Science.gov

Sample records for naphthoquinones

  1. Antimicrobial activity of naphthoquinones from fusaria.

    PubMed

    Baker, R A; Tatum, J H; Nemec, S

    1990-07-01

    Twenty-two naphthoquinone compounds isolated or derived synthetically from culture extracts of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum were examined for antimicrobial activity. Fifteen exhibited antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and 12 were active against Streptococcus pyogenes, but none were active at the highest rate of 128 micrograms/ml against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 8 plant pathogenic bacteria tested against 11 naphthoquinones, Corynebacterium poinsettiae was inhibited by 6 compounds, and Pseudomonas viridiflava was weakly inhibited by one. Only one of a group of 6 fluorescent soil pseudomonads was inhibited by one naphthoquinone. Antifungal activity of 10 compounds against 8 fungal plant pathogens was limited to inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica by one naphthopyran.

  2. Study on cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship of HL-7702 cell exposed to naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Song, Wenhua; Ding, Feng; Zhang, Jinyang; Sun, Zengtian

    2012-05-01

    The acute cytotoxicities of six naphthoquinone compounds, including Atovaquone, Buparvaquone, Menadione, 2-acetoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-ethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, to HL-7702 cells were determined. The results showed that the toxicities of these naphthoquinones were characterized by a steep response pattern except for 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. Meanwhile, the cellular injuries were unrecoverable. Several molecular descriptors, such as the octanol-water partition coefficients (LogP), diameter (Dia) and topological index (TIndx), played an important role in the toxicity of naphthoquinones to HL-7702 cell. Our results provide a foundation for further investigation using 3D-QSAR and HQSAR to evaluate the aquatic ecological risk and the possible mechanisms of toxicity of naphthoquinones.

  3. Natural Product Screening Reveals Naphthoquinone Complex I Bypass Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mevers, Emily; Higgins, Kathleen W.; Fomina, Yevgenia; Zhang, Jianming; Mandinova, Anna; Newman, David; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Clardy, Jon; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of mitochondrial complex I is encountered in both rare and common diseases, but we have limited therapeutic options to treat this lesion to the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Idebenone and menadione are redox-active molecules capable of rescuing OXPHOS activity by engaging complex I-independent pathways of entry, often referred to as “complex I bypass.” In the present study, we created a cellular model of complex I deficiency by using CRISPR genome editing to knock out Ndufa9 in mouse myoblasts, and utilized this cell line to develop a high-throughput screening platform for novel complex I bypass factors. We screened a library of ~40,000 natural product extracts and performed bioassay-guided fractionation on a subset of the top scoring hits. We isolated four plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone complex I bypass factors with structural similarity to menadione: chimaphilin and 3-chloro-chimaphilin from Chimaphila umbellata and dehydro-α-lapachone and dehydroiso-α-lapachone from Stereospermum euphoroides. We also tested a small number of structurally related naphthoquinones from commercial sources and identified two additional compounds with complex I bypass activity: 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone. The six novel complex I bypass factors reported here expand this class of molecules and will be useful as tool compounds for investigating complex I disease biology. PMID:27622560

  4. Natural Product Screening Reveals Naphthoquinone Complex I Bypass Factors.

    PubMed

    Vafai, Scott B; Mevers, Emily; Higgins, Kathleen W; Fomina, Yevgenia; Zhang, Jianming; Mandinova, Anna; Newman, David; Shaw, Stanley Y; Clardy, Jon; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of mitochondrial complex I is encountered in both rare and common diseases, but we have limited therapeutic options to treat this lesion to the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Idebenone and menadione are redox-active molecules capable of rescuing OXPHOS activity by engaging complex I-independent pathways of entry, often referred to as "complex I bypass." In the present study, we created a cellular model of complex I deficiency by using CRISPR genome editing to knock out Ndufa9 in mouse myoblasts, and utilized this cell line to develop a high-throughput screening platform for novel complex I bypass factors. We screened a library of ~40,000 natural product extracts and performed bioassay-guided fractionation on a subset of the top scoring hits. We isolated four plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone complex I bypass factors with structural similarity to menadione: chimaphilin and 3-chloro-chimaphilin from Chimaphila umbellata and dehydro-α-lapachone and dehydroiso-α-lapachone from Stereospermum euphoroides. We also tested a small number of structurally related naphthoquinones from commercial sources and identified two additional compounds with complex I bypass activity: 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone. The six novel complex I bypass factors reported here expand this class of molecules and will be useful as tool compounds for investigating complex I disease biology.

  5. The chemical biology of naphthoquinones and its environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yoshito; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takashi; Cho, Arthur K

    2012-01-01

    Quinones are a group of highly reactive organic chemical species that interact with biological systems to promote inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer actions and to induce toxicities. This review describes the chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular effects of 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones and their derivatives. The naphthoquinones are of particular interest because of their prevalence as natural products and as environmental chemicals, present in the atmosphere as products of fuel and tobacco combustion. 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones are also toxic metabolites of naphthalene, the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon present in ambient air. Quinones exert their actions through two reactions: as prooxidants, reducing oxygen to reactive oxygen species; and as electrophiles, forming covalent bonds with tissue nucleophiles. The targets for these reactions include regulatory proteins such as protein tyrosine phosphatases; Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, the regulatory protein for NF-E2-related factor 2; and the glycolysis enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Through their actions on regulatory proteins, quinones affect various cell signaling pathways that promote and protect against inflammatory responses and cell damage. These actions vary with the specific quinone and its concentration. Effects of exposure to naphthoquinones as environmental chemicals can vary with the physical state, i.e., whether the quinone is particle bound or is in the vapor state. The exacerbation of pulmonary diseases by air pollutants can, in part, be attributed to quinone action.

  6. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  7. Further evidence that naphthoquinone inhibits Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luciana Lemos Rangel; Portes, Juliana de Araujo; de Araújo, Marlon Heggdorne; Silva, Jéssica Lays Sant'ana; Rennó, Magdalena Nascimento; Netto, Chaquip Daher; da Silva, Alcides José Monteiro; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; De Souza, Wanderley; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widely disseminated disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite. Standard treatment causes many side effects, such as depletion of bone marrow cells, skin rashes and gastrointestinal implications. Therefore, it is necessary to find chemotherapeutic alternatives for the treatment of this disease. It was shown that a naphthoquinone derivative compound is active against T. gondii, RH strain, with an IC50 around 2.5 μM. Here, three different naphthoquinone derivative compounds with activity against leukemia cells and breast carcinoma cell were tested against T. gondii (RH strain) infected LLC-MK2 cell line. All the compounds were able to inhibit parasite growth in vitro, but one of them showed an IC50 activity below 1 μM after 48 h of treatment. The compounds showed low toxicity to the host cell. In addition, these compounds were able to induce tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion confirmed by morphological changes, Dolichus biflorus lectin cyst wall labeling and characterization of amylopectin granules in the parasites by electron microscopy analysis using the Thierry technique. Furthermore, the compounds induced alterations on the ultrastructure of the parasite. Taken together, our results point to the naphthoquinone derivative (LQB 151) as a potential compound for the development of new drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  8. 1,4-naphthoquinones: from oxidative damage to cellular and inter-cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Hou, Xiaoqing; Jacob, Claus

    2014-09-17

    Naphthoquinones may cause oxidative stress in exposed cells and, therefore, affect redox signaling. Here, contributions of redox cycling and alkylating properties of quinones (both natural and synthetic, such as plumbagin, juglone, lawsone, menadione, methoxy-naphthoquinones, and others) to cellular and inter-cellular signaling processes are discussed: (i) naphthoquinone-induced Nrf2-dependent modulation of gene expression and its potentially beneficial outcome; (ii) the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor by naphthoquinones, resulting in altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of redox signaling are properties of naphthoquinones that render them interesting leads for the development of novel compounds of potential use in various therapeutic settings.

  9. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay.

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of naphthoquinones from Impatiens balsamina.

    PubMed

    Sakunphueak, Athip; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2012-01-01

    Lawsone (1), lawsone methyl ether (2), and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone (3) are the main naphthoquinones in the leaf extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae). Antimicrobial activities of these three naphthoquinones against dermatophyte fungi, yeast, aerobic bacteria and facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria were evaluated by determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs or MFCs) using a modified agar dilution method. Compound 2 showed the highest antimicrobial activity. It showed antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi and Candida albicans with the MICs and MFCs in the ranges of 3.9-23.4 and 7.8-23.4 µg mL(-1), respectively, and also had some antibacterial activity against aerobic, facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria with MICs in the range of 23.4-93.8, 31.2-62.5 and 125 µg mL(-1), respectively. Compound 1 showed only moderate antimicrobial activity against dermatophytes (MICs and MFCs in the ranges of 62.5-250 and 125-250 µg mL(-1), respectively), but had low potency against aerobic bacteria, and was not active against C. albicans and facultative anaerobic bacteria. In contrast, 3 showed significant antimicrobial activity only against Staphylococus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis (MIC and MBC of 46.9 and 93.8 µg mL(-1), respectively).

  11. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  12. Modulation of Basophils' Degranulation and Allergy-Related Enzymes by Monomeric and Dimeric Naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R.; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Oliveira, Jorge M. A.; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disorders are characterized by an abnormal immune response towards non-infectious substances, being associated with life quality reduction and potential life-threatening reactions. The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders demands for new and effective anti-allergic treatments. Here we test the anti-allergic potential of monomeric (juglone, menadione, naphthazarin, plumbagin) and dimeric (diospyrin and diosquinone) naphthoquinones. Inhibition of RBL-2H3 rat basophils' degranulation by naphthoquinones was assessed using two complementary stimuli: IgE/antigen and calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, we tested for the inhibition of leukotrienes production in IgE/antigen-stimulated cells, and studied hyaluronidase and lipoxidase inhibition by naphthoquinones in cell-free assays. Naphthazarin (0.1 µM) decreased degranulation induced by IgE/antigen but not A23187, suggesting a mechanism upstream of the calcium increase, unlike diospyrin (10 µM) that reduced degranulation in A23187-stimulated cells. Naphthoquinones were weak hyaluronidase inhibitors, but all inhibited soybean lipoxidase with the most lipophilic diospyrin, diosquinone and menadione being the most potent, thus suggesting a mechanism of competition with natural lipophilic substrates. Menadione was the only naphthoquinone reducing leukotriene C4 production, with a maximal effect at 5 µM. This work expands the current knowledge on the biological properties of naphthoquinones, highlighting naphthazarin, diospyrin and menadione as potential lead compounds for structural modification in the process of improving and developing novel anti-allergic drugs. PMID:24587235

  13. MEASUREMENT OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE-1,2-OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF NAPHTHALENE TO F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ) are the major metabolites of naphthalene that are thought to be responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this chemical. We measured cysteinyl adducts of these metabolites in ...

  14. Studies on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogi, V.; Artini, D.; de Carneri, I.; Castellino, S.; Dradi, E.; Logemann, W.; Meinardi, G.; Di Somma, M.; Tosolini, G.; Vecchi, E.

    1970-01-01

    1. New halogenated 1,4-naphthoquinones were synthesized and together with other known 1,4-naphthoquinones, were screened for antibacterial activity by a turbidimetric method, and for antifungal activity by the diffusion method on agar plates. 2. The half-wave potentials and the influence on the oxidative phosphorylation of some of these compounds were determined. 3. 2-chloro-3,2′-chloro-ethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (half-wave potential=-187 mV) was the most active compound, completely inhibiting cell respiration. 4. While the natural active naphthoquinones, vitamin K and ubiquinones, possess, as substituent, the electron repelling methyl group, the microbiologically active 1,4-naphthoquinones are substituted, in the quinone moiety, with electron attracting groups such as OH or Cl. 5. The half-wave potentials can give only an initial indication of the activity of the compounds studied; a good correlation, on the contrary, can be found between the ultraviolet spectra of such compounds and their activity which seems to depend on the ability of active compounds to exist in an extensively conjugated structure and to form hydrogen bonds. PMID:4992959

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of naphthoquinone-coumarin conjugates as topoisomerase II inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hueso-Falcón, Idaira; Amesty, Ángel; Anaissi-Afonso, Laura; Lorenzo-Castrillejo, Isabel; Machín, Félix; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous Topoisomerase II docking studies of naphthoquinone derivatives, a series of naphthoquinone-coumarin conjugates was synthesized through a multicomponent reaction from aromatic aldehydes, 4-hydroxycoumarin and 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone. The hybrid structures were evaluated against the α isoform of human topoisomerase II (hTopoIIα), Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase and E. coli Topoisomerase I. All tested compounds inhibited the hTopoIIα-mediated relaxation of negatively supercoiled circular DNA in the low micromolar range. This inhibition was specific since neither DNA Gyrase nor Topoisomerase I were affected. Cleavage assays pointed out that naphthoquinone-coumarins act by catalytically inhibiting hTopoIIα. ATPase assays and molecular docking studies further pointed out that the mode of action is related to the hTopoIIα ATP-binding site.

  16. Thiourea-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of a naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Carsten S; Bräse, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A variety of organocatalysts were screened for the catalysis of the naphthoquinone monoketal Diels-Alder reaction. In this study we found that Schreiner's thiourea catalyst 10 and Jacobson's thiourea catalyst 12 facilitate the cycloaddition of the sterically hindered naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile 3 with diene 4. The use of thiourea catalysis allowed for the first time the highly selective synthesis of the exo-product 2a in up to 63% yield. In this reaction a new quaternary center was built. The so formed cycloaddition product 2a represents the ABC tricycle of beticolin 0 (1) and is also a valuable model substrate for the total synthesis of related natural products.

  17. Naphthoquinone spiroketal with allelochemical activity from the new endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation from the culture of Edenia gomezpompae, a new endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) from the ecological reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico, led to the isolation of four naphthoquinone spiroketals, including three new compounds. ...

  18. Synthesis of Succinimide-Containing Chromones, Naphthoquinones, and Xanthones under Rh(III) Catalysis: Evaluation of Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Saegun; De, Umasankar; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Han, Sangil; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, In Su

    2016-12-16

    The weakly coordinating ketone group directed C-H functionalizations of chromones, 1,4-naphthoquinones, and xanthones with various maleimides under rhodium(III) catalysis are described. These protocols efficiently provide a range of succinimide-containing chromones, naphthoquinones, and xanthones with excellent site selectivity and functional group compatibility. All synthetic compounds were screened for in vitro anticancer activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7). In particular, compounds 7aa and 7ca with a naphthoquinone scaffold were found to be highly cytotoxic, with an activity competitive with anticancer agent doxorubicin.

  19. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 μM juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 μM juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 μM juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 μM juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 μM juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound.

  20. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of naphthoquinones for Ames Salmonella tester strains

    SciTech Connect

    Hakura, Atsushi; Mochida, Hisatoshi; Tsutsui, Yoshie; Yamatsu, Kiyomi

    1994-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in quinone cytotoxicity, especially mutagenicity, are still largely unknown. In order to better understand the molecular aspects of the mechanisms of quinone mutagenicity and cytotoxicity, we examined them by using a series of 13 simple structural naphthoquinone (NQ) derivatives for 9 Ames Salmonella mutagenicity tester strains in the presence or absence of liver homogenate S9 mix from rats induced with phenobarbital and 5,6-benzoflavone. Most NQs used in this study showed mutagenicity with and/or without S9 mix. The most potent mutagenic NQ was 2,3-dichloro-1,4-NQ, with mutagenicity of 18 induced revertents/nmol/plate for strain TA104 without S9 mix. Among the strains used, TA104, which is sensitive to oxidative mutagens, was the most sensitive to the NQs, and the second most sensitive strain was TA2637, which detects bulky DNA adducts. The relationship of mutagenic potency to the one-electron reduction potential with TA104 suggested that the higher redox potential NQs were more mutagenic than the lower redox potential NQs. The cytotoxic effect of the NQs was largely dependent on the structures of their substituents. It was suggested that the higher redox potential NQs were more cytotoxic than the lower redox potential NQs for all of the strains used, in contrast to the mutagenicity of the NQs. The presence of S9 mix decreased the cytotoxic effect of the NQs, the extent of which was also largely dependent on the structures of their substituents and is in accordance with the order of the height of the one-electron reduction potentials. These results indicate that the mutagenicity of NQs in Salmonella typhimurium was due to oxidative damage produced with activated oxygen species such as hydroxy radical and superoxide anion radical, which are generated as a result of the reduction of the NQs, and to bulky NQ-DNA adducts accounting for their electrophilic property, whose contribution was largely dependent on the substituents of NQs.

  1. The study of naphthoquinones and their complexes with DNA by using Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: new insight into interactions of DNA with plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vaverkova, Veronika; Vrana, Oldrich; Adam, Vojtech; Pekarek, Tomas; Jampilek, Josef; Babula, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Naphthoquinones represent the group of plant secondary metabolites with cytotoxic properties based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species and interfere with the processes of cell respiration. Due to this fact, the possible cytotoxic mechanisms on cellular and subcellular levels are investigated intensively. There are many targets of cytotoxic action on the cellular level; however, DNA is a critical target of many cytotoxic compounds. Due to the cytotoxic properties of naphthoquinones, it is necessary to study the processes of naphthoquinones, DNA interactions (1,4-naphthoquinone, binapthoquinone, juglone, lawsone, plumbagin), especially by using modern analytical techniques. In our work, the Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the possible binding sites of the naphthoquinones on the DNA and to characterize the bond of naphthoquinone to DNA. Experimental data reveals the relationships between the perturbations of structure-sensitive Raman bands and the types of the naphthoquinones involved. The modification of DNA by the studied naphthoquinones leads to the nonspecific interaction, which causes the transition of B-DNA into A-DNA conformation. The change of the B-conformation of DNA for all measured DNA modified by naphthoquinones except plumbagin is obvious.

  2. The Study of Naphthoquinones and Their Complexes with DNA by Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: New Insight into Interactions of DNA with Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Vrana, Oldrich; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    Naphthoquinones represent the group of plant secondary metabolites with cytotoxic properties based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species and interfere with the processes of cell respiration. Due to this fact, the possible cytotoxic mechanisms on cellular and subcellular levels are investigated intensively. There are many targets of cytotoxic action on the cellular level; however, DNA is a critical target of many cytotoxic compounds. Due to the cytotoxic properties of naphthoquinones, it is necessary to study the processes of naphthoquinones, DNA interactions (1,4-naphthoquinone, binapthoquinone, juglone, lawsone, plumbagin), especially by using modern analytical techniques. In our work, the Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the possible binding sites of the naphthoquinones on the DNA and to characterize the bond of naphthoquinone to DNA. Experimental data reveals the relationships between the perturbations of structure-sensitive Raman bands and the types of the naphthoquinones involved. The modification of DNA by the studied naphthoquinones leads to the nonspecific interaction, which causes the transition of B-DNA into A-DNA conformation. The change of the B-conformation of DNA for all measured DNA modified by naphthoquinones except plumbagin is obvious. PMID:25045679

  3. A naphthoquinone/SAM-mediated biosensor for olive oil polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Asma; Kuliček, Jaroslav; Raouafi, Noureddine

    2016-10-15

    We report on the design of an amperometric tyrosinase-based biosensor using a self-assembled monolayer of ω-mercaptopropyl naphthoquinone on gold electrode as an electron mediator. Under optimal conditions (i.e. pH=7.4 and E=-0.35V vs. KCl), the chronoamperometric response of the naphthoquinone-modified bioelectrode to successive additions of phenol was evaluated. The biosensor exhibits sensitive bioelectrocatalytic response at a working potential of -0.35V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat.KCl), reaching the steady-state current within 40s after each addition of phenol solution with a range of 0-135μM and a limit of detection and quantification which are 0.019μM and 0.0633μM, respectively. The bioelectrode was used to determine the content in polyphenol in a local virgin olive oil.

  4. Thiourea-catalyzed Diels–Alder reaction of a naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    Summary A variety of organocatalysts were screened for the catalysis of the naphthoquinone monoketal Diels–Alder reaction. In this study we found that Schreiner's thiourea catalyst 10 and Jacobson's thiourea catalyst 12 facilitate the cycloaddition of the sterically hindered naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile 3 with diene 4. The use of thiourea catalysis allowed for the first time the highly selective synthesis of the exo-product 2a in up to 63% yield. In this reaction a new quaternary center was built. The so formed cycloaddition product 2a represents the ABC tricycle of beticolin 0 (1) and is also a valuable model substrate for the total synthesis of related natural products. PMID:23946836

  5. Organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of unprotected 3-substituted oxindoles to 1,4-naphthoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Yun-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary We reported the first example of organocatalytic Michael addition of unprotected 3-prochiral oxindoles 1 to 1,4-naphthoquinone. Quinidine derivative (DHQD)2PYR was found to be able to catalyze this reaction in up to 83% ee, with moderate to excellent yields. This method could be used for the synthesis of enantioenriched 3,3-diaryloxindoles, and the catalytic synthesis of which was unprecedented. PMID:23019472

  6. Synthetic 1,4-Pyran Naphthoquinones Are Potent Inhibitors of Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Emmerson C. B.; Amorim, Raquel; da Silva, Fernando C.; Rocha, David R.; Papa, Michelle P.; de Arruda, Luciana B.; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a serious public health problem in endemic areas of the world where 2.5 billion people live. Clinical manifestations of the Dengue infection range from a mild fever to fatal cases of hemorrhagic fever. Although being the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral infection in the world, until now no strategies are available for effective prevention or control of Dengue infection. In this scenario, the development of compounds that specifically inhibit viral replication with minimal effects to the human hosts will have a substantial effect in minimizing the symptoms of the disease and help to prevent viral transmission in the affected population. The aim of this study was to screen compounds with potential activity against dengue virus from a library of synthetic naphthoquinones. Several 1,2- and 1,4-pyran naphthoquinones were synthesized by a three-component reaction of lawsone, aldehyde (formaldehyde or arylaldehydes) and different dienophiles adequately substituted. These compounds were tested for the ability to inhibit the ATPase activity of the viral NS3 enzyme in in vitro assays and the replication of dengue virus in cultured cells. We have identified two 1,4-pyran naphthoquinones, which inhibited dengue virus replication in mammal cells by 99.0% and three others that reduced the dengue virus ATPase activity of NS3 by two-fold in in vitro assays. PMID:24376541

  7. Naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides for treatment of ship's ballast water: toxicity to phytoplankton and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Dawson, R; Cutler, S J; Cutler, H G; Orano-Dawson, C E; Graneli, E

    2007-03-01

    Current UN International Maritime Organization legislation mandates the phased introduction of ballast water treatment technologies capable of complying with rigorous standards related to removal of waterborne organisms. Doubts concerning mechanical treatments at very high ballasting rates have renewed interest in chemical treatment for very large vessels. High removal rates for biota require broad spectrum biocides that are safe to transport and handle and pose no corrosion problems for ships' structure. The current study focuses on the naphthoquinone group of compounds and extends a previously reported set of screening bioassays with an investigation of the toxicity of four naphthoquinones to select protists and prokaryotes, representative of typical ballast water organisms. Vegetative dinoflagellate cysts exposed to 2.0 mg/L of the naphthoquinones juglone, plumbagin, menadione and naphthazarin showed varying degrees of chloroplast destruction, with menadione demonstrating the most potency. Laboratory and mesocosm exposures of various phytoplankton genera to menadione showed toxicity at 1.0 mg/L. Juglone demonstrated the most bactericidal activity as judged by a Deltatox assay (Vibrio fischeri) and by acridine orange counts of natural bacterial populations.

  8. Naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in p53 null H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Chien-Chun; Lu, Te-Jung; Tseng, Chih-Hsiang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lee, Hong-Zin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lu, Te-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1), senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment.

  9. Structural analysis of naphthoquinone protein adducts with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and the scoring algorithm for spectral analysis (SALSA).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fagen; Bartels, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The relative reactivities of various naphthoquinone isomers (1,4-, 1,2- and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) to two test proteins, apomyoglobin and human hemoglobin, were evaluated via liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). The structural characterization of the resulting adducts was also obtained by LC/ESI-MS analysis of the intact proteins. The reactive sites of apomyoglobin and human hemoglobin with 1,4-naphthoquinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone were also identified through characterization of adducted tryptic peptides by use of high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS), TurboSEQUEST, and the scoring algorithm for spectral analysis (SALSA). Four adducted peptides, which were formed by nucleophilic addition of a lysine amino acid residue to 1,4-naphthoquinone, were also identified, as was an adducted peptide from incubation of 1,2-naphthoquinone with apomyoglobin. In the case of incubation of human hemoglobin with the two naphthoquinones, two adducted peptides were identified from the N-terminal valine modification of the alpha and beta chains of human hemoglobin. The adducted protein formation may imply that naphthalene produces its in vivo toxicity through 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone metabolites reacting with biomolecular proteins.

  10. Evaluation and structure-activity relationship study of acute toxicity of naphthoquinones to Photobacterium phosphoreum, Photobacterium T3B.

    PubMed

    Ding, Feng; Guo, Jing; Li, Zhen; Li, Li Ying; Zhang, Jin Yang; Zhang, Jin Hua; Lian, Jie; Song, Wen Hua; Zhu, Lin

    2010-08-01

    The acute toxicities of five naphthoquinone compounds to Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined. We evaluated the mechanism of toxicity using the structure-activity relationship technique. The results showed that some factors, including the species of substituents, shape/size of molecule and oil-water partition coefficient (log P) played the important roles in the interaction between the naphthoquinones and the target. Among of these, the toxicities of Atovaquone and Buparvaquone were lower than the other naphthoquinones we tested because of the alkyl-substitution with the bigger volume and strong hydrophobicity. Conversely, Menadione had the highest toxicity because of the appropriate log P and shape/size of molecule resulting in the easier interaction with the target.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Quinoline-5,8-diones as Antimalarial and Schistosomicidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cesar-Rodo, Elena; Bertrand, Benoît; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Day, Latasha; Johann, Laure; Elhabiri, Mourad; Becker, Katja; Williams, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the solubility of polysubstituted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was achieved by introducing nitrogen in two different positions of the naphthoquinone core, at C-5 and at C-8 of menadione through a two-step, straightforward synthesis based on the regioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The antimalarial and the antischistosomal activities of these polysubstituted aza-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives were evaluated and led to the selection of distinct compounds for antimalarial versus antischistosomal action. The AgII-assisted oxidative radical decarboxylation of the phenyl acetic acids using AgNO3 and ammonium peroxodisulfate was modified to generate the 3-picolinyl-menadione with improved pharmacokinetic parameters, high antimalarial effects and capacity to inhibit the formation of β-hematin. PMID:22777178

  12. SERS investigations of 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anuratha, M; Jawahar, A; Umadevi, M; Sathe, V G; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Meenakumari, V; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2013-03-15

    In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a solution combustion method with glycine as fuel. The prepared silver nanoparticles show an fcc crystalline structure with a particle size of 39 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (DBNQ) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles were investigated. The C-C stretching modes were enhanced and they were broaden in SERS spectrum with respect to normal Raman spectrum. The spectral analysis reveals that the DBNQ adsorbed flat-on orientation on the silver surface. DFT calculations are also performed to study the vibrational features of DBNQ.

  13. New lanostanes and naphthoquinones isolated from Antrodia salmonea and their antioxidative burst activity in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chien-Chang; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Don, Ming-Jaw; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Wang, Wen-Yen; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chang, Tun-Tschu

    2006-02-01

    Four new compounds were isolated from the basidiomata of the fungus Antrodia salmonea, a newly identified species of Antrodia (Aphyllophorales) in Taiwan. These new compounds are named as lanosta-8,24-diene-3beta,15alpha,21-triol (1), 24-methylenelanost-8-ene-3beta,15alpha,21-triol (2), 2,3-dimethoxy-5-(2',5'-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7-methyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinone (3), and 2,3-dimethoxy-6-(2',5'-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7-methyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinone (4), respectively. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. An in vitro cellular functional assay was performed to evaluate their anti-oxidative burst activity in human leukocytes. They showed inhibitory effects against phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a direct protein kinase C activator, induced oxidative burst in neutrophils (PMN) and mononuclear cells (MNC) with 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 3.5 to 25.8 microM. The potency order of these compounds in PMA-activated leukocytes was as 1 > 3 > 4 > 2. They were relatively less effective in formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), a G-protein coupled receptor agonist, induced oxidative burst, except for compounds 3 and 4 in fMLP-activated PMN. These results indicated that three (1, 3, and 4) of these four newly identified compounds displayed anti-oxidative effect in human leukocytes with different potency and might confer anti-inflammatory activity to these drugs.

  14. Induced production of antifungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Pnini-Cohen, Smadar; Rahamim, Yocheved; Sionov, Edward; Segal, Esther; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zilberstein, Aviah

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes spp. are carnivorous plants that have developed insect capturing traps, evolved by specific modification of the leaf tips, and are able to utilize insect degradation products as nutritional precursors. A chitin-induced antifungal ability, based on the production and secretion to the trap liquid of droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone, is described here. Such specific secretion uniquely occurred when chitin injection was used as the eliciting agent and probably reflects a certain kind of defence mechanism that has been evolved for protecting the carnivory-based provision of nutritional precursors. The pitcher liquid containing droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone at 3:1 or 4:1 molar ratio, as well as the purified naphthoquinones, exerted an antifungal effect on a wide range of plant and human fungal pathogens. When tested against Candida and Aspergillus spp., the concentrations required for achieving inhibitory and fungicidal effects were significantly lower than those causing cytotoxicity in cells of the human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. These naturally secreted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, that are assumed to act via semiquinone enhancement of free radical production, may offer a new lead to develop alternative antifungal drugs with reduced selectable pressure for potentially evolved resistance. PMID:20018905

  15. Targeting of Helicobacter pylori thymidylate synthase ThyX by non-mitotoxic hydroxy-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Skouloubris, Stéphane; Djaout, Kamel; Lamarre, Isabelle; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Anger, Karine; Briffotaux, Julien; Liebl, Ursula; de Reuse, Hilde; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    ThyX is an essential thymidylate synthase that is mechanistically and structurally unrelated to the functionally analogous human enzyme, thus providing means for selective inhibition of bacterial growth. To identify novel compounds with anti-bacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori, based on our earlier biochemical and structural analyses, we designed a series of eighteen 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (2-OH-1,4-NQs) that target HpThyX. Our lead-like molecules markedly inhibited the NADPH oxidation and 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate-forming activities of HpThyX enzyme in vitro, with inhibitory constants in the low nanomolar range. The identification of non-cytotoxic and non-mitotoxic 2-OH-1,4-NQ inhibitors permitted testing their in vivo efficacy in a mouse model for H. pylori infections. Despite the widely assumed toxicity of naphthoquinones (NQs), we identified tight-binding ThyX inhibitors that were tolerated in mice and can be associated with a modest effect in reducing the number of colonizing bacteria. Our results thus provide proof-of-concept that targeting ThyX enzymes is a highly feasible strategy for the development of therapies against H. pylori and a high number of other ThyX-dependent pathogenic bacteria. We also demonstrate that chemical reactivity of NQs does not prevent their exploitation as anti-microbial compounds, particularly when mitotoxicity screening is used to prioritize these compounds for further experimentation. PMID:26040760

  16. Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.

    PubMed

    Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis.

  17. Molecular basis for covalent inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by a 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone small molecule.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Stefano; Uliassi, Elisa; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Prati, Federica; Bergamini, Christian; Amorati, Riccardo; Paredi, Gianluca; Margiotta, Marilena; Conti, Paola; Costi, Maria Paola; Kaiser, Marcel; Cavalli, Andrea; Fato, Romana; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2017-01-12

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has recently gained attention as an antiprotozoan and anticancer drug target. We have previously identified 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone as an inhibitor of both Trypanosoma brucei and human GAPDH. Herein, through multiple chemical, biochemical, and biological studies, and through the design of analogs, we confirmed the formation of a covalent adduct, we clarified the inhibition mechanism, and we demonstrated antitrypanosomal, antiplasmodial, and cytotoxic activities in cell cultures. The overall results lent support to the hypothesis that 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone binds the GAPDH catalytic cysteine covalently through a phenolate displacement mechanism. By investigating the reactivity of 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and its analogs with four GAPDH homologs, we showed that the covalent inhibition is not preceded by the formation of a strong non-covalent complex. However, an up to fivefold difference in inactivation rates among homologs hinted at structural or electrostatic differences of their active sites that could be exploited to further design kinetically selective inhibitors. Moreover, we preliminarily showed that 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone displays selectivity for GAPDHs over two other cysteine-dependent enzymes, supporting its suitability as a warhead starting fragment for the design of novel inhibitors.

  18. Naphthoquinone spiroketals and organic extracts from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as potential herbicides.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, M Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

    2014-04-23

    From the fermentation mycelium of the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae were obtained several phytotoxic compounds including two new members of the naphthoquinone spiroketal family, namely, palmarumycin EG1 (1) and preussomerin EG4 (4). In addition, preussomerins EG1-EG3 (7-9) and palmarumycins CP19 (2), CP17 (3), and CP2 (6), as well as ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), were obtained. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 are new to this species. The structures of palmarumycins CP19 (2) and CP17 (3) were unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis. The isolates and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae caused significant inhibition of seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Solanum lycopersicum, and Echinochloa crus-galli. The treatments also affected respiration on intact mitochondria isolated from spinach.

  19. Naphthoquinone glycosides for bioelectroanalytical enumeration of the faecal indicator Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Jamie; Han, Evelina J Y; Wang, Victor B; Seviour, Thomas W; Marsili, Enrico; Loo, Joachim S C; Wuertz, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Microbial water quality monitoring for the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) is a mandatory activity in many countries and is key in public health protection. Despite technological advances and a need for methodological improvements, chromogenic and fluorogenic enzymatic techniques remain the mainstays of water quality monitoring for both public health agencies and regulated utilities. We demonstrated that bioelectroanalytical approaches to FIB enumeration are possible and can be achieved using commercially available enzyme-specific resorufin glycosides, although these are expensive, not widely available or designed for purpose. Following this, we designed two naphthoquinone glycosides which performed better, achieving Escherichia coli detection in the range 5.0 × 10(2) to 5.0 × 10(5) CFU ml(-1) 22-54% quicker than commercially available resorufin glycosides. The molecular design of the naphthoquinone glycosides requires fewer synthetic steps allowing them to be produced for as little as US$50 per kg. Tests with environmental samples demonstrated the low tendency for abiotic interference and that, despite specificity being maintained between β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase, accurate enumeration of E. coli in environmental samples necessitates development of a selective medium. In comparison to a commercially available detection method, which has U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval, our approach performed better at high organism concentrations, detecting 500 organisms in 9 h compared with 13.5 h for the commercial method. Bioelectroanalytical detection is comparable to current approved methods and with further development could result in improved detection times. A recent trend for low-cost open-source hardware means that automated, potentiostatically controlled E. coli detection systems could be constructed for less than US$100 per channel.

  20. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  1. Naphthoquinone based Chemosensor 2-(2‧-aminoethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone: Detection of metal ions, X-ray -crystal structures and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Amit; Ware, Anuja P.; Bhand, Sujit; Chakrovarty, Debamitra; Gonnade, Rajesh; Pingale, Subhash S.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-06-01

    Naphthoquinone based Chemosensor 2; 2-(2‧-aminoethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-napthoquinone have been synthesized and characterized. Chemosensor 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn and shows extensive intramolecular as well as intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Each molecule of Chemosensor 2 showed interaction with five neighboring molecules via C-H⋯N, N-H⋯N, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O interactions. Slipped π-π stacking interaction was observed in adjacent quinonoid and benzenoid rings. Chemosensor abilities of Chemosensor 2 ligand have been evaluated with metal ions viz. Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Cr3+, Hg2+, La3+ and Cd2+ in methanol, methanol-water mixture and in presence of mild base triethylamine. Stoichiometry of Chemosensor 2 with metal ions such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+and Co2+ ions was determined by Jobs method in methanol and were found as 1:1 for Cu2+and 2:1 for Ni2+, Zn2+ Co2+. The variation in the metal ligand ratio is observed in aqueous media for Cu2+. Chemosensor 2 can be used selectively for naked eye detection of Cu2+ ions. The association constant obtained in methanol shows the trend Cu2+>Ni2+>Co2+. Cu2+ and two (Ni-1 and Ni-2) Ni2+ complexes were synthesized. Ni-2 complex showed coordination of Chemosensor 2 ligands was through pyridine nitrogen's only. The Chemosensor 2 and its deprotonated forms in methanol, water and triethylamine were also studied by TD-DFT studies.

  2. Enantioselective Diels-Alder approach to C-3-oxygenated angucyclinones from (SS)-2-(p-tolysulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M C; Urbano, A; Di Vitta, C

    2000-03-03

    Chiral racemic vinylcyclohexenes 2, bearing oxygenated substituents and/or a methyl group at the C-5 position of the cyclohexene ring, were submitted to Diels-Alder reactions with enantiomerically pure (SS)-(2-p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone [(+)-1]. The domino cycloaddition/pyrolytic sulfoxide elimination process led to the formation of enantiomerically enriched angularly tetracyclic quinones anti-6 and syn-7, which were obtained from the kinetic resolution of the racemic diene. In all cases, (SS)-(2-p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone reacted from the less hindered face of the more reactive s-cis conformation, to form products in good enantiomeric excesses. Steric effects and torsional interactions in the corresponding approaches account for the observed pi-facial diastereoselectivities at both partners. The usefulness of this methodology is illustrated with the four-step totally asymmetric synthesis of the C-3-oxygenated angucyclinone derivative (-)-8-deoxytetrangomycin 10 in 26% overall yield and with 50% enantiomeric purity.

  3. Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-08-26

    Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33-88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  4. Naphthoquinone-Oxindole Alkaloids, Coprisidins A and B, from a Gut-Associated Bacterium in the Dung Beetle, Copris tripartitus.

    PubMed

    Um, Soohyun; Bach, Duc-Hiep; Shin, Bora; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Bang, Hea-Son; Oh, Ki-Bong; Lee, Sang Kook; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2016-11-18

    Coprisidins A and B (1 and 2) were isolated from a gut-associated Streptomyces sp. in the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the compounds were determined to be the first examples of natural naphthoquinone-oxindole alkaloids. Coprisidin A was found to inhibit the action of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and coprisidin B showed activity for the induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.

  5. Design of anti-parasitic and anti-fungal hydroxy-naphthoquinones that are less susceptible to drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Louise M.; Lanteri, Charlotte A.; O’Neil, Michael T.; Johnson, Jacob D.; Gribble, Gordon W.; Trumpower, Bernard L.

    2016-01-01

    Atovaquone is a hydroxy-naphthoquinone that is used to treat parasitic and fungal infections including Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Pneumocystis jivorecii (pneumonia) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis). It blocks mitochondrial oxidation of ubiquinol in these organisms by binding to the ubiquinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Failure of atovaquone treatment has been linked to the appearance of mutations in the mitochondrially encoded gene for cytochrome b. In order to determine the optimal parameters required for inhibition of respiration in parasites and pathogenic fungi and overcome drug resistance, we have synthesized and tested the inhibitory activity of novel hydroxy-naphthoquinones against blood stage P. falciparum and liver stage P. berghei and against cytochrome bc1 complexes isolated from yeast strains bearing mutations in cytochrome b associated with resistance in Plasmodium, Pneumocystis, and Toxoplasma. One of the new inhibitors is highly effective against an atovaquone resistant Plasmodium and illustrates the type of modification to the hydroxy-naphthoquinone ring of atovaquone that might mitigate drug resistance. PMID:21251932

  6. Surface chemistry and spectroscopy studies on 1,4-naphthoquinone in cell membrane models using Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nadia; Lopes, Carla C; Pernambuco Filho, Paulo Castanho A; Carneiro, Bruna R; Caseli, Luciano

    2013-07-15

    Investigating the role of drugs whose pharmaceutical activity is associated with cell membranes is fundamental to comprehending the biochemical processes that occur on membrane surfaces. In this work, we examined the action of 1,4-naphthoquinone in lipid Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface, which served as a model for half of a membrane, and investigated the molecular interactions involved with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. The surface pressure-area isotherms exhibited a noticeable shift to a lower area in relation to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) lipid monolayers, which indicated a disruption of the monolayer structure and solubilisation of the lipids towards the aqueous subphase. To better correlate to the action of this drug in biological membrane events, cell cultures that represented tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells were spread onto the air-water interface, and 1,4-naphthoquinone was then incorporated. While only slight changes were observed in the non-tumorigenic cells upon drug incorporation, significant changes were observed in the tumorigenic cells, on which the organisation of the Langmuir monolayers was disrupted as evidenced by tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. This work then shows that this drug interacts preferentially for specific surfaces. In simplified models, it has a higher effect for the negative charged DPPS rather than the zwitterionic DPPC; and for complex cell cultures, 1,4-naphthoquinone presents a more significant effect for that representing tumorigenic cells.

  7. In vitro toxicity of naphthalene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone on human CFU-GM from female and male cord blood donors.

    PubMed

    Croera, C; Ferrario, D; Gribaldo, L

    2008-09-01

    In animal models, naphthalene toxicity has been studied in different target organs and has been shown to be gender-dependent and metabolism related. In humans, it is readily absorbed and is metabolised by several cytochrome P450's. Naphthalene and its metabolites can cross the placental barrier and consequently may affect foetal tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of naphthalene and its metabolites, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone, on human haematopoietic foetal progenitors (CFU-GM) derived from newborn male and female donors. The mRNA expression of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was also evaluated. Naphthalene did not affect CFU-GM proliferation, while 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and particularly 1,4-naphthoquinone strongly inhibited the clonogenicity of progenitors, from both male and female donors. mRNA of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was not expressed neither at the basal level, nor after naphthalene treatment, while treatment with 1,4-naphthoquinone induced expression of both enzymes in both genders, with Cyp1A2 being expressed four times more than Cyp3A4. Female CFU-GM was significantly more sensitive to 1,4-naphthoquinone than male and after treatment both enzymes were expressed twice as much as in the male precursors. These results suggest that a gender-specific 1,4-naphthoquinone metabolic pathway may exist, which gives rise to unknown toxic metabolites.

