a rotating gradiometer and the development of a new 4 cm long baseline planar gradiometer, achieving a sensitivity of 35 fT cm-1 Hz-½. Applications in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) covered the use of SQUIDs in the detection of stainless steel foreign objects in food, defects in wire and circuit boards and surface imaging with most developments focusing on potential customer requirements. Biomagnetic applications have continued to be embraced in the use of SQUIDs in MRI (Zotev et al), NMR, MEG

  8. Electron Transport through Porphyrin Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qi

    level broadening and shifting may significantly affect the electron transport through molecular junctions. The second factor studied, that is, the deprotection of the porphyrin end groups (acetylthio, -SCOCH3), was completed in-situ for the free base porphyrin through the reaction of the acetylthio with sulfuric acid at 35° Celsius for 3 hours. MALDI spectroscopy confirms that two additional deprotected porphyrin species are formed by deprotection, with protonated (MH+) molecular masses of 721 and 679, corresponding to a partially deprotected porphyrin (i.e. only one of the two end groups deprotected), and a fully deprotected porphyrin molecule. Along with the un-reacted acetyl protected porphyrin, a total of 3 porphyrin species are in the solution. This solution is used for self-assembly on a gold/mica surface. The thickness of the in-situ deprotected SAM is determined to be ˜1.7 nm, confirming a relatively upright molecular orientation (54.0°-63.5° between the substrate surface and the molecule), compared to a thickness of ˜1.5 nm for the protected SAM that has a more flat-lying molecular orientation (˜45.6° between the substrate surface and the molecule). From G-S measurements on SAMs prepared by in-situ deprotection, junctions with lower conductance steps at mid 10-5 G0 and junctions with higher conductance steps around 10-4 G 0 are observed. Supported by computational modeling from our collaborating research group, we associate the lower conductance steps to junctions based on the protected form of thiols at the tip-molecule interface, and the higher conductance steps to the deprotected form of the thiol contacts. We suggest that the reduced conductance in the protected porphyrin originates from the presence of the acetyl end groups (-COCH3), rather than from the elongation of the sulfur-gold (S-Au) bonds at the tip-molecule interface. By studying these two factors, I expect this work to provide insights into electron transport through molecules or metal