  8. Production of naphthoquinones and phenolics by a novel isolate Fusarium solani PSC-R of Palk Bay and their industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Rathna, Janarthanam; Yazhini, Kumanan Bharathi; Ajilda, Antony Alex Kennedy; Prabu, Halliah Guru Mallesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-08-01

    The present study was attempted to enhance the production of naphthoquinones and phenolics by Fusarium solani PSC-R of Palk Bay origin, which exhibited potent antibacterial, antioxidant and dyeing activity. Maximum productivity of naphthoquinones and phenolics was achieved in potato infusion medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Addition of nitrogen sources to the medium adversely affected the production of both naphthoquinones and phenolics. An initial pH of 5 and incubation at 31°C for six days at 140rpm was found to increase the yield (123.65mg/g of DW), concentration (867.33mg/l) and total naphthoquinones (602.8μM/g DW) by 7.58, 10.44 and 3.68-fold respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity associated with the phenolics of PSC-R increased by 1.5-fold in the optimized medium. The obtained results document the effective means of enhanced production of naphthoquinones and phenolics in the suspension culture of F. solani PSC-R at bioreactor level.

  9. Proteomics Analyses of Bacillus subtilis after Treatment with Plumbagin, a Plant-Derived Naphthoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Rapole, Srikanth; Panda, Dulal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance among diverse classes of microbes are global health concerns and a prime focus of omics systems science applications in novel drug discovery. Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone, a natural product that exhibits antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of plumbagin against Bacillus subtilis using two complementary proteomics techniques: two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Comparative quantitative proteomics analysis of plumbagin treated and untreated control samples identified differential expression of 230 proteins (1% FDR, 1.5 fold-change and ≥2 peptides) in B. subtilis after plumbagin treatment. Pathway analysis involving the differentially expressed proteins suggested that plumbagin effectively increases heme and protein biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid synthesis was significantly reduced. Gene expression and metabolic activity assays further corroborated the proteomics findings. We anticipate that plumbagin blocks the cell division by altering the membrane permeability required for energy generation. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, offering new insights, at proteome level, for the putative mode(s) of action of plumbagin and attendant cellular targets in B. subtilis. The findings also suggest new ways forward for the modern omics-guided drug target discovery, building on traditional plant medicine. PMID:25562197

  10. A new anthraquinone and a new naphthoquinone from the whole plant of Spermacoce latifolia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Shen, Qing-Xiang; Cao, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Min; Long, Shi-Yin; Wang, Zong-Bao; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2017-03-30

    A phytochemical study on the whole plant of Spermacoce latifolia led to the isolation of a new anthraquinone, 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1), and a new naphthoquinone, (2R)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-dehydroiso-α-lapachone (2), together with three known anthraquinones (3-5). Their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, ESI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS techniques. All the compounds were isolated from S. latifolia for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 showed significant antibacterial activity toward Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 0.9 to 31.2 μg/ml, and compound 4 aslo exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with a MIC value 62.5 μg/ml. Compound 1 was further revealed to show significant in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.653 mM.

  11. Herbicidal action of 2-hydroxy-3-alkyl-1,4-naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Jewess, Philip J; Higgins, James; Berry, Kate J; Moss, Stephen R; Boogaard, Adrian B; Khambay, Bhupinder P S

    2002-03-01

    The main mode of herbicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-3-alkyl-1,4-naphthoquinones is shown to be inhibition of photosystem II (PSII). The herbicidal and in vitro activities have been measured and correlated with their (Log)octanol/water partition coefficients (Log Ko/w). The length of the 3-n-alkyl substituent for optimal activity differed between herbicidal and in vitro activity. The maximum in vitro activity was given by the nonyl to dodecyl homologues (Log Ko/w between 6.54 and 8.12), whereas herbicidal activity peaked with the n-hexyl compound (Log Ko/w = 4.95). The effect of chain branching was also investigated using isomeric pentyl analogues substituted at position 3. All exhibited similar levels of in vitro activities but herbicidal activities differed, albeit moderately, with the exception of one analogue that was much less phytotoxic. Other modes of action were also investigated using two representative compounds. They did not show any activity on photosystem I or mitochondrial complex I, or generate toxic oxygen radicals by redox cycling reactions. Only moderate activity was found against mitochondrial complex III from plants, in contrast to much higher corresponding activity using an insect enzyme.

  12. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  13. Bactericidal Action of 2-Hydroxy-3-(Cyclohexylpropyl)-1,4-Naphthoquinone on Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Olenick, John G.; Cook, Thomas M.; Hahn, Fred E.

    1971-01-01

    The antimalarial drug, 2-hydroxy-3-(cyclohexylpropyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), at concentrations of approximately 10−5m (3 μg/ml), was bactericidal for the gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus megaterium. Only a few other gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to this drug. All growth inhibitory concentrations of NQ were also bactericidal for B. megaterium, and even resting suspensions of cells were killed. The incorporation of radioactive-labeled leucine, thymidine, uracil, and diaminopimelic acid into protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and the cell wall polymer was arrested immediately and completely upon addition of NQ to cultures in exponential growth. NQ produced a delayed effect on aerobic respiration and no change in the rate of oxygen consumption was observed at a time when all major biosyntheses had failed. 3H-NQ was demonstrated to bind strongly and preferentially to the bacterial cell membrane. This simultaneous shutdown of all major categories of in vivo macromolecular syntheses points to an effect of NQ upon membrane-centered energy supplying reactions or transport of essential nutrients, or both. PMID:5000306

  14. 2,3-DIPHENYL-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE: A POTENTIAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENT AGAINST TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Enrique I.; Garza, Kristine M.; Krauth-Siegel, R. L.; Bader, Julia; Martinez, Luiz E.; Maldonado, Rosa A.

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a wide spread infection in Latin America. Currently, only 2 partially effective and highly toxic drugs, i.e., benznidazole and nifurtimox, are available for the treatment of this disease and several efforts are underway in the search for better chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we have determined the trypanocidal activity of 2,3-diphenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (DPNQ), a novel quinone derivative. In vitro, DPNQ was highly cytotoxic at a low, micromolar concentration (LD50 = 2.5 μM) against epimastigote, cell-derived trypomastigote, and intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi, but not against mammalian cells (LD50 = 130 μM). In vivo studies on the murine model of Chagas disease revealed that DPNQ-treated animals (3 doses of 10 mg/kg/day) showed a significant delay in parasitemia peak and higher (up to 60%) survival rate 70 days post-infection, when compared to control group (infected, untreated). We also observed a 2-fold decrease in the parasitemia between the control group (infected, untreated) and the treated group (infected, treated). No apparent drug toxicity effects were noticed in the control group (uninfected, treated). In addition, we determined that DPNQ is the first competitive inhibitor of T. cruzi lipoamide dehydrogenase (TcLipDH) thus far described. Our results indicate that DPNQ is a promising chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:18788881

  15. The influence of water quality on the toxicity and degradation of juglone (5-hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone).

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Mitchelmore, C L; Dawson, R; Cutler, H G

    2007-10-01

    This study was part of a broader investigation of low molecular weight quinones under consideration as biocides for the control of aquatic nuisance species (ANS). Preliminary investigations identified the 2-ring naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides controlling a wide range of aquatic organisms. All biocides were relatively short-lived in saline waters, with half-lives between 5 and 30h. Juglone (5-hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone) and plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone) showed the greatest toxicity against most aquatic organisms. These qualities formed the basis for a patent focusing on these two compounds as biocides for ANS control, with juglone identified as the more cost-effective of the two. Although juglone has been extensively studied as a plant toxin and reducing agent, remarkably little information exists on its use as an aquatic biocide. We describe the toxicity of juglone over the range of water quality parameters likely to be encountered in ballast water, a major vector for ANS. Tests indicated that its molecular stability was enhanced in freshwater and particularly under neutral to acid conditions. This was supported by results of bioassays on the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna that indicated enhanced juglone toxicity at pHs of < or =6.7. A low octanol:water partition coefficient for juglone indicated little capacity for these compounds to be adsorbed by suspended particulates and for bioaccumulation. These properties together with their relatively rapid degradation (t1/2 < or =30h), particularly in the marine environment, indicated a low the risk of residual toxicity associated with the release of juglone-treated water.

  16. Menadione- (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-) dependent enzymatic redox cycling and calcium release by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Frei, B; Winterhalter, K H; Richter, C

    1986-07-29

    The results presented in this paper reveal the existence of three distinct menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) reductases in mitochondria: NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase (D,T-diaphorase), NADPH:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase, and NADH:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase. All three enzymes reduce menadione in a two-electron step directly to the hydroquinone form. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH dehydrogenase) and NAD(P)H azoreductase do not participate significantly in menadione reduction. In mitochondrial extracts, the menadione-induced NAD(P)H oxidation occurs beyond stoichiometric reduction of the quinone and is accompanied by O2 consumption. Benzoquinone is reduced more rapidly than menadione but does not undergo redox cycling. In intact mitochondria, menadione triggers oxidation of intramitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, cyanide-insensitive O2 consumption, and a transient decrease of delta psi. In the presence of intramitochondrial Ca2+, the menadione-induced oxidation of pyridine nucleotides is accompanied by their hydrolysis, and Ca2+ is released from mitochondria. The menadione-induced Ca2+ release leaves mitochondria intact, provided excessive Ca2+ cycling is prevented. In both selenium-deficient and selenium-adequate mitochondria, menadione is equally effective in inducing oxidation of pyridine nucleotides and Ca2+ release. Thus, menadione-induced Ca2+ release is mediated predominantly by enzymatic two-electron reduction of menadione, and not by H2O2 generated by menadione-dependent redox cycling. Our findings argue against D,T-diaphorase being a control device that prevents quinone-dependent oxygen toxicity in mitochondria.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi: insights into naphthoquinone effects on growth and proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Saulo C; Cavalcanti, Danielle F B; de Souza, Alessandra M T; Castro, Helena C; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Albuquerque, Magaly G; Santos, Dilvani O; da Silva, Gabriel Gomes; da Silva, Fernando C; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Pinho, Rosa T; Alves, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of naphthoquinones (α-lapachone, β-lapachone, nor-β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap) on growth of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes forms, and on viability of VERO cells. In addition we also experimentally analyzed the most active compounds inhibitory profile against T. cruzi serine- and cysteine-proteinases activity and theoretically evaluated them against cruzain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase by using a molecular docking approach. Our results confirmed β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap with a high trypanocidal activity in contrast to α-lapachone and nor-β-lapachone whereas Epoxy-α-lap presented the safest toxicity profile against VERO cells. Interestingly the evaluation of the active compounds effects against T. cruzi cysteine- and serine-proteinases activities revealed different targets for these molecules. β-Lapachone is able to inhibit the cysteine-proteinase activity of T. cruzi proteic whole extract and of cruzain, similar to E-64, a classical cysteine-proteinase inhibitor. Differently, Epoxy-α-lap inhibited the T. cruzi serine-proteinase activity, similar to PMSF, a classical serine-proteinase inhibitor. In agreement to these biological profiles in the enzymatic assays, our theoretical analysis showed that E-64 and β-lapachone interact with the cruzain specific S2 pocket and active site whereas Epoxy-α-lap showed no important interactions. Overall, our results infer that β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap compounds may inhibit T. cruzi epimastigotes growth by affecting T. cruzi different proteinases. Thus the present data shows the potential of these compounds as prototype of protease inhibitors on drug design studies for developing new antichagasic compounds.

  18. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-12-21

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy.

  19. Naphthoquinone based chemosensor 2-(2‧-aminomethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone for metal ions: Single crystal X-ray structure, experimental and TD-DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Anuja P.; Patil, Amit; Khomane, Sonali; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Pingale, Subhash S.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-08-01

    Naphthoquinone based redox active chemosensor 1; 2-(2‧-aminomethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone ligand has been synthesized and characterized. Chemosensor 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n. Molecules showed intramolecular N-H⋯O and N-H⋯N, intermolecular N-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and slipped π-π stacking interactions. Chemosensor 1 showed orange colored solution in methanol and specifically detects Cu2+ ions by deprotonation of N-H. The deprotonation of amino N-H can also be achieved by mild base viz. triethylamine and chemosensor 1 can be used to detect several metal ions for example Ni2+, Mn2+ etc. that could observed by naked eye. Color changes observed were monitored by UV-visible and fluorescence spectra. Chemosensor 1 could provide either bidentate or tridentate coordination sites to metal ions. Redox nature of chemosensor 1 was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry studies. Electronic transition wavelengths of chemosensor 1 ligand have been evaluated in methanol, water and triethylamine by TD-DFT studies and comparative studies were performed with experimental results.

  20. Insights into cytochrome bc 1 complex binding mode of antimalarial 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones through molecular modelling

    PubMed Central

    Sodero, Ana Carolina Rennó; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Garcia, Célia RS; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; da Rocha, David Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sabrina Baptista; Silva, Floriano Paes

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malaria persists as a major public health problem. Atovaquone is a drug that inhibits the respiratory chain of Plasmodium falciparum, but with serious limitations like known resistance, low bioavailability and high plasma protein binding. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to perform molecular modelling studies of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones analogues of atovaquone on the Qo site of P. falciparum cytochrome bc 1 complex (Pfbc1) to suggest structural modifications that could improve their antimalarial activity. METHODS We have built the homology model of the cytochrome b (CYB) and Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) subunits from Pfbc1 and performed the molecular docking of 41 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones with known in vitro antimalarial activity and predicted to act on this target. FINDINGS Results suggest that large hydrophobic R2 substituents may be important for filling the deep hydrophobic Qo site pocket. Moreover, our analysis indicates that the H-donor 2-hydroxyl group may not be crucial for efficient binding and inhibition of Pfbc1 by these atovaquone analogues. The C1 carbonyl group (H-acceptor) is more frequently involved in the important hydrogen bonding interaction with His152 of the Rieske ISP subunit. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Additional interactions involving residues such as Ile258 and residues required for efficient catalysis (e.g., Glu261) could be explored in drug design to avoid development of drug resistance by the parasite. PMID:28327793

  1. Tautomerism in o-hydroxyanilino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives: Structure, NMR, HPLC and density functional theoretic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhand, Sujit; Patil, Rishikesh; Shinde, Yogesh; Lande, Dipali N.; Rao, Soniya S.; Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-11-01

    Structure and spectral characteristics of 'Ortho' ((E)-4-hydroxy-2-(2‧-(4‧-R)-hydroxyphenyl)-imino)-naphthalen-1(2H)-one) and 'para' (2-(2‧-(4‧-R)-hydroxyphenyl)-amino)-1,4-naphthoquinone) tautomers of o-hydroxyanilino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (Rdbnd H, 1A; sbnd CH3, 2A; and -Cl, 3A) are investigated using the 1H, 13C, DEPT, gDQCOSY, gHSQCAD NMR, HPLC, cyclic voltammetry techniques combined with the density functional theory. The compound 2A crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c. wherein the polymer chain is facilitated via Osbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Marginal variations in bond distances in quinonoid and aminophenol moieties render structural flexibility to these compounds those in solution exist as exist in 'ortho - para' tautomers. 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO-d6 showed two sets of peaks in all compounds; whereas only the para tautomer of for 1A and 2A, the para tautomer is predominant in CD3CN solution. Further the ortho-para interconversion is accompanied by a large up-field signals for C(3)sbnd H(3) in their 1H and 13C NMR spectra. These inferences are corroborated by the density functional theoretic calculations.

  2. The structure and function of quinones in biological solar energy transduction: a cyclic voltammetry, EPR, and hyperfine sub-level correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy study of model naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Coates, Christopher S; Ziegler, Jessica; Manz, Katherine; Good, Jacob; Kang, Bernard; Milikisiyants, Sergey; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Hao, Sijie; Golbeck, John H; Lakshmi, K V

    2013-06-20

    Quinones function as electron transport cofactors in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The versatility and functional diversity of quinones is primarily due to the diverse midpoint potentials that are tuned by the substituent effects and interactions with surrounding amino acid residues in the binding site in the protein. In the present study, a library of substituted 1,4-naphthoquinones are analyzed by cyclic voltammetry in both protic and aprotic solvents to determine effects of substituent groups and hydrogen bonds on the midpoint potential. We use continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine the influence of substituent groups on the electronic properties of the 1,4-naphthoquinone models in an aprotic solvent. The results establish a correlation between the presence of substituent group(s) and the modification of electronic properties and a corresponding shift in the midpoint potential of the naphthoquinone models. Further, we use pulsed EPR spectroscopy to determine the effect of substituent groups on the strength and planarity of the hydrogen bonds of naphthoquinone models in a protic solvent. This study provides support for the tuning of the electronic properties of quinone cofactors by the influence of substituent groups and hydrogen bonding interactions.

  3. Solid-phase organic synthesis of 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthodiol that form redox-active micelles and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bugarin, Alejandro; Martinez, Luis E; Cooke, Peter; Islam, Tadiqul; Noveron, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    The solid-phase synthesis of new amphiphilic compounds is reported. It is based on a newly designed 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative that contains polar and nonpolar groups and self-assembles into micelles or vesicles in water depending on the concentration. They also display redox-active properties.

  4. Molecular association of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives: Electrochemical, DFT studies and antiproliferative activity against leukemia cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rishikesh; Bhand, Sujit; Konkimalla, V. Badireenath; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Ugale, Bharat; Chadar, Dattatray; Saha, Sourav Kr.; Praharaj, Prakash Priyadarshi; Nagaraja, C. M.; Chakrovarty, Debamitra; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    Molecular structures and their molecular association of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone, viz., LH-3; propyl, LH-4; butyl and LH-8; octyl derivatives were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Synthesis and characterization of 2-octylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone; LH-8 was discussed. The molecule of LH-3 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P21/c, while the LH-4 and LH-8 molecule crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1. LH-3, LH-4 and LH-8 showed intermolecular N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O interactions, LH-3 showed unique C(3)-H(3)⋯O(1) interaction. Interchain π-π stacking, slipped π-π stacking and C⋯O close contacts was respectively observed in LH-3, LH-4 and LH-8. Electrochemical studies were performed on first eight members of homologous series of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (LH-1 to LH-8) by cyclic voltammetry. Naphthoquinone to naphthosemiquinone reversible redox couple was observed in all compounds ∼ E1/2 = -0.657 ± 0.05 V. HOMO-LUMO band gap was determined for the neutral form as well as the monoanionic radical form viz. naphthosemiquinone form of selected derivatives by DFT studies. It has been observed that the electron density is delocalized in the naphthoquinone ring in both neutral as well as one electron reduced form of compounds. Antiproliferative activity of LH-1 to LH-8 was evaluated against two cancer cell lines, THP1(acute monocytic leukemia) and K562(human immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line) cells. It was observed that, in THP1 cells, compounds LH-2 and LH-3 are very active while LH-1, LH-4 and LH-6 were moderately active and LH-5, LH-7 and LH-8 were totally inactive. Contrastingly, in K562 cells all of the compounds were moderately active.

  5. Flow Injection Analysis Coupled with Carbon Electrodes as the Tool for Analysis of Naphthoquinones with Respect to Their Content and Functions in Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Babula, Petr; Huska, Dalibor; Hanustiak, Pavel; Baloun, Jiri; Krizkova, Sona; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Havel, Ladislav; Zemlicka, Milan; Horna, Ales; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2006-01-01

    Naphthoquinones are one of the groups of secondary metabolites widespread in nature, where they mostly appear as chromatic pigments. They embody broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. An anticancer effect of naphthoquinones stimulates an interest in determination and characterization of single derivatives of 1,2- and 1,4-quinones in biological samples. The main aim of this work was to suggest a technique suitable to determine lawsone, juglone and/or plumbagin in biological samples and to study of their influence on BY-2 tobacco cells. The BY-2 tobacco cells were cultivated in the presence of the naphthoquinones of interest (500 μg.l-1) for 24 h and then the morphological changes were observed. We found out that naphthoquinones triggered the programmed cell death at BY-2 cells, which can be confirmed by the apoptotic bodies in nucleus. After that we suggested and optimized different electrochemical techniques such differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) coupled with hanging mercury drop (HMDE) and carbon paste electrode, micro flow device coupled with carbon screen printed electrodes and flow injection analysis coupled with Coulochem III detector to determine them. The detection limits of naphthoquinones of interest were expressed as 3S/N and varied from units to hundreds of ng per millilitres according to methods used. Moreover, we utilized DPV coupled with HMDE and micro flow device to determine content of juglone in leaves Persian walnut (Juglans regia). We determined that the leaves contained juglone tenths of g per 100 g of fresh weight. The results obtained show the convincing possibilities of using of these methods in analysis of plant secondary metabolites.

  6. Anti-proliferative actions of 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Zhang, Wei-Yun; Yi, Hyoseok; Kim, Yohan; Kim, In-Su; Shen, Gui-Nan; Song, Gyu-Yong; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with no apparent cytotoxicity. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle progression in association with pRb phosphorylation and PCNA expression. {yields} Both U0126, an Erk inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Naphthoquinone derivatives have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antiplatelet, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly-synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-decylamino-DMNQ), on VSMC proliferation and examined the molecular basis of the underlying mechanism. In a dose-dependent manner, 2-decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC proliferation with no apparent cytotoxic effect. While 2-decylamino-DMNQ did not affect PDGF-R{beta} or Akt, it did inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1 induced by PDGF. Moreover, 2-decylamino-DMNQ suppressed DNA synthesis through the arrest of cell cycle progression at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, including the suppression of pRb phosphorylation and a decrease in PCNA expression, which was related to the downregulation of cell cycle regulatory factors, such as cyclin D1/E and CDK 2/4. It was demonstrated that both U0126, an Erk1/2 inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Thus, these results suggest that 2-decylamino DMNQ has an inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and the mechanism of this action is through cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. This may be a useful tool for studying interventions for vascular restenosis in coronary

  7. Synthesis of a novel series of 2-alkylthio substituted naphthoquinones as potent acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong; Cho, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jee Hyun; Goo, Jail; Lee, Sung Yoon; Boovanahalli, Shanthaveerappa K; Yeo, Siok Koon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Young Kook; Kim, Dong Hee; Choi, Yongseok; Song, Gyu-Yong

    2013-04-01

    We report a new series of naphthoquinone derivatives as potent ACAT inhibitors, which were obtained through structural variations of previously disclosed lead 1. Several analogs represented by 3i-l, 4k-m, 6a-n, 7a, and 7i demonstrated potent human macrophage ACAT inhibitory activity by a cell-based reporter assay with human HepG2 cell lines. In particular, compounds 4l and 6j emerged as highly potent inhibitors, exhibiting significantly high inhibitory potencies with IC50 values of 0.44 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. Moreover, compound 4l significantly reduced the accumulation of cellular cholesterol in HepG2 cell lines.

  8. DNA damage and inhibition of akt pathway in mcf-7 cells and ehrlich tumor in mice treated with 1,4-naphthoquinones in combination with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R; Felipe, Karina B; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Farias, Mirelle S; Castro, Luiza S E P W; Grinevicius, Valdelúcia M A S; Valderrama, Jaime; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the antitumor mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones and ascorbate. Juglone, phenylaminonaphthoquinone-7, and 9 (Q7/Q9) were evaluated for effects on CT-DNA and DNA of cancer cells. Evaluations in MCF-7 cells are DNA damage, ROS levels, viability, and proliferation. Proteins from MCF-7 lysates were immunoblotted for verifying PARP integrity, γH2AX, and pAkt. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The same markers of molecular toxicity were assessed in vivo. The naphthoquinones intercalate into CT-DNA and caused oxidative cleavage, which is increased in the presence of ascorbate. Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Effects were potentiated by ascorbate. No PARP cleavage was observed. Naphthoquinones, combined with ascorbate, caused phosphorylation of H2AX and inhibited pAkt. ROS were enhanced in MCF-7 cells, particularly by the juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate. Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by juglone, Q7, or Q9, but the potentiating effect of ascorbate was reproduced in vivo only in the cases of juglone and Q7, which caused up to 60% inhibition of tumor and the largest extension of survival. Juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate caused enhanced ROS and DNA damage and inhibited pAkt also in Ehrlich carcinoma cells.

  9. One pot synthesis of poly(5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles using the monomer as the reducing agent for nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Cooray, M C Dilusha; Liu, Yuping; Langford, Steven J; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-26

    Monodispersed and highly stable gold nanoparticles with a diameter between 8 and 9 nm were synthesized in a weakly alkaline medium by chemical reduction of AuCl4(-) using 5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and stabilized by the simultaneously formed poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). The electrochemical properties of the resultant poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNQ NPs) and its electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline media were then investigated using a range of techniques, including dc cyclic, rotating disk electrode and Fourier transformed large amplitude ac voltammetry. The results demonstrate that these AuNQ NP modified electrodes exhibit excellent catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation in the potential region where the premonolayer oxidation process occurs. The overall catalytic glucose oxidation process was found to be mass transport controlled under the experimental conditions employed, allowing measurements to be conducted with a high reproducibility. The AuNQ NP modified electrodes showed a high sensitivity of 183 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a wide linear dynamic range of 0.5-50 mM and a detection limit of 61 μM. However, despite its excellent tolerance toward ascorbic acid, significant interference from uric acid was found with this AuNQ NP modified electrode.

  10. Using of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector for determination of naphthoquinones in plants and for investigation of influence of pH of cultivation medium on content of plumbagin in Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Mikelova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Havel, Ladislav; Sladky, Zdenek

    2006-09-14

    The interest of many investigators in naphthoquinones is due to their broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different pH values of cultivation medium on naphthoquinone content in Dionaea muscipula. For this purpose, we optimized the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly occurring naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone, juglone and plumbagin) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The most suitable chromatographic conditions were as follows: mobile phase: 0.1 mol l-1 acetic acid:methanol in ratio of 33:67 (%, v/v), flow rate: 0.75 ml min-1 and temperature: 42 degrees C. Moreover, we looked for the most suitable technique for preparation of plant samples (D. muscipula, Juglans regia, Paulownia tomentosa, Impatience glandulifera, Impatience parviflora, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spathulata and Drosera capensis) due to their consequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. It clearly follows from the results obtained that sonication were the most suitable technique for preparation of J. regia plants. We also checked the recoveries of the determined naphthoquinones, which were from 96 to 104%. Finally, we investigated the changes in content of plumbagin in D. muscipula plants according to different pH of cultivation medium. The content increased with increasing pH up to 5 and, then, changed gradually. The lower content of plumbagin at lower pH values was of interest to us. Therefore, we determined the content of this naphthoquinone in the cultivation medium, what has not been studied before. We discovered that the lower tissue content of plumbagin was due to secretion of this naphthoquinone into the cultivation medium.

  11. 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion, the antimalarial lead naphthoquinones are suggested to perturb the major redox equilibria of the targeted cells. These effects result in development arrest of the parasite and contribute to the removal of the parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. PMID:23116403

  12. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of 1,4-naphthoquinone ether derivatives as SmTGR inhibitors and new antischistosomal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Laure; Belorgey, Didier; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Day, Latasha; Chessé, Matthieu; Becker, Katja; Williams, David L.; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the chemistry and mechanism of action of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione) derivatives, revealed 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones as a novel antischistosomal series. These newly synthesized compounds 1–7 and their difluoromethylmenadione counterparts 8–9 were found to be potent and specific inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (SmTGR) identified as a potential target. The compounds were also tested in enzymic assays using both human flavoenzymes, i.e. the glutathione reductase (hGR) and the selenium-dependent human thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR) to evaluate the specificity of the inhibition. Structure-activity relationships as well as physico- and electro-chemical studies showed a high potential for the 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones to inhibit SmTGR selectively versus hGR and hTrxR enzymes, in particular those bearing α-fluorophenol methyl ether moieties to improve antischistosomal action. In particular, the (substituted phenoxy)methyl menadione derivative 7 displayed time-dependent SmTGR inactivation, correlating with unproductive NADPH-dependent redox-cycling of SmTGR, and potent antischistosomal action in ex vivo worms. In contrast, the difluoromethylmenadione analogue 9, which inactivates SmTGR through an irreversible non-consuming NADPH-dependent process, has little killing effect in cultured ex vivo worms. Because none of the compounds tested in vivo was active, a limited bioavailability might compromise compound activity and future studies will be directed toward improving pharmacokinetics properties. PMID:26111549

  14. Modulatory Effect of 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)amino-1,4-naphthoquinone on Endothelial Vasodilation in Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Javier; Cifuentes, Fredi; Valderrama, Jaime A.; Benites, Julio; Ríos, David; González, Constanza; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Wyneken, Ursula; González, Pamela; Owen, Gareth I.; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The vascular endothelium plays an essential role in the control of the blood flow. Pharmacological agents like quinone (menadione) at various doses modulate this process in a variety of ways. In this study, Q7, a 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, significantly increased oxidative stress and induced vascular dysfunction at concentrations that were not cytotoxic to endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. Q7 reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels and endothelial vasodilation to acetylcholine in rat aorta. It also blunted the calcium release from intracellular stores by increasing the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction when CaCl2 was added to a calcium-free medium but did not affect the influx of calcium from extracellular space. Q7 increased the vasoconstriction to BaCl2 (10−3 M), an inward rectifying K+ channels blocker, and blocked the vasodilation to KCl (10−2 M) in aortic rings precontracted with BaCl2. This was recovered with sodium nitroprusside (10−8 M), a NO donor. In conclusion, Q7 induced vasoconstriction was through a modulation of cellular mechanisms involving calcium fluxes through K+ channels, and oxidative stress induced endothelium damage. These findings contribute to the characterization of new quinone derivatives with low cytotoxicity able to pharmacologically modulate vasodilation. PMID:27672420

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone from Plumbago rosea, against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sweatha V; Baranwal, Gaurav; Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Sachu, Arun; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Asoke; Biswas, Raja

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens. Despite causing a number of independent infections, both pathogens can co-infect to cause urinary tract infections, skin infections, biofilm associated infections, sepsis and pneumonia. Infections of these two pathogens especially their biofilm associated infections are often difficult to treat using currently available anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. In order to identify a common anti-microbial agent which could confer a broad range of protection against their infections, we screened several phytochemicals and identified plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a phytochemical from Plumbago species as a potent antimicrobial agent against S. aureus and C. albicans, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was validated using an ex-vivo porcine skin model. For better understanding of the antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a Drosophila melanogaster infection model was used, where D. melanogaster was infected using S. aureus and C. albicans, or with both organisms. The fly's survival rate was dramatically increased when infected flies were treated using plumbagin. Further, plumbagin was effective in preventing and dispersing catheter associated biofilms formed by these pathogens. The overall results of this work provides evidence that plumbagin, possesses an excellent antimicrobial activity which should be explored further for the treatment of S. aureus and C. albicans infections.

  16. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuno, Shota; Taguchi, Keiko; Iwamoto, Noriko; Yamano, Shigeru; Cho, Arthur K.; Froines, John R.; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    1,2-Naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) has recently been identified as an environmental quinone in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and atmospheric PM{sub 2.5}. We have found that this quinone is capable of causing a concentration-dependent contraction of tracheal smooth muscle in guinea pigs with EC{sub 5} value of 18.7 {mu}M. The contraction required extracellular calcium and was suppressed by L-type calcium channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem. It was found that 1,2-NQ activated phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/lipoxygenase (LO)/vanilloid receptor (VR1) signaling. Additionally, 1,2-NQ was capable of transactivating protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in guinea pig trachea, suggesting that phosphorylation of PTKs contributes to 1,2-NQ-induced tracheal contraction. Consistent with this notion, this action was blocked by the PTKs inhibitor genistein and the EGFR antagonist PD153035, indicating that contraction was, at least in part, attributable to PTKs phosphorylation that activates VR1, resulting in increased intracellular calcium content in the smooth muscle cells.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huai You; Xu, Li Xiao; Xiao, Yan; Han, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone is described. The dapsone reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 6.98 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 525 nm, ɛ525=3.68×10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The absorbance of dapsone from 0.40 to 10 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=0.2334 A+0.01288, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9998, the detection limit is 0.24 μg ml -1, and recovery is from 99.2 to 102.4%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of dapsone have been examined. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of dapsone in injection solution of dapsone. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration method [The Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health, vol. 2, fifth ed., PRC Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, 2000, p.720]).

  18. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of some macrolide antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2012-12-01

    New, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of two macrolide drugs, azithromycin (AZT) and erythromycin (ERY) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was based on the reaction of AZT and ERY with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline medium at 25 °C to form an orange-colored product of maximum absorption peak at 452 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions and the reaction mechanism was postulated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5-33.0 and 0.92-8.0 μg mL-1 with limit of detection values of 0.026 and 0.063 μg mL-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 4.3 × 104 and 12.3 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZT and ERY in formulations and the results tallied well with the label claim. The results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the concomitant substances normally added to preparations.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical products using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li Xiao; Shen, Yun Xiu; Wang, Huai You; Jiang, Ji Gang; Xiao, Yan

    2003-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride is described. The procaine hydrochloride reacts with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid in pH 3.60 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 484 nm, ɛ 484=5.22×10 3.The absorbance for procaine hydrochloride from 0.30 to 100 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=19.23A-0.03, with a linear regression correlative coefficient is 0.9996, the detection limit is 0.28 μg ml -1; recovery is from 98.0 to 105.2%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvent, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of procaine hydrochloride have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of procaine hydrochloride in injection solution of procaine hydrochloride. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration).

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan

    2004-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, ɛ463=1.14×10 4. The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=40.24 A-2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 μg ml -1, recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai You; Xu, Li Xiao; Xiao, Yan; Han, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone is described. The dapsone reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 6.98 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 525 nm, epsilon525=3.68 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). The absorbance of dapsone from 0.40 to 10 microg ml(-1) obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=0.2334 A + 0.01288, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9998, the detection limit is 0.24 microg ml(-1), and recovery is from 99.2 to 102.4%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of dapsone have been examined. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of dapsone in injection solution of dapsone. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration method [The Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health, vol. 2, fifth ed., PRC Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, 2000, p.720]).

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan

    2004-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, epsilon463 = 1.14 x 10(4). The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 microg ml(-1) obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C = 40.24A - 2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 microg ml(-1), recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  3. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular structure and pharmacological studies of N'-(1, 4-naphtho-quinone-2yl) isonicotinohyWdrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha Rani, P. R.; Fernandez, Annette; George, Annie; Remadevi, V. K.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Laila, Shiny P.; Arif, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure was employed for the synthesis of N'-(1,4-naphtho-quinone-2-yl) isonicotinohydrazide (NIH) by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone (lawsone) and isonicotinoyl hydrazine in methanol using ultrasonic irradiation. Lawsone is the principal dye, isolated from the leaves of henna (Lawsonia inermis). Structural modification was done on the molecule aiming to get a more active derivative. The structure of the parent compound and the derivative was characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectra. The fluorescence spectral investigation of the compound was studied in DMSO and ethanol. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that NIH crystallizes in monoclinic space group. The DNA cleavage study was monitored by gel electrophoresis method. The synthesized compound was found to have significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (IC50 = 58 μM). The in vitro cytotoxic studies of the derivative against two human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (human breast cancer) and HCT-15 (human colon carcinoma cells) using MTT assay revealed that the compound exhibited higher cytotoxic activity with a lower IC50 value indicating its efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. These results suggest that the structural modifications performed on lawsone could be considered a good strategy to obtain a more active drug.

  4. Potential of 2-Hydroxy-3-Phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-Naphthoquinones against Leishmania (L.) infantum: Biological Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas J.; Borborema, Samanta E. T.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Rocha, David R.; Tempone, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Naphtoquinones have been used as promising scaffolds for drug design studies against protozoan parasites. Considering the highly toxic and limited therapeutic arsenal, the global negligence with tropical diseases and the elevated prevalence of co-morbidities especially in developing countries, the parasitic diseases caused by various Leishmania species (leishmaniasis) became a significant public health threat in 98 countries. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial in vitro potential of thirty-six 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones obtained by a three component reaction of lawsone, the appropriate aldehyde and thiols adequately substituted, exploiting the in situ generation of o-quinonemethides (o-QM) via the Knoevenagel condensation. The antileishmanial activity of the naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and their cytotoxicity was verified in mammalian cells. Among the thirty-six compounds, twenty-seven were effective against promastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 189 µM; fourteen compounds eliminated the intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 12 to 65 µM. The compounds containing the phenyl groups at R1 and R2 and with the fluorine substituent at the phenyl ring at R2, rendered the most promising activity, demonstrating a selectivity index higher than 15 against amastigotes. A QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) analysis yielded insights into general structural requirements for activity of most compounds in the series. Considering the in vitro antileishmanial potential of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones and their structure-activity relationships, novel lead candidates could be exploited in future drug design studies for leishmaniasis. PMID:25171058

  5. Exploring the DNA binding/cleavage, cellular accumulation and topoisomerase inhibition of 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone Mannich bases and their platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Neves, Amanda P; Pereira, Michelle X G; Peterson, Erica J; Kipping, Ralph; Vargas, Maria D; Silva-Jr, Floriano P; Carneiro, J Walkimar M; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2013-02-01

    Several chlorido and amino Pt(2+) complexes of 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone Mannich bases HL exhibiting moderate to high cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines were studied in order to investigate their modes of DNA binding, in vitro DNA strand breaks, mechanism of topoisomerase (Topo I) inhibition and cellular accumulation. DNA model base studies have shown that complex 1a [Pt(HL1)Cl(2)] was capable of binding covalently to 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) and 5'-GMP. (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry studies have shown that both chlorides were substituted by 9-EtG ligands, whereas 5'-GMP was able to replace only one chlorido ligand, due to steric hindrance. The chlorido Pt(2+) complexes [Pt(HL)Cl(2)] highly accumulate in prostate (PC-3) and melanoma (MDA-MB-435) cell lines, being able to induce DNA strand breaks in vitro and inhibit Topo I by a catalytic mode. On the other hand, the free 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinones HL and the amino Pt(2+) complexes [Pt(L(-))(NH(3))(2)]NO(3) neither cause DNA strand breakage nor exhibit strong DNA interaction, nevertheless the latter were also found to be catalytic inhibitors of Topo I at 100μM. Thus, coordination of the Mannich bases HL to the "PtCl(2)" fragment substantially affects the chemical and biophysical properties of the pro-ligands, leading to an improvement of their DNA binding properties and generating compounds that cleave DNA and catalytically inhibit Topo I. Finally, the high cytotoxicity exhibited by the free (uncomplexed) 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinones might be associated with their decomposition in solution, which is not observed for the Pt(2+) complexes.

  6. Structural simplification of bioactive natural products with multicomponent synthesis. 4. 4H-pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinones with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Magedov, Igor V; Kireev, Artem S; Jenkins, Aaron R; Evdokimov, Nikolai M; Lima, Dustin T; Tongwa, Paul; Altig, Jeff; Steelant, Wim F A; Van slambrouck, Severine; Antipin, Mikhail Yu; Kornienko, Alexander

    2012-08-15

    4H-Pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinone is a structural motif commonly found in natural products manifesting anticancer activities. As part of a program aimed at structural simplification of bioactive natural products utilizing multicomponent synthetic processes, we developed a compound library based on this heterocyclic scaffold. We found that several library members displayed low micromolar antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. Selected compounds showed promising activity against cancer cell lines resistant to proapoptotic stimuli, demonstrating their potential in treating cancers with dismal prognoses.

  7. Structural simplification of bioactive natural products with multicomponent synthesis. 4. 4H-Pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinones with anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Magedov, Igor V.; Kireev, Artem S.; Jenkins, Aaron R.; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; Lima, Dustin T.; Tongwa, Paul; Altig, Jeff; Steelant, Wim F. A.; Van slambrouck, Severine; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Kornienko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    4H-Pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinone is a structural motif commonly found in natural products manifesting anticancer activities. As part of a program aimed at structural simplification of bioactive natural products utilizing multicomponent synthetic processes, we developed a compound library based on this heterocyclic scaffold. We found that several library members displayed low micromolar antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. Selected compounds showed promising activity against cancer cell lines resistant to proapoptotic stimuli, demonstrating their potential in treating cancers with dismal prognoses. PMID:22819765

  8. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride in its tablets via derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the development of a novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride (CIN) in its tablet dosage forms. Studies were carried out to investigate the reaction between CIN and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 8.5), an orange red-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 490 nm was produced. The stoichiometry and kinetic of the reaction were investigated and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was employed in the development of a simple and rapid visible-spectrophotometric method for determination of CIN in its tablets. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance with CIN concentration was obeyed in the range of 3 - 100 μg/ml with good correlation coefficient (0.9993). The molar absorptivity (ε) was 4.2 × 105 l/mol/cm. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.9 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations (RSD) did not exceed 2%. No interference was observed from the excipients that are present in the tablets. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of CIN in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.80 - 102.23 ± 1.27 - 1.62%. The results were compared favorably with those of a reference pre-validated method. The method is practical and valuable in terms of its routine application in quality control laboratories. PMID:22305461

  9. Identification and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones in the roots and rhizosphere of Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum), a noxious invader.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaocheng; Skoneczny, Dominik; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Mwendwa, James M; Weston, Paul A; Gurr, Geoff M; Callaway, Ragan M; Weston, Leslie A

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive plant secondary products are frequently the drivers of complex rhizosphere interactions, including those with other plants, herbivores and microbiota. These chemically diverse molecules typically accumulate in a highly regulated manner in specialized plant tissues and organelles. We studied the production and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones (NQs) in the roots of Echium plantagineum, an invasive endemic weed in Australia. Roots of E. plantagineum produced red-coloured NQs in the periderm of primary and secondary roots, while seedling root hairs exuded NQs in copious quantities. Confocal imaging and microspectrofluorimetry confirmed that bioactive NQs were deposited in the outer layer of periderm cells in mature roots, resulting in red colouration. Intracellular examination revealed that periderm cells contained numerous small red vesicles for storage and intracellular transport of shikonins, followed by subsequent extracellular deposition. Periderm and root hair extracts of field- and phytotron-grown plants were analysed by UHPLC/Q-ToF MS (ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry) and contained more than nine individual NQs, with dimethylacrylshikonin, and phytotoxic shikonin, deoxyshikonin and acetylshikonin predominating. In seedlings, shikonins were first found 48h following germination in the root-hypocotyl junction, as well as in root hair exudates. In contrast, the root cortices of both seedling and mature root tissues were devoid of NQs. SPRE (solid phase root zone extraction) microprobes strategically placed in soil surrounding living E. plantagineum plants successfully extracted significant levels of bioactive shikonins from living roots, rhizosphere and bulk soil surrounding roots. These findings suggest important roles for accumulation of shikonins in the root periderm and subsequent rhizodeposition in plant defence, interference, and invasion success.

  10. Co-induction of methyltransferase Rv0560c by naphthoquinones and fibric acids suggests attenuation of isoprenoid quinone action in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Thomas R

    2004-10-01

    The superoxide generator menadione was previously demonstrated as an inducer of growth stage dependent protein patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study refines this observation by characterizing a novel 27-kDa protein that had not been observed in previous studies relying on younger cultures. A very similar response, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses, was induced by the closely related naphthoquinone plumbagin. The 27-kDa protein was also induced by the pro-oxidant peroxisome proliferator gemfibrozil and to a lesser extent by the structurally related compounds fenofibrate and clofibrate. N-terminal sequence data of proteolytic fragments from the 27-kDa protein demonstrated its identity with protein Rv0560c, previously demonstrated to be inducible by salicylate, which also possesses peroxisome proliferating properties. Protein Rv0560c bears three conserved motifs characteristic of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. Further sequence similarities suggest a function in the bio syn thesis of isoprenoid compounds, e.g., tocopherol, ubiquinone, and sterols. Such involvement is supported by the recognized yet unexplained widespread interference of menadione, salicylate, and fibrates with the isoprenoid quinones ubiquinone, menaquinone, and vitamin K. Induction of Rv0560c by fibrates, salicylate, and naphthoquinones is thus suggested to be caused by action on the plasma membrane, reminiscent of cytochrome P450BM-3 induction by fibrates in Bacillus megaterium, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of fatty acids and thus modulates membrane properties.

  11. The effect of Na+ and K+ doping on the properties of sol-gel deposited 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Omari, Mahmoud; Sel, Kivanc; Mueller, Anja; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2013-05-01

    We describe the use of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) thin films as a potential water vapor and electrolyte sensing material towards the goal of non-invasive relative humidity and sweat detection. We have successfully made HNQ sol-gel thin films and studied the effects of sodium and potassium ions on their optical and electrical characteristics. Ultraviolet-visible absorbance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements along with scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that we were able to dope HNQ thin films with Na+ and K+ ions, which are the main electrolyte contents in sweat. While the conductivity of thin films increased by at least an order of magnitude, energy band gaps decreased by doping HNQ with Na+ and K+ ions. Relative humidity test results showed that HNQ-based thin-films can be used as a sensing material for water vapor. Room temperature current-voltage measurements were also performed to determine the surface conductivity.

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and haematological effects of aethiopinone, an o-naphthoquinone diterpenoid from Salvia aethiopis roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, M; Rabanal, R M; de la Torre, M C; Rodríguez, B

    1995-12-01

    Aethiopinone (1), an o-naphthoquinone diterpene from Salvia aethiopis L. roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives 2 and 3 have been evaluated for toxicity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and haemostatic activities. The compounds tested showed low toxicity and a pharmacological profile similar to other NSAI substances on reducing the edema induced by carrageenan and contractions induced by phenyl-p-quinone; the most active compounds were 1 and 2. In the same way and as expected with these types of substances, the bleeding time increased. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the three compounds showed a moderate reduction of edema, and 1 produced a significant increase in the reaction time against thermal painful stimuli in the tail immersion test. The results demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory, peripheral and central analgesic properties for 1, as well as antiedematose topical action and peripheral analgesic properties for 2 and 3.

  13. Anti-gastric adenocarcinoma activity of 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an anti-Helicobacter pylori compound from Impatiens balsamina L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Lin, Yi-Han

    2012-12-01

    2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeONQ) from Impatiens balsamina L. exhibited strong anti-H. pylori activity in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of MeONQ against gastric adenocarcinoma (MKN45 cell line) and propose the relevant mechanisms. MeONQ resulted in serious necrosis via superoxide anion catastrophe when the treatment doses were higher than 50μM, whereas apoptosis occurred at low treatment doses (25-50μM) through the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. Necrosis is the dominant mode of cell death. MeONQ exhibited high ability to induce gastric adenocarcinoma necrosis, showing good potential as a candidate agent for H. pylori infection related disease therapy.

  14. On-line continuous sampling dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatographic separation for the determination of lignans in Wuweizi and naphthoquinones in Zicao.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiqian; You, Jingyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hanqi

    2012-03-01

    The on-line continuous sampling dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (on-line CSDMAE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and determination of the lignans in Wuweizi and naphthoquinones in Zicao was developed. The extraction, separation and determination of target analytes were simultaneously carried out. The experimental parameters, including type of extraction solvent, microwave extraction power, solvent flow rate, amount of sample and particle size of the sample, were evaluated by the univariate method and orthogonal screening. The detection limits for schisandrin A, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin, shikonin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin are 0.86, 0.90, 0.27, 0.42 and 0.92 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Compared with the conventional extraction methods, such as off-line continuous microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction, the proposed method is quicker and more effective.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3: Molecular structure of 2-propylamino-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadar, Dattatray; Camilles, Maria; Patil, Rishikesh; Khan, Ayesha; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-04-01

    We would like to introduce eight analogues of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) viz, 2-(n-alkylamino)-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (where n-alkyl is methyl; LM-1, ethyl; LM-2, propyl; LM-3, butyl; LM-4, pentyl; LM-5, hexyl; LM-6, heptyl; LM-7, octyl; LM-8). All the above analogues have been successfully synthesized from vitamin K3 and characterized using different analytical techniques. Furthermore, in order to understand the mechanistic aspects of formation of LM-1 to LM-8 compounds, we could propose the mechanism. The FT-IR analysis of LM-1 to LM-8 indicate the presence of characteristic band of Nsbnd H group ∼3287-3364 cm-1, the variation was attributed to extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. The molecular structure of LM-3 compound has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. LM-3 compound crystallises in triclinic space group P1. There were four independent molecules in asymmetric unit cell and their molecular interactions observed via Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and π-π stacking of quinonoid rings. Pharmacological potential of all compounds has been evaluated in terms of their antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. All the compounds were active against both the strains while LM-2 was found to be more effective with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.3125 μg/mL and 0.156 μg/mL respectively.

  16. Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

    2012-03-01

    A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 μg/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 μg/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

  17. Synthesis and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of naphthoquinone-containing triazoles: electrochemical studies on the effects of the quinoidal moiety.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Emilay B T; Dias, Gleiston G; Rodrigues, Bernardo L; Guimarães, Tiago T; Valença, Wagner O; Camara, Celso A; de Oliveira, Ronaldo N; da Silva, Mauro G; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Paiva, Yen Galdino; Goulart, Marilia O F; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; de Castro, Solange L; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N

    2013-11-01

    In our continued search for novel trypanocidal compounds, twenty-six derivatives of para- and ortho-naphthoquinones coupled to 1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized. These compounds were evaluated against the infective bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Compounds 17-24, 28-30 and 36-38 are described herein for the first time. Three of these novel compounds (28-30) were found to be more potent than the standard drug benznidazole, with IC50/24h values between 6.8 and 80.8μM. Analysis of the toxicity to heart muscle cells led to LC50/24h of <125, 63.1 and 281.6μM for 28, 29 and 30, respectively. Displaying a selectivity index of 34.3, compound 30 will be further evaluated in vivo. The electrochemical properties of selected compounds were evaluated in an attempt to find correlations with trypanocidal activity, and it was observed that more electrophilic quinones were generally more potent.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by FFJ-5, a novel naphthoquinone compound, occurs via downregulation of PKM2 in A549 and HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Li, Ming; Ma, Mingming; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Wenyi; Wang, Tianxiao; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2) has previously been identified as a tumor biomarker and as a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, F§FJ-5, a characterized naphthoquinone modifier of mollugin, was synthesized in order to investigate its anticancer activity and the potential mechanisms. It was observed that FFJ-5 inhibited the cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and human hepatoma cells HepG2 by MTT assays. FFJ-5 arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Further analyses demonstrated that FFJ-5 attenuated the expression of PKM2 and reduced the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reduced expression and activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt were observed in A549 and HepG2 cells exposed to FFJ-5. FFJ-5 exposure also resulted in cell apoptosis, in association with decreased intracellular pH level and mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, FFJ-5 activated the caspase-3 cascade. In conclusion, FFJ-5 inhibited cancer cell growth via the blocking the EGFR-Akt-PKM2 pathway or through the synergistic action of EGFR, Akt and PKM2 proteins, alongside a decrease in ATP production. In addition, FFJ-5 induced cancer cell apoptosis by decreasing the intracellular pH level and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The present results suggest a potential role of FFJ-5 on the therapy of human cancer. PMID:28356960

  19. Inhibitory effects of LPA1 on cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in fibroblast 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Dong, Yan; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-11-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to mediate a variety of biological responses, including cell motility. Recently, we indicated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor-3 (LPA3) increased cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, we assessed the role of LPA1 in the cell motile activity mediated by ROS in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. 3T3 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ were significantly higher than those of untreated cells. 3T3 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ showed elevated expression levels of the Lpar3 gene, but not the Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. To investigate the effects of LPA1 on the cell motile activity induced by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ, Lpar1-overexpressing (3T3-a1) cells were generated from 3T3 cells and treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ. The cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ were markedly suppressed in 3T3-a1 cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA1 inhibits the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ in 3T3 cells.

  20. Study of a reaction between 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone and N,N'-diphenyl thiourea involving an EDA adduct as intermediate.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kakali; Mukherjee, Asok K

    2004-06-01

    The reaction between 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone and N,N'-diphenyl thiourea in acetonitrile medium, which yields the product, 2,3-(N,N'-diphenylthioureylene)-naphtho-1,4-quinone has been found to take place in two ways--thermal and photochemical. The thermal (dark) reaction occurs through an electron donor-acceptor (EDA) adduct as intermediate with evolution of HCl and kinetic data fit into the scheme A + B<==>AB(fast)-->product(slow) Formation constant of the EDA adduct and the rate constant of the slow process have been determined at four different temperatures from which the enthalpy of formation of AB has been determined. The photochemical reaction has been studied with 360 nm ordinary light and also with 365 and 370 nm laser beams. Use of laser causes about 10(3)-fold increase in the rate of the reaction but does not affect the quantum yield. The final product has been isolated and characterised by elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  1. Genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in relation to effects on glutathione and NAD(P)H levels in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, G.; Dogra, S.; Glatt, H. )

    1989-07-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is cytotoxic in V79 Chinese hamster cells and induces gene mutations and micronuclei. The cell-damaging effects of quinones are usually attributed to thiol depletion, oxidation of NAD(P)H, and redox-cycling involving the formation of semiquinone radicals and reactive oxygen species. To elucidate the role of these mechanisms in the genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone, the authors measured various genotoxic effects, cytotoxicity, and the levels of glutathione, NADPH, NADH, and their oxidized forms all in the same experiment. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, which does not induce gene mutations in V79 cells, was investigated for comparative reasons. The quinones had a similar effect on the levels of cofactors. Total glutathione was depleted, but levels of oxidized glutathione were slightly increased. The levels of NADPH and NADH were reduced at high concentrations of the quinones with a simultaneous increase in the levels of NADP{sup +} and NAD{sup +}. Both compounds induced micronuclei, but neither increased the frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Only 1,4-benzoquinone induced gene mutations. They conclude that (a) induction of micronuclei and glutathione depletion by the two quinones are not linked casually, (b) 1,4-benzoquinone induces gene mutations by a mechanism different from oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, and (c) glutathione does not fully protect the cells against the genotoxicity of quinones.

  2. Spectrophotometric study for the reaction between fluvoxamine and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate: Kinetic, mechanism and use for determination of fluvoxamine in its dosage forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Abdine, Heba H.; Amer, Sawsan M.; Al-Rayes, Lama I.

    2009-05-01

    Spectrophotometric study was carried out, for the first time, to investigate the reaction between the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FXM) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 9), an orange-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak ( λmax) at 470 nm was produced. The kinetics of the reaction was investigated and its activation energy was found to be 2.65 kcal mol -1. Because of this low activation energy, the reaction proceeded easily. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was successfully employed in the development of simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance ( A) with FXM concentration ( C) was obeyed in the range of 0.6-8 μg ml -1. The regression equation for the calibration data was A = 0.0086 + 0.1348 C, with good correlation coefficient (0.9996). The molar absorptivity ( ɛ) was 5.9 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.6 μg ml -1, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.47 ± 0.96%. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official method. The proposed method is superior to all the previously reported spectrophotometric methods for determination of FXM in terms of its simplicity and sensitivity. The method is practical and valuable for its routine application in quality control laboratories for analysis of FXM.

  3. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone, but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). They inhibited the binding of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.3 and 22.6 μM, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of this photoaffinity analog to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of this transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared to the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function. PMID:18065489

  4. Ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the natural anticancer naphthoquinone plumbagin with enhanced efficacy against resistant cancer cells and a genuine mode of action.

    PubMed

    Spoerlein-Guettler, Cornelia; Mahal, Katharina; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    A series of ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes attached to the naturally occurring anticancer naphthoquinones plumbagin and juglone was tested for efficacy against various cancer cell lines and for alterations in the mode of action. The plumbagin ferrocene and (p-cymene)Ru(II) conjugates 1c and 2a overcame the multi-drug drug resistance of KB-V1/Vbl cervix carcinoma cells and showed IC50 (72 h) values around 1 μM in growth inhibition assays using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). They were further investigated for their influence on the cell cycle of KB-V1/Vbl and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the latter cell line, for their substrate character for the P-glycoprotein drug eflux pump via the calcein-AM efflux assays, and for DNA affinity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The derivatives 1c and 2a increased the number of dead cancer cells (sub-G0/G1 fraction) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ROS levels were significantly increased upon treatment with 1c and 2a. These compounds also showed a greater affinity to linear DNA than plumbagin. While plumbagin did not affect calcein-AM transport by P-glycoprotein the derivatives 1c and 2a exhibited a 50% or 80% inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein-AM efflux relative to the clinically established sensitizer verapamil.

  5. Bioactive deoxypreussomerins and dimeric naphthoquinones from Diospyros ehretioides fruits: deoxypreussomerins may not be plant metabolites but may be from fungal epiphytes or endophytes.

    PubMed

    Prajoubklang, Areerat; Sirithunyalug, Busaban; Charoenchai, Panarat; Suvannakad, Rapheephat; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Piyamongkol, Sirivipa; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2005-10-01

    Deoxypreussomerin derivatives, palmarumycins JC1 (1) and JC2 (2), and two dimeric naphthoquinones, isodiospyrin (3) and its new derivative isodiospyrol A (4), were isolated from dried fruits of Diospyros ehretioides. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Palmarumycins were not found in the extract of freshly collected fruits; however, they were present in dried fruit extract. The absence of palmarumycins in fresh fruits of D. ehretioides, together with the chemotaxonomic point of view, we proposed that palmarumycins JC1 (1) and JC2 (2) are more likely to be fungal metabolites, i.e., endophytes or epiphytes. The isolation of palmarumycins 1 and 2 from dried D. ehretioides fruits could be reproducible; both plant samples collected in the years 2002 and 2004 provided the same result, and, therefore, symbiont fungal strains should be specific to the plant host, D. ehretioides, and they can grow on the fruits during drying the sample. Palmarumycin JC1 (1) did not exhibit antimalarial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Palmarumycin JC2 (2) exhibited antimalarial (IC50 4.5 microg/ml), antifungal (IC50 12.5 microg/ml), antimycobacterial (MIC 6.25 microg/ml), and cytotoxic (IC50 11.0 microg/ml for NCI-H187 cell line) activities. In our bioassay systems, isodiospyrin (3) did not exhibit antimycobacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and cytotoxic activities. Isodiospyrol A (4) exhibited antimalarial (IC50 2.7 microg/ml) and antimycobacterial (MIC 50 microg/ml) activities, but was inactive towards Candida albicans. Compound 4 also exhibited cytotoxicity against BC cells (IC50 12.3 microg/ml), but not towards KB and Vero cell lines.

  6. Glutathione-mediated reversibility of covalent modification of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 by 1,2-naphthoquinone through Cys152, but not Lys4.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Takashi; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yazawa, Aki; Kakehashi, Hidenao; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2014-05-05

    Covalent modification of cellular proteins by electrophiles affects electrophilic signal transduction and the dysfunction of enzymes that is involved in cytotoxicity. We have recently found a unique reaction which restores glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) that has been modified by 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) through a glutathione (GSH)-dependent S-transarylation reaction. We report here that ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) undergoes the same reaction. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to 1,2-NQ after pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete GSH resulted in an enhancement of covalent modification of UCH-L1 by 1,2-NQ. With recombinant human UCH-L1, we demonstrated that UCH-L1 underwent arylation by 1,2-NQ through Cys152 and Lys4, thereby decreasing its catalytic activity. Addition of GSH to an incubation mixture of 1,2-NQ-UCH-L1 adduct partially restored this decline in enzyme activity which was accompanied by decreased covalent attachment of 1,2-NQ, together with production of 1,2-NQ-GSH adduct. UCH-L1 in which Lys4 was mutated exhibited a lower level of covalent modification and enzyme inhibition, but completely recovered after addition of GSH. Taken together, these results suggest that Cys152 modification in UCH-L1 by 1,2-NQ is reversible via GSH-mediated S-transarylation reaction whereas Lys4 modification by 1,2-NQ is irreversible by GSH. Because UCH-L1 dysfunction has been associated with neurodegeneration, the electrophilic modification of Lys rather than Cys in UCH-L1 may be implicated in such neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of 1,4-naphthoquinone ether derivatives as SmTGR inhibitors and new anti-schistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    Johann, Laure; Belorgey, Didier; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Day, Latasha; Chessé, Matthieu; Becker, Katja; Williams, David L; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Investigations regarding the chemistry and mechanism of action of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione) derivatives revealed 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones as a novel anti-schistosomal chemical series. These newly synthesized compounds (1-7) and their difluoromethylmenadione counterparts (8, 9) were found to be potent and specific inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (SmTGR), which has been identified as a potential target for anti-schistosomal drugs. The compounds were also tested in enzymic assays using both human flavoenzymes, i.e. glutathione reductase (hGR) and selenium-dependent human thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), to evaluate the specificity of the inhibition. Structure-activity relationships as well as physico- and electro-chemical studies showed a high potential for the 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones to inhibit SmTGR selectively compared to hGR and hTrxR enzymes, in particular those bearing an α-fluorophenol methyl ether moiety, which improves anti-schistosomal action. Furthermore, the (substituted phenoxy)methyl menadione derivative (7) displayed time-dependent SmTGR inactivation, correlating with unproductive NADPH-dependent redox cycling of SmTGR, and potent anti-schistosomal action in worms cultured ex vivo. In contrast, the difluoromethylmenadione analog 9, which inactivates SmTGR through an irreversible non-consuming NADPH-dependent process, has little killing effect in worms cultured ex vivo. Despite ex vivo activity, none of the compounds tested was active in vivo, suggesting that the limited bioavailability may compromise compound activity. Therefore, future studies will be directed toward improving pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability.

  8. Identification and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones in the roots and rhizosphere of Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum), a noxious invader

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaocheng; Skoneczny, Dominik; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Mwendwa, James M.; Weston, Paul A.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive plant secondary products are frequently the drivers of complex rhizosphere interactions, including those with other plants, herbivores and microbiota. These chemically diverse molecules typically accumulate in a highly regulated manner in specialized plant tissues and organelles. We studied the production and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones (NQs) in the roots of Echium plantagineum, an invasive endemic weed in Australia. Roots of E. plantagineum produced red-coloured NQs in the periderm of primary and secondary roots, while seedling root hairs exuded NQs in copious quantities. Confocal imaging and microspectrofluorimetry confirmed that bioactive NQs were deposited in the outer layer of periderm cells in mature roots, resulting in red colouration. Intracellular examination revealed that periderm cells contained numerous small red vesicles for storage and intracellular transport of shikonins, followed by subsequent extracellular deposition. Periderm and root hair extracts of field- and phytotron-grown plants were analysed by UHPLC/Q-ToF MS (ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry) and contained more than nine individual NQs, with dimethylacrylshikonin, and phytotoxic shikonin, deoxyshikonin and acetylshikonin predominating. In seedlings, shikonins were first found 48h following germination in the root-hypocotyl junction, as well as in root hair exudates. In contrast, the root cortices of both seedling and mature root tissues were devoid of NQs. SPRE (solid phase root zone extraction) microprobes strategically placed in soil surrounding living E. plantagineum plants successfully extracted significant levels of bioactive shikonins from living roots, rhizosphere and bulk soil surrounding roots. These findings suggest important roles for accumulation of shikonins in the root periderm and subsequent rhizodeposition in plant defence, interference, and invasion success. PMID:27194735

  9. The Antimalarial Activities of Methylene Blue and the 1,4-Naphthoquinone 3-[4-(Trifluoromethyl)Benzyl]-Menadione Are Not Due to Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Katharina; Ke, Hangjun; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Lanzer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue and a series of recently developed 1,4-naphthoquinones, including 3-[4-(substituted)benzyl]-menadiones, are potent antimalarial agents in vitro and in vivo. The activity of these structurally diverse compounds against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum might involve their peculiar redox properties. According to the current theory, redox-active methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione are “subversive substrates.” These agents are thought to shuttle electrons from reduced flavoproteins to acceptors such as hemoglobin-associated or free Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX. The reduction of Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX could subsequently prevent essential hemoglobin digestion and heme detoxification in the parasite. Alternatively, owing to their structures and redox properties, methylene blue and 1,4-naphthoquinones might also affect the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we tested the latter hypothesis using an established system of transgenic P. falciparum cell lines and the antimalarial agents atovaquone and chloroquine as controls. In contrast to atovaquone, methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione do not inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. A systematic comparison of the morphologies of drug-treated parasites furthermore suggests that the three drugs do not share a mechanism of action. Our findings support the idea that methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione exert their antimalarial activity as redox-active subversive substrates. PMID:23439633

  10. The antimalarial activities of methylene blue and the 1,4-naphthoquinone 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione are not due to inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Katharina; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Ke, Hangjun; Vaidya, Akhil B; Lanzer, Michael; Deponte, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    Methylene blue and a series of recently developed 1,4-naphthoquinones, including 3-[4-(substituted)benzyl]-menadiones, are potent antimalarial agents in vitro and in vivo. The activity of these structurally diverse compounds against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum might involve their peculiar redox properties. According to the current theory, redox-active methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione are "subversive substrates." These agents are thought to shuttle electrons from reduced flavoproteins to acceptors such as hemoglobin-associated or free Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX. The reduction of Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX could subsequently prevent essential hemoglobin digestion and heme detoxification in the parasite. Alternatively, owing to their structures and redox properties, methylene blue and 1,4-naphthoquinones might also affect the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we tested the latter hypothesis using an established system of transgenic P. falciparum cell lines and the antimalarial agents atovaquone and chloroquine as controls. In contrast to atovaquone, methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione do not inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. A systematic comparison of the morphologies of drug-treated parasites furthermore suggests that the three drugs do not share a mechanism of action. Our findings support the idea that methylene blue and 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione exert their antimalarial activity as redox-active subversive substrates.

  11. Experimental Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease: A Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Overview of Potential Trypanosoma cruzi Targets of Amidines Derivatives and Naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Solange L.; Batista, Denise G. J.; Batista, Marcos M.; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F.; Silva, Patricia B.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C.

    2011-01-01

    investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, selectivity, and parasite targets of different classes of natural and synthetic compounds. Some of these results will be briefly presented, focusing primarily on diamidines and related compounds and naphthoquinone derivatives that showed the most promising efficacy against T. cruzi. PMID:22091400

  12. Enthalpy of solution of 1,4-naphthoquinone in CO2 + n-pentane in the critical region of the binary mixture: mechanism of solubility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tiancheng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhimin; Han, Buxing; Li, Zhonghao; Jiang, Tao; He, Jun; Yang, Guanying

    2004-01-23

    The enthalpy of solution (Delta(solv)H(m)) and solubility of 1,4-naphthoquinone in CO(2) + n-pentane were measured at 308.15 K in the critical region of the binary fluid. In order to study the effect of phase behavior of the mixed solvent on Delta(solv)H(m), the experiments were carried out in the supercritical (SC) and subcritical region of the binary solvent. The density of the mixed solvent in different conditions was determined. The isothermal compressibility (K(T)) of the mixed solvent, and the partial molar volume (V(n-pentane)) of n-pentane in the solution were calculated. It was demonstrated that the Delta(solv)H(m) was negative in all conditions. Delta(solv)H(m) is nearly independent of pressure or density in all the solvents in a high-density region, in which compressibility of the solvent is very small; this indicates that the intermolecular interaction between the solvent and the solute is similar to that for liquid solutions. It is very interesting that Delta(solv)H(m) in the mixed SC fluid differs from the Delta(solv)H(m) in mixed subcritical fluids. The absolute value of Delta(solv)H(m) in the mixed SC fluid is close to that in pure SC CO(2) in the high-density region, and is much lower than that in pure SC CO(2) in the low-density region. In the mixed subcritical fluids, the Delta(solv)H(m) is also close to that in the pure CO(2) in the high-density region. However, at the same density, the absolute value of Delta(solv)H(m) in the binary subcritical fluid is larger than that in pure CO(2) in the high-compressible region of the mixed solvent. The main reason for this is that the degree of clustering in the SC solutions is small at the density in which the degree of clustering is large in the subcritical solutions. It can be concluded that solubility enhancement by n-pentane in the mixed SC fluid is entropy driven. In contrast, the solubility enhancement by n-pentane in subcritical fluids is enthalpy driven. The intermolecular interaction in the SC

  13. Charge transfer interaction of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol) with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone: A study in aqueous ethanol medium by UV-vis spectroscopic and DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Avijit; Tiwary, Amit S.; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2008-12-01

    4-Acetamidophenol (paracetamol) is shown to form charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro1,4-naphthoquinone in aqueous ethanol media exhibiting the unusual 2:1 (paracetamol:quinone) stoichiometry. The complexation enthalpy and entropy have been estimated from the formation constant ( K) determined spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures. In aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition K increases with increasing dielectric constant of the medium. This has been rationalized by calculating the electronic charge distribution in paracetamol molecule and its conjugate base at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The theoretically calculated vertical ionization potential of paracetamol also agrees with reported experimental value.

  14. Study of the sensitization of tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride for the color development reaction between lysine and sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and the determination of lysine in pharmaceutical and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Tiantian

    2007-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method for the determination of lysine (Lys) using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) and tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (Zeph) is presented in this paper. The method is based on the russety product formed from Lys, NQS and Zeph in a buffer solution of pH 9.60, and the stoichiometric ratio of the product is 1:2:2. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.09-18 μg ml -1 of Lys at the maximum absorption of 474 nm ( ɛ474 is 8.1 × 10 5 l mol -1 cm -1). The equation of linear regression is A = 0.40427 + 0.06112 C, with a linearly correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The limit of detection is 0.07 μg ml -1, R.S.D. 0.8%, and average recovery rate in a range of 98.9-100.1%. This paper further optimizes the determination of Lys compared with the previous methods, and the reaction mechanism is studied intensively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Lys in pharmaceutical and biological samples. The common components as nutritional additives in pharmaceuticals and other compounds in biological samples nearly do not interfere with the proposed method.

  15. Atomic and dynamic insights into the beneficial effect of the 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan inhibitor on Alzheimer's Aβ1-42 dimer in terms of aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-02-19

    Aggregation of the amyloid β protein (Aβ) peptide with 40 or 42 residues is one key feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQTrp) molecule was reported to alter Aβ self-assembly and reduce toxicity. Though nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and various simulations provided atomic information about the interaction of NQTrp with Aβ peptides spanning the regions of residues 12-28 and 17-42, none of these studies were conducted on the full-length Aβ1-42 peptide. To this end, we performed extensive atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Aβ1-42 dimer with two NQTrp molecules in explicit solvent, by using a force field known to fold diverse proteins correctly. The interactions between NQTrp and Aβ1-42, which change the Aβ interface by reducing most of the intermolecular contacts, are found to be very dynamic and multiple, leading to many transient binding sites. The most favorable binding residues are Arg5, Asp7, Tyr10, His13, Lys16, Lys18, Phe19/Phe20, and Leu34/Met35, providing therefore a completely different picture from in vitro and in silico experiments with NQTrp with shorter Aβ fragments. Importantly, the 10 hot residues that we identified explain the beneficial effect of NQTrp in reducing both the level of Aβ1-42 aggregation and toxicity. Our results also indicate that there is room to design more efficient drugs targeting Aβ1-42 dimer against AD.

  16. Atomic and Dynamic Insights into the Beneficial Effect of the 1,4-Naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan Inhibitor on Alzheimer’s Aβ1–42 Dimer in Terms of Aggregation and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid β protein (Aβ) peptide with 40 or 42 residues is one key feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan (NQTrp) molecule was reported to alter Aβ self-assembly and reduce toxicity. Though nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and various simulations provided atomic information about the interaction of NQTrp with Aβ peptides spanning the regions of residues 12–28 and 17–42, none of these studies were conducted on the full-length Aβ1–42 peptide. To this end, we performed extensive atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Aβ1–42 dimer with two NQTrp molecules in explicit solvent, by using a force field known to fold diverse proteins correctly. The interactions between NQTrp and Aβ1–42, which change the Aβ interface by reducing most of the intermolecular contacts, are found to be very dynamic and multiple, leading to many transient binding sites. The most favorable binding residues are Arg5, Asp7, Tyr10, His13, Lys16, Lys18, Phe19/Phe20, and Leu34/Met35, providing therefore a completely different picture from in vitro and in silico experiments with NQTrp with shorter Aβ fragments. Importantly, the 10 hot residues that we identified explain the beneficial effect of NQTrp in reducing both the level of Aβ1–42 aggregation and toxicity. Our results also indicate that there is room to design more efficient drugs targeting Aβ1–42 dimer against AD. PMID:24246047

  17. In Vitro Activity of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and Stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol from Impatiens balsamina L. against Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Li, Wan-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Liao, Jyun-Ji; Lin, Cheng-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. WHO classified H. pylori as a group 1 carcinogen in 1994. Impatiens balsamina L. has been used as indigenous medicine in Asia for the treatment of rheumatism, fractures and fingernail inflammation. In this study, we isolated anti-H. pylori compounds from this plant and investigated their anti- and bactericidal activity. Compounds of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeONQ) and stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol (spinasterol) were isolated from the pods and roots/stems/leaves of I. balsamina L., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for MeONQ were in the ranges of 0.156–0.625 and 0.313–0.625 μg mL−1, respectively, and in the ranges of 20–80 μg mL−1 both of MICs and MBCs for spinasterol against antibiotic (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) resistant H. pylori. Notably, the activity of MeONQ was equivalent to that of amoxicillin (AMX). The bactericidal H. pylori action of MeONQ was dose-dependent. Furthermore, the activity of MeONQ was not influenced by the environmental pH values (4–8) and demonstrated good thermal (121°C for 15 min) stability. MeONQ abounds in the I. balsamina L. pod at the level of 4.39% (w/w db). In conclusion, MeONQ exhibits strong potential to be developed as a candidate agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection. PMID:19773391

  18. Effects of ethanolic extract and naphthoquinones obtained from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa on short-term and long-term memory: involvement of adenosine A₁ and A₂A receptors.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Greice M R S; Matheus, Filipe C; Ferreira, Vania M; Tessele, Priscila B; Azevedo, Mariangela S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Prediger, Rui D

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies from our group have indicated important biological properties of the ethanolic extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa (Iridaceae), a native plant widely distributed in northern Brazil, including antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract and its two naphthoquinones (eleutherine and isoeleutherine) on the short- and long-term memory of adult rodents were assessed in social recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Acute pre-training oral administration of the ethanolic extract improved the short-term social memory in rats as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. Moreover, the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of the extract of Cipura paludosa and the adenosine receptor antagonists caffeine (non-selective), DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and ZM241385 (adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) improved the social recognition memory of rats. In the inhibitory avoidance task, the co-administration of sub-effective doses of the extract with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, improved the short- and long-term memory of mice. Finally, the acute oral administration of eleutherine and isoeleutherine facilitated the inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. These results demonstrate for the first time the cognitive-enhancing properties of the extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa in rodents and suggest a possible involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in these effects.

  19. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na2S2 and Na2S4, blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts.

  20. Transition metal-free direct C-H functionalization of quinones and naphthoquinones with diaryliodonium salts: synthesis of aryl naphthoquinones as β-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Ge, Bingyang; Li, Liang; Shan, Jie; Ding, Yuqiang

    2014-09-19

    A novel ligand-free, transition metal-free direct C-H functionalization of quinones with diaryliodonium salts has been developed for the first time. The transformation was promoted only through the use of a base and gave aryl quinone derivatives in moderate to good yields. This methodology provided an effective and easy way to synthesize β-secretase inhibitors. The radical trapping experiments showed that this progress was the radical mechanism.

  1. In Vitro Induction of Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Translocation by the Natural Naphthoquinone Shikonin

    PubMed Central

    Lupescu, Adrian; Bissinger, Rosi; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Shikonin, the most important component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The anticancer effect has been attributed to the stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may experience eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include the increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and ceramide formation. The present study explored whether Shikonin stimulates eryptosis. To this end, Fluo 3 fluorescence was measured to quantify [Ca2+]i, forward scatter to estimate cell volume, annexin V binding to identify phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, hemoglobin release to determine hemolysis and antibodies to quantify ceramide abundance. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Shikonin (1 µM) significantly increased [Ca2+]i, increased ceramide abundance, decreased forward scatter and increased annexin V binding. The effect of Shikonin (1 µM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Shikonin stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to the stimulation of Ca2+ entry and ceramide formation. PMID:24828755

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Naphthoquinone Analogs as a Novel Class of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Luo, Yunting; Kendig, Robert; Ge, Yiyu; Jain, Sanjula; Daniel, Kenyon; Santiago, Daniel; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2012-01-01

    Screening of the NCI Diversity Set-1 identified PI-083 (NSC-45382) a proteasome inhibitor selective for cancer over normal cells. Focused libraries of novel compounds based on PI-083 chloronaphthoquinone and sulfonamide moieties were synthesized to gain a better understanding of the structure activity relationship responsible for chymotrypsin-like proteasome inhibitory activity. This led to the demonstration that the chloronaphthoquinone and the sulfonamide moieties are critical for inhibitory activity. The pyridyl group in PI-083 can be replaced with other heterocyclic groups without significant loss of activity. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to explore the detailed interactions of PI-083 and its derivatives with the β5 and β6 subunits of the 20S proteasome. The refined model showed an H-bond interaction between the Asp-114 and the sulfonamide moiety of the PI-083 in the β6 subunit. PMID:20621484

  3. Generation of naphthoquinone radical anions by electrospray ionization: solution, gas-phase, and computational chemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Vessecchi, Ricardo; Naal, Zeki; Lopes, José N C; Galembeck, Sérgio E; Lopes, Norberto P

    2011-06-02

    Radical anions are present in several chemical processes, and understanding the reactivity of these species may be described by their thermodynamic properties. Over the last years, the formation of radical ions in the gas phase has been an important issue concerning electrospray ionization mass spectrometry studies. In this work, we report on the generation of radical anions of quinonoid compounds (Q) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The balance between radical anion formation and the deprotonated molecule is also analyzed by influence of the experimental parameters (gas-phase acidity, electron affinity, and reduction potential) and solvent system employed. The gas-phase parameters for formation of radical species and deprotonated species were achieved on the basis of computational thermochemistry. The solution effects on the formation of radical anion (Q(•-)) and dianion (Q(2-)) were evaluated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry analysis and the reduction potentials compared with calculated electron affinities. The occurrence of unexpected ions [Q+15](-) was described as being a reaction between the solvent system and the radical anion, Q(•-). The gas-phase chemistry of the electrosprayed radical anions was obtained by collisional-induced dissociation and compared to the relative energy calculations. These results are important for understanding the formation and reactivity of radical anions and to establish their correlation with the reducing properties by electrospray ionization analyses.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the isolation of bioactive naphthoquinones from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Tsermentseli, Stella K; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P

    2013-11-08

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) targeting shikonin, a potent antioxidant and wound healing agent, have been prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) and 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) as functional monomers. An investigation of solution association between shikonin and both acidic and basic functional monomers by UV-vis titrations, suggested stronger affinity towards the basic functionality. Strong inhibition of the co-polymerisation reaction of such basic monomers was observed, but was overcome by reduction of the amount of template used during polymer synthesis. Polymer morphology was severely impacted by the template's radical scavenging behaviour as demonstrated by solid state NMR spectroscopy measurements. HPLC evaluation of the final materials in polar conditions revealed limited imprinting effects and selectivity, with the MAA polymers exhibiting marginally better performance. During application of the polymers as MI-SPE sorbents in non-polar solvents it was found that the DEAEMA based polymer was more selective towards shikonin compared to the MAA counterpart, while shikonin recoveries of up to 72% were achieved from hexane solutions of a commercial sample of shikonin, hexane extract of Alkanna tinctoria roots and a commercial pharmaceutical ointment.

  5. In vivo inhibition of tumor progression by 5 hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) and 2-(4-hydroxyanilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (Q7) in combination with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R; Zirbel, Guilherme; Castro, Luiza S E P W; Gomes Castro, Allisson Jhonatan; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Valderrama, Jaime A; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of the study was to obtain further in vivo data of antitumor effects and mechanisms triggered by juglone and Q7 in combination with ascorbate. The study was done using Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. Treatments were intraperitoneal every 24 h for 9 days. Control group was treated with excipient. Previous tests selected the doses of juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate (1 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Samples of ascitic fluid were collected to evaluate carbonyl proteins, GSH and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, GLUT1, proteins driving cell cycle (p53, p16 and cyclin A) and apoptosis (poly-ADP-polymerase PARP, Bax and Bcl-xL) were assessed by western blot. Tumor cells were categorized by the phase of cell cycle using flow cytometry and type of cell death using acridine orange/ethidium bromide. A glucose uptake assessment was performed by liquid scintillation using Ehrlich tumor cells cultured with (14)C-deoxyglucose. Treatments caused increased protein carbonylation and activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased levels of GSH, HIF-1α, GLUT1 and glucose uptake in tumor cells. They also caused increased number of tumor cells in G1, p53 and p16 activation and decreased cyclin A, but only when combined with ascorbate. Apoptosis was induced mostly when treatments were done with ascorbate, causing PARP and Bax cleavage, and increased Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. Juglone and Q7 in combination with ascorbate caused inhibition of tumor progress in vivo by triggering apoptosis and cell cycle arrest associated with oxidative stress, suppression of HIF-1 and uncoupling of glycolytic metabolism.

  6. Reactive Sulfur Species-Mediated Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway by 1,2-Naphthoquinone through Sulfenic Acids Formation under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Abiko, Yumi; Ida, Tomoaki; Miura, Takashi; Kakehashi, Hidenao; Ishii, Isao; Nishida, Motohiro; Sawa, Tomohiro; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-05-18

    Sulfhydration by a hydrogen sulfide anion and electrophile thiolation by reactive sulfur species (RSS) such as persulfides/polysulfides (e.g., R-S-SH/R-S-Sn-H(R)) are unique reactions in electrophilic signaling. Using 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-thioacetate (1,2-NQH2-SAc) as a precursor to 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-thiol (1,2-NQH2-SH) and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we demonstrate that protein thiols can be modified by a reactive sulfenic acid to form disulfide adducts that undergo rapid cleavage in the presence of glutathione (GSH). As expected, 1,2-NQH2-SAc is rapidly hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield 1,2-NQ-SH, resulting in a redox cycling reaction that produces ROS through a chemical disproportionation reaction. The sulfenic acid forms of 1,2-NQ-SH and 1,2-NQH2-SH were detected by derivatization experiments with dimedone. 1,2-NQH2-SOH modified Keap1 at Cys171 to produce a Keap1-S-S-1,2-NQH2 adduct. Subsequent exposure of A431 cells to 1,2-NQ or 1,2-NQH2-SAc caused an extensive chemical modification of cellular proteins in both cases. Protein adduction by 1,2-NQ through a thio ether (C-S-C) bond slowly declined through a GSH-dependent S-transarylation reaction, whereas that originating from 1,2-NQH2-SAc through a disulfide (C-S-S-C) bond was rapidly restored to the free protein thiol in the cells. Under these conditions, 1,2-NQH2-SAc activated Nrf2 and upregulated its target genes, which were enhanced by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), to deplete cellular GSH. Pretreatment of catalase conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) suppressed Nrf2 activation by 1,2-NQH2-SAc. These results suggest that RSS-mediated reversible electrophilic signaling takes place through sulfenic acids formation under oxidative stress.

  7. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:26840401

  8. Modulatory effect of plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) on macrophage functions in BALB/c mice. I. Potentiation of macrophage bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Abdul, K M; Ramchender, R P

    1995-09-01

    The modulatory ability of plumbagin, a natural product from Plumbago zeylanica, was studied on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. The macrophage functions evaluated were bactericidal activity, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release. The bactericidal capacity of in vivo plumbagin-treated mouse macrophages was estimated against Staphylococcus aureus. In low doses plumbagin exerted a constant increase in bactericidal activity throughout the study period whereas with a high dose a higher response was observed up to six weeks. But in the next two weeks a considerable decline in the bactericidal activity was noticed compared to low dose. Plumbagin was also seen to exert a similar response on oxygen radical release by macrophages in vivo showing a clear correlation between oxygen radical release and the bactericidal activity. The data indicate that plumbagin augments the macrophage bactericidal activity by potentiating the oxyradical release at low concentration whereas at the higher concentration it has inhibitory activity.

  9. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer.

  10. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  11. Design, synthesis, characterization and cation sensing behavior of amino-naphthoquinone receptor: Selective colorimetric sensing of Cu(II) ion in nearly aqueous solution with mimicking logic gate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, C.; Elango, Kuppanagounder P.

    2017-03-01

    An amino-naphthoquione receptor (R1) has been rationally designed, synthesized and characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, LCMS and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The receptor exhibits an instantaneous colour change from yellow to blue selectively with Cu(II) ions in water-DMF (98:2% v/v) medium. The results of UV-Vis and fluorescence spectral studies indicates that the mechanism of sensing involves formation of a 1:1 complex between R1 and Cu(II) ion. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed through product analysis using FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and HRMS studies in addition to magnetic moment and elemental analysis measurements. The formed [Cu(R1)Cl2] possess a square planar geometry. The binding constant for the interaction of Cu(II) ion with the present unsubstituted quinone is found to be relatively higher than that with quinones containing electron withdrawing chlorine atom and electron releasing methyl group reported in literature. The detection limit of Cu(II) ion in aqueous solution by R1 is observed to be 8.7 nM. The detection of Cu(II) ion by R1 in aqueous solution produces remarkable changes in the electronic and fluorescence spectra, which is applied to construct logic gate at molecular level.

  12. Evidence of Polymorphism on the Antitrypanosomal Naphthoquinone (4E)-2-(1H-Pyrazol-3-ylamino)-4-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylimino)naphthalen-1(4H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Sperandeo, Norma R.; Faudone, Sonia N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the solid state properties of (4E)-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-4-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylimino)naphthalen-1(4H)-one (BiPNQ), a compound with a significant inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Methods used included Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Hot Stage, and Confocal Microscopy. Two BiPNQ samples were obtained by crystallization from absolute methanol and 2-propanol-water that exhibited different thermal behaviours, PXRD patterns, and FTIR spectra, indicating the existence of an anhydrous form (BiPNQ-I) and a solvate (BIPNQ-s), which on heating desolvated leading to the anhydrous modification BiPNQ-I. It was determined that FTIR, DSC, and PXRD are useful techniques for the characterization and identification of the crystalline modifications of BiPNQ. PMID:24106678

  13. Molecular Modeling of the Compounds with Nonlinear Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Clark, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    The molecular polarizability characteristics for a large series of naphthoquinone and quinoline derivatives have been calculated. The dependence of calculated hyperpolarizability on the positions and the number of donor and acceptor substituents is discussed.

  14. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  15. Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy data obtained using photosystem I particles with non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption difference spectroscopy data at both 298 and 77 K were obtained using cyanobacterial menB (-) mutant photosystem I particles with several non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site. Data was obtained for photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-anthraquinone incorporated. Transient absorption data were obtained at 487 and 703 nm in the visible spectral range, and 1950-1100 cm(-1) in the infrared region. Time constants obtained from fitting the time-resolved infrared and visible data are in good agreement. The measured time constants are crucial for the development of appropriate kinetic models that can describe electron transfer processes in photosystem I, "Modeling Electron Transfer in Photosystem I" Makita and Hastings (2016) [1].

  16. Biologically Active Metabolites Produced by the Basidiomycete Quambalaria cyanescens

    PubMed Central

    Stodůlková, Eva; Císařová, Ivana; Kolařík, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pavlů, Barbora; Černý, Jan; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of the fungus Quambalaria cyanescens (Basidiomycota: Microstromatales), were used for the determination of secondary metabolites production and their antimicrobial and biological activities. A new naphthoquinone named quambalarine A, (S)-(+)-3-(5-ethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yliden)-5,7,8-trihydroxy-2-oxo-1,4-naphthoquinone (1), together with two known naphthoquinones, 3-hexanoyl-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (named here as quambalarine B, 2) and mompain, 2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (3) were isolated. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, NMR and MS spectrometry. Quambalarine A (1) had a broad antifungal and antibacterial activity and is able inhibit growth of human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and fungi co-occurring with Q. cyanescens in bark beetle galleries including insect pathogenic species Beauveria bassiana. Quambalarine B (2) was active against several fungi and mompain mainly against bacteria. The biological activity against human-derived cell lines was selective towards mitochondria (2 and 3); after long-term incubation with 2, mitochondria were undetectable using a mitochondrial probe. A similar effect on mitochondria was observed also for environmental competitors of Q. cyanescens from the genus Geosmithia. PMID:25723150

  17. Effects of juglone and lawsone on oxidative stress in maize coleoptile cells treated with IAA

    PubMed Central

    Kurtyka, Renata; Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew; Karcz, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA). In this study, redox cycling properties of two naphthoquinones, juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), were compared in experiments performed on maize coleoptile segments incubated with or without the addition of IAA. It was found that lawsone was much more effective than juglone in increasing both H2O2 production and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) in coleoptile cells, regardless of the presence of IAA. An increase in the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD isoenzymes induced by both naphthoquinones suggests that juglone- and lawsone-generated H2O2 was primarily produced in the cytosolic and cell wall spaces. The cell potential to neutralize hydrogen peroxide, determined by POX and CAT activity, pointed to activity of catalase as the main enzymatic mechanism responsible for degradation of H2O2. Therefore, we assumed that generation of H2O2, induced more efficiently by LW than JG, was the major factor accounting for differences in the toxicity of naphthoquinones in maize coleoptiles. The role of auxin in the process appeared negligible. Moreover, the results suggested that oxidative stress imposed by JG and LW was one of mechanisms of allelopathic action of the studied quinones in plants. PMID:27760740

  18. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  19. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1): occurrence, biosynthesis and functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylloquinone is a prenylated naphthoquinone that is synthesized exclusively by plants, green algae, and some species of cyanobacteria, where it serves as a vital electron carrier in photosystem I and as an electron acceptor for the formation of protein disulfide bonds. In humans and other vertebrat...

  20. Hydrogen peroxide formation in a surrogate lung fluid by transition metals and quinones present in particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Jessica G; McFall, Alexander S; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K; Anastasio, Cort

    2014-06-17

    Inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) causes adverse health effects, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), in the lung lining fluid. There are conflicting reports in the literature as to which chemical components of PM can chemically generate HOOH in lung fluid mimics. It is also unclear which redox-active species are most important for HOOH formation at concentrations relevant to ambient PM. To address this, we use a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF) to quantify the initial rate of HOOH formation from 10 transition metals and 4 quinones commonly identified in PM. Copper, 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and phenanthrenequinone all form HOOH in a SLF, but only copper and 1,2-naphthoquinone are likely important at ambient concentrations. Iron suppresses HOOH formation in laboratory solutions, but has a smaller effect in ambient PM extracts, possibly because organic ligands in the particles reduce the reactivity of iron. Overall, copper produces the majority of HOOH chemically generated from typical ambient PM while 1,2-naphthoquinone generally makes a small contribution. However, measured rates of HOOH formation in ambient particle extracts are lower than rates calculated from soluble copper by an average (±1σ) of 44 ± 22%; this underestimate is likely due to either HOOH destruction by Fe or a reduction in Cu reactivity due to organic ligands from the PM.

  1. Comparative study of three Plumbago L. species (Plumbaginaceae) by microscopy, UPLC–UV and HPTLC analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a comparative study of anatomy of leaves, stems and roots of three species of Plumbago, namely P. auriculata Lam., P. indica L. and P. zeylanica L. by light microscopy. The paper also provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the naphthoquinone, plumbagin, a major constit...

  2. First Synthesis of 1,4-Dimethoxy-2-Naphthoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Kimberly; Banerjee, Ajoy K

    2015-07-01

    2-Acetyl-1-hydroxynaphthalene was converted into 1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthoxyacetic acid in seven steps (methylation, Bayer-Villiger oxidation, hydrolysis, bromination, methylation, alkylation and hydrolysis). 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone on acetylation, aromatization, methylation and hydrolysis, respectively, also yielded the title compound.

  3. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  4. Hydrogen Peroxide Formation in a Surrogate Lung Fluid by Transition Metals and Quinones Present in Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) causes adverse health effects, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), in the lung lining fluid. There are conflicting reports in the literature as to which chemical components of PM can chemically generate HOOH in lung fluid mimics. It is also unclear which redox-active species are most important for HOOH formation at concentrations relevant to ambient PM. To address this, we use a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF) to quantify the initial rate of HOOH formation from 10 transition metals and 4 quinones commonly identified in PM. Copper, 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and phenanthrenequinone all form HOOH in a SLF, but only copper and 1,2-naphthoquinone are likely important at ambient concentrations. Iron suppresses HOOH formation in laboratory solutions, but has a smaller effect in ambient PM extracts, possibly because organic ligands in the particles reduce the reactivity of iron. Overall, copper produces the majority of HOOH chemically generated from typical ambient PM while 1,2-naphthoquinone generally makes a small contribution. However, measured rates of HOOH formation in ambient particle extracts are lower than rates calculated from soluble copper by an average (±1σ) of 44 ± 22%; this underestimate is likely due to either HOOH destruction by Fe or a reduction in Cu reactivity due to organic ligands from the PM. PMID:24857372

  5. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Eun; Piao, Xiang-Lan; Takeoka, Gary R; Wong, Rosalind Y; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2006-04-21

    The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc

  6. Plumbagin, Juglone, and Boropinal as Novel TRPA1 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kerstin; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Schulze, Anja; Leonhardt, Marion; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore

    2016-04-22

    A series of seven oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and naphthoquinones were tested regarding their ability to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 channel (TRPA1). Three of the assayed compounds, namely, boropinal (3), juglone (5), and plumbagin (7), acted as strong modulators of TRPA1 channels with EC50 values of 9.8, 1.7, and 0.5 μM, respectively, as assessed by Ca(2+) assays. Moreover, the compounds elicited TRPA1 currents in electrophysiological whole cell recordings. We additionally provide evidence that plumbagin activated TRPA1-positive neurons isolated from mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons but did not affect sensory neurons from TRPA1-deficient mice. The high potencies of plumbagin and juglone to activate TRPA1 channels may explain the molecular basis of the mucosal irritant properties of these compounds as well as of related naphthoquinones and phytopreparations, as widely reported in the literature.

  7. On the search for potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drugs: synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino and 1,2,3-triazolic naphthoquinoidal compounds obtained by click chemistry reactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; de Melo, Isadora M M; Diogo, Emilay B T; Costa, Verenice A; de Souza Filho, José D; Valença, Wagner O; Camara, Celso A; de Oliveira, Ronaldo N; de Araujo, Alexandre S; Emery, Flávio S; dos Santos, Marcelo R; de Simone, Carlos A; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; de Castro, Solange L

    2012-06-01

    Five 2-hydroxy-3-substituted-aminomethyl naphthoquinones, nine 1,2,3-triazolic para-naphthoquinones, five nor-β-lapachone-based 1,2,3-triazoles, and several other naphthoquinonoid compounds were synthesized and evaluated against the infective bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, continuing our screening program for new trypanocidal compounds. Among all the substances, 16-18, 23, 25-29 and 30-33 were herein described for the first time and fifteen substances were identified as more potent than the standard drug benznidazole, with IC(50)/24h values in the range of 10.9-101.5 μM. Compounds 14 and 19 with Selectivity Index of 18.9 and 6.1 are important structures for further studies.

  8. Photoionization studies on various quinones by an infrared laser desorption/tunable VUV photoionization TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Lidong; Zhang, Taichang; Guo, Huijun; Hong, Xin; Qi, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Photoionization and dissociative photoionization characters of six quinones, including 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ), 9,10-phenanthroquinone (PQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), benz[a]- anthracene-7,12-dione (BAD) and 1,2-acenaphthylenedione (AND) have been studied with an infrared laser desorption/tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (IR LD/VUV PIMS) technique. Mass spectra of these compounds are obtained at different VUV photon energies. Consecutive losses of two carbon monoxide (CO) groups are found to be the main fragmentation pathways for all the quinones. Detailed dissociation processes are discussed with the help of ab initio B3LYP calculations. Ionization energies (IEs) of these quinones and appearance energies (AEs) of major fragments are obtained by measuring the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical data.

  9. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  10. [Anaerobic humus respiration by Shewanella cinica D14T].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Hong, Yi-guo; Luo, Wei; Chen, Xing-juan; Sun, Guo-ping; Xu, Mei-ying; Guo, Jun; Cen, Ying-hua

    2006-12-01

    Experimental results suggested Shewanella cinica D14T is capable of humus respiration utilizing various organic acids and some important environmental pollutants (e.g., toluene. etc) as electron donors and AQS or AQDS as a sole terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic condition. The dissimilatory reduction of 1mmol/L AQDS can couple to the production of enough ATP to support cell growth about 60 generations; The oxidization of electron donors was coupled to the reduction of humus, as reduced humus increased corresponding with increasing of electron donor; The typical inhibitors such as Cu2+ which inhibited Fe-S center, Stigmatellin which was methyl-naphthoquinone model, Dicumarol which inhibited oxidized methyl-naphthoquinone transform to reduced one, Metyrapone which was specific inhibitor for P450 enzyme blocked the humus respiration seriously. These were powerful evidences for humus-respiration by D14.

  11. Characterizing Anharmonic Vibrational Modes of Quinones with Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Jenée D; Nite, Jacob M; Krummel, Amber T

    2015-07-23

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational modes of three quinones--benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone. The vibrations of interest were in the spectral range of 1560-1710 cm(-1), corresponding to the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. Coupling between the vibrational modes is indicated by the cross peaks in the 2D IR spectra. The diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicities range from 4.6 to 17.4 cm(-1) for the quinone series. In addition, there is significant vibrational coupling between the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. The diagonal anharmonicity, off-diagonal anharmonicity, and vibrational coupling constants are reported for benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone.

  12. Plumbagin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Ahmad, Md Iftekhar

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a plant-derived naphthoquinones obtained mainly from three families, including Plumbaginaceae, Droseraceae, and Ebenaceae. Plumbagin has exhibited its potential therapeutic benefits on numerous chronic diseases, i.e., breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, ovarian, squamous cell carcinomas, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer. In addition, its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities as well as control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Thus, plumbagin is a promising agent for development as a new drug for the treatment or control of chronic diseases. Studies on controlled drug release or drug delivery systems have been involved for improvement of its therapeutic efficacy as well as for the reduction of its toxicity. However, most of the recent research information is from in vitro and in vivo studies. Further clinical studies are therefore required for its developments and applications as a novel drug used to treat chronic diseases.

  13. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development. PMID:21804858

  14. Development of a Novel Therapeutic Paradigm Utilizing a Mammary Gland-Targeted, Bin-1 Knockout Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    naphthoquinones with substituents in the benzene ring were synthesized according to literature procedures. Epoxidation of 23 proceeded with dimethyldioxirane...to afford 33, while epoxidation of 25 and 31 was accomplished with m-CPBA to provide 34 and 35, respectively. Further derivati- zation of the pyran...ring was accomplished by nucleophilic substitution of the epoxides (Scheme 1 and Table 4). The cis and trans diastereomers (36-50) were separable by

  15. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of high-spin mononuclear iron(II) p-semiquinonate complexes.

    PubMed

    Baum, Amanda E; Park, Heaweon; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T

    2014-12-01

    Two mononuclear iron(II) p-semiquinonate (pSQ) complexes have been generated via one-electron reduction of precursor complexes containing a substituted 1,4-naphthoquinone ligand. Detailed spectroscopic and computational analysis confirmed the presence of a coordinated pSQ radical ferromagnetically coupled to the high-spin Fe(II) center. The complexes are intended to model electronic interactions between (semi)quinone and iron cofactors in biology.

  16. Dipeptide-Based Chiral Tertiary Amine-Catalyzed Asymmetric Conjugate Addition Reactions of 5H-Thiazol/Oxazol-4-Ones.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangtao; Qiu, Shuai; Ye, Xinyi; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2016-12-02

    Highly enantio- and chemo-selective 1,4-conjugate addition process of 5H-thiazol-4-ones with maleimides or 1,4-naphthoquinones, and 5H-oxazol-4-ones with maleimides were performed under a dipeptide-based tertiary amine (DP-UAA) catalyst. A series of valuable N,S- and N,O-containing heterocyclic compounds with excellent enantio- and disastereo-selectivities (up to >99% ee, > 20:1 dr) were attained.

  17. Fluoreno[4,3-c]fluorene: a closed-shell, fully conjugated hydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Rose, Bradley D; Vonnegut, Chris L; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M

    2012-05-04

    The synthesis and optoelectronic properties of 24 π-electron, formally antiaromatic 4,11-di-t-butyl-1,8-dimesitylfluoreno[4,3-c]fluorene (FF) are presented. The solid-state structure shows that the outer rings are aromatic, while the central four rings possess a bond-localized 2,6-naphthoquinone dimethide motif (in red). The biradical character of FF is assessed experimentally and computationally; the results of which implicate a closed-shell ground state.

  18. A new approach to evaluating the extent of Michael adduct formation to PAH quinones: tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis with GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Mary K; Desavis, Emmanuel; Mazzer, Paula A; Sunoj, R B; Hatcher, Susan A; Hadad, Christopher M; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that are converted to cytotoxic and carcinogenic metabolites, quinones, by detoxifying enzyme systems in animals. PAH metabolites such as the quinones can form Michael adducts with biological macromolecules containing reactive nucleophiles, making detection of exposure to PAHs difficult using conventional techniques. A technique has been developed for detecting exposure to PAHs. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis coupled with GC/MS is proposed as an assay method for PAH quinones that have formed Michael adducts with biological molecules. Three PAH quinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-anthraquinone) and 1,4-benzoquinone were reacted with cysteine, and the TMAH thermochemolysis method was used to assay for both thiol and amine adduction between the quinones and the cysteine. Additional studies with 1,4-naphthoquinone adducts to glutathione and bovine serum albumin showed the same thiol and amine TMAH thermochemolysis products with larger peptides as was observed with cysteine adducts. The TMAH GC/MS method clearly shows great promise for detecting PAH quinones, produced by enzymatic conversion of PAHs in biological systems, that have been converted to respective Michael adducts.

  19. Selected phytotoxins and organic extracts from endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as light reaction of photosynthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, María Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2014-09-05

    In a search for natural herbicides, we investigated the action mechanism of the naphthoquinone spiroketals, isolated from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae: preussomerins EG1 (1) and EG4 (2), and palmarumycins CP17 (3), and CP2 (4) on the photosynthesis light reactions. The naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 inhibited the ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids from water to MV, and they also inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions from water to MV. Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. The results suggested that naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 have two interactions and inhibition site on the PSII electron transport chain. The first one involves the water splitting enzyme inhibition; and, the second on the acceptor site of PSII in a similar way that herbicide Diuron, studied by polaroghaphy and corroborated by fluorescence of the chlorophyll a of PSII. The culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae were phytotoxic, and the culture medium extracts were more potent than mycelium extracts. They also act as Hill reaction inhibitors.

  20. Blood shizonticidal activities of phenazines and naphthoquinoidal compounds against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mice malaria studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nicolli Bellotti; de Andrade, Isabel M; Carneiro, Paula F; Jardim, Guilherme AM; de Melo, Isadora MM; da Silva, Eufrânio N; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9), lapachol (10), nor-lapachol (11), iso-lapachol (12), phthiocol (13) and phenazines (12-20). Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2), indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50) of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study. PMID:25099332

  1. Study of methanol catalyzed reaction between sodium 1,2-naphthoquine-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion and its application in the determination of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Huanhuan

    2008-11-01

    A novel and simple spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of methanol with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) is developed in this paper. It is based on the fact that methanol can catalyze the reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion to form 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in buffer solution of pH 13.00. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.26-15.8 mg/ml at the maximal absorption wavelength of 454 nm. The equation of linear regression is A = 0.01998 + 0.05944 C (mg/ml), with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The detection limit is 0.25 mg/ml (3 σ/ k), while R.S.D. is 2.0% and the recovery rate is in a range of 96.5-103%. The detailed mechanism for the formation of the products is proposed and discussed.

  2. Development of a test system for screening toxic substances: a comparison using organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a test system for screening toxic substances by predicting their aquatic ecosystem effects. The system studied was a static, one liter microcosm with a diverse species assemblage. The microcosm was composed of biotic inoculum, chemically defined medium and sediment. The biotic inoculum contained primary producers, grazers, carnivores and decomposers. Three different types of sediment were studied: sand, clay, and clay plus sand. Four organic chemicals: phenol, triethylene glycol (TEG), quinoline and naphthoquinone were evaluated with this test system. The toxicities of TEG, quinoline and naphthoquinone were compared for each sediment type. Toxicity was evaluated in terms of the chemical's effects on primary productivity and heterotrophic activity though other effects are also noted. Naphthoquinone concentration exhibited no correlation between ecosystem property values and therefore, could not be ranked. Phenol exhibited the greatest toxicity to net production immediately after the toxicant addition. Quinoline was most toxic to net production over the longer time scale. TEG exhibited the least toxicity to net production, however, TEG exhibited higher toxicity to heterotrophic activity than either quinoline or phenol. Although the type of sediment used in the microcosms did not change the relative toxicities of the chemicals, the microcosms with clay sediment always were observed to exhibit lower net production and higher variability.

  3. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of the bark of Diospyros maritima collected in two geographical locations in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Qiao; Graf, Tyler N; Lee, Dongho; Chai, Hee-Byung; Mi, Qiuwen; Kardono, Leonardus B S; Setyowati, Fransisca M; Ismail, Rachman; Riswan, Soedarsono; Farnsworth, Norman R; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Pezzuto, John M; Swanson, Steven M; Kroll, David J; Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Monroe E; Wani, Mansukh C; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2004-07-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of extracts of two Diospyros maritima bark samples from Indonesia,one collected at sea level in a beach forest in Java and the other collected at a slight elevation away from the sea shore on the island of Lombok, yielded a diverse set of secondary metabolites. The naphthoquinone plumbagin (1), although found in extracts of both specimens, constituted a much larger percentage of the former sample, which also yielded a series of plumbagin dimers, maritinone (2), chitranone (3), and zeylanone (4). The latter sample yielded a new naphthoquinone derivative, (4S)-shinanolone (5), and a new natural product coumarin, 7,8-dimethoxy-6-hydroxycoumarin (6), along with three other analogues of plumbagin, 2-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (7), 3-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (8), and 7-methyljuglone (9). The structures of compounds 5 and 6 were elaborated by physical, spectral, and chemical methods. All of the isolates were evaluated in both cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays, and structure-activity relationships of these naphthoquinones are proposed. Plumbagin (1) and maritinone (2) were evaluated also for in vivo antitumor activity in the hollow fiber assay, but both were found to be inactive.

  4. Blood shizonticidal activities of phenazines and naphthoquinoidal compounds against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mice malaria studies.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Nicolli Bellotti; de Andrade, Isabel M; Carneiro, Paula F; Jardim, Guilherme A M; de Melo, Isadora M M; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2014-08-01

    Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9), lapachol (10), nor-lapachol (11), iso-lapachol (12), phthiocol (13) and phenazines (12-20). Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2), indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50) of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study.

  5. Role of quinones on the ascorbate reduction rates of S-nitrosogluthathione

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Cruz, Pedro; Garcia, Carmelo; Alegria, Antonio E.

    2010-01-01

    Quinones are one of the largest class of antitumor agents approved for clinical use and several antitumor quinones are in different stages of clinical and preclinical development. Many of these are metabolites of, or are, environmental toxins. Due to their chemical structure these are known to enhance electron transfer processes such as ascorbate oxidation and NO reduction. The paraquinones 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ), 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MBQ), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMOBQ), 2-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (HMOBQ), trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TMQ), tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DQ), 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (UBQ-0), the paranaphthoquinones 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), menadione (MNQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone-2-sulfonate (NQ2S), juglone (JQ) and phenanthroquinone (PHQ) all enhance the anaerobic rate of ascorbate reduction of GSNO to produce NO and GSH. Rates of this reaction were much larger for p-benzoquinones and PHQ than for p-naphthoquinone derivatives with similar one-electron redox potentials. The quinone DMBQ also enhances the rate of NO production from S-nitrosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA-NO) upon ascorbate reduction. Density functional theory calculations suggest that stronger interactions between p-benzo- or phenanthrasemiquinones than those of p-naphthosemiquinones with GSNO are the major causes of these differences. Thus, quinones, and especially p-quinones and PHQ, could act as NO release enhancers from GSNO in biomedical systems in the presence of ascorbate. Since quinones are exogenous toxins which could enter the human body via a chemotherapeutic application or as an environmental contaminant, these could boost the release of NO from S-nitrosothiol storages in the body in the presence of ascorbate and thus enhance the responses elicited by a sudden increase in NO levels. PMID:20691779

  6. Xenobiotic induction of quinone oxidoreductase activity in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tumminia, S J; Rao, P V; Zigler, J S; Russell, P

    1993-12-08

    Xenobiotic regulatory elements have been identified for enzymes which ameliorate oxidative damage in cells. Zeta (zeta)-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme/crystallin shown to be a novel NADPH-dependent quinone reductase, is found in a number of tissues and cell types. This study shows that zeta-crystallin is present in mouse lens epithelium, as well as in the alpha TN4 mouse lens epithelial cell line. To determine whether zeta-crystallin is an inducible quinone reductase, cell cultures were exposed to the xenobiotics, 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone. Assays of cellular homogenates showed that quinone reductase activity was stimulated greater than 70% and 90%, respectively, over the control cells. This observed activity was sensitive to dicumarol, a potent inhibitor of quinone reductase activity. 1,2-Naphthoquinone- and beta-naphthoflavone-exposed cells were found to exhibit 1.47- and 1.68-fold increases, respectively, in zeta-crystallin protein concentration. A comparable increase in zeta-crystallin mRNA was indicative of an induction in zeta-crystallin expression in response to naphthalene challenge. Lens epithelial cells were also checked for DT-diaphorase, a well-known cellular protective enzyme which can catalyze the two-electron reduction of quinones. Slot blot analyses indicated that alpha TN4 cells exposed to 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone exhibited 2.71- and 6.81-fold increases in DT-diaphorase concentration when compared to the control cells. The data suggest that while DT-diaphorase is most likely responsible for the majority of the observed increase in quinone reductase activity, the zeta-crystallin gene also undergoes activation which is apparently mediated by a xenobiotic-responsive element.

  7. Development of a process for the production of the anticancer lead compound pleurotin by fermentation of Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea.

    PubMed

    Shipley, S M; Barr, A L; Graf, S J; Collins, R P; McCloud, T G; Newman, D J

    2006-06-01

    Pleurotin is a naphthoquinone antibiotic originally isolated from Pleurotus griseus. Two pleurotin producing strains of Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea have been identified, which, on solid substrate fermentation for 2 months yield 1-2 mg/l of the antibiotic. Described here is the lengthy developmental process which resulted in a production protocol being developed which reliably yields pleurotin from liquid fermentation at >300 mg/l. Critical to obtaining this increase in titer was inclusion in the media of an aqueous extract of alder wood.

  8. PPh3·HBr-DMSO: A Reagent System for Diverse Chemoselective Transformations.

    PubMed

    Mal, Kanchan; Kaur, Amanpreet; Haque, Fazle; Das, Indrajit

    2015-06-19

    The broad applicability of the hitherto unexplored reagent combination PPh3·HBr-DMSO is exemplified with multiple highly diverse one-step transformations to synthetically useful building blocks, such as flavones, 4H-thiochromen-4-ones, α-hydroxy ketones, 1,4-naphthoquinones (including vitamin K3), 2-bromo-3-substituted-1H-1-indenones, 2-methylthio-1H-1-indenones, 3-butyne-1,2-dione, and 4-pentene-2,3-diones. The simple and mild reaction conditions make the reagent superior in terms of yield and substrate scope in comparison with the existing alternatives.

  9. Malvone A, a phytoalexin found in Malva sylvestris (family Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Veshkurova, Olga; Golubenko, Zamira; Pshenichnov, Egor; Arzanova, Irina; Uzbekov, Vyacheslav; Sultanova, Elvira; Salikhov, Shavkat; Williams, Howard J; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2006-11-01

    The isolation and structure of a phytoalexin, malvone A (2-methyl-3-methoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is reported. Malvone A formation is induced in Malva sylvestris L. by the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. In a turbimetric assay for toxicity to V. dahliae, it had an ED50 value of 24 microg/ml. The structure of malvone A was determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The X-ray analysis showed water molecules were located in channels that run along the a-axis.

  10. Activity of buparvaquone against Theileria cervi in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Mitema, E S; Kocan, A A; Mukolwe, S W; Sangiah, S; Sherban, D

    1991-01-01

    Buparvaquone, a naphthoquinone with known efficacy against Theileria parva parva in cattle, was tested for activity against Theileria cervi piroplasms in both an in vitro culture system and in vivo in experimentally infected white-tailed deer. The in vitro data showed a significant decrease in the incorporation of 3H-hypoxanthine by infected red blood cells treated with buparvaquone when compared to that seen with imidocarb and chloroquine treatment. In both intact and splenectomized deer treated with buparvaquone (2.5 mg kg-1) a gradual decrease in piroplasm parasitaemia was observed following treatment. However, in the splenectomized deer, parasitaemia levels returned to near pretreatment values after approximately 2 weeks.

  11. Oxidative protein modification as predigestive mechanism of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula: an hypothesis based on in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Galek, H; Osswald, W F; Elstner, E F

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous leaf extracts from Dionaea muscipula contain quinones such as the naphthoquinone plumbagin that couple to different NADH-dependent diaphorases, producing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide upon autoxidation. Upon preincubation of Dionaea extracts with certain diaphorases and NADH in the presence of serumalbumin (SA), subsequent tryptic digestion of SA is facilitated. Since the secretroy glands of Droseracea contain proteases and possibly other degradative enzymes it is suggested that the presence of oxygen-activating redox cofactors in the extracts function as extracellular predigestive oxidants which render membrane-bound proteins of the prey (insects) more susceptible to proteolytic attacks.

  12. Magnetic Field Effect: An Efficient Tool To Investigate The Mechanism Of Reactions Using Laser Flash Photolysis Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Samita; Bose, Adity; Dey, Debarati

    2008-04-24

    Magnetic field effect combined with laser flash photolysis technique have been used to study the mechanism of interactions between two drug-like quinone molecules, Menadione (1,4-naphthoquinone, MQ) and 9, 10 Anthraquinone (AQ) with one of the DNA bases, Adenine in homogeneous acetonitrile/water and heterogeneous micellar media. A switchover in reaction mode from electron transfer to hydrogen abstraction is observed with MQ on changing the solvent from acetonitrile/water to micelle; whereas, AQ retains its mode of interaction towards Adenine as electron transfer in both the media due to its bulky structure compared to MQ.

  13. Secondary metabolites from the stems of Engelhardia roxburghiana and their antitubercular activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ho-Chen; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Peng, Chien-Fang; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lin, Chu-Hung; Wang, Chyi-Jia; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of stems of Engelhardia roxburghiana led to isolation of: four diarylheptanoids, engelheptanoxides A-D (1-4); two cyclic diarylheptanoids, engelhardiols A (5) and B (6); one naphthoquinone dimer, engelharquinonol (7); and one 1-tetralone, (4S)-4,6-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (8), along with 24 known compounds (9-32). The structures of 1-8 were by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 5, 6, 13, 22, and 23 showed antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv with MIC values of 72.7, 62.1, 9.1, 15.3, and 70.1μM, respectively.

  14. Ecofriendly syntheses of phenothiazones and related structures facilitated by laccase – A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-06

    The biocatalytic synthesis of phenothiazones and related compounds has been achieved in an aqueous system under mild conditions facilitated by laccase oxidation. It was found that by coupling 2-aminothiophenol directly with 1,4-quinones, the product yields could be significantly increased compared to generating the 1,4-quinones in situ from the corresponding hydroquinones via laccase oxidation. However, laccase still proved to be pivotal for achieving highest product yields by catalyzing the final oxidation step. Furthermore, a difference in reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic amines toward 1,4-naphthoquinone is observed. Furthermore, this study provides a sustainable approach to the synthesis of a biologically important class of compounds.

  15. Naphthalene glucoside and other phenolics from the shoot and callus cultures of Drosophyllum lusitanicum.

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir; Budzianowska, Anna; Kromer, Krystyna

    2002-10-01

    The callus and, for the first time established, shoot cultures of Drosophyllum lusitanicum Link. (Droseraceae) yielded new naphthalene glucoside-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid 5-O-beta-glucoside (drosophylloside) and 5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid methyl ester besides other phenolics like naphthalenes-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (ancistronaphthoic acid B), hydroplumbagin 4-O-glucoside, naphthoquinones-plumbagin and 3-chloroplumbagin, C-glycosylflavones- vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin. The pattern of phenolics found supports affinity of Drosophyllum to the families-Droseraceae, Ancistrocladaceae and Dioncophyllaceae.

  16. Enaminones in heterocyclic synthesis: a novel route to tetrahydropyrimidines, dihydropyridines, triacylbenzenes and naphthofurans under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed H

    2009-12-25

    Condensation of phthalimidoacetone (1) with DMFDMA (N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal) has afforded enaminone 2. Refluxing 2 with equimolecular amounts of benzaldehyde and urea in acetic acid afforded a mixture of tetrahydropyrimidine 5 and the dihydropyridine 6. Compound 2 undergoes self-condensation on heating in acetic acid or under microwave irradiation in presence of acidic zeolite to give 1,3,5-triacylbenzene 9. Reacting enaminone 11a with naphthoquinone 15 afforded the naphthofuran 18. The possible formation of the aldehyde 19 was excluded based on an HMQC experiment, which revealed that the carbonyl carbon is not linked to any hydrogen.

  17. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  18. Naphthazarin enhances ionizing radiation-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Park, Seong-Joon; Shim, Jae Woong; Yang, Kwangmo; Kang, Ho Sung; Heo, Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Naphthazarin (Naph, DHNQ, 5,8-dihydroxy-l,4-naphthoquinone) is one of the naturally available 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives that are well-known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. Herein, we investigated whether Naph has effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Naph reduced the MCF-7 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that Naph and/or IR increased the p53-dependent p21 (CIP/WAF1) promoter activity. Noteworthy, our ChIP assay results showed that Naph and IR combined treatment activated the p21 promoter via inhibition of binding of multi-domain proteins, DNMT1, UHRF1 and HDAC1. Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses demonstrated that Naph and IR combined treatment induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Herein, we showed that Naph treatment enhances IR-induced cell cycle arrest and death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through the p53-dependent p21 activation mechanism. These results suggest that Naph might sensitize breast cancer cells to radiotherapy by enhancing the p53-p21 mechanism activity.

  19. Chemotherapeutic value of parvaquone and buparvaquone against Theileria annulata infection of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Fesharki, R

    1991-03-01

    Parvaquone (BW993C), 2-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, and buparvaquone (BW720C) 2-(trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl-methyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, were evaluated to determine their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata infection in cattle in Iran. One hundred and fifty-nine pure and crossbred Bos taurus cattle, experimentally or naturally infected with T annulata, were treated. Parvaquone was injected into 86 animals with up to three doses of 20 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1 at intervals of 48 hours between doses. Buparvaquone was injected into 73 animals. Up to three doses of 2.5 mg kg-1 were injected with an interval of 48 hours between doses. The recovery rate of animals treated with parvaquone was 60.7 per cent and with buparvaquone it was 88.7 per cent. No significant side effects of relapse of disease were observed following the use of either compound. It is concluded that buparvaquone at a dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 has a satisfactory therapeutic index and is a more effective treatment of T annulata infection than parvaquone. The prophylactic use of schizont tissue culture vaccine and chemotherapy with buparvaquone could be the most promising means of controlling theileriosis in Iran.

  20. Ubiquinone synthesis and its regulation in Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Edna S; Basselin, Mireille; Merali, Salim; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis causes a type of pneumonia in individuals with defective immune systems such as AIDS patients. Atovaquone, an analog of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q [CoQ]), is effective in clearing mild to moderate cases of the infection. Rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii was the first organism in which CoQ synthesis was clearly demonstrated to occur in both mitochondrial and microsomal subcellular fractions. Atovaquone inhibits microsomal CoQ synthesis with no effect on mitochondrial CoQ synthesis. We here report on additional studies evaluating CoQ synthesis and its regulation in the organism. Buparvaquone also inhibited CoQ synthesis and it reduced the synthesis of all four CoQ homologs in the microsomal but not the mitochondrial fraction. Glyphosate, which inhibits a reaction in the de novo synthesis of the benzoquinone moiety of CoQ reduced cellular ATP levels. Bacterial and plant quinones, and several chemically synthesized phenolics, flavanoids, and naphthoquinones that inhibit electron transport in other organisms were shown to reduce CoQ synthesis in P. carinii. The inhibitory action of naphthoquinone compounds appeared to depend on their molecular size and structural flexibility rather than redox potential. Results of experiments examining the synthesis of the polyprenyl chain of CoQ were consistent with negative feedback control of CoQ synthesis. These studies on P. carinii suggest that cellular sites and the control of CoQ synthesis in different organisms and cell types might be more diverse than previously thought.

  1. Anticancer compound plumbagin and its molecular targets: a structural insight into the inhibitory mechanisms using computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mohammad S; Parveen, Shadma; Beg, Mohd A; Suhail, Mohd; Chaudhary, Adeel G A; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Rehan, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a naphthoquinone derivative from the roots of plant Plumbago zeylanica and belongs to one of the largest and diverse groups of plant metabolites. The anticancer and antiproliferative activities of plumbagin have been observed in animal models as well as in cell cultures. Plumbagin exerts inhibitory effects on multiple cancer-signaling proteins, however, the binding mode and the molecular interactions have not yet been elucidated for most of these protein targets. The present study is the first attempt to provide structural insights into the binding mode of plumbagin to five cancer signaling proteins viz. PI3Kγ, AKT1/PKBα, Bcl-2, NF-κB, and Stat3 using molecular docking and (un)binding simulation analysis. We validated plumbagin docking to these targets with previously known important residues. The study also identified and characterized various novel interacting residues of these targets which mediate the binding of plumbagin. Moreover, the exact modes of inhibition when multiple mode of inhibition existed was also shown. Results indicated that the engaging of these important interacting residues in plumbagin binding leads to inhibition of these cancer-signaling proteins which are key players in the pathogenesis of cancer and thereby ceases the progression of the disease.

  2. Effects of rhinacanthin-C on function and expression of drug efflux transporters in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wongwanakul, Ratjika; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Siripong, Pongpun; Jianmongkol, Suree

    2013-09-01

    Rhinacanthin-C is a bioactive naphthoquinone ester found in Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz (Acanthaceae). This compound has potential therapeutic value as an anticancer and antiviral agent. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of this compound on the function and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), using the in vitro model of Caco-2 cells. The activities of P-gp and MRP2 were determined by following the intracellular accumulation of calcein and 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein in the uptake assays with fluorescence spectroscopy. The expression of P-gp after prolonged exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry with the use of a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-human P-gp antibody. Our results showed that the inhibitory effect of rhinacanthin-C was more potent toward P-gp than MRP2, and was reversible. Short-term exposure of Caco-2 cells with rhinacanthin-C (100 μM) resulted in increase in P-gp expression without any significant change in its function. Extended exposure of Caco-2 cells to the naphthoquinone at the highest non-cytotoxic concentration (0.625 μM) for 7 days had no effect on the expression and the function of P-gp. These findings suggested that rhinacanthin-C might raise the problem of herb-drug interaction when co-administered with other P-gp substrates.

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of rubiginones A(2) and C(2) and their 11-methoxy regioisomers.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Somoza, Alvaro; Ribagorda, María; Urbano, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Convergent enantioselective syntheses of angucyclinone-type natural products rubiginones A(2) (2) and C(2) (1) and their 11-methoxy regioisomers 3 a and 3 b have been achieved by using two domino processes from a common enantiomerically pure 1-vinylcyclohexene 4. Key steps in the synthesis of this diene were the stereoselective conjugate addition of AlMe(3) on (SS)-[(p-tolylsulfinyl)methyl]-p-quinol (9) and the elimination of the beta-hydroxy sulfoxide fragment, after oxidation to sulfone, to recover a carbonyl group. The first domino sequence comprised Diels-Alder reaction with a sulfinyl naphthoquinone followed by sulfoxide elimination. An efficient opposite regioselection in the cycloaddition step was achieved in the convergent construction of the tetracyclic skeleton using a sulfoxide at C-2 or C-3 of the dienophiles 5 or 6, derived from 5-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. The second domino process, triggered by oxygen and sunlight, allowed the transformation of the initial tetracyclic adducts into the final products after B ring aromatization, silyl deprotection and C-1 oxidation.

  4. Improved understanding of bimolecular reactions in deceptively simple homogeneous media: From laboratory experiments to Lagrangian quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Qian, Jiazhong; Papelis, Charalambos; Sun, Pengtao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-02-01

    Medium heterogeneity affects reaction kinetics by controlling the mixing of reactant particles, but the linkage between medium properties and reaction kinetics is difficult to build, even for simple, relatively homogeneous media. This study aims to explore the dynamics of bimolecular reactions, aniline + 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid → 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-aminobenzene, in relatively homogeneous flow cells. Laboratory experiments were conducted to monitor the transport of both conservative and reactive tracers through columns packed with silica sand of specific diameters. The measured tracer breakthrough curves exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a late-time tail becoming more pronounced with decreasing sand size, probably due to the segregated flow regions formed more easily in columns packed with smaller size sand. Numerical analysis using a novel Lagrangian model shows that subdiffusion has a twofold effect on bimolecular reactions. While subdiffusion enhances the power-law growth rate of product mass by prolonging the exposure of reactant particles in the depletion zone, the global reaction rate is constrained because subdiffusion constrains the mobility of reactant particles. Reactive kinetics in deceptively simple homogeneous media is therefore controlled by subdiffusion, which is sensitive to the dimensions of packed sand.

  5. Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jun-Ran; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Soon; Takeoka, Gary R; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2005-02-23

    The growth-inhibiting activity of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol identified in the inner bark of taheebo, Tabebuia impetiginosa, toward 10 human intestinal bacteria was evaluated by using a paper disk diffusion bioassay and compared to those of seven lapachol congeners (1,4-naphthoquinone, naphthazarin, menadione, lawsone, plumbagin, juglone, and dichlone) as well as two commercially available antibiotics, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid exhibited very strong growth inhibition of Clostridium paraputrificum at 1 microg/disk while 100 microg/disk of lapachol was needed for moderate growth inhibition of the same organism. These two isolates exhibited weak inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli at 100 microg/disk while no adverse effects were observed on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei at 1000 microg/disk. Structure-activity relationships indicate that a methyl group in the C-2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives might play an important role in antibacterial activity.

  6. Rates of hydroxyl radical production from transition metals and quinones in a surrogate lung fluid

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Jessica G.; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (.OH) is the most reactive, and perhaps most detrimental to health, of the reactive oxygen species. .OH production in lungs following inhalation of particulate matter (PM) can result from redox-active chemicals, including iron and copper, but the relative importance of these species is unknown. This work investigates .OH production from iron, copper, and quinones, both individually and in mixtures at atmospherically relevant concentrations. Iron, copper and three of the four quinones (1,2-naphthoquinone, phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone) produce .OH. Mixtures of copper or quinones with iron synergistically produce .OH at a rate 20 - 130% higher than the sum of the rates of the individual redox-active species. We developed a regression equation from 20 mixtures to predict the rate of .OH production from the particle composition. For typical PM compositions, iron and copper account for most .OH production, while quinones are a minor source, although they can contribute if present at very high concentrations. This work shows that Cu contributes significantly to .OH production in ambient PM; other work has shown that Cu appears to be the primary driver of HOOH production and dithiothreitol (DTT) loss in ambient PM extracts. Taken together, these results indicate that copper appears to be the most important individual contributor to direct oxidant production from inhaled PM. PMID:26153923

  7. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using highly-specific monoclonal antibodies against plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Putalun, Waraporn; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Morimoto, Satoshi; Kinjo, Junei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-21

    Plumbagin (PL; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a natural compound mainly isolated from Plumbago zeylanica. This plant is distributed in Southeast Asia, and well known as Ayurvedic medicine in India for its medicinal properties. PL has been shown to have various pharmacological activities. We have successfully prepared monoclonal antibodies against PL, and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for determination of PL. 3-(5-Hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-3-yl) propanoic acid was synthesized and purified to prepare PL-bovine serum albumin conjugate (PL-BSA), which was used as an immunogen. PL-BSA conjugate was administered into BALB/c male mice for production of monoclonal antibodies against PL. The monoclonal antibody against PL which is secreted from established hybridoma cell line 3A3 (MAb 3A3) has been proven to have highly-specific to PL resulting from cross-reactivities test. The range for calibration of PL by ELISA was 0.2-25 microg mL(-1). Based on validation analysis, this analytical method by ELISA is a precise, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of PL in plant.

  8. Mutagenic activity of isoxazolylnaphthoquinoneimines assayed by micronucleus bone marrow test.

    PubMed

    Sicardi, S M; Ferrato, E

    1995-05-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the ability of various quinoneimines to induce micronuclei in bone marrow cells as a measure of their genotoxicity. Accordingly, 2-hydroxy-N-(3,4-dimethyl-5-isoxazolyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone-4-imine (I), its 2-acetyl derivative (II) and 2-[(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)amino]-N-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)-1 ,4- naphthoquinone-4-imine (III), as well as two of their precursors, 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone (NQ-2-OH) and 3,4-dimethyl-5-aminoisoxazole (DMAI) were given by intraperitoneal injection at 5, 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg doses to S.J.L. Swiss mice with 24 h sampling time. Compounds I and II displayed highly significant differences at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses (p < 0.01) and their mutagenic dose response curves correlated closely with an inverted U-shaped form whose interpretation is still the subject of controversy. NQ-2-OH only produced a significant increase in micronucleus frequency at 50 mg/kg, whereas no mutagenic activity was found for compound III and DMAI at the doses assayed. At 50 mg/kg the order of relative mutagenic potencies was I > II > NQ-2-OH. Mechanisms advanced to explain loss of drug activity at high doses include capture saturation, enzymatic induction during metabolism and participation of an independent defense system.

  9. Identification of Quinoide Redox Mediators That Are Formed during the Degradation of Naphthalene-2-Sulfonate by Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Andreas; Rau, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Mattes, Ralf; Stolz, Andreas; Klein, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    During aerobic degradation of naphthalene-2-sulfonate (2NS), Sphingomonas xenophaga strain BN6 produces redox mediators which significantly increase the ability of the strain to reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. It was previously suggested that 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,2-DHN), which is an intermediate in the degradative pathway of 2NS, is the precursor of these redox mediators. In order to analyze the importance of the formation of 1,2-DHN, the dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase gene (nsaC) was disrupted by gene replacement. The resulting strain, strain AKE1, did not degrade 2NS to salicylate. After aerobic preincubation with 2NS, strain AKE1 exhibited much higher reduction capacities for azo dyes under anaerobic conditions than the wild-type strain exhibited. Several compounds were present in the culture supernatants which enhanced the ability of S. xenophaga BN6 to reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. Two major redox mediators were purified from the culture supernatants, and they were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison with chemically synthesized standards as 4-amino-1,2-naphthoquinone and 4-ethanolamino-1,2-naphthoquinone. PMID:12200285

  10. Identification of quinoide redox mediators that are formed during the degradation of naphthalene-2-sulfonate by Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6.

    PubMed

    Keck, Andreas; Rau, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Mattes, Ralf; Stolz, Andreas; Klein, Joachim

    2002-09-01

    During aerobic degradation of naphthalene-2-sulfonate (2NS), Sphingomonas xenophaga strain BN6 produces redox mediators which significantly increase the ability of the strain to reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. It was previously suggested that 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,2-DHN), which is an intermediate in the degradative pathway of 2NS, is the precursor of these redox mediators. In order to analyze the importance of the formation of 1,2-DHN, the dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase gene (nsaC) was disrupted by gene replacement. The resulting strain, strain AKE1, did not degrade 2NS to salicylate. After aerobic preincubation with 2NS, strain AKE1 exhibited much higher reduction capacities for azo dyes under anaerobic conditions than the wild-type strain exhibited. Several compounds were present in the culture supernatants which enhanced the ability of S. xenophaga BN6 to reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. Two major redox mediators were purified from the culture supernatants, and they were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison with chemically synthesized standards as 4-amino-1,2-naphthoquinone and 4-ethanolamino-1,2-naphthoquinone.

  11. QM/MM Modeling Finds Diels-Alder Reactions are Accelerated Less On the Surface of Water than In Water

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laura L.; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations for the Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopentadiene with 1,4-naphthoquinone, methyl vinyl ketone, and acrylonitrile have been carried out at the vacuum-water interface and in the gas phase. In conjunction with previous studies of these cycloadditions in dilute solution, a more complete picture of aqueous environmental effects emerges with implications for the origin of observed rate accelerations using heterogeneous aqueous suspensions, “on water” conditions. The pure TIP4P water slab maintains bulk density and hydrogen bonding properties in central water layers. The bulk region merges to vacuum over a ca. 5-Å band with progressive diminution of density and hydrogen bonding. The relative free energies of activation and transition structures for the reactions at the interface are found to be intermediate between those calculated in the gas phase and in bulk water, i.e., for the reaction with 1,4-naphthoquinone, the ΔΔG ‡’s relative to the gas phase are −3.6 and −7.3 kcal/mol at the interface and in bulk water, respectively. Thus, the results do not support the notion that a water surface is more effective than bulk water for catalysis of such pericyclic reactions. The trend is in qualitative agreement with expectations based on density considerations and estimates of experimental rate constants for the gas phase, a heterogeneous aqueous suspension, and dilute aqueous solution for the reaction of cyclopentadiene with methyl vinyl ketone. Computed energy pair distributions reveal a uniform loss of 0.5 – 1.0 hydrogen bond for the reactants and transition states in progressing from bulk water to the vacuum-water interface. Orientational effects are apparent at the surface, e.g., the carbonyl group in the methyl vinyl ketone transition structure is preferentially oriented into the surface. Also, the transition structure for the 1,4-naphthoquinone case is buried more in the surface, and the free energy of

  12. New cytotoxic 1-azaanthraquinones and 3-aminonaphthoquinone from the stem bark of Goniothalamus marcanii.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchareonnon, N; Suwanborirux, K; Bavovada, R; Patarapanich, C; Cassady, J M

    1999-10-01

    Guided by brine shrimp toxicity and human tumor cell toxicity, fractionation of the alcoholic extract from the stem bark of Goniothalamus marcanii led to the isolation of four new 1-azaanthraquinones: marcanines B (3), C (4), D (5), and E (6), along with two known derivatives: marcanine A and dielsiquinone. A new 5-hydroxy-3-amino-2-aceto-1,4-naphthoquinone (7), a possible 1-azaanthraquinone biosynthetic precursor, was also isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, mainly 1D and 2D NMR techniques ((1)H, (13)C, NOEDS, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC), as well as comparison with literature data. All the compounds except 6 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity. They exhibited significant cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines, A-549, HT-29, MCF7, RPMI, and U251 with the ED(50) in the range of 0.04-3.03 microM.

  13. Development of antibiotic activity profile screening for the classification and discovery of natural product antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Weng Ruh; Oliver, Allen G; Linington, Roger G

    2012-11-21

    Despite recognition of the looming antibiotic crisis by healthcare professionals, the number of new antibiotics reaching the clinic continues to decline sharply. This study aimed to establish an antibiotic profiling strategy using a panel of clinically relevant bacterial strains to create unique biological fingerprints for all major classes of antibiotics. Antibiotic mode of action profile (BioMAP) screening has been shown to effectively cluster antibiotics by structural class based on these fingerprints. Using this approach, we have accurately predicted the presence of known antibiotics in natural product extracts and have discovered a naphthoquinone-based antibiotic from our marine natural product library that possesses a unique carbon skeleton. We have demonstrated that bioactivity fingerprinting is a successful strategy for profiling antibiotic lead compounds and that BioMAP can be applied to the discovery of new natural product antibiotics leads.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid in presence of its hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Devani, M B; Shishoo, C J; Patel, M A; Bhalara, D D

    1978-05-01

    A spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid in the presence of its hydrazones was developed. The method involves the reaction between isoniazid and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone in the presence of ammonia in an ethanolic medium. The colored product has an absorbance maxium at 640 nm. The Lambert-Beer law is obeyed in the 1--14-microgram/ml range. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of isoniazid tablets. In commercial tablets, hydrazone formation due to the reaction between isoniazid and lactose was detected by TLC. The analysis of lactose-containing isoniazid tablets showed 10--22% lower recovery than that obtained by the official method. Hydrazone formation in tablets probably interferes with isoniazid bioavailability.

  15. Novel zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes of a Mannich base derived from lawsone: Synthesis, single crystal X-ray analysis, ab initio density functional theory calculations and vibrational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Amanda P.; Vargas, Maria D.; Soto, Claudio A. Téllez; Ramos, Joanna M.; Visentin, Lorenzo do C.; Pinheiro, Carlos B.; Mangrich, Antônio S.; de Rezende, Edivaltrys I. P.

    Zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes of a tridentate Mannich base L1 derived from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, pyridinecarboxyaldehyde and 2-aminomethylpyridine, [ZnL1Cl2]·H2O 1 and [CuL1Cl2]·2H2O 2, have been synthesized and fully characterized. The structure of complex 1 has been elucidated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study: the zinc atom is pentacoordinate and the coordination geometry is a distorted square base pyramid, with a geometric structural parameter τ equal to 0.149. Vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio DFT calculations of both compounds have confirmed that the two complexes exhibit similar structures. Full assignment of the vibrational spectra was also supported by careful analysis of the distorted geometries generated by the normal modes

  16. Combination of a novel electrode material and artificial mediators to enhance power generation in an MFC.

    PubMed

    Taskan, Ergin; Ozkaya, Bestamin; Hasar, Halil

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on two main aspects: developing a novel cost-effective electrode material and power production from domestic wastewater using three different mediators. Methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) were selected as electrode mediators with different concentrations. A tin-coated copper mesh electrode was tested as anode electrode. Maximum power density of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) with 300 μM MB was 636 mW/m². Optimal mediator concentrations with respect to the achieved maximum power output for MB, NR and HNQ were 300 μM, 200 μM and 50 μM, respectively. The results demonstrate that tin-coated copper mesh showed a higher biocompatibility and electrical conductivity.

  17. Hydroxynaphthoquinone Metal Complexes as Antitumor Agents X: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroscopy and In Vitro Antitumor Activity of 3-Methyl-Phenylazo Lawsone Derivatives and Their Metal Complexes Against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil; Newton, Chris; Pritchard, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The C-3 substituted phenylazo derivatives of lawsone (2-hydroxy-l,4 p-naphthoquinone, III) were synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand 3-(3′-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. The copper complexes of these derivatives were found to possess 1:2 metal stoichiometry and square planar geometries with intermolecular stackings, resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The in vitro activity of all the synthesized compounds was examined against human breast cancer cell-line, MCF-7, which revealed enhanced activities for the metal complexes, the highest activity being observed for the copper compound of 3-(3′-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. PMID:18475934

  18. Targeting thioredoxin reductase by plumbagin contributes to inducing apoptosis of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junmin; Peng, Shoujiao; Li, Xinming; Liu, Ruijuan; Han, Xiao; Fang, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    Plumbagin (PLB), a natural naphthoquinone from the traditional folk medicines Plumbago zeylanica, Dionaea muscipula, or Nepenthes gracilis, has been documented possessing a wide variety of pharmacological activities. Although PLB demonstrates anticancer activity in multiple types of malignant cells, the cellular targets of PLB have not been well defined and remained only partially understood. We reported here that PLB selectively inhibits TrxR and elicits reactive oxygen species in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, which leads to elevation of GSSG/GSH ratio and decrease of cellular thiol pool. As a consequence, PLB disturbs the cellular redox homeostasis, induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and eventually selectively kills HL-60 cells. Inhibition of TrxR by PLB thus discloses an unprecedented mechanism underlying the anticancer efficacy of PLB, and sheds light in considering the usage of PLB as a promising cancer therapeutic agent.

  19. Intermolecular C-H···O, Cl···Cl and π-π interactions in the 2-dichloromethyl derivative of vitamin K3.

    PubMed

    Soave, Raffaella; Colombo, Pietro

    2013-12-15

    The title 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-dichloromethyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione, C12H8Cl2O2, is a chlorinated derivative of vitamin K3, which is a synthetic compound also known as menadione. Molecules of (I) are planar and lie on a crystallographic mirror plane (Z' = 0.5) in the space group Pnma. They are connected to each other by C-H···O hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional layers parallel to the ac plane. In addition, Cl···Cl and π-π interactions link adjacent molecules in different layers, thus forming zigzag ribbons along the b axis, such that a three-dimensional architecture is generated.

  20. Quinone reduction by Rhodothermus marinus succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase is not stimulated by the membrane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Andreia S.; Konstantinov, Alexander A.; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M. . E-mail: mpereira@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-05-06

    Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), a di-haem enzyme purified from Rhodothermus marinus, reveals an HQNO-sensitive succinate:quinone oxidoreductase activity with several menaquinone analogues as electron acceptors that decreases with lowering the redox midpoint potential of the quinones. A turnover with the low-potential 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that is the closest analogue of menaquinone, although low, can be detected in liposome-reconstituted SQR. Reduction of the quinone is not stimulated by an imposed K{sup +}-diffusion membrane potential of a physiological sign (positive inside the vesicles). Nor does the imposed membrane potential increase the reduction level of the haems in R. marinus SQR poised with the succinate/fumarate redox couple. The data do not support a widely discussed hypothesis on the electrogenic transmembrane electron transfer from succinate to menaquinone catalysed by di-haem SQRs. The role of the membrane potential in regulation of the SQR activity is discussed.

  1. Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Rajnish; Kishore, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) includes about 150 species distributed world-wide in which only about 75 plants has been described for its morphology and less than 10 plants for their chemical constituents and clinical potential. The phytochemical reports of this genus revels that it comprise mainly aliphatic ketones, lipids, naphthazarins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, naphthoquinones, flavones while most important are shikonins and onosmins. The plants are traditionally used as laxative, anthelmintic and for alexipharmic effects. The plants are also equally use in eye, blood diseases, bronchitis, abdominal pain, stangury, thirst, itch, lecoderma, fever, wounds, burns, piles and urinary calculi. The flowers of various plants are prescribed as stimulants, cardiotonic, in body swelling while leaves are used as purgative and in cutaneous eruptions. The roots are used for coloring food stuffs, oils and dying wool and in medicinal preparations. This review emphasizes the distribution, morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnopharmacology, which may help in future research. PMID:24347922

  2. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  3. PM100117 and PM100118, new antitumor macrolides produced by a marine Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Schleissner, Carmen; Fernández, Rogelio; Rodríguez, Pilar; Reyes, Fernando; Zuñiga, Paz; de la Calle, Fernando; Cuevas, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Two new bioactive polyhydroxyl macrolide lactones PM100117 (1) and PM100118 (2) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods, mainly one-dimensional and 2D NMR and HRESI-MS. They consist of 36-membered macrolides with a side chain containing three deoxy sugars and a 1,4-naphthoquinone chromophore. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed potent cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the micromolar range, as well as slight antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC10231. In addition, both compounds alter the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing loss of membrane integrity and subsequent cell permeabilization leading to a fast and dramatic necrotic cell death.

  4. Asymmetric hydrogenation of furans and benzofurans with iridium-pyridine-phosphinite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Larissa; Tannert, René; Scheil, Robin; Pfaltz, Andreas

    2015-01-19

    Enantioselective hydrogenation of furans and benzofurans remains a challenging task. We report the hydrogenation of 2- and 3-substituted furans by using iridium catalysts that bear bicyclic pyridine-phosphinite ligands. Excellent enantioselectivities and high conversions were obtained for monosubstituted furans with a 3-alkyl or 3-aryl group. Furans substituted at the 2-position and 2,4-disubstituted furans proved to be more difficult substrates. The best results (80-97% conversion, 65-82% enantiomeric excess) were obtained with monosubstituted 2-alkylfurans and 2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan. Benzofurans with an alkyl substituent at the 2- or 3-position also gave high conversions and enantioselectivity, whereas 2-aryl derivatives showed essentially no reactivity. The asymmetric hydrogenation of a 3-methylbenzofuran derivative was used as a key step in the formal total synthesis of the cytotoxic naphthoquinone natural product (-)-thespesone.

  5. Laser flash photolysis and magnetic-field-effect studies on interaction of thymine and thymidine with menadione: role of sugar in controlling reaction pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Adity; Dey, Debarati; Basu, Samita

    2008-04-01

    The magnetic field effect (MFE) in conjunction with laser flash photolysis has been used for the study of the interaction of one of the small drug like quinone molecules, 2-methyl, 1,4-naphthoquinone, commonly known as menadione (MQ), with one of the DNA bases, thymine (THN), and its corresponding nucleoside, thymidine (THDN), in acetonitrile (ACN) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles. It has been observed that THN undergoes electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen (H) abstraction with MQ, while THDN undergoes only H abstraction in both the media. However, our earlier studies showed that a purine base, adenine (ADN), and its nucleoside, 2'-deoxyadenosine (ADS), undergo ET in ACN and H abstraction in SDS. Here we have attempted to explain the differences in the reactions of these DNA bases with MQ. We also reveal the crucial role of a sugar unit in altering the behavior of purine and pyrimidine bases with respect to ET and H abstraction.

  6. New method for spectrophotometric determination of quinones and barbituric acid through their reaction. A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medien, H. A. A.

    1996-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of p-benzoquinone, p-chloranil and 1.4-naphthoquinone. The method is based on the reaction between quinones and barbituric acid, by which a color is developed with maximum absorption between 485 and 555 nm in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture. The absorption of the product obeys Beer's law within the concentration range 0.025-05 mM of orginal quinone. The kinetics of the reaction between p-benzoquinone and barbituric acid was studied in a range of methyl alcohol-water mixtures. The reaction follows overall second order kinetics, first order in each of the reactants. The rate increases with increasing dielectric constant. The method was applied for determination of barbituric acid with p-benzoquinone in the concentration range of 0.025-0.345 mM. Other barbiturates do not interfere.

  7. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of some 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives on androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Yakini; Ononiwu, Innocent; Adedeji, Dolapo; Williams, Vonetta; Mouamba, Claudia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Copeland, Robert L; Wright, Dwayne A; Butcher, Ray J; Denmeade, Samuel R; Bakare, Oladapo

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis of five 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives was accomplished by refluxing 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone with appropriate benzoyl chloride analogs at elevated temperatures. In vitro anticancer evaluation of these compounds was performed on androgen-dependent, LNCaP, and androgen-independent, PC3, human prostate cancer cell lines. In general, these compounds displayed slightly stronger cytotoxicity on the androgen-dependent LNCaP than on the androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. The meta-substituted 2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione (10) appear to display the best cytotoxicity on both cell lines with an IC(50) of 0.03 μM on LNCaP and 0.08 μM on PC3 after 5 days of exposure.

  8. A Soluble, magnesium-independent prenyltransferase catalyzes reverse and regular C-prenylations and O-prenylations of aromatic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Haagen, Yvonne; Unsöld, Inge; Westrich, Lucia; Gust, Bertolt; Richard, Stéphane B.; Noel, Joseph P.; Heide, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Fnq26 from Streptomyces cinnamonensis DSM 1042 is a new member of the recently identified CloQ/Orf2 class of prenyltransferases. The enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and purified to apparent homogeneity, resulting in a soluble, monomeric protein of 33.2 kDa. The catalytic activity of Fnq26 is independent of the presence of Mg2+ or other divalent metal ions. With flaviolin (2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) as substrate, Fnq26 catalyzes the formation of a carbon–carbon-bond between C-3 (rather than C-1) of geranyl diphosphate and C-3 of flaviolin, i.e. an unusual ‘‘reverse’’ prenylation. With 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene and 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrates Fnq26 catalyzes O-prenylations. PMID:17543953

  9. Myeloma with xanthoderma due to an IgG lambdamonoclonal anti-flavin antibody.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, M; Osserman, E F

    1976-01-22

    When yellow skin and yellow hair developed in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma, we ruled out the usual causes of such pigmentation but identified a monoclonal IgGlambda (lgGGar) with anti-flavin antibody activity. Purified IgGGar was bright yellow, and the acid-dissociated chromophore was identified as riboflavin by chromatography and absorption spectroscopy. Native IgGGar contained 1.45 moles of flavin per mole of IgG, and increased to 2 moles with addition of riboflavin to saturation. The flavin was localized to the Fab fragment and was bound to IgGGar with high affinity. IgGGar showed strongest affinities for riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and lower affinities for dinitrophenyl derivatives and naphthoquinone. The demonstration of hapten bound to the circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin in this case suggests the possibility of bound but colorless haptens on other myeloma proteins as well as on normal immunoglobulins.

  10. Inhibition of the HIF1α-p300 interaction by quinone- and indandione-mediated ejection of structural Zn(II)

    PubMed Central

    Jayatunga, Madura K. P.; Thompson, Sam; McKee, Tawnya C.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Reece, Kelie M.; Hardy, Adam P.; Sekirnik, Rok; Seden, Peter T.; Cook, Kristina M.; McMahon, James B.; Figg, William D.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Hamilton, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions between the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) and the transcriptional coactivators p300/CBP are potential cancer targets due to their role in the hypoxic response. A natural product based screen led to the identification of indandione and benzoquinone derivatives that reduce the tight interaction between a HIF-1α fragment and the CH1 domain of p300. The indandione derivatives were shown to fragment to give ninhydrin, which was identified as the active species. Both the naphthoquinones and ninhydrin were observed to induce Zn(II) ejection from p300 and the catalytic domain of the histone demethylase KDM4A. Together with previous reports on the effects of reated compounds on HIF-1α and other systems, the results suggest that care should be taken in interpreting biological results obtained with highly electrophilic/ thiol modifying compounds. PMID:25023609

  11. Photoinduced reduction of divalent mercury by quinones in the presence of formic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Berkovic, Andrea M; Bertolotti, Sonia G; Villata, Laura S; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Mártire, Daniel O

    2012-11-01

    The laser flash photolysis technique (λ(exc)=355 nm) was used to investigate the mechanism of the HgCl(2) reduction mediated by CO(2)(-) radicals generated from quenching of the triplet states of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) by formic acid. Kinetic simulations of the experimental signals support the proposed reaction mechanism. This system is of potential interest in the development of UV-A photoinduced photolytic procedures for the treatment of Hg(II) contaminated waters. The successful replacement of NQ with a commercial fulvic acid, as a model compound of dissolved organic matter, showed that the method is applicable to organic matter-containing waters without the addition of quinones.

  12. Interactions between manganese oxides and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Sims, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    Objective is to determine whether Mn reductive dissolution can oxidize multiple-ringed aromatics, such as PAHs, in an oxic environment? Research indicated that certain PAHs (eg, dihydrodiols and diones that form free-radical intermediates) are susceptible to oxidation and polymerization. Over 14 days, 83, 76, 54, 70, and 20% of the Mn was reduced by 2,3-, 1,3-, and 1,4-naphthalenediol, quinizarin, and 1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively. 100, 100, and 65% of the first three PAHs were oxidized, respectively. Aromatics with diol functional groups were more easily oxidized than those with only dione groups. Relatively insoluble compounds like quinizarin can be oxidized; insoluble ``humic-like`` material precipitated, indicating a polymerization-humification process. Results suggest that electron transfer/organic release from the oxide surface is the rate-limiting step.

  13. Interactions between manganese oxides and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Sims, R.C. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    Objective is to determine whether Mn reductive dissolution can oxidize multiple-ringed aromatics, such as PAHs, in an oxic environment Research indicated that certain PAHs (eg, dihydrodiols and diones that form free-radical intermediates) are susceptible to oxidation and polymerization. Over 14 days, 83, 76, 54, 70, and 20% of the Mn was reduced by 2,3-, 1,3-, and 1,4-naphthalenediol, quinizarin, and 1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively. 100, 100, and 65% of the first three PAHs were oxidized, respectively. Aromatics with diol functional groups were more easily oxidized than those with only dione groups. Relatively insoluble compounds like quinizarin can be oxidized; insoluble ''humic-like'' material precipitated, indicating a polymerization-humification process. Results suggest that electron transfer/organic release from the oxide surface is the rate-limiting step.

  14. Molecular glass positive i-line photoresist materials containing 2,1,4-DNQ and acid labile group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Yu, Jinxing; Xu, Na

    2010-04-01

    Recent years increasing attention has been given to molecular glass resist materials. In this paper, maleopimaric acid, cycloaddition reaction product of rosin with maleic anhydride, was reacted with hydroxylamine and then further esterified with 2-diazo-1-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonyl chloride to give N-hydroxy maleopimarimide sulfonate. The carboxylic acid group of the compound was then protected by the reaction of this compound with vinyl ethyl ether or dihydropyran. Thus obtained compounds were amorphous. When irradiated with i-line light, the 2,1,4-DNQ group undergo photolysis not only to give off nitrogen gas but also generate sulfonic acid which can result in the decomposition of the acid labile group. So, a novel chemically amplified positive i-line molecular glass photoresists can be formed by the compound and other acidolytic molecular glass compounds. The lithographic performance of the resist materials is evaluated.

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel non-peptide boronic acid derivatives as proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Aibo; Wu, Jianwei; Feng, Haiwei; Wang, Letian; Liu, Hongwu; Xu, Yungen; Xu, Qingxiang; Zhao, Li; Li, Yuyan

    2017-03-10

    A novel series of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors bearing the 1, 4-naphthoquinone scaffold and boronic acid warhead was developed. In the biological evaluation on the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome, five compounds showed IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Docking experiments into the yeast 20S proteasome rationalized their biological activities and allowed further optimization of this interesting class of inhibitors. Within the cellular proliferation inhibition assay and western blot analysis, compound 3e demonstrated excellent anti-proliferative activity against solid tumor cells and clear accumulation of ubiquitinated cellular proteins. Furthermore, in the microsomal stability assay compound 3e demonstrated much improved metabolic stability compared to bortezomib, emerging as a promising lead compound for further design of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors.

  16. Friedel-Crafts Coupling of Electron-Deficient Benzoylacetones Tuned by Remote Electronic Effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongmei; Pan, Ling; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2015-08-21

    Acid-catalyzed electrophilic aromatic substitution for C-C bond formation, commonly referred to as the Friedel-Crafts reaction in recognition of its discoverers, has been one of the most useful reactions in organic chemistry for over a century. However, the Friedel-Crafts reaction cannot occur on a benzene ring having a strongly electron withdrawing group, such as an acyl group, which deactivates the aromatic ring toward electrophilic substitutions and remains a major challenge. Herein, the synthesis of naphthoquinones and 1,3-indandiones, bearing two acyl groups at positions ortho to each other on a benzene ring, are demonstrated by means of copper-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative acylation of benzoylacetone derivative precursors. This unusual Friedel-Crafts reaction reveals a new activation mode for the in situ polarity reverse of an electron-deficient aromatic ring to a reactive, electron-rich ring tuned by remote electronic effects.

  17. Applications of carbon nanotubes to electrochemical DNA sensors: a new strategy to make direct and selective hybridization detection from SWNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi Dong; Piro, Benoît; Noël, Vincent; Reisberg, Steeve; Pham, Minh-Chau

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we first review different strategies reported in the literature to elaborate electrochemical DNA sensors based on carbon nanotubes. Then we report a new strategy to graft both redox and DNA probes onto carbon nanotubes to make a label-free DNA sensor. Oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes are first immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine. Then a redox probe, a quinone derivative 3-[(2-aminoethyl) sulfanyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone], is grafted onto the free carboxylic groups of the nanotubes. After that, for DNA probe grafting, new carboxylic sites are generated via an aryl diazonium route. After hybridization with a complementary sequence, the conformational changes of DNA could influence the redox kinetics of quinone, leading to a current increase in the redox signal, detected by square wave voltammetry. The system is selective, as it can distinguish a single mismatched sequence from the complementary one.

  18. Ecofriendly syntheses of phenothiazones and related structures facilitated by laccase – A comparative study

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-06

    The biocatalytic synthesis of phenothiazones and related compounds has been achieved in an aqueous system under mild conditions facilitated by laccase oxidation. It was found that by coupling 2-aminothiophenol directly with 1,4-quinones, the product yields could be significantly increased compared to generating the 1,4-quinones in situ from the corresponding hydroquinones via laccase oxidation. However, laccase still proved to be pivotal for achieving highest product yields by catalyzing the final oxidation step. Furthermore, a difference in reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic amines toward 1,4-naphthoquinone is observed. Furthermore, this study provides a sustainable approach to the synthesis of a biologically important classmore » of compounds.« less

  19. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  20. Synthesis of 3-[(N-carboalkoxy)ethylamino]-indazole-dione derivatives and their biological activities on human liver carbonyl reductase.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Solomon; Slupe, Andrew; Luster, Choice; Charlier, Henry A; Warner, Don L; Zalkow, Leon H; Burgess, Edward M; Enwerem, Nkechi M; Bakare, Oladapo

    2010-01-01

    A series of indazole-dione derivatives were synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of appropriate substituted benzoquinones or naphthoquinones and N-carboalkoxyamino diazopropane derivatives. These compounds were evaluated for their effects on human carbonyl reductase. Several of the analogs were found to serve as substrates for carbonyl reductase with a wide range of catalytic efficiencies, while four analogs display inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 3-5 microM. Two of the inhibitors were studied in greater detail and were found to be noncompetitive inhibitors against both NADPH and menadione with K(I) values ranging between 2 and 11 microM. Computational studies suggest that conformation of the compounds may determine whether the indazole-diones bind productively to yield product or nonproductively to inhibit the enzyme.

  1. Effect of Simultaneous Administration of Dihydroxyacetone on the Diffusion of Lawsone Through Various In Vitro Skin Models.

    PubMed

    Munt, Daniel J; Grana, Anne; Hulce, Martin; Fusaro, Ramon M; Dash, Alekha K

    2015-12-01

    Unprotected sunlight exposure is a risk factor for a variety of cutaneous cancers. Topically used dihydroxyacetone (DHA) creates, via Maillard reaction, chemically fixed keratin sunscreen in the stratum corneum with significant protection against UVA/Soret radiation. When used in conjunction with naphthoquinones a naphthoquinone-modified DHA Maillard reaction is produced that provides protection across the UVB/UVA/Soret spectra lasting up to 1 week, resisting sweating and contact removal. The aim of this study was to examine a simplified version of this formulation for effect on UV transmission and to determine if penetration levels merit toxicity concerns. Permeability was demonstrated for freshly prepared DHA (30 mg/mL) and lawsone (0.035 mg/mL) alone and in combination using a side-by-side diffusion apparatus at 37°C over 48 h across shed snake skin and dermatomed pig skin. These samples were then examined for effectiveness and safety. Concentrations were determined by HPLC and UPLC monitored from 250-500 nm. Lawsone flux significantly decreased across pig skin (20.8 (± 4.8) and 0.09 (± 0.1) mg/cm(2) h without and with DHA, respectively) but did not change across shed snake skin in the presence of DHA. Significantly reduced lawsone concentration was noted in donor chambers of combined solutions. Damage was not observed in any skins. Darker coloration with greater UV absorbance was observed in skins exposed to the combined solution versus individual solutions. This study confirmed that combined DHA and lawsone provided effective blocking of ultraviolet light through products bound in keratinized tissue. DHA permeation levels in pig skin suggest further in vitro and in vivo study is required to determine the safety of this system.

  2. The comparative toxicity to soil invertebrates of natural chemicals and their synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, J; Chaplow, J S; Potter, E; Scott, W A; Hopkin, S; Harman, M; Sims, I; Sorokin, N

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH), requires companies to register and risk assess all substances produced or imported in volumes of >1 tonne per year. Extrapolation methods which use existing data for estimating the effects of chemicals are attractive to industry, and comparative data are therefore increasingly in demand. Data on natural toxic chemicals could be used for extrapolation methods such as read-across. To test this hypothesis, the toxicity of natural chemicals and their synthetic analogues were compared using standardised toxicity tests. Two chemical pairs: the napthoquinones, juglone (natural) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (synthetic); and anthraquinones, emodin (natural) and quinizarin (synthetic) were chosen, and their comparative effects on the survival and reproduction of collembolans, earthworms, enchytraeids and predatory mites were assessed. Differences in sensitivity between the species were observed with the predatory mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer) showing the least sensitivity. Within the chemical pairs, toxicity to lethal and sub-lethal endpoints was very similar for the four invertebrate species. The exception was earthworm reproduction, which showed differential sensitivity to the chemicals in both naphthoquinone and anthraquinone pairs. Differences in toxicity identified in the present study may be related to degree of exposure and/or subtle differences in the mode of toxic action for the chemicals and species tested. It may be possible to predict differences by identifying functional groups which infer increased or decreased toxicity in one or other chemical. The development of such techniques would enable the use of read-across from natural to synthetic chemicals for a wider group of compounds.

  3. Time-resolved visible and infrared difference spectroscopy for the study of photosystem I with different quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Zhao, Nan; Hastings, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Room (298 K) and low (77K) temperature time-resolved visible and infrared difference spectroscopy has been used to study photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and plastoquinone 9 (2,3-dimethyl-5-prenyl-l,4-benzoquinone), incorporated into the A1 binding site. Concentrated samples in short path-length (~5 μm) sample cells are typically used in FTIR experiments. Measurements were undertaken using standard "dilute" samples at 298 K, and concentrated (~5×) samples at both 298 and 77K. No concentration induced alterations in the flash-induced absorption changes were observed. Concentrated samples in short path-length cells form a transparent film at 77K, and could therefore be studied spectroscopically at 77K without addition of a cryoprotectant. At 298 K, for photosystem I with plastoquinone 9/menadione/phylloquinone incorporated, P700+FA/B- radical pair recombination is characterized by a time constant of 3/14/80 ms, and forward electron transfer from A1A- to Fx by a time constant of 211/3.1/0.309 μs, respectively. At 77K, for concentrated photosystem I with menadione/phylloquinone incorporated, P700+A1- radical pair recombination is characterized by a time constant of 240/340 μs, with this process occurring in 58/39% of the PSI particles, respectively. The origin of these differences is discussed. Marcus electron transfer theory in combination with kinetic modeling is used to simulate the observed electron transfer time constants at 298 K. This simulation allows an estimate of the redox potential for the different quinones in the A1 binding site.

  4. Synthesis of new chlorin e6 trimethyl and protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester derivatives and their photophysical and electrochemical characterizations.

    PubMed

    Menezes, José C J M D S; Faustino, M Amparo F; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Uliana, Marciana P; Ferreira, Vitor F; Hackbarth, Steffen; Röder, Beate; Teixeira Tasso, Thiago; Furuyama, Taniyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Silva, Artur M S; Neves, M Graça P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S

    2014-10-13

    In view of increasing demands for efficient photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), we herein report the synthesis and photophysical characterizations of new chlorin e6 trimethyl ester and protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester dyads as free bases and Zn(II) complexes. The synthesis of these molecules linked at the β-pyrrolic positions to pyrano[3,2-c]coumarin, pyrano[3,2-c]quinolinone, and pyrano[3,2-c]naphthoquinone moieties was performed by using the domino Knoevenagel hetero Diels-Alder reaction. The α-methylenechromanes, α-methylenequinoline, and ortho-quinone methides were generated in situ from a Knoevenagel reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, 4-hydroxy-6-methylcoumarin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolinone, and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively, with paraformaldehyde in dioxane. All the dyads as free bases and as Zn(II) complexes were obtained in high yields. All new compounds were fully characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and HRMS. Their photophysical properties were evaluated by measuring the fluorescence quantum yield, the singlet oxygen quantum yield by luminescence detection, and also the triplet lifetimes were correlated by flash photolysis and intersystem crossing (ISC) rates. The fluorescence lifetimes were measured by a time-correlated single photon count (TCSPC) method, fluorescence decay associated spectra (FDAS), and anisotropy measurements. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were recorded for one Zn(II) complex in order to obtain information, respectively, on the electronic and conformational states, and interpretation of these spectra was enhanced by molecular orbital (MO) calculations. Electrochemical studies of the Zn(II) complexes were also carried out to gain insights into their behavior for such applications.

  5. Structural analysis and molecular docking of trypanocidal aryloxy-quinones in trypanothione and glutathione reductases: a comparison with biochemical data.

    PubMed

    Vera, Brenda; Vázquez, Karina; Mascayano, Carolina; Tapia, Ricardo A; Espinosa, Victoria; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Salas, Cristian O; Paulino, Margot

    2016-07-15

    A set of aryloxy-quinones, previously synthesized and evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes cultures, were found more potent and selective than nifurtimox. One of the possible mechanisms of the trypanocidal activity of these quinones could be inhibition of trypanothione reductase (TR). Considering that glutathione reductase (GR) is the equivalent of TR in humans, biochemical, kinetic, and molecular docking studies in TR and GR were envisaged and compared with the trypanocidal and cytotoxic data of a set of aryloxy-quinones. Biochemical assays indicated that three naphthoquinones (Nq-h, Nq-g, and Nq-d) selectively inhibit TR and the TR kinetic analyses indicated that Nq-h inhibit TR in a noncompetitive mechanism. Molecular dockings were performed in TR and GR in the following three putative binding sites: the catalytic site, the dimer interface, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-binding site. In TR and GR, the aryloxy-quinones were found to exhibit high affinity for a site near it cognate-binding site in a place in which the noncompetitive kinetics could be justified. Taking as examples the three compounds with TR specificity (TRS) (Nq-h, Nq-g, and Nq-d), the presence of a network of contacts with the quinonic ring sustained by the triad of Lys62, Met400', Ser464' residues, seems to contribute hardly to the TRS. Compound Nq-b, a naphthoquinone with nitrophenoxy substituent, proved to be the best scaffold for the design of trypanocidal compounds with low toxicity. However, the compound displayed only a poor and non-selective effect toward TR indicating that TR inhibition is not the main reason for the antiparasitic activity of the aryloxy-quinones.

  6. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Heteroatom-Substituted 1,4-Naphtho- and Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Nahide Gülşah; Ibis, Cemil; Gokmen, Zeliha; Stasevych, Maryna; Novikov, Volodymyr; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Guclu, Kubilay; Karakas, Didem; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic/anticancer agents of N-, S-, O-substituted-1,4-naphtho- and 2,5-bis(amino-substituted)-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives. In the synthesized compounds, antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against Escherichia coli B-906, Staphylococcus aureus 209-P, and Mycobacterium luteum B-917 bacteria and Candida tenuis VKM Y-70 and Aspergillus niger F-1119 fungi in comparison with controls was identified. 2-(N-Diphenylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone 9a was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 3.9 µg/mL against test culture M. luteum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity using the cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. 2,2'-[1-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3,3'-dichloro-bis(1,4-naphthoquinone) 10 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with a 0.455 CUPRAC-trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficient. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on OH(·), O2(·-), and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated by employing the sulforhodamine B cell viability assay against A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), DU145 (prostate), and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 10 exhibited the most powerful cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 20 µM against all cell lines. In addition to the strongest antioxidant activity of compound 10, it also had lowest IC50 values (<3 µM), warranting further in vivo studies due to its anticancer activity.

  7. Evaluation of the inhibition potential of plumbagin against cytochrome P450 using LC-MS/MS and cocktail approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Tang, Shuowen; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from roots of Plumbago zeylanica L., has drawn a lot of attention for its plenty of pharmacological properties including antidiabetes and anti-cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plumbagin on CYP1A2, CYP2B1/6, CYP2C9/11, CYP2D1/6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2/4 activities in human and rat liver and evaluate the potential herb-drug interactions using the cocktail approach. All CYP substrates and their metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plumbagin presented non-time-dependent inhibition of CYP activities in both human and rat liver. In humans, plumbagin was not only a mixed inhibitor of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, but also a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2, with Ki values no more than 2.16 μM. In rats, the mixed inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2D1, and competitive inhibition for CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 with Ki values less than 9.93 μM were observed. In general, the relatively low Ki values of plumbagin in humans would have a high potential to cause the toxicity and drug interactions involving CYP enzymes. PMID:27329697

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of anti-plumbagin single-chain variable fragment antibody in Sf9 insect cell.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Taura, Futoshi; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Putalun, Waraporn; Kinjo, Junei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    Plumbagin (PL; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone) is an important secondary metabolite, mainly produced in the Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae). A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, fusion of the variable regions of the heavy chain and light chain of immunoglobulin against PL (PL-scFv) was expressed by Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System using Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells and characterized to investigate potential use of PL-scFv as a tool for plant immunomodulation. Functional PL-scFv expressed in the Sf9 insect cells were purified using cation exchange chromatography followed by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The yields of the purified PL-scFv in the culture supernatant and Sf9 insect cells were 2.0 mg and 5.2 mg per 1 liter of Sf9 culture medium, respectively. Recombinant purified PL-scFv was then characterized by the indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cross-reactivity and sensitivity of PL-scFv expressed in Sf9 insect cells were compared with PL-scFv expressed in Escherichia coli and its parental anti-plumbagin monoclonal antibody (MAb 3A3) secreted from hybridoma cells. Intriguingly, the specificity of the PL-scFv expressed in Sf9 insect cells was found to be different from that expressed in E. coli and parental MAb 3A3, although the detectable level (0.2-25 μg/mL) was the same in ELISA using each antibody. Even more interestingly, the characteristics of PL-scFv, which have wide cross-reactivity against 1,4-napththoquinone, suggest its potential use as a tool for plant immunomodulation not only for breeding Plumbaginacea family containing PL but also for breeding other medicinal plants containing bioactive naphthoquinones.

  9. Anti-Tumor Effects of Novel 5-O-Acyl Plumbagins Based on the Inhibition of Mammalian DNA Replicative Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  10. Profiling the NIH Small Molecule Repository for Compounds That Generate H2O2 by Redox Cycling in Reducing Environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Molecule Repository (SMR) libraries in a horseradish peroxidase–phenol red (HRP-PR) H2O2 detection assay to identify redox cycling compounds (RCCs) capable of generating H2O2 in buffers containing dithiothreitol (DTT). Two RCCs were identified in the LOPAC set, the ortho-naphthoquinone β-lapachone and the para-naphthoquinone NSC 95397. Thirty-seven (0.02%) concentration-dependent RCCs were identified from 195,826 compounds in the NIH SMR library; 3 singleton structures, 9 ortho-quinones, 2 para-quinones, 4 pyrimidotriazinediones, 15 arylsulfonamides, 2 nitrothiophene-2-carboxylates, and 2 tolyl hydrazides. Sixty percent of the ortho-quinones and 80% of the pyrimidotriazinediones in the library were confirmed as RCCs. In contrast, only 3.9% of the para-quinones were confirmed as RCCs. Fifteen of the 251 arylsulfonamides in the library were confirmed as RCCs, and since we screened 17,868 compounds with a sulfonamide functional group we conclude that the redox cycling activity of the arylsulfonamide RCCs is due to peripheral reactive enone, aromatic, or heterocyclic functions. Cross-target queries of the University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute (UPDDI) and PubChem databases revealed that the RCCs exhibited promiscuous bioactivity profiles and have populated both screening databases with significantly higher numbers of active flags than non-RCCs. RCCs were promiscuously active against protein targets known to be susceptible to oxidation, but were also active in cell growth inhibition assays, and against other targets thought to be insensitive to oxidation. Profiling compound libraries or the hits from screening campaigns in the HRP-PR H2O2 detection assay significantly reduce the timelines and resources required to identify and eliminate promiscuous nuisance RCCs from the candidates for lead optimization. PMID:20070233

  11. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  12. Detection of relative [Na+] and [K+] levels in sweat with optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Sel, Kivanc; Mueller, Anja; Edwards, Jeffery; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-05-01

    We describe the use of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ, Lawsone) as a potential sweat electrolyte measurement marker. We use ultraviolet-visible absorbance measurements to determine the absorbance energy in a particular wavelength range (400 nm-500 nm). This novel approach allows us to eliminate the importance of the exact wavelength of the absorbance peak but find the integral of the range of interest. Although we numerically calculate the absorbance energy, it is imperative to use photodiodes to measure the intensity of the transmitted light that is fabricated particularly for the range of interest for future device implementations. We explored various mixing ratios of water and acetone to find the optimum solvent that would give the most sensitive and accurate relative electrolyte sensing. The pH value was also modified to see the effect on the absorbance energy and intensity. A representative group of subjects were used to collect sweat from the dehydration and hyperhydration cases. The results are convincing that HNQ solutions can be used as a wearable, continuous sweat sensor.

  13. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric determination of atomoxetine in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Ulu, S T

    2011-11-01

    Visible spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of atomoxetine in pharmaceutical preparations. The spectrophotometric method was based on a nucleophilic substitution reaction of atomoxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in an alkaline medium to form an orange-colored product. The absorbance-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range 5-40 microg mL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were calculated to be 0.02 microg mL(-1) and 0.06 microg mL(-1), respectively. The spectrofluorimetric method was based on the derivatization reaction of 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) with atomoxetine to produce a fluorescent derivative. The formed highly fluorescent derivative that was measured at 462 nm after excitation at 533 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range 10-500 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were calculated to be 0.19 ng mL(-1) and 0.57 ng mL(-1). The analytical performance of both methods was fully validated, and the results were satisfactory. The methods have been successfully applied for the determination of the studied drug in capsules and the results obtained ware in good agreement with those obtained by the reference method.

  14. Homogeneous purification and characterization of LePGT1--a membrane-bound aromatic substrate prenyltransferase involved in secondary metabolism of Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Mito, Koji; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Membrane-bound type prenyltransferases for aromatic substrates play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of various natural compounds. Lithospermum erythrorhizon p-hydroxybenzoate: geranyltransferase (LePGT1), which contains multiple transmembrane α-helices, is involved in the biosynthesis of a red naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin. Taking LePGT1 as a model membrane-bound aromatic substrate prenyltransferase, we utilized a baculovirus-Sf9 expression system to generate a high yield LePGT1 polypeptide, reaching ~ 1000-fold higher expression level compared with a yeast expression system. Efficient solubilization procedures and biochemical purification methods were developed to extract LePGT1 from the membrane fraction of Sf9 cells. As a result, 80 μg of LePGT1 was purified from 150 mL culture to almost homogeneity as judged by SDS/PAGE. Using purified LePGT1, enzymatic characterization, e.g. substrate specificity, divalent cation requirement and kinetic analysis, was done. In addition, inhibition experiments revealed that aromatic compounds having two phenolic hydroxyl groups effectively inhibited LePGT1 enzyme activity, suggesting a novel recognition mechanism for aromatic substrates. As the first example of solubilization and purification of this membrane-bound protein family, the methods established in this study will provide valuable information for the precise biochemical characterization of aromatic prenyltransferases as well as for crystallographic analysis of this novel enzyme family.

  15. Reduction of quinones and nitroaromatic compounds by Escherichia coli nitroreductase A (NfsA): Characterization of kinetics and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Valiauga, Benjaminas; Williams, Elsie M; Ackerley, David F; Čėnas, Narimantas

    2017-01-15

    NfsA, a major FMN-associated nitroreductase of E. coli, reduces nitroaromatic compounds via consecutive two-electron transfers. NfsA has potential applications in the biodegradation of nitroaromatic environment pollutants, e.g. explosives, and is also of interest for the anticancer strategy gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. However, the catalytic mechanism of NfsA is poorly characterized. Here we examined the NADPH-dependent reduction of quinones (n = 16) and nitroaromatic compounds (n = 12) by NfsA. We confirmed a general "ping-pong" reaction scheme, and preliminary rapid reaction studies of the enzyme reduction by NADPH showed that this step is much faster than the steady-state turnover number, i.e., the enzyme turnover is limited by the oxidative half-reaction. The reactivity of nitroaromatic compounds (log kcat/Km) followed a linear dependence on their single-electron reduction potential (E(1)7), indicating a limited role for compound structure or active site flexibility in their reactivity. The reactivity of quinones was lower than that of nitroaromatics having similar E(1)7 values, except for the significantly enhanced reactivity of 2-OH-1,4-naphthoquinones, consistent with observations previously made for the group B nitroreductase of Enterobacter cloacae. We present evidence that the reduction of quinones by NfsA is most consistent with a single-step (H(-)) hydride transfer mechanism.

  16. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed.

  17. Human ACAT inhibitory effects of shikonin derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    An, Sojin; Park, Yong-Dae; Paik, Young-Ki; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Woo Song

    2007-02-15

    Three naphthoquinones were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the CHCl(3) extracts of roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. They were identified as acetylshikonin (1), isobutyrylshikonin (2), and beta-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin (3) on the basis of their spectroscopic analyses. The compounds 1-3 were tested for their inhibitory activities against human ACAT-1 (hACAT-1) or human ACAT-2 (hACAT-2). Compound 2 preferentially inhibited hACAT-2 (IC(50)=57.5microM) than hACAT-1 (32% at 120microM), whereas compounds 1 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities in both hACAT-1 and -2. To develop more potent hACAT inhibitor, shikonin derivatives (5-11) were synthesized by semi-synthesis of shikonin (4), which was prepared by hydrolysis of 1-3. Among them, compounds 5 and 7 exhibited the strong inhibitory activities against hACAT-1 and -2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compound 7 behaved as a potent ACAT inhibitor in not only in vitro assay system but also cell-based assay system.

  18. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zi-Heng; Hou, Bei-Wei; Shi, Bao-Jun; Shu, Cheng-Jie; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds. PMID:28326124

  19. Determination of biogenic amines in wines by pre-column derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier

    2009-09-04

    A new HPLC method for determining biogenic amines in wines is developed. This method is based on pre-column amine derivatization, further separation of derivatives and on-line hyphenation of HPLC to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Biogenic amines have been derivatized with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate at 65 degrees C and pH 9.2 for 5 min. The separation of derivatives has been accomplished in a C(18) analytical column using an elution gradient based on increasing the percentage of methanol. Derivatives have been ionized in positive mode and detected by selected ion monitoring. The operating conditions of the APCI-MS system (voltages, temperatures and gases) have been thoroughly optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity for all analytes. In the selected conditions, APCI-MS spectra display little fragmentation and good signal-to-noise ratio. Depending on the amine characteristics, the main spectral peaks are due to mono- and di-derivative products. Figures of merit of the method have been established under the selected conditions using red wine samples. Recoveries ranging from 94% to 106% have been obtained which prove excellent accuracy of the method in the determination of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine and serotonin in red wines. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of commercial wines from different Spanish regions.

  20. Determination of histamine in wines with an on-line pre-column flow derivatization system coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago

    2005-09-01

    A new rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determining histamine in red wine samples, based on continuous flow derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), is proposed. In this system, samples are derivatized on-line in a three-channel flow manifold for reagent, buffer and sample. The reaction takes place in a PTFE coil heated at 80 degrees C and with a residence time of 2.9 min. The reaction mixture is injected directly into the chromatographic system, where the histamine derivative is separated from other aminated compounds present in the wine matrix in less than ten minutes. The HPLC procedure involves a C18 column, a binary gradient of 2% acetic acid-methanol as a mobile phase, and UV detection at 305 nm. Analytical parameters of the method are evaluated using red wine samples. The linear range is up to 66.7 mg L(-1) (r = 0.9999), the precision (RSD) is 3%, the detection limit is 0.22 mg L(-1), and the average histamine recovery is 101.5% +/- 6.7%. Commercial red wines from different Spanish regions are analyzed with the proposed method.

  1. Plumbagin sensitizes breast cancer cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death through GRP78 inhibition and Bik upregulation.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Domachowska, Anna; Jaworska, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2017-03-13

    The glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a major chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, and a prosurvival component of the unfolded protein response. GRP78 is upregulated in many types of cancers, including breast cancer. Research has suggested that GRP78 overexpression confers chemoresistance to anti-estrogen agents through a mechanism involving the inhibition of a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, Bik. In the present research the role of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, in GRP78-associated cell death inhibition was examined. The results demonstrated that plumbagin inhibits GRP78 activity and GRP78 inhibition contributes to plumbagin-mediated cell death induction. Furthermore, Bik upregulation was associated with plumbagin-induced cell death and an increase in plumbagin-mediated Bik induction was observed upon GRP78 downregulation. Plumbagin sensitized estrogen-positive breast cancer cells to tamoxifen and the association of GRP78 inhibition and Bik upregulation in plumbagin-mediated cell sensitization was shown. Collectively, the results of this research suggest that plumbagin inhibits the antiapoptotic activity of GRP78 leading to Bik upregulation and apoptosis induction, which contributes to the sensitization of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen.

  2. The anatomy and chemistry of the colour bands of grasstree stems (Xanthorrhoea preissii) used for plant age and fire history determination.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Wendy I; Lamont, Byron B; Jones, Anthea S; Ward, David J; Bombardieri, Sandro

    2002-05-01

    A new method of ageing and determining the fire history of grasstrees, based on colour bands running along the stem, has been developed. As part of our evaluation of the technique, we examined the structural and chemical basis of the colour differences. Exposed ends of the leaf bases are cream, brown and black, with the inner cortex, especially in the black leaf bases, being darker than the outer cortex. There was no structural difference between the three leaf base types. Tannin concentration increased from cream to brown to black leaf bases, and from the inner to outer cortex, and remained quite stable over many years. Both water-soluble and insoluble pigments contribute to the darkness of the black leaf bases. A hydrophobic naphthoquinone was present in the conducting tissues of the vascular bundles, and related naphthalene-derivatives were present in the surrounding tissues. We conclude that the colour differences between the leaf bases have a chemical basis that can be linked to environmental changes: tannin cells to phenological effects, and naphthalene-derivatives in the vascular core to the passage of fire.

  3. Discovery and development of natural product-derived chemotherapeutic agents based on a medicinal chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2010-03-26

    Medicinal plants have long been an excellent source of pharmaceutical agents. Accordingly, the long-term objectives of the author's research program are to discover and design new chemotherapeutic agents based on plant-derived compound leads by using a medicinal chemistry approach, which is a combination of chemistry and biology. Different examples of promising bioactive natural products and their synthetic analogues, including sesquiterpene lactones, quassinoids, naphthoquinones, phenylquinolones, dithiophenediones, neo-tanshinlactone, tylophorine, suksdorfin, DCK, and DCP, will be presented with respect to their discovery and preclinical development as potential clinical trial candidates. Research approaches include bioactivity- or mechanism of action-directed isolation and characterization of active compounds, rational drug design-based modification and analogue synthesis, and structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action studies. Current clinical trial agents discovered by the Natural Products Research Laboratories, University of North Carolina, include bevirimat (dimethyl succinyl betulinic acid), which is now in phase IIb trials for treating AIDS. Bevirimat is also the first in a new class of HIV drug candidates called "maturation inhibitors". In addition, an etoposide analogue, GL-331, progressed to anticancer phase II clinical trials, and the curcumin analogue JC-9 is in phase II clinical trials for treating acne and in development for trials against prostate cancer. The discovery and development of these clinical trial candidates will also be discussed.

  4. Un nouveau film conducteur poly(aminoquinone) pour le stockage de l'énergie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, B.; Pham, M. C.; Bazzaoui, E. A.; Lacroix, J.-C.; Lacaze, P.-C.; Novak, P.; Hass, O.

    1998-06-01

    The electrooxidation of 5-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (ANQ) in acetonitrile leads to conducting (10-1 S.cm-1) functionalized polymer films of polyaniline- type bearing one quinone group per ANQ moiety, electroactive in organic or aqueous solvents. The polymer exchanges cations during the redox process of quinones and is therefore interesting for lithium ions batteries devices. The measured specific charge is particularly hight with about 290 Ah/kg. L'oxydation électrochimique du 5-amino-1,4-naphtoquinone (ANQ) dans l'acétonitrile conduit à la formation de films conducteurs (10-1 S.cm-1) fonctionnalisés de structure type polyaniline portant une fonction quinone par motif ANQ, qui sont électroactifs en milieu aqueux comme en milieu organique. Le polymère échange des cations au cours du processus rédox des quinones et est ainsi intéressant pour les applications dans les accumulateurs au lithium. La charge spécifique mesurée de ce polymère est particulièrement élevée avec environ 290 Ah/kg.

  5. Electronic structure and energy decomposition analyses as a tool to interpret the redox potential ranking of naphtho-, biphenyl- and biphenylene-quinone isomers.

    PubMed

    Tomerini, D; Politano, O; Gatti, C; Frayret, C

    2016-09-29

    By calling on modelling approaches we have performed a comparative study on the redox properties of various naphtho-, biphenyl- and biphenylene-quinone isomers. These different compounds exhibit as a whole a redox potential range between 2.09 and 2.90 V vs. Li(+)/Li. A specific methodology was used to decrypt the interplay among isomerism, aromaticity and antiaromaticity modifications and the stabilization/destabilization effects due to other molecular components on this key electrochemical feature for electrode materials of batteries. In particular, energy decomposition analysis, within the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, along with the electron and electron spin population changes upon reduction nicely rationalise the observed potential trends. While 1,2- and 2,3-isomers show the highest/lowest redox potential in the biphenylene-quinone series, a reverse trend is observed for the naphtho-quinone, the compound having the two carbonyl groups on distinct rings being characterized by an intermediate value in both cases. There is instead almost no differentiation between 1,2 and 2,3 isomers for the biphenyl-quinone family.

  6. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics.

  7. Application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessment in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Youn, Hyun-Yi; McCanna, David J; Sivak, Jacob G; Mikkelsen, Susan R

    2013-05-01

    The application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessments of human corneal epithelial cells has been investigated. Electrochemical measurements have been compared in PBS containing 5.0 mM glucose and minimal essential growth medium. Three different lipophilic mediators including dichlorophenol indophenol, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (also called menadione or vitamin K3) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine have been evaluated for shuttling electrons across the cell membrane to the external medium. Transfer of these electrons to ferricyanide in the extra cellular medium results in the accumulation of ferrocyanide. The amount of ferrocyanide is then determined using cyclic biamperometry and is related to the extent of cell metabolic activity and therefore cell viability. To illustrate cytotoxicity assessment of chemicals, hydrogen peroxide, benzalkonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate have been chosen as sample toxins, the cytotoxicities of which have been evaluated and compared to values reported in the literature. Similar values have been reported using colorimetric assays; however, the simplicity of this electrochemical assay can, in principle, open the way to miniaturization onto lab-on-chip devices and its incorporation into tiered-testing approaches for cytotoxicity assessment.

  8. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Effects of several quinones on insulin aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hao; He, Zihao; Peng, Anlin; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Biao; Sun, Yue; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2014-07-10

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are associated with more than twenty diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. The amyloid oligomers and fibrils may induce cell membrane disruption and lead to cell apoptosis. A great number of studies have focused on discovery of amyloid inhibitors which may prevent or treat amyloidosis diseases. Polyphenols have been extensively studied as a class of amyloid inhibitors, with several polyphenols under clinical trials as anti-neurodegenerative drugs. As oxidative intermediates of natural polyphenols, quinones widely exist in medicinal plants or food. In this study, we used insulin as an amyloid model to test the anti-amyloid effects of four simple quinones and four natural anthraquinone derivatives from rhubarb, a traditional herbal medicine used for treating Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrated that all eight quinones show inhibitory effects to different extent on insulin oligomerization, especially for 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Significantly attenuated oligomerization, reduced amount of amyloid fibrils and reduced hemolysis levels were found after quinones treatments, indicating quinones may inhibit insulin from forming toxic oligomeric species. The results suggest a potential action of native anthraquinone derivatives in preventing protein misfolding diseases, the quinone skeleton may thus be further explored for designing effective anti-amyloidosis compounds.

  10. Lactococcus lactis catalyses electricity generation at microbial fuel cell anodes via excretion of a soluble quinone.

    PubMed

    Freguia, Stefano; Masuda, Masaki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji

    2009-09-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive, normally homolactic fermenter that is known to produce several kinds of membrane associated quinones, which are able to mediate electron transfer to extracellular electron acceptors such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and hexacyanoferrate. Here we show that this bacterium is also capable of performing extracellular electron transfer to anodes by utilizing at least two soluble redox mediators, as suggested by the two-step catalytic current developed. One of these two mediators was herein suggested to be 2-amino-3-dicarboxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (ACNQ), via evaluation of standard redox potential, ability of the bacterium to exploit the quinone when exogenously provided, as well as by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV spectrum analysis. During electricity generation, L. lactis slightly deviated from its normal homolactic metabolism by excreting acetate and pyruvate in stoichiometric amounts with respect to the electrical current. In this metabolism, the anode takes on the role of electron sink for acetogenic fermentation. The finding that L. lactis self-catalyses anodic electron transfer by excretion of redox mediators is remarkable as the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer by pure cultures of gram-positive bacteria had previously never been elucidated.

  11. Production and characterisation of mucoadhesive nanosuspensions for the formulation of bupravaquone.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Kayser, O; Müller, R H

    2001-02-19

    Bupravaquone is a new naphthoquinone antibiotic against Cryptosporidium parvum and other parasites. It has attracted interest for the treatment of C. parvum infections, because of the lack of a drug in the treatment of mostly AIDS patients. The bioavailability of bupravaquone is limited when given orally. To overcome the problem of the high elimination rate caused by diarrhoea, typical for C. parvum infections, bupravaquone was formulated as a mucoadhesive nanosuspension, i.e. combining the properties of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, in this case hydro gels, with nanosuspensions. In this study different polymers/hydro gels were employed to create a prolonged retention time for the drug in the infected gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The second step to improve the bioavailability of bupravaquone was the formulation as nanosuspension. Therefore various concentrations of bupravaquone with different surfactants were tested. The production of these nanosuspensions was carried out by high pressure homogenisation. In addition to the classical stepwise production, about a new one step production method is described.

  12. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  13. The Mechanism Underlying the Antibacterial Activity of Shikonin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seob; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sang-Won; Cha, Seon-Woo; Park, Hong-Woo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Lee, Min-Ho; Han, Sin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin (SKN), a highly liposoluble naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is known to exert antibacterial, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor effects. The aim of this study was to examine SKN antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The SKN was analyzed in combination with membrane-permeabilizing agents Tris and Triton X-100, ATPase inhibitors sodium azide and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan; the effects on MRSA viability were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, time-kill test, and transmission electron microscopy. Addition of membrane-permeabilizing agents or ATPase inhibitors together with a low dose of SKN potentiated SKN anti-MRSA activity, as evidenced by the reduction of MRSA cell density by 75% compared to that observed when SKN was used alone; in contrast, addition of peptidoglycan blocked the antibacterial activity of SKN. The results indicate that the anti-MRSA effect of SKN is associated with its affinity to peptidoglycan, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, and the activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This study revealed the potential of SKN as an effective natural antibiotic and of its possible use to substantially reduce the use of existing antibiotic may also be important for understanding the mechanism underlying the antibacterial activity of natural compounds. PMID:26265924

  14. Shikonin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and enhances chemotherapeutic sensitivity of gastric cancer through reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenquan; Cai, Aizhen; Chen, Guozhu; Xi, Hongqing; Wu, Xiaosong; Cui, Jianxin; Zhang, Kecheng; Zhao, Xudong; Yu, Jiyun; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of gastric cancer remains poor due to clinical drug resistance. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin (SHK), a natural naphthoquinone, has been reported to trigger cell death and overcome drug resistance in anti-tumour therapy. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and molecular mechanisms of SHK in treatment with gastric cancer. In vitro, SHK suppresses proliferation and triggers cell death of gastric cancer cells but leads minor damage to gastric epithelial cells. SHK induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarizes the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ultimately triggers mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. We confirmed that SHK induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells not only in a caspase-dependent manner which releases Cytochrome C and triggers the caspase cascade, but also in a caspase-independent manner which mediates the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and Endonuclease G. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SHK enhanced the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that SHK may be a novel therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27905569

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 protects preimplantation embryos from anti-developmental actions of menadione.

    PubMed

    Moss, James I; Pontes, Eduardo; Hansen, Peter James

    2009-11-01

    Menadione is a naphthoquinone used as a vitamin K source in animal feed that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause apoptosis. Here, we examined whether menadione reduces development of preimplantation bovine embryos in a ROS-dependent process and tested the hypothesis that actions of menadione would be reduced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Menadione caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the proportion of embryos that became blastocysts. All concentrations tested (1, 2.5, and 5.0 microM) inhibited development. Treatment with 100 ng/ml IGF-1 reduced the magnitude of the anti-developmental effects of the two lowest menadione concentrations. Menadione also caused a concentration-dependent increase in the percent of cells positive for the TUNEL reaction. The response was lower for IGF-1-treated embryos. The effects of menadione were mediated by ROS because (1) the anti-developmental effect of menadione was blocked by the antioxidants dithiothreitol and Trolox and (2) menadione caused an increase in ROS generation. Treatment with IGF-1 did not reduce ROS formation in menadione-treated embryos. In conclusion, concentrations of menadione as low as 1.0 muM can compromise development of bovine preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage of development in a ROS-dependent mechanism. Anti-developmental actions of menadione can be blocked by IGF-1 through effects downstream of ROS generation.

  16. Shikonin inhibits TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemin; Hu, Wenyu; Wu, Fang; Yuan, Xue; Hu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Shikonin is a naphthoquinone compound extracted from the Chinese herb purple gromwell. Shikonin has broad antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced proliferation and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is an important factor that contributes to atherosclerosis. The effects of shikonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs have been reported; however, the function of shikonin on TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion of VSMCs during atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we used Western blot, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate the effect of shikonin on the TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of VSMCs and to determine the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that shikonin inhibits the TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion. Further study revealed that shikonin regulates the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase signaling pathways; modulates the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, B-cell lymphoma 2, and Bax; activates caspase-3 and caspase-9; induces cell cycle arrest; and promotes the apoptosis of VSMCs. Together, our results indicate that shikonin may become a promising agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and they also establish foundation for the development of anti-atherosclerosis drugs.

  17. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  18. Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1): Occurrence, Biosynthesis and Functions.

    PubMed

    Basset, Gilles J; Latimer, Scott; Fatihi, Abdelhak; Soubeyrand, Eric; Block, Anna

    2016-06-22

    Phylloquinone is a prenylated naphthoquinone that is synthesized exclusively by plants, green algae, and some species of cyanobacteria, where it serves as a vital electron carrier in photosystem I and as an electron acceptor for the formation of protein disulfide bonds. In humans and other vertebrates, phylloquinone plays the role of a vitamin (vitamin K1) that is required for blood coagulation and bone and vascular metabolism. Phylloquinone from green leafy vegetables and vegetable oil represents the major dietary source of vitamin K for humans. In recent years, reverse genetics and biochemical approaches using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that phylloquinone biosynthesis in plants involves paralogous and multifunctional enzymes, a compartmentation of the corresponding pathway in plastids and peroxisomes, and trafficking of some biosynthetic intermediates within plastids themselves. Furthermore, phylloquinone biosynthetic intermediates create crucial metabolic branch-points with other plastid-synthesized metabolites such as chlorophylls, tocopherols and salicylate. This review presents an update on recent studies of the central role of plastids in the biosynthesis of phylloquinone, in particular on the discovery of novel enzymatic steps that are likely paradigms for phylloquinone and menaquinone (vitamin K2)-synthesizing organisms alike.

  19. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light.

  20. Catalytic reaction of cytokinin dehydrogenase: preference for quinones as electron acceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Frébortová, Jitka; Fraaije, Marco W; Galuszka, Petr; Sebela, Marek; Pec, Pavel; Hrbác, Jan; Novák, Ondrej; Bilyeu, Kristin D; English, James T; Frébort, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic reaction of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.12) was studied in detail using the recombinant flavoenzyme from maize. Determination of the redox potential of the covalently linked flavin cofactor revealed a relatively high potential dictating the type of electron acceptor that can be used by the enzyme. Using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone or 1,4-naphthoquinone as electron acceptor, turnover rates with N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine of approx. 150 s(-1) could be obtained. This suggests that the natural electron acceptor of the enzyme is quite probably a p-quinone or similar compound. By using the stopped-flow technique, it was found that the enzyme is rapidly reduced by N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine (k(red)=950 s(-1)). Re-oxidation of the reduced enzyme by molecular oxygen is too slow to be of physiological relevance, confirming its classification as a dehydrogenase. Furthermore, it was established for the first time that the enzyme is capable of degrading aromatic cytokinins, although at low reaction rates. As a result, the enzyme displays a dual catalytic mode for oxidative degradation of cytokinins: a low-rate and low-substrate specificity reaction with oxygen as the electron acceptor, and high activity and strict specificity for isopentenyladenine and analogous cytokinins with some specific electron acceptors. PMID:14965342

  1. Menaquinone Analogs Inhibit Growth of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Joseph A.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A.; Spaulding, Adam R.; Vu, Bao G.; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Kohler, Petra L.; Kirby, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents. PMID:23959313

  2. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed.

  3. Enhanced dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of naturally occurring quinones and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Doong, Ruey-an; Lee, Chun-chi; Lien, Chia-min

    2014-02-01

    The effect of naturally occurring quinones including lawsone (LQ), ubiquinone (UQ), juglone (JQ), and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) on the biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) in the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens and ferrihydrite was investigated. AQDS was used as the model compound for comparison. The reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite by G. sulfurreducens was enhanced by AQDS, NQ, and LQ. However, addition of UQ and JQ had little enhancement effect on Fe(II) production. The bioreduction efficiency and rate of ferrihydrite was highly dependent on the natural property and concentration of quinone compounds and the addition of low concentrations of LQ and NQ significantly accelerated the biotransformation rate of CT. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for CT dechlorination (kobsCT) in AQDS-, LQ- and NQ-amended batches were 5.4-5.8, 4.6-7.4 and 2.4-5.8 times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of quinone. A good relationship between kobsCT for CT dechlorination and bioreduction ratio of ferrihydrite was observed, indicating the important role of biogenic Fe(II) in dechlorination of CT under iron-reducing conditions. Spectroscopic analysis showed that AQDS and NQ could be reduced to semiquinones and hydroquinones, while only hydroquinones were generated in LQ-amended batches.

  4. Bypasses of the antimycin a block of mitochondrial electron transport in relation to ubisemiquinone function.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, A; Lehninger, A L

    1984-10-26

    Two different bypasses around the antimycin block of electron transport from succinate to cytochrome c via the ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase of intact rat liver mitochondria were analyzed, one promoted by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and the other by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP). Both bypasses are inhibited by myxothiazol, which blocks electron flow from ubiquinol to the Rieske iron-sulfur center, and by 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, which inhibits electron flow from the iron-sulfur center to cytochrome c1. In the bypass promoted by TMPD its oxidized form (Wurster's blue) acts as an electron acceptor from some reduced component prior to the antimycin block, which by exclusion of other possibilities is ubisemiquinone. In the DCIP bypass its reduced form acts as an electron donor, by reducing ubisemiquinone to ubiquinol; reduced DCIP is regenerated again at the expense of either succinate or ascorbate. The observations described are consistent with and support current models of the Q cycle. Bypasses promoted by artificial electron carriers provide an independent approach to analysis of electron flow through ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase.

  5. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Desoti, Vânia; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Martins Ribeiro, Fabianne; Cardoso Martins, Solange; da Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Vataru Nakamura, Celso; Farias Ximenes, Valdecir; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Chagas’ disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas’ disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exerted better effects against various cancer cells than when used alone. These effects have been attributed to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of vitamin K3 and vitamin C, alone and in combination, against T. cruzi. The vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination exerted synergistic effects against three forms of T. cruzi, leading to morphological, ultrastructural, and functional changes by producing reactive species, decreasing reduced thiol groups, altering the cell cycle, causing lipid peroxidation, and forming autophagic vacuoles. Our hypothesis is that the vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination induces oxidative imbalance in T. cruzi, probably started by a redox cycling process that leads to parasite cell death. PMID:26641473

  6. Expression Patterns of Glutathione Transferase Gene (GstI) in Maize Seedlings Under Juglone-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, E.C.2.5.1.18) represent an important group of cytoprotective enzymes participating in detoxification of xenobiotics and limiting oxidative damages of cellular macromolecules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of tested allelochemical on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, the effect of juglone-induced oxidative stress on glutathione transferase (GstI) gene expression patterns in maize seedlings was recorded. It was revealed that 4-day juglone treatment significantly stimulated the transcriptional activity of GstI in maize seedlings compared to control plants. By contrast, at the 6th and 8th day of experiments the expression gene responses were slightly lower as compared with non-stressed seedlings. Additionally, the specific gene expression profiles, as well as the inhibition of primary roots and coleoptile elongation were proportional to juglone concentrations. In conclusion, the results provide strong molecular evidence that allelopathic influence of juglone on growth and development of maize seedlings may be relevant with an induction of oxidative stress in acceptor plants. PMID:22174645

  7. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A major goal of this project is to isolate unique microbial strains that catalyze a variety of biochemical transformations of low molecular weight coal substructure model compounds and then to determine if these strains will carry out similar reactions with coal. We have several enrichments underway using suitable model compounds such as pyrogallol (2,3-dihydroxyphenol) and gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) to isolate organisms that reductively dehydroxylate phenolic hydroxyl groups. We are also using various naphthoquinone and antrhaquinone dyes as substrates in isolation procedures. The most promising results so far are with hydroxynaphthoquinone. The purple non-sulfur bacteria belonging to the genus Rhodobacter are also of interest to us because some of them degrade numerous aromatic compounds by way of reductive pathways. In addition, Rhodobacter species are not sensitive to air. Thus far, enrichment cultures with benzoate have yielded two isolates. Lowering the carboxyl content of lignite coal has been suggested as one means of improving its fuel value. We have isolated a bacterium from soil, tentatively identified as a Bacillus species, that nonoxidatively decarboxylates vanillic acid to guaicol. This bacterium also decarboxylated p-hydroxycinnimates to p-hydroxystyrenes. We are now attempting to get measurable decarboxylation of base-solubilized Vermont lignite coal using this organism. 1 tab.

  8. Fragmentation studies and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lapachol: protonated, deprotonated and cationized species.

    PubMed

    Vessecchi, Ricardo; Emery, Flavio S; Galembeck, Sérgio E; Lopes, Norberto P

    2010-07-30

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of lapachol (2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone) was accomplished in order to elucidate the gas-phase dissociation reactions of this important biologically active natural product. The occurrence of protonated and cationized species in the positive mode and of deprotonated species in the negative mode was explored by means of collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. For the protonated molecule, the H(2)O and C(4)H(8) losses occur by two competitive channels. For the deprotonated molecule, the even-electron rule is not conserved, and the radicalar species are eliminated by formation of distonic anions. The fragmentation mechanism for each ion was suggested on the basis of computational thermochemistry. Atomic charges, relative energies, and frontier orbitals were employed aiming at a better understanding of the gas-phase reactivity of lapachol. Potential energy surfaces for fragmentation reactions were obtained by the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) model.

  9. Comparative study of three Plumbago L. species (Plumbaginaceae) by microscopy, UPLC-UV and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Galal, Ahmed M; Raman, Vijayasankar; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Rumalla, Chidananda Swamy; Weerasooriya, Aruna Dharmapriya; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of anatomy of leaves, stems and roots of three species of Plumbago, namely P. auriculata Lam., P. indica L. and P. zeylanica L. by light microscopy. The paper also provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the naphthoquinone, plumbagin-a major constituent present in these species-using UPLC-UV. Microscopic examinations revealed the presence of distinctive differences in the anatomical features of the leaf, stem and root of the three species, and these can thus be used for identification and authentication of these species. UPLC-UV analysis showed the highest concentration of plumbagin in the roots of P. zeylanica (1.62% w/w) followed by the roots of P. indica (0.97% w/w) and then P. auriculata (0.33-0.53% w/w). In contrast, plumbagin was not detected in the stems and leaves of P. indica and in the leaves of P. auriculata, whereas very low concentrations (<0.02% w/w) of plumbagin were detected in the stems and leaves of P. zeylanica and in the stems of P. auriculata. HPTLC fingerprints of the leaf and root of the three species exhibited distinguishable profiles, while those of the stems were undifferentiated.

  10. Synthesis, Photochemical and Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity Studies of meso-Tetra(pyren-1-yl)porphyrin and its Ni, Cu and Zn Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zoltan, Tamara; Vargas, Franklin; Rivas, Carlos; López, Verónica; Perez, Jhackelym; Biasutto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of the meso-tetra(pyren-1-yl)porphyrin (1) was successfully accomplished by means of the pyrrole condensation with pyrene-1-carb-aldehyde in acidic media. Its metallization was carried out in an almost quantitative yield to obtain the corresponding complexes of Ni(II) (2), Cu(II) (3) and Zn (4). Their photophysical properties such as fluorescence quantum yield and energy transfer to oxygen for an efficient generation of singlet oxygen were determined. Their photophysical and photochemical properties were compared with those of other similar porphyrin derivatives such as tetraphenylporphyrin and tetranaphthylporphyrin. Photochemical studies on their effectiveness as photosensitizer were carried out by means of the photoinduced oxidation of aromatic alcohols like α-naphthol to naphthoquinone. The antibacterial photoactivity assay for compounds 1–4 was testeted against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and its proliferation and viability were measured by chemiluminescence. An efficient inactivation of E. coli was observed. This was more efficient for compounds 2 and 3, following the direct relationship to high generation of singlet oxygen by these compounds. PMID:21179316

  11. An investigation of dye reduction by food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, S A; Kroll, R G; Thurston, C F

    1992-06-01

    The rates of reduction of seven redox dyes by 13 bacterial strains were measured and found to vary greatly between different bacterium/dye combinations. Phenazine ethosulphate and toluidine blue were the most rapidly reduced dyes by the majority of bacteria and resorufin and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were reduced slowly, if at all. There was also considerable variation in the rates of reduction with any single dye/organism combination. Glucose stimulated the rates of endogenous dye reduction in about half of the organisms. For Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli, dye reduction was stimulated by a range of exogenous substrates but lactose, the primary available carbon and energy source in milk, had little effect. In Lactococcus lactis, dye reduction was stimulated by sugars but not by organic acids. Oxygen successfully competed with dye reduction in organisms containing respiratory chains, but with membrane fractions, dye reduction was more rapid than oxygen consumption. All the organisms showed little cytosolic dye reduction, except L. lactis which showed substantial rates of reduction of some dyes by this fraction. With the membrane fraction of E. coli and Ps. fluorescens, cyanide inhibited NADH and succinate-dependent dye reduction, Antimycin A inhibited lactate and succinate and rotenone had no significant effect, but inhibition was not always observed with membrane from both organisms.

  12. Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

  13. Plumbagin sensitizes breast cancer cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death through GRP78 inhibition and Bik upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kawiak, Anna; Domachowska, Anna; Jaworska, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a major chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, and a prosurvival component of the unfolded protein response. GRP78 is upregulated in many types of cancers, including breast cancer. Research has suggested that GRP78 overexpression confers chemoresistance to anti-estrogen agents through a mechanism involving the inhibition of a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, Bik. In the present research the role of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, in GRP78-associated cell death inhibition was examined. The results demonstrated that plumbagin inhibits GRP78 activity and GRP78 inhibition contributes to plumbagin-mediated cell death induction. Furthermore, Bik upregulation was associated with plumbagin-induced cell death and an increase in plumbagin-mediated Bik induction was observed upon GRP78 downregulation. Plumbagin sensitized estrogen-positive breast cancer cells to tamoxifen and the association of GRP78 inhibition and Bik upregulation in plumbagin-mediated cell sensitization was shown. Collectively, the results of this research suggest that plumbagin inhibits the antiapoptotic activity of GRP78 leading to Bik upregulation and apoptosis induction, which contributes to the sensitization of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. PMID:28287102

  14. Plumbagin Protects Mice from Lethal Sepsis by Modulating Immunometabolism Upstream of PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Deng, Wenjun; Kang, Rui; Xie, Min; Billiar, Timothy; Wang, Haichao; Cao, Lizhi; Tang, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by dysregulated systemic inflammation with release of early (for example, interleukin (IL)-1β) and late (for example, HMGB1) proinflammatory mediators from macrophages. Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone, has been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory activity, but the underling mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that plumbagin inhibits the inflammatory response through interfering with the immunometabolism pathway in activated macrophages. Remarkably, plumbagin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aerobic glycolysis by downregulating the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a protein kinase responsible for the final and rate-limiting reaction step of the glycolytic pathway. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated oxidative stress was required for LPS-induced PKM2 expression, because pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of NOX4 by plumbagin or RNA interference limited LPS-induced PKM2 expression, lactate production and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and HMGB1) release in macrophages. Finally, plumbagin protected mice from lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. These findings identify a new approach for inhibiting the NOX4/PKM2-dependent immunometabolism pathway in the treatment of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26982513

  15. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and apoptosis in endothelial cells mediated by endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Anup; Moellering, Douglas; Go, Young-Mi; Shiva, Sruti; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Jo, Hanjoong; Patel, Rakesh P.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways. However, extracellular addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) often requires concentrations that cannot be readily achieved under physiological conditions to activate biological responses such as apoptosis. Explanations for this discrepancy have included increased metabolism of H2O2 in the extracellular environment and compartmentalization within the cell. We have addressed this issue experimentally by examining the induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by exogenous addition of H2O2 and by a redox cycling agent, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, that generates H2O2 in cells. Here we show that low nanomolar steady-state concentrations (0.1-0.5 nmol x min(-1) x 10(6) cells) of H2O2 generated intracellularly activate c-Jun N terminal kinase and initiate apoptosis in endothelial cells. A comparison with bolus hydrogen peroxide suggests that the low rate of intracellular formation of this reactive oxygen species results in a similar profile of activation for both c-Jun N terminal kinase and the initiation of apoptosis. However, a detailed analysis reveals important differences in both the duration and profile for activation of these signaling pathways.

  16. Potential antipsoriatic agents: lapacho compounds as potent inhibitors of HaCaT cell growth.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Sellmer, A; Wiegrebe, W

    1999-08-01

    A number of lapacho compounds, representing the most common constituents of the inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa, together with some synthetic analogues, were evaluated in vitro against the growth of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. With an IC(50) value of 0.7 microM, beta-lapachone (4) displayed activity comparable to that of the antipsoriatic drug anthralin. 2-Acetyl-8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (7), which was prepared in a four-step synthesis from 2,8-dihydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone, was the most potent inhibitor among the known lapacho-derived compounds and inhibited cell growth with an IC(50) value of 0.35 microM. Furthermore, other active constituents of lapacho inhibited keratinocyte growth, with IC(50) values in the range of 0.5-3.0 microM. However, as already observed with anthralin, treatment of HaCaT cells with these potent lapacho compounds also caused remarkable damage to the plasma membrane. This was documented by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, which significantly exceeded that of the vehicle control. Because of their potent activity against the growth of human keratinocytes, some lapacho-derived compounds appear to be promising as effective antipsoriatic agents.

  17. Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Neila C; de Rezende, Alexandre A A; da Silva, Regildo M G; Guterres, Zaira R; Graf, Ulrich; Kerr, Warwick E; Spanó, Mário A

    2009-04-01

    The wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Tabebuia impetiginosa. Lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of T. impetiginosa. These compounds have several biological properties. They induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (I and II) or inducing other enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. The SMART was used in the standard (ST) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (HB) version, which has a high constitutive level of CYP enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different T. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). It was observed that T. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. The negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (DXR). In co-treated series, T. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the HB cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on DXR genotoxity. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture.

  18. Synthesis of Fe3O4@SiO2@OSi(CH2)3NHRN(CH2PPh2)2PdCl2 type nanocomposite complexes: Highly efficient and magnetically-recoverable catalysts in vitamin K3 synthesis.

    PubMed

    Uruş, Serhan

    2016-12-15

    The synthesis of aminomethylphosphine-metal complexes have opened a new perspective to the catalytic applications of organic compounds. Magnetic Fe3O4 nano-core was synthesized using the closed quartz tube with Teflon cover and microwaved 200°C for 1h with power controlled instrument set to max. 600W. Novel nano-composite supported; Fe3O4@SiO2(CH2)3NHArN(CH2PPh2)2 and Fe3O4@SiO2(CH2)3N(CH2PPh2)2 type bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)amino ligands and their Pd(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized with FT-IR, SEM, EDX, TEM, UV-Visible, XRD and TG/DTA techniques. All the complexes were used as heterogeneous catalysts in the oxidation of 2-methyl naphthalene (2MN) to 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3, menadione, 2MNQ) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Selectivity reached about 55-60% with a conversion of 90-96% using the nano-magnetite supported aminomethylphosphine-Pd(II) complexes. The complexes were very active in three times in the catalytic recycling experiments in five catalytic cycles.

  19. New tissue schizontocidal antimalarial drugs

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, David E.; Ager, Arba L.; Brown, John L.; Chapple, Frank E.; Whitmire, Richard E.; Rossan, Richard N.

    1981-01-01

    Over 700 causal prophylactic and radical curative antimalarial drugs have been discovered during the screening of approximately 4000 chemical compounds in rodent and simian malaria models. Causal prophylactic activity in the Plasmodium berghei—rodent model was demonstrated by 10 distinct groups of chemicals: 1) tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase inhibitors, 2) naphthoquinones, 3) dihydroacridinediones, 4) tetrahydrofurans, 5) guanylhydrazones, 6) analogues of clopidol, 7) quinoline esters, 8) dibenzyltetrahydro-pyrimidines, 9) 6-aminoquinolines, 10) 8-aminoquinolines. Of the causal prophylactic compounds, only the 6- and 8-aminoquinolines were capable of curing persistent exoerythrocytic infections of P. cynomolgi in rhesus monkeys. The 6-aminoquinolines were substantially less active than primaquine. This report describes a series of 4-methyl-5-phenoxy-6-methoxy-8-aminoquinolines, which are potent blood schizontocides and radical curative drugs. The most active member of this series, 4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-6-methoxy-8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)| amino]quinoline succinate (WR 225448), was 5 times more active than primaquine in curing persistent exoerythrocytic infections of P. cynomolgi in rhesus monkeys. As a blood schizontocide, WR 225448 was effective in animal models against P. berghei, P. cynomolgi, P. vivax, and both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum. WR 225448 was also more toxic than primaquine in rats on subacute (28-day) administration. PMID:6976854

  20. Development of a functional assay to detect inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum glutathione reductase utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Lexi; Scheuermann, Alexis; Simithy, Johayra; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) like most other organisms, has a sophisticated antioxidant system, part of which includes glutathione reductase (GR). GR works by recycling toxic glutathione disulfide to glutathione, thereby reducing reactive oxygen species and making a form of glutathione (GSH) the parasite can use. Inhibition of this enzyme in Pf impedes parasite growth. In addition, it has been confirmed that PfGR is not identical to human GR. Thus, PfGR is an excellent target for antimalarial drug development. A functional assay utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to specifically identify and evaluate inhibitors of PfGR. Using recombinant PfGR enzyme and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1) as a reference compound and 4-nitrobenzothiadiazole (2) and methylene blue (3) as additional compounds, we quantified the concentration of GSH produced compared with a control to determine the inhibitory effect of these compounds. Our results coincide with that presented in literature: compounds 1-3 inhibit PfGR with IC50 values of 2.71, 8.38, and 19.23 µm, respectively. Good precision for this assay was exhibited by low values of intraday and interday coefficient of variation (3.1 and 2.4%, respectively). Thus, this assay can be used to screen for other potential inhibitors of PfGR quickly and accurately.

  1. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  2. Grafting of a peptide probe for Prostate-Specific Antigen detection using diazonium electroreduction and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Strzemińska, I; Sainte Rose Fanchine, S; Anquetin, G; Reisberg, S; Noël, V; Pham, M C; Piro, B

    2016-07-15

    The main objective of this work was to validate a label-free electrochemical method of protein detection using peptides as capture probes. As a proof-of-concept, we used a 7 amino acids sequence (HSSKLQL) specific for Prostate Specific Antigen. We investigated various electrografting conditions of two anilines (2-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfanyl]-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 4-azidoaniline) further converted in situ into their corresponding diazonium salts on glassy carbon electrodes. It was demonstrated that the best method to obtain a mixed layer is the simultaneous electroreduction of the two diazonium salts. 4-azidoaniline was used to covalently immobilize the ethynyl-functionalized peptide probe by click coupling, and the hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative plays the role of electrochemical transducer of the peptide-protein recognition. The proteolytic activity of PSA towards a small peptide substrate carrying streptavidin at its distal end was also investigated to design an original sensing architecture leading to a reagentless, label free, and "signal-on" PSA sensor. Without optimization, the limit of quantification can be estimated in the nM to pM range.

  3. Identification of β-Lapachone Analogs as Novel MALT1 Inhibitors To Treat an Aggressive Subtype of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Min; Jeong, Yujeong; Lee, Suhyun; Im, Honggu; Tae, Hyun Seop; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Hee Dong; Park, Jonghoon; Hong, Sungwoo

    2015-11-12

    The treatment of activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) is one of the urgent unmet medical needs because it is the most resistant DLBCL subtype to current therapies eagerly awaiting effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, the paracaspase MALT1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. Herein, we report a new class of MALT1 inhibitors developed by high-throughput screening and structure-based drug design. The original hit, 4-amino-1,2-naphthoquinone series inhibited MALT1 activity but suffered from poor cellular activity. The extensive pharmacophore search led to the discovery of structurally similar β-lapachone that is a direct inhibitor of MALT1 and possesses favorable physicochemical properties. Molecular simulation studies suggested the possibility of the formation of a covalent bond between MALT1 and β-lapachone, which was corroborated by experimental wash-out studies. Inspired by this, we explored the structure-activity relationships by incorporating electron-withdrawing substituents at C8 position of β-lapachone. These MALT1 inhibitors exhibited potent antiproliferative activity to OCI-LY3 cell line and inhibited the cleavage of CYLD mediated MALT1.

  4. Nepenthes insignis uses a C2-portion of the carbon skeleton of L-alanine acquired via its carnivorous organs, to build up the allelochemical plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Hamm, Andreas; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2002-03-01

    Tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes) catch animals in their specialized cup-shaped leaves, digest the prey by secreting enzymes, and actively take up the resulting compounds. The benefit of this behaviour is the ability to grow and compete in nutrient-poor habitats. Our present in vitro study shows that not only the nitrogen of alanine fed to the carnivorous organs is used by the plant but that in addition intact C2-units derived from C-2 and C-3 of stable isotope labelled L-alanine serve as building blocks, here exemplarily for the synthesis of the secondary metabolite plumbagin, a potent allelochemical. This result adds a new facet to the benefit of carnivory for plants. The availability of plumbagin by a de novo synthesis probably enhances the plants' fitness in their defence against phytophagous and pathogenic organisms. A missing specific uptake or CoA activation mechanism might be the reason that acetate fed to the pitchers was not incorporated into the naphthoquinone plumbagin. The dihydronaphthoquinone glucosides rossoliside and plumbaside A, here isolated for the first time from Nepenthes, by contrast, showed no incorporation after feeding of any of the two precursors, suggesting these compounds to be storage forms with probably very low turnover rates.

  5. Electrochemical study of quinone redox cycling: A novel application of DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Jamei, Hamid Reza; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of voltammetric and impedimetric DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biological and chemical redox cycling reactions involving free radical intermediates. The concept is based on associating the amounts of radicals generated with the electrochemical signals produced, using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly-diallydimethlammonium chloride decorated with double stranded fish sperm DNA was prepared to detect DNA damage induced by the radicals generated from a redox cycling quinone (i.e., menadione (MD; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)). Menadione was employed as a model compound to study the redox cycling of quinones. A direct relationship was found between free radical production and DNA damage. The relationship between MD-induced DNA damage and free radical generation was investigated in an attempt to identify the possible mechanism(s) involved in the action of MD. Results showed that DPV and EIS were appropriate, simple and inexpensive techniques for the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of different reducing reagents. These techniques may be recommended for monitoring DNA damages and investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of redox cycling compounds.

  6. Plumbagin alters telomere dynamics, induces DNA damage and cell death in human brain tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Aik Kia; Sameni, Safoura; Venkatesan, Shriram; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Hande, M Prakash

    2015-11-01

    Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, followed by suppression of the colony forming ability of the brain tumour cells. These effects were substantiated by upregulation of PTEN, TNFRSF1A and downregulation of E2F1 genes, along with a drop in MDM2, cyclin B1, survivin and BCL2 protein expression. Plumbagin induced elevated levels of caspase-3/7 activity as well. For the first time, we show here that plumbagin inhibits telomerase in brain tumour cells and results in telomere shortening following chronic long-term treatment. This observation implies considerable cytotoxicity of plumbagin towards cancer cells with higher telomerase activity. Collectively, our findings suggest plumbagin as a potential chemotherapeutic phytochemical in brain tumour treatment modalities.

  7. CRM1 is a direct cellular target of the natural anti-cancer agent plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejiao; Niu, Mingshan; Xu, Xiaoyu; Cai, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Zhou, Xiuping; Yu, Rutong; Xu, Kailin

    2014-01-01

    Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, has been shown to exert anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in vitro as well as in animal tumor models. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-tumor action still remains unclear. CRM1 is a nuclear export receptor involved in the active transport of tumor suppressors whose function is altered in cancer due to increased expression and overactive transport. We showed that CRM1 is a direct cellular target of plumbagin. The nuclei of cells incubated with plumbagin accumulated tumor-suppressor proteins and inhibited the interactions between CRM1 and these proteins. Particularly, we demonstrated that plumbagin could specifically react with the conserved Cys(528) of CRM1 but not with a Cys(528) mutant peptide through Mass spectrometric analysis. More importantly, cancer cells that are transfected with mutant CRM1 (C528S) are resistant to the inhibitory effects of plumbagin, demonstrating that the inhibition is through direct interaction with Cys(528) of CRM1. The inhibition of nuclear traffic by plumbagin may account for its therapeutic properties in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Our findings could contribute to the development of a new class of CRM1 inhibitors.

  8. Fetal growth in rats treated with lapachol.

    PubMed

    Felício, André Carvalho; Chang, Cláudia Veiga; Brandão, Marcos Antônio; Peters, Vera Maria; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Lapachol is a naphthoquinone well known for its therapeutic potential. Previous studies have shown that lapachol does not interfere with embryonic development during the pre-implantation period. However, when administered during the organogenic period at the same dose level, it induces a high fetal death incidence. To evaluate the effect of lapachol during fetogenesis, 20 pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: vehicle (10 mL of a 50% aqueous ethanol solution/kg body weight) and treated (100 mg of lapachol/kg body weight). Lapachol was administered from the 17th to 20th day of pregnancy. The following variables were analyzed: maternal body weight from 16th to 21st day of pregnancy, food intake from 17th to 21st day of pregnancy, clinical signs of physical discomfort, ovarian weights, implantations, resorptions and mortality indices, fetal and placenta weights, external malformations, and fetal organ weights. Results indicated that lapachol was not toxic to mothers, although it was fetotoxic leading to fetal growth retardation.

  9. Carvacrol and rosemary essential oil manifest cytotoxic, DNA-protective and pro-apoptotic effect having no effect on DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Melusova, M; Slamenova, D; Kozics, K; Jantova, S; Horvathova, E

    2014-01-01

    For several thousand years natural products were successfully used to treat a variety of diseases and to maintain health in humans, but until now it is not fully known what causes these medicinal effects. In our study we assessed the cytotoxic, DNA-protective and pro-apoptotic effect of two frequently occurring natural compounds, carvacrol and rosemary essential oil, on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition we examined the in vitro incision repair activity of liver cell extracts prepared from hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed with water containing carvacrol or rosemary oil. Using conventional and modified single cell gel electrophoresis we proved that incubation of HepG2 cells with selected concentrations of carvacrol and rosemary oil significantly protected cellular DNA against two dangerous oxidative agents, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). It is interesting that despite this DNA protection, the addition of both volatiles to the drinking water of SD rats had no effect on incision repair capacity of hepatocyte extracts. In this paper we also showed that carvacrol and rosemary oil can trigger apoptotic cell death pathways in HepG2 cells, which is probably connected with their cytotoxicity.

  10. Menadione-induced cytotoxicity effects on human erythrocyte membranes studied by electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Trad, C H; Butterfield, D A

    1994-08-01

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is cytotoxic to hepatocytes. In order to begin to investigate the changes in the physical state of membranes induced by this cytotoxic substance, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling techniques were used in conjunction with spin labels specific for cytoskeletal proteins, bilayer lipids, or cell-surface sialic acid or galactose to investigate erythrocyte membranes. We studied the molecular effects of oxidation of 200 microM menadione on the different membrane domains. The major findings are: (1) menadione increases protein-protein interactions (P < 0.001) of cytoskeletal proteins, (2) there is a slightly significant increase in the rotational motion of spin-labeled sialic acid (P < 0.05), while (3) the physical state of galactose residues was unaffected by menadione. Since glycophorin is coupled to the major cytoskeletal protein, spectrin, by protein 4.1, we suggest that menadione-induced oxidation could alter the conformation of protein 4.1. As a consequence, single or multiple sites of weakness could be induced leading to the alteration of the interactions of the cytoskeletal network and its anchoring domains in the membrane. These results are discussed with reference to possible mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic action of menadione.

  11. Predictive modeling targets thymidylate synthase ThyX in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Djaout, Kamel; Singh, Vinayak; Boum, Yap; Katawera, Victoria; Becker, Hubert F.; Bush, Natassja G.; Hearnshaw, Stephen J.; Pritchard, Jennifer E.; Bourbon, Pauline; Madrid, Peter B.; Maxwell, Anthony; Mizrahi, Valerie; Myllykallio, Hannu; Ekins, Sean

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for tuberculosis (TB), a major infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which results in 1.5 million deaths each year. We have targeted two essential enzymes in this organism that are promising for antibacterial therapy and reported to be inhibited by naphthoquinones. ThyX is an essential thymidylate synthase that is mechanistically and structurally unrelated to the human enzyme. DNA gyrase is a DNA topoisomerase present in bacteria and plants but not animals. The current study set out to understand the structure-activity relationships of these targets in Mtb using a combination of cheminformatics and in vitro screening. Here, we report the identification of new Mtb ThyX inhibitors, 2-chloro-3-(4-methanesulfonylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione) and idebenone, which show modest whole-cell activity and appear to act, at least in part, by targeting ThyX in Mtb. PMID:27283217

  12. Environmental photochemistry on semiconductor surfaces: Photosensitized degradation of a textile azo dye, Acid Orange 7, on TiO{sub 2} particles using visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodgopal, K.; Wynkoop, D.E.; Kamat, P.V.

    1996-05-01

    Photosensitized degradation of a textile azo dye, Acid Orange 7, has been carried out on TiO{sub 2} particles using visible light. Mechanistic details of the dye degradation have been elucidated using diffuse reflectance absorption and FTIR techniques. Degradation does not occur on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface or in the absence of oxygen. The dependence of the dye degradation rate on the surface coverage shows the participation of excited dye and TiO{sub 2} semiconductor in the surface photochemical process. Diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis confirms the charge injection from the excited dye molecule into the conduction band of the semiconductor as the primary mechanism for producing oxidized dye radical. The surface-adsorbed oxygen plays an important role in scavenging photogenerated electrons, thus preventing the recombination between the oxidized dye radical and the photoinjected electrons. Diffuse reflectance FTIR was used to make a tentative identification of reaction intermediates and end products of dye degradation. The intermediates, 1,2-naphthoquinone and phthalic acid, have been identified during the course of degradation. Though less explored in photocatalysis, the photosensitization approach could be an excellent choice for the degradation of colored pollutants using visible light. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Biodegradation of the textile dye Mordant Black 17 (Calcon) by Moraxella osloensis isolated from textile effluent-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Karunya, A; Rose, C; Valli Nachiyar, C

    2014-03-01

    The bacterium with dye degrading ability was isolated from effluent disposal sites of textile industries, Tirupur and was identified as Moraxella osloensis based on the biochemical and morphological characterization as well as 16S rRNA sequencing. This organism was found to decolorize 87 % of Mordant Black 17 at 100 mg l⁻¹ under shake culture condition compared to 92 % under stationary culture condition. Maximum degradation of the dye by M. osloensis was achieved when the mineral salt medium was supplemented with 0.5 % glucose and 0.1 % ammonium nitrate at 35 °C. Degradation of dye was found to follow first order kinetics with the k value of 0.06282 h⁻¹ and a R² value of 0.955. Analyses for the identification of intermediate compounds confirmed the presence of naphthalene, naphthol, naphthoquinone, salicylic acid and catechol. Based on this finding a probable pathway for the degradation of Mordant Black 17 by M. osloensis has been proposed.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Shikonin on Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium in Balb/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Miguel Cerdá, José; Recio, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-κB was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-κB and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23346196

  15. Determination of vitamin K homologues by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line photoreactor and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sameh; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2007-05-22

    A sensitive and highly selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of vitamin K homologues including phylloquinone (PK), menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) in human plasma using post-column peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection following on-line ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The method was based on ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm, 15 W) of vitamin K to produce hydrogen peroxide and a fluorescent product at the same time, which can be determined with PO-CL detection. The separation of vitamin K by HPLC was accomplished isocratically on an ODS column within 35 min. The method involves the use of 2-methyl-3-pentadecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone as an internal standard. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were 32, 38 and 85 fmol for PK, MK-4 and MK-7, respectively. The recoveries of PK, MK-4 and MK-7 were greater than 82% and the inter- and intra-assay R.S.D. values were 1.9-5.4%. The sensitivity and selectivity of this method were sufficient for clinical and nutritional applications.

  16. Antiallergic effects of pigments isolated from green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells.

    PubMed

    Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarova, Marina N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Kosman, Vera M; Makarov, Valery G; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, Karel; Otyepka, Michal; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate possible antiallergic effects of an extract of pigments from green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Effects were studied on animal models - guinea pig ileum contraction, rabbit eyes allergic conjunctivitis, and rabbit local skin irritation. The extract significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the histamine-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum with ID50 =1.2 µg/mL (in equivalents of spinochrome B), had an inhibitory effect on the model of ocular allergic inflammation surpassing the reference drug olopatadine, and did not show any irritating effect in rabbits. The extract predominantly contained polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone which would be responsible for the pharmacological activity. The active compounds of the extract were evaluated in silico with molecular docking. Molecular docking into H1R receptor structures obtained from molecular dynamic simulations showed that all spinochrome derivatives bind to the receptor active site, but spinochrome monomers fit better to it. The results of the present study suggest possibilities for the development of new agents for treating allergic diseases on the base of pigments from sea urchins shells.

  17. Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Tabebuia impetiginosa. Lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of T. impetiginosa. These compounds have several biological properties. They induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (I and II) or inducing other enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. The SMART was used in the standard (ST) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (HB) version, which has a high constitutive level of CYP enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different T. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). It was observed that T. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. The negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (DXR). In co-treated series, T. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the HB cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on DXR genotoxity. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture. PMID:21637695

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Juglone against Staphylococcus aureus: From Apparent to Proteomic

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayi; Cheng, Yuhuan; Wu, Rina; Jiang, Donghua; Bai, Bing; Tan, Dehong; Yan, Tingcai; Sun, Xiyun; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foodborne disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms is rising worldwide, with staphylococcal food poisoning being one of the main causes of this increase. Juglone is a plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone with confirmed antibacterial and antitumor activities. However, the specific mechanism underlying its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism underlying its antibacterial activity, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation methods of quantitative proteomics were applied for analysis of the 53 proteins that were differentially expressed after treatment with juglone. Combined with verification experiments, such as detection of changes in DNA and RNA content and quantification of oxidative damage, our results suggested that juglone effectively increased the protein expression of oxidoreductase and created a peroxidative environment within the cell, significantly reducing cell wall formation and increasing membrane permeability. We hypothesize that juglone binds to DNA and reduces DNA transcription and replication directly. This is the first study to adopt a proteomic approach to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of juglone. PMID:27322260

  19. Microbial fuel cell using anaerobic respiration as an anodic reaction and biomineralized manganese as a cathodic reactant.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Allison; Beyenal, Haluk; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2005-06-15

    We have operated a microbial fuel cell in which glucose was oxidized by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the anodic compartment, and biomineralized manganese oxides, deposited by Leptothrix discophora, were electrochemically reduced in the cathodic compartment. In the anodic compartment, to facilitate the electron transfer from glucose to the graphite electrode, we added a redox mediator, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. We did not add any redox mediator to the cathodic compartment because the biomineralized manganese oxides were deposited on the surface of a graphite electrode and were reduced directly by electrons from the electrode. We have demonstrated that biomineralized manganese oxides are superiorto oxygen when used as cathodic reactants in microbial fuel cells. The current density delivered by using biomineralized manganese oxides as the cathodic reactant was almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than that delivered using oxygen. Several fuel cells were operated for 500 h, reaching anodic potentials of -441.5 +/- 31 mVscE and cathodic potentials of +384.5 +/- 64 mVscE. When the electrodes were connected by a 50 Ohms resistor, the fuel cell delivered the peak power density of 126.7 +/- 31.5 mW/m2.

  20. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation.

  1. Structural studies of the Trypanosoma cruzi Old Yellow Enzyme: insights into enzyme dynamics and specificity.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Mário T; Rodrigues, Nathalia C; Gava, Lisandra M; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Canduri, Fernanda; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Oliva, Glaucius; Borges, Júlio C

    2013-12-31

    The flavoprotein old yellow enzyme of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOYE) is an oxidoreductase that uses NAD(P)H as cofactor. This enzyme is clinically relevant due to its role in the action mechanism of some trypanocidal drugs used in the treatment of Chagas' disease by producing reactive oxygen species. In this work, the recombinant enzyme TcOYE was produced and collectively, X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and molecular dynamics provided a detailed description of its structure, specificity and hydrodynamic behavior. The crystallographic structure at 1.27Å showed a classical (α/β)8 fold with the FMN prosthetic group buried at the positively-charged active-site cleft. In solution, TcOYE behaved as a globular monomer, but it exhibited a molecular envelope larger than that observed in the crystal structure, suggesting intrinsic protein flexibility. Moreover, the binding mode of β-lapachone, a trypanocidal agent, and other naphthoquinones was investigated by molecular docking and dynamics suggesting that their binding to TcOYE are stabilized mainly by interactions with the isoalloxazine ring from FMN and residues from the active-site pocket.

  2. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  3. The first naphthosemiquinone complex of K+ with vitamin K3 analog: Experiment and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Yeole, Sachin D.; Verma, Prakash L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis and characterization of potassium complex of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (phthiocol), the vitamin K3 analog, has been carried out using FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, EPR, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments combined with the density functional theory. It has been observed that naphthosemiquinone binds to two K+ ions extending the polymeric chain through bridging oxygens O(2) and O(3). The crystal network possesses hydrogen bonding interactions from coordinated water molecules showing water channels along the c-axis. 13C NMR spectra revealed that the complexation of phthiocol with potassium ion engenders deshielding of C(2) signals, which appear at δ = ∼14.6 ppm whereas those of C(3) exhibit up-field signals near δ ∼ 6.9 ppm. These inferences are supported by the M06-2x based density functional theory. Electrochemical experiments further suggest that reduction of naphthosemiquinone results in only a cathodic peak from catechol. A triplet state arising from interactions between neighboring phthiocol anion lead to a half field signal at g = 4.1 in the polycrystalline X-band EPR spectra at 133 K.

  4. Activation of transcription factors in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to aqueous extracts of mainstream cigarette smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Hirata, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiki; Fukano, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most sensitive transcription factor activated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and to explore cigarette smoke components that have high biological activities in a cell-base assay. Previously, we found evidence that implicated 10 different transcription factors as having a high biological activity to CSE in vitro, based on the results of a comprehensive gene expression profile. For this study, luciferase reporter assays for each transcription factor were developed in two types of human bronchial epithelial cells: NCI-H292 and BEAS-2B cells. The results demonstrated that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway was the most sensitive in response to CSE. Consistently, hemo oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of NRF2, was effectively up-regulated in BEAS-2B cells exposed to CSE. Moreover, among 1395 cigarette smoke components, naphthoquinones including 9,10-phenaotrenquinone, quinones, benzenediols and α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, were identified as major smoke components that contribute to activating the NRF2/ARE pathway, as indicated by the ARE-reporter assay in BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, NRF2 appears to be a key molecule in the CSE-induced cellular response, and the employed methodology is helpful for the analysis of molecular and cellular effects by CSE.

  5. Sub-toxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds inhibit extracellular respiration of Escherichia coli cells grown in anodic bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Mohidin, Abeed Fatima; Grasso, Letizia Lo; Seviour, Thomas; Palanisamy, Kannan; Hinks, Jamie; Lauro, Federico M; Marsili, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost and rapid detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is important for the control of water quality of used water and protection of downstream used water treatment processes. In this work, the effect of sub-toxic concentration of VOCs on the current output of Escherichia coli in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) is shown, in light of environmental sensing applications for sewage and used water networks. E. coli cells were grown on carbon felt electrodes in artificial used water, to increase sensitivity and decrease response time for detection. Extracellular electron transfer was promoted by the addition of a biocompatible redox mediator, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ). Among the eight VOCs investigated, toluene is the most toxic to E. coli, with a detection limit of 50±2mgL(-1) and current output of 32±1nAmg(-1)L(-1). This work offers a straightforward route to enhance the detection of organic contaminants in used water for environmental applications.

  6. Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kozics, Katarína; Klusová, Veronika; Srančíková, Annamária; Mučaji, Pavol; Slameňová, Darina; Hunáková, Lubica; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Horváthová, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Salvia officinalis (SO) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) are medicinal plants well known for their curative powers. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities of sage and thyme have not been fully understood yet. In this study we investigated the composition and the quantitative estimation of plant extracts, the protective effects of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide- and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-induced DNA damage, and levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) in human HepG2 cells. To measure antioxidative activity of plant extracts we used three assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The results showed that the oxidant-induced DNA lesions were significantly reduced in cells pre-treated with the plant extracts studied. The observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both elevation of GPx activity in cells pre-treated with SO and TV and antioxidant activity of SO and TV.

  7. Phytochemistry of the carnivorous sundew genus Drosera (Droseraceae) - future perspectives and ethnopharmacological relevance.

    PubMed

    Egan, Paul A; van der Kooy, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Species of the carnivorous genus Drosera L. have long been a source of valuable natural products. The various phytochemicals characteristic of these species, particularly 1,4-naphthoquinones and flavonoids, have contributed to the diverse utilization of sundews in traditional medicine systems worldwide. A growing number of studies have sought to investigate the comparative phytochemistry of Drosera species for improved sources of pharmaceutically important compounds. The outcomes of these studies are here collated, with emergent trends discussed in detail. Important factors which affect production of secondary metabolites in plants are critically examined, such as environmental influences and in vitro culture, and recommendations subsequently presented based on this. Explicitly, the current review aims to i) present an updated, comprehensive listing of the phytochemical constituents of the genus (including quantitative data where available), ii) summarize important factors which may influence the production of phytopharmaceuticals in plants, and iii) recommend guidelines for future research based on the above, including improved standardization and quality control. We have also included a section discussing future perspectives of research on Drosera spp. based on three different research lines i) the potential to produce much needed lead compounds for treatment of tuberculosis, ii) the potential role of anthocyanins in nitrogen transport, and iii) research into 'Natural Deep Eutectic' solvents produced by Drosera spp. in the droplets or 'dew' employed to capture insect prey.

  8. Plumbagin induces apoptosis via the p53 pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linqiang; Yin, Delong; Ren, Ye; Gong, Chen; Chen, Anmin; Guo, Feng-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents. A number of studies have indicated that plumbagin (PL) (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone), a compound found in the plants of the Plumbaginaceae and Droseraceae families, possesses anticancer activity. However, its anticancer effects and mechanisms against osteosarcoma have not been explored. To determine the anticancer effect of PL on osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U2OS, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured, and Western blot analyses were performed. PL significantly inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma cells, particularly U2OS cells. PL up-regulated the expression of p53 in U2OS cells and p21 in the two osteosarcoma cell lines causing cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2)/cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, PL altered the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and may have triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, resulting in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. We also found that PL induced the generation of ROS in osteosarcoma cell lines. To conclude, PL exerted anticancer activity on osteosarcoma cells by inducing pro-apoptotic signaling and modulating the intracellular ROS that causes induction of apoptosis. These effects may relate to the p53 status.

  9. Plumbagin suppresses dendritic cell functions and alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Ge, Zhenzhen; Da, Yurong; Wang, Dong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Huan; Peng, Meiyu; Hao, Junwei; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-08-15

    Plumbagin (PL, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a herbal compound derived from medicinal plants of the Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Dioncophyllaceae, and Ancistrocladaceae families. Reports have shown that PL exerts immunomodulatory activity and may be a novel drug candidate for immune-related disease therapy. However, its effects on dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that PL inhibits the differentiation, maturation, and function of human monocyte-derived DCs. PL can also restrict the expression of Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines in mDC. In addition, PL suppresses DCs both in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by its effects on the mouse DC line DC2.4 and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), respectively. Notably, PL ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE, including central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. Our results demonstrate the immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of PL via its effects on DCs and suggest that PL could be a potential treatment for DC-related autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Plumbagin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth through the Ras signalling pathway following activation of the VEGF receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li; Liu, Junchen; Zhai, Dong; Lin, Qingxiang; He, Lijun; Dong, Yanmin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Binbin; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects. PMID:21658027

  11. Electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton degradations of the drug beta-blocker propranolol using a Pt anode: identification and evolution of oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Isarain-Chávez, Eloy; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric

    2011-01-30

    The beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride has been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using a single cell with a Pt anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H(2)O(2) electrogeneration and a combined system containing the above Pt/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon-felt (CF) cell. Organics are mainly oxidized with hydroxyl radical (OH) formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and electrogenerated H(2)O(2). The PEF treatment in Pt/ADE-Pt/CF system yields almost total mineralization because OH production is enhanced by Fe(2+) regeneration from Fe(3+) reduction at the CF cathode and Fe(III) complexes with generated carboxylic acids are rapidly photodecarboxylated under UVA irradiation. Lower mineralization degree is found for PEF in Pt/ADE cell due to the little influence of UVA light on Fe(2+) regeneration. The homologous EF processes are much less potent as a result of the persistence of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthoquinone and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as pyruvic, glycolic, malonic, maleic, oxamic, oxalic and formic are identified. While chloride ion remains stable, NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) ions are released to the medium. A reaction sequence for propranolol hydrochloride mineralization is proposed.

  12. Chlorine dioxide-facilitated oxidation of the azo dye amaranth.

    PubMed

    Nadupalli, S; Koorbanally, N; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2011-10-27

    The oxidation reaction of amaranth (trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate or AM(-)) by chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in aqueous conditions was investigated in detail. The major reaction products immediately after decolorization of AM(-) were 1,2-naphthoquinone disulfonate sodium salt and 1,4-napthalenedione. The reaction had first-order dependence on both AM(-) and ClO(2). The rate-limiting step involved the reaction between AM(-) and OH(-) ions. The role of hydroxide ion as a catalyst was established. The second-order rate constant increased with pH, from (19.8 ± 0.9) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, (97.1 ± 2.3) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 8.0 to (132.5 ± 2.8) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.0. In the pH range of 6.0-7.5, the catalytic constant for OH(-) ion was 4.0 × 10(9) M(-2) s(-1). The energy and entropy of activation values for the reaction were 50.0 kJ mol(-1) and -658.7 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. A probable reaction mechanism was elucidated and was validated by simulations.

  13. Conjugated polymer and drug co-encapsulated nanoparticles for Chemo- and Photo-thermal Combination Therapy with two-photon regulated fast drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Youyong; Wang, Zuyong; Cai, Pingqiang; Liu, Jie; Liao, Lun-De; Hong, Minghui; Chen, Xiaodong; Thakor, Nitish; Liu, Bin

    2015-02-01

    The spatial-temporal synchronization of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy is highly desirable for an efficient cancer treatment with synergistic effect. Herein, we developed a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) and photothermal conjugated polymer (CP) co-loaded nanoplatform using a near-infrared (NIR) laser responsive amphiphilic brush copolymer as the encapsulation matrix. The obtained nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit good monodispersity and excellent stability, which can efficiently convert laser energy into thermal energy for photothermal therapy. Moreover, the hydrophobic polymer matrix bearing a number of 2-diazo-1,2-naphthoquinones (DNQ) moieties could be transformed to a hydrophilic one upon NIR two-photon laser irradiation, which leads to fast drug release. Furthermore, the surface modification of the NPs with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) tripeptide significantly enhances the accumulation of the NPs within integrin αvβ3 overexpressed cancer cells. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the combination therapy is 13.7 μg mL-1, while the IC50 for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy alone is 147.8 μg mL-1 and 36.2 μg mL-1, respectively. The combination index (C.I.) is 0.48 (<1), which indicates the synergistic effect for chemotherapy and PTT. These findings provide an excellent NIR laser regulated nanoplatform for combined cancer treatment with synergistic effect due to the synchronous chemo- and photo-thermal therapy.

  14. Characterization of Shikonin Derivative Secretion in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Hairy Roots as a Model of Lipid-Soluble Metabolite Secretion from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Kanade; Yano, Mariko; Kaminade, Kenta; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Aoyama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L. erythrorhizon, the 0 to 100% inducibility of their production, the light-specific inhibition of production, and the visibility of these products as red pigments. To date, many factors regulating shikonin biosynthesis have been identified, but no mechanism that regulates shikonin secretion without inhibiting biosynthesis has been detected. This study showed that inhibitors of membrane traffic strongly inhibit shikonin secretion without inhibiting shikonin production, suggesting that the secretion of shikonin derivatives into the apoplast utilizes pathways common to the ADP-ribosylation factor/guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF/GEF) system and actin filament polymerization, at least in part. These findings provide clues about the machinery involved in secreting lipid-soluble metabolites from cells. PMID:27507975

  15. Oxygen-Insensitive Nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB of Escherichia coli Function under Anaerobic Conditions as Lawsone-Dependent Azo Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Jörg; Stolz, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Quinones can function as redox mediators in the unspecific anaerobic reduction of azo compounds by various bacterial species. These quinones are enzymatically reduced by the bacteria and the resulting hydroquinones then reduce in a purely chemical redox reaction the azo compounds outside of the cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the addition of lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) to anaerobically incubated cells of Escherichia coli resulted in a pronounced increase in the reduction rates of different sulfonated and polymeric azo compounds. In the present study it was attempted to identify the enzyme system(s) responsible for the reduction of lawsone by E. coli and thus for the lawsone-dependent anaerobic azo reductase activity. An NADH-dependent lawsone reductase activity was found in the cytosolic fraction of the cells. The enzyme was purified by column chromatography and the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was determined. The sequence obtained was identical to the sequence of an oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (NfsB) described earlier from this organism. Subsequent biochemical tests with the purified lawsone reductase activity confirmed that the lawsone reductase activity detected was identical with NfsB. In addition it was proven that also a second oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of E. coli (NfsA) is able to reduce lawsone and thus to function under adequate conditions as quinone-dependent azo reductase. PMID:12788749

  16. Effects of different quinoid redox mediators on the anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rau, Jorg; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim; Stolz, Andreas

    2002-04-01

    The addition of quinoid redox mediators to anaerobically incubated cultures of various taxonomically different bacterial species resulted in significantly increased reduction rates for the azo dye amaranth. From different quinones tested, generally anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) caused the highest increase in the azoreductase activities. The effects of AQS and lawsone were studied in greater detail with Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6 and Escherichia coli K12. Both strains reduced the quinones under anaerobic conditions with significantly different relative activities. The chemically reduced forms of AQS, lawsone, and different other quinones were assayed for their ability to decolorize amaranth, and a good correlation between the redox potentials of the quinones and the reduction rates of the azo dyes was observed. The addition of AQS or lawsone also increased the ability of unacclimated sewage sludge to reduce azo dyes. Chemically pure lawsone could be replaced by the powdered leaves of the henna plant which contain significant amounts of lawsone.

  17. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS

  18. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures

  19. Conformation-dependent stability of junctophilin 1 (JP1) and ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) channel complex is mediated by their hyper-reactive thiols.

    PubMed

    Phimister, Andrew J; Lango, Jozsef; Lee, Eun Hui; Ernst-Russell, Michael A; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie; Allen, Paul D; Pessah, Isaac N

    2007-03-23

    Junctophilin 1 (JP1), a 72-kDa protein localized at the skeletal muscle triad, is essential for stabilizing the close apposition of T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes to form junctions. In this study we report that rapid and selective labeling of hyper-reactive thiols found in both JP1 and ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) with 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin, a fluorescent thiol-reactive probe, proceeded 12-fold faster under conditions that minimize RyR1 gating (e.g. 10 mM Mg2+) compared with conditions that promote high channel activity (e.g. 100 microM Ca2+, 10 mM caffeine, 5 mM ATP). The reactivity of these thiol groups was very sensitive to oxidation by naphthoquinone, H2O2, NO, or O2, all known modulators of the RyR1 channel complex. Using preparative SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, high pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing, we identified 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin-thioether adducts on three cysteine residues of JP1 (101, 402, and 627); the remaining five cysteines of JP1 were unlabeled. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a physical interaction between JP1 and RyR1 that, like thiol reactivity, was sensitive to RyR1 conformation and chemical status of the hyper-reactive cysteines of JP1 and RyR1. These findings support a model in which JP1 interacts with the RyR1 channel complex in a conformationally sensitive manner and may contribute integral redox-sensing properties through reactive sulfhydryl chemistry.

  20. Astatine-211-labeled radiotherapeutics: an emerging approach to targeted alpha-particle radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Vaidyanathan, G

    2000-09-01

    Targeted radiotherapy or endoradiotherapy is an appealing approach to cancer treatment because of the potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to tumor while sparing normal tissues. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of alpha-particles such as the heavy halogen astatine-211 (211At) offer the exciting prospect of combining cell-specific molecular targets with radiation having a range in tissue of only a few cell diameters. Herein, the radiobiological advantages of alpha-particle targeted radiotherapy will be reviewed, and the rationale for using 211At for this purpose will be described. The chemistry of astatine is similar to that of iodine; however, there are important differences which make the synthesis and evaluation of 211At-labeled compounds more challenging. Perhaps the most successful approach that has been developed involves the astatodemetallation of tin, silicon or mercury precursors. Astatine-211 labeled agents that have been investigated for targeted radiotherapy include [211At]astatide, 211At- labeled particulates, 211At-labeled naphthoquinone derivatives, 211At-labeled methylene blue, 211At-labeled DNA precursors, meta-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine, 211At-labeled biotin conjugates, 211At-labeled bisphosphonates, and 211At-labeled antibodies and antibody fragments. The status of these 211At-labeled compounds will be discussed in terms of their labeling chemistry, cytotoxicity in cell culture, as well as their tissue distribution and therapeutic efficacy in animal models of human cancers. Finally, an update on the status of the first clinical trial with an 211At-labeled targeted therapeutic, 211At-labeled chimeric anti-tenascin antibody 81C6, will be provided.

  1. Plumbagin inhibits invasion and migration of breast and gastric cancer cells by downregulating the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12 is critical in the process of metastasis that accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel agents that can downregulate the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have therapeutic potential in inhibiting cancer metastasis. Methods In this report, we investigated the potential of an agent, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone), for its ability to modulate CXCR4 expression and function in various tumor cells using Western blot analysis, DNA binding assay, transient transfection, real time PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and cellular migration and invasion assays. Results We found that plumbagin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells irrespective of their HER2 status. The decrease in CXCR4 expression induced by plumbagin was not cell type-specific as the inhibition also occurred in gastric, lung, renal, oral, and hepatocellular tumor cell lines. Neither proteasome inhibition nor lysosomal stabilization had any effect on plumbagin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. Detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) revealed that the regulation of the downregulation of CXCR4 was at the transcriptional level, as indicated by downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and suppression of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. In addition, using a virtual, predictive, functional proteomics-based tumor pathway platform, we tested the hypothesis that NF-κB inhibition by plumbagin causes the decrease in CXCR4 and other metastatic genes. Suppression of CXCR4 expression by plumbagin was found to correlate with the inhibition of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion of both breast and gastric cancer cells. Conclusions Overall, our results indicate, for the first time, that plumbagin is a novel blocker of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential to suppress metastasis of

  2. Plumbagin Suppresses the Invasion of HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of IKKα-Mediated NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawiak, Anna; Domachowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    HER2-overexpressing breast cancers account for about 30% of breast cancer occurrences and have been correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and invasiveness. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is overexpressed in a subset of HER2-positive breast cancers and its upregulation has been associated with the metastatic potential of HER2-overexpressing tumors. The present study aimed at determining the potential of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, to inhibit the invasion of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and determine the involvement of NF-κB inhibition in plumbagin-mediated cell invasion suppression. In the present research we showed that plumbagin inhibited the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The suppression of NF-κB activation corresponded with the inhibition of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and downregulation of NF-κB-regulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Plumbagin suppressed the invasion of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and the inhibition of cell invasion was associated with the ability of plumbagin to inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity. The silencing of NF-κB p65 increased the sensitivity of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells to plumbagin-induced cell invasion inhibition. NF-κB inhibition was associated with IκB kinase α (IKKα) activity suppression and inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. The knockdown of IKKα resulted in increased sensitivity of HER2-positive cells to plumbagin-induced suppression of NF-κB transcriptional activity and expression of MMP-9. In conclusion, plumbagin inhibits the invasion of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through the inhibition of IKKα-mediated NF-κB activation and downregulation of NF-κB-regulated MMP-9 expression. PMID:27727280

  3. [Intratumoral administration of biological preparations--recommendation for integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Ebina, T

    2001-10-01

    The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese.

  4. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  5. Epidemiological observations on theileriosis following field immunisation using infection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mutugi, J J; Young, A S; Kariuki, D P; Tameno, J M; Morzaria, S P

    1991-05-01

    Thirty-seven high grade cattle were immunised against Corridor disease (Theileria parva lawrencei infection) on a farm with a history of heavy and often lethal theilerial challenge. Nineteen cattle were immunised by treating with two doses of long-acting oxytetracyclines given at 20 mg/kg on days 0 and 4 after sporozoite stabilate inoculation, while the other 18 were treated with naphthoquinone buparvaquone, given as a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg simultaneously with stabilate inoculation. All the cattle underwent subclinical theilerial reactions with all but two developing high antibody titres on the IFAT test against T. parva schizont antigen by day 35 after the immunisation. Both buparvaquone and long-acting oxytetracycline appeared equally effective in the immunisation. To date, 26 months later, only two cases of theileriosis parasitologically characteristic of T. p. parva have been reported in the immunised cattle. Following the two cases, investigations showed that when uninfected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal ticks were deliberately fed on healthy resident cattle on the farm, the resultant adult ticks transmitted acute and lethal theilerial infections to five out of five susceptible cattle. The resultant infections were parasitologically characteristic of T. p. parva infections. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody profiles of schizont infected cell lines from these infections appeared to be characteristic of T. p. parva. It was thus concluded that resident cattle on the farm could be a potential source of T.p. parva infection which had broken through the immunity of T.p. lawrencei immunised cattle and could constitute a reservoir of theilerial infection for ticks and hence to susceptible stock on the farm.

  6. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3-5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy.

  7. The role of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in plumbagin-induced, reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Ryu, Jung Min; Jeon, Yu Jin; Choi, Joonhyeok; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jung, Jong-Wha; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Lark Kyun; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Min Young

    2015-10-15

    Plumbagin is a secondary metabolite that was first identified in the Plumbago genus of plants. It is a naphthoquinone compound with anti-atherosclerosis, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, contraceptive, cardiotonic, immunosuppressive, and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanisms of plumbagin's activities are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of plumbagin on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells as well as LLC lung cancer cells, SiHa cervical carcinoma cells. Plumbagin significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment with plumbagin significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3/7 activity. Using the similarity ensemble approach (SEA)-a state-of-the-art cheminformatic technique-we identified two previously unknown cellular targets of plumbagin: thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR). This was then confirmed using protein- and cell-based assays. We found that plumbagin was directly reduced by TrxR, and that this reduction was inhibited by the TrxR inhibitor, sodium aurothiomalate (ATM). Plumbagin also decreased the activity of GR. Plumbagin, and the GR inhibitor sodium arsenite all increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and this increase was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in HepG2 cells. Plumbagin increased TrxR-1 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and pretreatment with NAC significantly attenuated the plumbagin-induced increase of TrxR-1 and HO-1 expression in HepG2 cells, LLC cells and SiHa cells. Pretreatment with NAC significantly prevented the plumbagin-induced decrease in cell viability in these cell types. In conclusion, plumbagin exerted its anticancer effect by directly interacting with TrxR and GR, and thus increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  8. Secondary Metabolites from Plants Inhibiting ABC Transporters and Reversing Resistance of Cancer Cells and Microbes to Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Ashour, Mohamed L.; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Fungal, bacterial, and cancer cells can develop resistance against antifungal, antibacterial, or anticancer agents. Mechanisms of resistance are complex and often multifactorial. Mechanisms include: (1) Activation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, which pump out lipophilic compounds that have entered a cell, (2) Activation of cytochrome p450 oxidases which can oxidize lipophilic agents to make them more hydrophilic and accessible for conjugation reaction with glucuronic acid, sulfate, or amino acids, and (3) Activation of glutathione transferase, which can conjugate xenobiotics. This review summarizes the evidence that secondary metabolites (SM) of plants, such as alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids can interfere with ABC transporters in cancer cells, parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Among the active natural products several lipophilic terpenoids [monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes (including saponins), steroids (including cardiac glycosides), and tetraterpenes] but also some alkaloids (isoquinoline, protoberberine, quinoline, indole, monoterpene indole, and steroidal alkaloids) function probably as competitive inhibitors of P-gp, multiple resistance-associated protein 1, and Breast cancer resistance protein in cancer cells, or efflux pumps in bacteria (NorA) and fungi. More polar phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, chalcones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthocyanins, tannins, anthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) directly inhibit proteins forming several hydrogen and ionic bonds and thus disturbing the 3D structure of the transporters. The natural products may be interesting in medicine or agriculture as they can enhance the activity of active chemotherapeutics or pesticides or even reverse multidrug resistance, at least partially, of adapted and resistant cells. If these SM are applied in combination with a cytotoxic or antimicrobial agent, they may reverse resistance in a synergistic fashion. PMID:22536197

  9. Investigation on antimicrobial agents of the terrestrial Streptomyces sp. BCC71188.

    PubMed

    Supong, Khomsan; Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Rachtawee, Pranee; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial actinomycete strain BCC71188 was identified as Streptomyces by its morphology (having spiral chain spore on the aerial mycelium), chemotaxonomy (containing LL-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall), and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis [showing high similarity values compared with Streptomyces samsunensis M1463(T) (99.85 %) and Streptomyces malaysiensis NBRC 16446(T) (99.40 %)]. The crude extract exhibited antimalarial against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 0.19 μg/ml), anti-TB against Mycobacterial tuberculosis (MIC 6.25 μg/ml), and antibacterial against Bacillus cereus (MIC 1.56 μg/ml) activities. Therefore, chemical investigation was conducted by employing bioassay-guided method and led to the isolation of 19 compounds including two cyclic peptides (1-2), five macrolides (3-7), new naphthoquinone (8), nahuoic acid C (9), geldanamycin derivatives (10-13), cyclooctatin (14), germicidins A (15) and C (16), actinoramide A (17), abierixin, and 29-O-methylabierixin. These isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity, such as antimalarial, anti-TB, and antibacterial activities, and for cytotoxicity against both cancerous (MCF-7, KB, NCI-H187) and non-cancerous (Vero) cells. Compounds 1-7, 10-14 exhibited antimalarial (IC50 0.22-7.14 μg/ml), and elaiophylin analogs (4-6) displayed anti-TB (MIC 0.78-12.00 μg/ml) and B. cereus (MIC 0.78-3.13 μg/ml) activities. Compounds 1, 2, 14, and abierixin displayed weak cytotoxicity, indicating a potential for antimicrobial agents.

  10. Effect of medium composition and light on root and rhinacanthin formation in Rhinacanthus nasutus cultures.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, P; Meerungrueang, W

    2010-11-01

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) has long been used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of tinea versicolor, ringworm, pruritic rash, and abscess. The active constituents are known as a group of naphthoquinone esters, rhinacanthins. This work focused on establishment of R. nasutus root cultures and determination of rhinacanthin production. Induction of R. nasutus root formation was accomplished on solid Gamborg's B5 (B5) medium, supplied with 0.1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 20 g/L sucrose. The effects of explants (whole leaf explants and four-side excised leaf explants), light and medium composition on root and rhinacanthin formation were investigated. The root formation from the whole leaf explants was 10 times higher than that from the four-side excised leaf explants. In addition, light possessed an inhibitory effect on the root and rhinacanthin formation of R. nasutus. Medium manipulation found that Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplied with 3 mg/L IBA and 30 g/L sucrose was the most suitable for induction of the root formation. Unfortunately, the obtained root cultures produced only rhinacanthin-C in very low amount, 0.026 mg/g dry weight (DW), when they were transferred into the same MS liquid medium. With semisolid medium (4 g/L agar) of the same MS composition, however, the root cultures appeared to produce higher content of rhinacanthin-C, -D and -N (3.45, 0.07 and 0.07 mg/g DW, respectively). Our finding suggests that culturing in semisolid medium is capable of improving of rhinacanthin production in R. nasutus root cultures.

  11. 2-Methoxystypandrone ameliorates brain function through preserving BBB integrity and promoting neurogenesis in mice with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chern, Chang-Ming; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2014-02-01

    2-Methoxystypandrone (2-MS), a naphthoquinone, has been shown to display an immunomodulatory effect in a cellular model. To explore whether 2-MS could protect mice against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury, we evaluated 2-MS's protective effects on an acute ischemic stroke by inducing a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) injury in murine model. Treatment of mice that have undergone I/R injury with 2-MS (10-100 μg/kg, i.v.) at 2 h after MCAO enhanced survival rate and ameliorated neurological deficits, brain infarction, neural dysfunction and massive oxidative stress, due to an enormous production of free radicals and breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by I/R injury; this primarily occurred with extensive infiltration of CD11b-positive inflammatory cells and upexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 and p65 nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). All of these pathological changes were diminished by 2-MS; 2-MS also intensively limited cortical infarction and promoted upexpression of neurodevelopmental genes near peri-infarct cortex and endogenous neurogenesis near subgranular zone of hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone, most possibly by inactivation of GSK3β which in turn upregulating β-catenin, Bcl-2 adam11 and adamts20. We conclude that 2-MS blocks inflammatory responses by impairing NF-κB signaling to limit the inflammation and oxidative stress for preservation of BBB integrity; 2-MS also concomitantly promotes neurodevelopmental protein expression and endogenous neurogenesis through inactivation of GSK3β to enhance β-catenin signaling for upexpression of neuroprotective genes and proteins.

  12. Novel angular benzophenazines: dual topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitors as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Burgess, Luke; Chuckowree, Irina S; Dodd, Rory; Folkes, Adrian J; Hardick, David J; Hancox, Timothy C; Miller, Warren; Milton, John; Sohal, Sukhjit; Wang, Shouming; Wren, Stephen P; Charlton, Peter A; Dangerfield, Wendy; Liddle, Chris; Mistry, Prakash; Stewart, Alistair J; Denny, William A

    2002-01-31

    A series of substituted angular benzophenazines were prepared using a new synthetic route via a novel regiocontrolled condensation of 1,2-naphthoquinones and 2,3-diaminobenzoic acids. The synthesis and biological activity of this new series of substituted 8,9-benzo[a]phenazine carboxamide systems are described. The analogues were evaluated against the H69 parental human small cell lung carcinoma cell line and H69/LX4 resistant cell line which overexpresses P-glycoprotein. Selected analogues were evaluated against the COR-L23 parental human non small cell lung carcinoma cell line and the COR-L23/R resistant cell line which overexpresses multidrug resistance protein. This series of novel angular benzophenazines were potent cytotoxic agents in these cell lines and may be able to circumvent multidrug resistance mechanisms which result in the lack of efficacy of many drugs in cancer chemotherapy. These compounds show dual inhibition of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II and thus target two key enzymes responsible for the topology of DNA that are active at different points in the cell cycle. The introduction of chirality into the carboxamide side chain of these novel benzophenazine carboxamides has resulted in the discovery of a potent enantiospecific series of cytotoxic agents, exemplified by 4-methoxy-benzo[a]phenazine-11-carboxylic acid (2-(dimethylamino)-1-(R)-methyl-ethyl)-amide, XR11576 ((R)-4j' '). In vivo activity has been demonstrated for 4-methoxy-benzo[a]phenazine-11-carboxylic acid (2-(dimethylamino)-1-(R)-methyl-ethyl)-amide, XR11576, after intravenous administration to female mice, and this compound has been selected as a development candidate for further evaluation.

  13. Engineering the substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 CYP102A2 by directed evolution: production of an efficient enzyme for bioconversion of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Axarli, Irene; Prigipaki, Ariadne; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2005-06-01

    The P450 cytochromes constitute a large family of hemoproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a diversity of hydrophobic substrates. CYP102A2 is a catalytically self-sufficient cytoplasmic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, containing both a monooxygenase domain and a reductase domain on a single polypeptide chain. CYP102A2 was subjected to error-prone PCR to generate mutants with enhanced activity with fatty acids and other aromatic substrates. The library of CYP102A2 mutants was expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherichia coli cells and screened for their ability to oxidize different substrates by means of an activity assay. After a single round of error-prone PCR, the variant Pro15Ser exhibiting modified substrate specificity was generated. This variant showed approximately 6- to 9-fold increased activity with SDS, lauric acid and 1,4-naphthoquinone, and enhanced activity for other substrates such as ethacrynic acid and epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid. Molecular modeling of the CYP102A2 monooxygenase domain suggested that Pro15 is located in a short helical segment and is involved in extensive interactions between the N-terminal domain and the beta2 sheet, which contribute to the formation of the substrate binding site. Thus, Pro15 appears to affect substrate binding and catalysis indirectly. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of remote residues, not readily predicted by rational design, for the determination of substrate specificity. In addition, we report here that the Pro15Ser variant of CYP102A2 can be efficiently immobilized on epoxy-activated Sepharose at pH 8.5 and 4 degrees C. The immobilized variant of CYP102A2 retains most of its activity (81%) and shows improved stability at 37 degrees C. The approach offers the possibility of designing a P450 bioreactor that can be operated over a long period of time with high efficiency and which can be used in fine chemical synthesis.

  14. Population dynamics and current-generation mechanisms in cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Miyahara, Morio; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2011-12-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) have been demonstrated useful to treat biomass wastes and recover electric energy from them. In order to reveal electricity-generation mechanisms in CE-MFCs, the present study operated a bench-scale reactor (1 l in capacity; approximately 1,000 cm(2) in anode and cathode areas) for treating a high-strength model organic wastewater (comprised of starch, peptone, and fish extract). Approximately 1 month was needed for the bench reactor to attain a stable performance, after which volumetric maximum power densities persisted between 120 and 150 mW/l throughout the experiment (for over 2 months). Temporal increases in the external resistance were found to induce subsequent increases in power outputs. After electric output became stable, electrolyte and anode were sampled from the reactor for evaluating their current-generation abilities; it was estimated that most of current (over 80%) was generated by microbes in the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry of an electrolyte supernatant detected several electron shuttles with different standard redox potentials at high concentrations (equivalent to or more than 100 μM 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments showed that bacteria related to the genus Dysgonomonas occurred abundantly in association with the increases in power outputs. These results suggest that mediated electron transfer was the main mechanism for electricity generation in CE-MFC, where high-concentration electron shuttles and Dysgonomonas bacteria played important roles.

  15. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory activity of Cnidoscolus quercifolius (Euphorbiaceae) in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Gomes, Leandra Macedo; de Andrade, Thayne Mayra; Silva, Juliane Cabral; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo José; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cnidoscolus quercifolius is a species popularly known as favela and faveleira, and belonging to the Caatinga biome (semi-arid vegetation, Brazil), where is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract from barks (Cqb-EtOH) and leaves (Cql-EtOH) of C. quercifolius in mice using experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The activity was evaluated by paw edema induced by carrageenan and leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan methods. Results: A preliminary analysis of Cqb-EtOH revealed that it contained coumarins, flavonoids, monoterpenes/diterpenes and naphthoquinones, while the Cql-EtOH showed positive reaction to coumarins, anthracene derivatives, flavonoids, lignans and triterpenes/steroids. Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) the increase in the edema volume after administration of carrageenan. In the peritonitis test, acute pretreatment with Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the leukocyte migration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts from the barks and leaves of C. quercifolius have anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the popular use of this plant to treat inflammation. Thus, extracts has significant anti-inflammatory properties, which are related probably to inhibition of release of mediators of the inflammatory process. PMID:25276074

  16. The Lipids of Pneumocystis carinii

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    1998-01-01

    Information about a number of Pneumocystis carinii lipids obtained by the analyses of organisms isolated and purified from infected lungs of corticosteroid-immunosuppressed rats has been reported in recent years. Of the common opportunistic protists associated with AIDS (Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and the microsporidia), more is currently known about the lipids of P. carinii than the others. Lipids that are synthesized by the organism but not by humans are attractive targets for drug development. Thus, the elucidation of Δ7C-24-alykylated sterol and cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid biosyntheses in P. carinii is currently being examined in detail, since these have been identified as P. carinii-specific lipids. The development of low-toxicity drugs that prevent sterol C-24 alkylation and the specific inhibition of the lipoxygenase that forms cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid might prove fruitful. Although humans can synthesize coenzyme Q10, the anti-P. carinii activity and low toxicity of ubiquinone analogs such as atovaquone suggest that the electron transport chain in the pathogen may differ importantly from that in the host. Although resistance to atovaquone has been observed, development of other naphthoquinone drugs would provide a broader armamentarium of drugs to treat patients with P. carinii pneumonia. Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and of infected lungs have demonstrated that the infection causes a number of chemical abnormalities. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained after the removal of lung cellular material and the organisms has been shown to contain larger amounts of surfactant proteins and smaller amounts of phospholipids than do comparable samples from P. carinii-free lungs. Increased phospholipase activity, inhibition of surfactant secretion by type II cells, and uptake and catabolism of lipids by the pathogen may explain this phenomenon related to P. carinii pneumonia. Although not yet thoroughly examined, initial studies on the uptake and

  17. Repurposing atovaquone: Targeting mitochondrial complex III and OXPHOS to eradicate cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Marco; Lamb, Rebecca; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Mutti, Luciano; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Cappello, Anna Rita; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Atovaquone is an FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, which first became clinically available in the year 2000. Currently, its main usage is for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and/or toxoplasmosis in immune-compromised patients. Atovaquone is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogue of ubiquinone, also known as Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10). It is a well-tolerated drug that does not cause myelo-suppression. Mechanistically, it is thought to act as a potent and selective OXPHOS inhibitor, by targeting the CoQ10-dependence of mitochondrial complex III. Here, we show for the first time that atovaquone also has anti-cancer activity, directed against Cancer Stem-like Cells (CSCs). More specifically, we demonstrate that atovaquone treatment of MCF7 breast cancer cells inhibits oxygen-consumption and metabolically induces aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), as well as oxidative stress. Remarkably, atovaquone potently inhibits the propagation of MCF7-derived CSCs, with an IC-50 of 1 μM, as measured using the mammosphere assay. Atovaquone also maintains this selectivity and potency in mixed populations of CSCs and non-CSCs. Importantly, these results indicate that glycolysis itself is not sufficient to maintain the proliferation of CSCs, which is instead strictly dependent on mitochondrial function. In addition to targeting the proliferation of CSCs, atovaquone also induces apoptosis in both CD44+/CD24low/− CSC and ALDH+ CSC populations, during exposure to anchorage-independent conditions for 12 hours. However, it has no effect on oxygen consumption in normal human fibroblasts and, in this cellular context, behaves as an anti-inflammatory, consistent with the fact that it is well-tolerated in patients treated for infections. Future studies in xenograft models and human clinical trials may be warranted, as the IC-50 of atovaquone's action on CSCs (1 μM) is >50 times less than its average serum concentration in humans. PMID:27136895

  18. From body art to anticancer activities: perspectives on medicinal properties of henna.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Rohan; Dandawate, Prasad; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2012-12-01

    Nature has been a rich source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources based on the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Henna is one such plant commonly known as Persian Henna or Lawsonia inermis, a bushy, flowering tree, commonly found in Australia, Asia and along the Mediterranean coasts of Africa. Paste made from the leaves of Henna plant has been used since the Bronze Age to dye skin, hairs and fingernails especially at the times of festivals. In recent times henna paste has been used for body art paintings and designs in western countries. Despite such widespread use in dyeing and body art painting, Henna extracts and constituents possess numerous biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The active coloring and biologically active principle of Henna is found to be Lawsone (2- hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) which can serve as a starting building block for synthesizing large number of therapeutically useful compounds including Atovaquone, Lapachol and Dichloroallyl lawsone which have been shown to possess potent anticancer activities. Some other analogs of Lawsone have been found to exhibit other beneficial biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitubercular and antimalarial. The ability of Lawsone to undergo the redox cycling and chelation of trace metal ions has been thought to be partially responsible for some of its biological activities. Despite such diverse biological properties and potent anticancer activities the compound has remained largely unexplored and hence in the present review we have summarized the chemistry and biological activities of Lawsone along with its analogs and metal complexes.

  19. Complete Phenotypic Recovery of an Alzheimer's Disease Model by a Quinone-Tryptophan Hybrid Aggregation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Pellarin, Riccardo; Convertino, Marino; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Egoz-Matia, Nirit; Peled, Sivan; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Shalev, Deborah E.; Caflisch, Amedeo; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rational design of amyloid oligomer inhibitors is yet an unmet drug development need. Previous studies have identified the role of tryptophan in amyloid recognition, association and inhibition. Furthermore, tryptophan was ranked as the residue with highest amyloidogenic propensity. Other studies have demonstrated that quinones, specifically anthraquinones, can serve as aggregation inhibitors probably due to the dipole interaction of the quinonic ring with aromatic recognition sites within the amyloidogenic proteins. Here, using in vitro, in vivo and in silico tools we describe the synthesis and functional characterization of a rationally designed inhibitor of the Alzheimer's disease-associated β-amyloid. This compound, 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQTrp), combines the recognition capacities of both quinone and tryptophan moieties and completely inhibited Aβ oligomerization and fibrillization, as well as the cytotoxic effect of Aβ oligomers towards cultured neuronal cell line. Furthermore, when fed to transgenic Alzheimer's disease Drosophila model it prolonged their life span and completely abolished their defective locomotion. Analysis of the brains of these flies showed a significant reduction in oligomeric species of Aβ while immuno-staining of the 3rd instar larval brains showed a significant reduction in Aβ accumulation. Computational studies, as well as NMR and CD spectroscopy provide mechanistic insight into the activity of the compound which is most likely mediated by clamping of the aromatic recognition interface in the central segment of Aβ. Our results demonstrate that interfering with the aromatic core of amyloidogenic peptides is a promising approach for inhibiting various pathogenic species associated with amyloidogenic diseases. The compound NQTrp can serve as a lead for developing a new class of disease modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20559435

  20. Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rahn, J J; Bestman, J E; Josey, B J; Inks, E S; Stackley, K D; Rogers, C E; Chou, C J; Chan, S S L

    2014-02-14

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world's population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, 2-benzamido-1 4-naphthoquinone (NQN1), significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of valproic acid, 2-n-propylpentanoic acid (VPA). We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogs. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6Hz) and corneal-kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the

  1. Modeling Bimolecular Reactions and Transport in Porous Media Via Particle Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ding; David Benson; Amir Paster; Diogo Bolster

    2012-01-01

    We use a particle-tracking method to simulate several one-dimensional bimolecular reactive transport experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles: advection and dispersion dominate the flow, and molecular diffusion dictates, in large part, the reactions. The particle/particle reactions are determined by a combination of two probabilities dictated by the physics of transport and energetics of reaction. The first is that reactant particles occupy the same volume over a short time interval. The second is the conditional probability that two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. The first probability is a direct physical representation of the degree of mixing in an advancing displacement front, and as such lacks empirical parameters except for the user-defined number of particles. This number can be determined analytically from concentration autocovariance, if this type of data is available. The simulations compare favorably to two physical experiments. In one, the concentration of product, 1,2-naphthoquinoe-4-aminobenzene (NQAB) from reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid (NQS) and aniline (AN), was measured at the outflow of a column filled with glass beads at different times. In the other, the concentration distribution of reactants (CuSO_4 and EDTA^{4-}) and products (CuEDTA^{4-}) were quantified by snapshots of transmitted light through a column packed with cryloite sand. The thermodynamic rate coefficient in the latter experiment was 10^7 times greater than the former experiment, making it essentially instantaneous. When compared to the solution of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation (ADRE) with the well-mixed reaction coefficient, the experiments and the particle-tracking simulations showed on the order of 20% to 40% less overall product, which is attributed to poor mixing. The poor mixing also leads to higher product concentrations on the edges of the mixing zones, which the particle

  2. Molecular structures and biological evaluation of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone derivatives as potent antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Omkar; Patekar, Ashwini; Khan, Ayesha; Kathawate, Laxmi; Haram, Santosh; Markad, Ganesh; Puranik, Vedavati; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Derivatives of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone {n-alkyl: methyl; L-1, ethyl; L-2, propyl; L-3 and butyl; L-4} have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, LC-MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Antifungal activity of L-1 to L-4 has been evaluated against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans and Cladosporium herbarum. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding affects the N-H vibrational frequency in L-2 (3273 cm-1). The single crystal X-ray structure reveal that L-1 and L-3 crystallizes in triclinic P-1, whereas L-2 crystallizes in orthorhombic Pca21 space group. An extensive intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions were observed in L-1 to L-3 which leads to molecular association. Intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding were observed in L-1 to L-3. Moreover π-π stacking interactions were observed between the quinonoid rings of L-1 and L-3, however no such interactions were observed in L-2. An electrochemical study showed molecular association of L-1 to L-4 in DMSO solution. Compounds L-1 to L-4 were found to be potent antifungal agents against all the three strains, especially against C. tropicalis. Amongst these promising antifungal candidates, L-1 showed better activity compared to the clinically administered antifungal drug Amphotericin B and Nitrofurantoin with MIC = 1.25 μg ml-1 and MIC = 0.025 μg ml-1 respectively against C. albicans. Structure and activity relationship (SAR) study suggest a Log P value of ˜2.0 and the cyclic voltammetry studies reveals additional chemical processes for L-1, which exhibits maximum activity against all fungal strains.

  3. Selective inactivation of parvulin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases by juglone.

    PubMed

    Hennig, L; Christner, C; Kipping, M; Schelbert, B; Rücknagel, K P; Grabley, S; Küllertz, G; Fischer, G

    1998-04-28

    In contrast to FK506 binding proteins and cyclophilins, the parvulin family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases; E.C. 5.2.1.8) cannot be inhibited by either FK506 or cyclosporin A. We have found that juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, irreversibly inhibits the enzymatic activity of several parvulins, like the E. coli parvulin, the yeast Ess1/Ptf1, and human Pin1, in a specific manner, thus allowing selective inactivation of these enzymes in the presence of other PPIases. The mode of action was studied by analyzing the inactivation kinetics and the nature of products of the reaction of E. coli parvulin and its Cys69Ala variant with juglone. For all parvulins investigated, complete inactivation was obtained by a slow process that is characterized by pseudo-first-order rate constants in the range of 5.3 x 10(-)4 to 4. 5 x 10(-)3 s-1. The inactivated parvulin contains two juglone molecules that are covalently bound to the side chains of Cys41 and Cys69 because of a Michael addition of the thiol groups to juglone. Redox reactions did not contribute to the inactivation process. Because thiol group modification was shown to proceed 5-fold faster than the rate of enzyme inactivation, it was considered as a necessary but not sufficient condition for inactivation. When measured by far-UV circular dichroism (CD), the rate of structural alterations following thiol group modification parallels exactly the rate of inactivation. Thus, partial unfolding of the active site of the parvulins was thought to be the cause of the deterioration of PPIase activity.

  4. Synthesis of 4‧-substituted-2,2‧;6‧,2″-terpyridine Ru(II) complexes electrochemical, fluorescence quenching and antibacterial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhilarasu, Tamilarasu; Sathiyaseelan, Anbazhagan; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu; Balasubramanian, Sengottuvelan

    2017-04-01

    Three new Ru(II) terpyridine complexes viz. [Ru(BBtpy)2](PF6)2 [Ru(L1)] (BBtpy = 4‧-(4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine), [Ru(BMBtpy)2](PF6)2 [Ru(L2)] (BMBtpy = 4‧-(4-benzyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine) and [Ru(BEBtpy)2](PF6)2 [Ru(L3)] (BEBtpy = 4‧-(4-benzyloxy-3-ethoxybenzaldehyde)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The MALDI-TOF/MS fragmentation pattern of [Ru(BMBtpy)2](PF6)2 complex exhibits a molecular ion peak at m/z = 987.09 [M-2PF6]2+ fragment. These Ru(II) complexes are redox active, show both metal centered oxidation and ligand centered reduction processes. The peak potential and peak current Ipa and Ipc also undergo definite shift and increase with increase in the scan rate (20-120 mV/s). The fluorescence of Ru(II) complexes [Ru(L1)], [Ru(L2)] and [Ru(L3)] are effectively quenched by 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in acetonitrile. The antibacterial activity of ruthenium(II) complexes were screened against four human pathogens both gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia) by the well diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of Ru(II) complexes is comparable to that of standard antibiotics like tetracycline.

  5. Antiparasitic activities of novel ruthenium/lapachol complexes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marília I F; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia Mara; Rodrigues, Claudia; Ellena, Javier; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rocha, Vinícius P C; Nonato, Fabiana R; Macedo, Taís S; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Soares, Milena B P; Batista, Alzir A

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization, antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities of novel diimine/(2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4,4'-methylbipyridine (Me-bipy) and 4,4'-methoxybipyridine (MeO-bipy)/phosphine/ruthenium(II) complexes containing lapachol (Lap, 2-hydroxy-3-(3-33 methyl-2-buthenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone) as bidentate ligand. The [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 (1), [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(Me-bipy)]PF6 (2), [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(MeO-bipy)]PF6(3) and[Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(phen)]PF6 (4) complexes, PPh3=triphenylphospine, were synthesized from the reactions of cis-[RuCl2(PPh3)2(X-bipy)] or cis-[RuCl2(PPh3)2(phen)], with lapachol. The [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] (5) [dppb=1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane] was synthesized from the mer-[RuCl3(dppb)(H2O)] complex. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, (31)P{(1)H} and (1)H NMR, and cyclic voltammetry. The Ru(III) complex, [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)], was also characterized by the EPR technique. The structure of the complexes [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 and [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] was elucidated by X-ray diffraction. The evaluation of the antiparasitic activities of the complexes against Leishmania amazonensis and Plasmodium falciparum demonstrated that lapachol-ruthenium complexes are more potent than the free lapachol. The [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] complex is the most potent and selective antiparasitic compound among the five new ruthenium complexes studied in this work, exhibiting an activity comparable to the reference drugs.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Mariana F C; Rodrigues, Patrícia C; Oliveira, Maria Eduarda I M; Gama, Ivson L; da Silva, Illana M C B; Santos, Isabela O; Rocha, David R; Pinho, Rosa T; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V; da Silva, Fernando de C; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes

    2014-09-12

    Leukemia is the most common blood cancer, and its development starts at diverse points, leading to distinct subtypes that respond differently to therapy. This heterogeneity is rarely taken into account in therapies, so it is still essential to look for new specific drugs for leukemia subtypes or even for therapy-resistant cases. Naphthoquinones (NQ) are considered privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to their plethora of biological activities, including antimicrobial and anticancer effects. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as 1,2,3-1H-triazoles have been identified as general scaffolds for generating glycosidase inhibitors. In the present study, the NQ and 1,2,3-1H-triazole cores have been combined to chemically synthesize 18 new 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles (1,2-FNQT). Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against four different leukemia cell lines, including MOLT-4 and CEM (lymphoid cell lines) and K562 and KG1 (myeloid cell lines), as well as normal human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs). The new 1,2-FNQT series showed high cytotoxic potential against all leukemia cell lines tested, and some compounds (12o and 12p) showed even better results than the classical therapeutic compounds such as doxorubicin or cisplatin. Others compounds, such as 12b, are promising because of their high selectivity against lymphoblastic leukemia and their low activity against normal hematopoietic cells. The cells of lymphoid origin (MOLT and CEM) were generally more sensitive than the myeloid cell lines to this series of compounds, and most of the compounds that showed the highest cytotoxicity were similarly active against both cell lines.

  7. Desorption and ionization mechanisms in desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Luosujärvi, Laura; Arvola, Ville; Haapala, Markus; Pól, Jaroslav; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2008-10-01

    The factors influencing desorption and ionization in newly developed desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) were studied. Redirecting the DAPPI spray was observed to further improve the versatility of the technique: for dilute samples, parallel spray with increased analyte signal was found to be the best suited, while for more concentrated samples, the orthogonal spray with less risk for contamination is recommended. The suitability of various spray solvents and sampling surface materials was tested for a variety of analytes with different polarities and molecular weights. As in atmospheric pressure photoionization, the analytes formed [M + H](+), [M - H](-), M(+*), M(-*), [M - H + O](-), or [M - 2H + 2O](-) ions depending on the analyte, spray solvent, and ionization mode. In positive ion mode, anisole and toluene as spray solvents promoted the formation of M(+*) ions and were therefore best suited for the analysis of nonpolar compounds (anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and tetracyclone). Acetone and hexane were optimal spray solvents for polar compounds (MDMA, testosterone, and verapamil) since they produced intensive [M + H](+) ion peaks of the analytes. In negative ion mode, the type of spray solvent affected the signal intensity, but not the ion composition. M(-*) ions were formed from 1,4-dinitrobenzene, and [M - H + O](-) and [M - 2H + 2O](-) ions from 1,4-naphthoquinone, whereas acidic compounds (naphthoic acid and paracetamol) formed [M - H](-) ions. The tested sampling surfaces included various materials with different thermal conductivities. The materials with low thermal conductivity, i.e., polymers like poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) were found to be the best, since they enable localized heating of the sampling surface, which was found to be essential for efficient analyte desorption. Nevertheless, the sampling surface material did not affect the ionization mechanisms.

  8. A proteomic insight into the effects of the immunomodulatory hydroxynaphthoquinone lapachol on activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Renato A S; Correia-Oliveira, Janaina; Tang, Li-Jun; Garcia, Rodolfo C

    2012-09-01

    We report the effect of an immunomodulatory and anti-mycobacterial naphthoquinone, lapachol, on the bi-dimensional patterns of protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-agonised and IFN-γ-treated THP-1 macrophages. This non-hypothesis driven proteomic analysis intends to shed light on the cellular functions lapachol may be affecting. Proteins of both cytosol and membrane fractions were analysed. After quantification of the protein spots, the protein levels corresponding to macrophages activated in the absence or presence of lapachol were compared. A number of proteins were identified, the levels of which were appreciably and significantly increased or decreased as a result of the action of lapachol on the activated macrophages: cofilin-1, fascin, plastin-2, glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1, pyruvate kinase, sentrin-specific protease 6, cathepsin B, cathepsin D, cytosolic aminopeptidase, proteasome β type-4 protease, tryptophan-tRNA ligase, DnaJ homolog and protein disulphide isomerase. Altogether, the comparative analysis performed indicates that lapachol could be hypothetically causing an impairment of cell migration and/or phagocytic capacity, an increase in NADPH availability, a decrease in pyruvate concentration, protection from proteosomal protein degradation, a decrease in lysosomal protein degradation, an impairment of cytosolic peptide generation, and an interference with NOS2 activation and grp78 function. The present proteomic results suggest issues that should be experimentally addressed ex- and in-vivo, to establish more accurately the potential of lapachol as an anti-infective drug. This study also constitutes a model for the pre-in-vivo evaluation of drug actions.

  9. Kinetics during the redox biotransformation of pollutants mediated by immobilized and soluble humic acids.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Martínez, Claudia M; Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Márquez, Arturo; Arriaga, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the kinetic constraints during the redox biotransformation of the azo dye, Reactive Red 2 (RR2), and carbon tetrachloride (CT) mediated by soluble humic acids (HAs) and immobilized humic acids (HAi), as well as by the quinoid model compounds, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS). The microbial reduction of both HAs and HAi by anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was the rate-limiting step during decolorization of RR2 since the reduction of RR2 by reduced HAi proceeded at more than three orders of magnitute faster than the electron-transferring rate observed during the microbial reduction of HAi by AGS. Similarly, the reduction of RR2 by reduced AQDS proceeded 1.6- and 1.9-fold faster than the microbial reduction of AQDS by AGS when this redox mediator (RM) was supplied in soluble and immobilized form, respectively. In contrast, the reduction of NQS by AGS occurred 1.6- and 19.2-fold faster than the chemical reduction of RR2 by reduced NQS when this RM was supplied in soluble and immobilized form, respectively. The microbial reduction of HAs and HAi by a humus-reducing consortium proceeded 1,400- and 790-fold faster than the transfer of electrons from reduced HAs and HAi, respectively, to achieve the reductive dechlorination of CT to chloroform. Overall, the present study provides elucidation on the rate-limiting steps involved in the redox biotransformation of priority pollutants mediated by both HAs and HAi and offers technical suggestions to overcome the kinetic restrictions identified in the redox reactions evaluated.

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species Prevent Imiquimod-Induced Psoriatic Dermatitis through Enhancing Regulatory T Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Jeong; Hong, Min-Pyo; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in the prevention of psoriasis. Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, but many recent studies suggested the protective role of ROS in immune-mediated diseases. In particular, severe cases of psoriasis vulgaris have been reported to be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), which raises tissue level of ROS. Also it was reported that Treg function was closely associated with ROS level. However, it has been only investigated in lowered levels of ROS so far. Thus, in this study, to clarify the relationship between ROS level and Treg function, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we investigated imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis (PD) in association with Treg function both in elevated and lowered levels of ROS by using knockout mice, such as glutathione peroxidase-1−/− and neutrophil cytosolic factor-1−/− mice, as well as by using HBOT or chemicals, such as 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and N-acetylcysteine. The results consistently showed Tregs were hyperfunctional in elevated levels of ROS, whereas hypofunctional in lowered levels of ROS. In addition, imiquimod-induced PD was attenuated in elevated levels of ROS, whereas aggravated in lowered levels of ROS. For the molecular mechanism that may link ROS level and Treg function, we investigated the expression of an immunoregulatory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) which is induced by ROS, in PD lesions. Taken together, it was implied that appropriately elevated levels of ROS might prevent psoriasis through enhancing IDO expression and Treg function. PMID:24608112

  11. Isolation and characterization of photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Worland, S.T.

    1984-09-01

    Reaction centers were isolated by affinity chromatography on equine cytochrome C. Peripheral proteins were removed with 0.05% LDAO. Absorption and EPR spectra and bleaching assays indicate that the reaction centers retained their electron donors and acceptors in the native environment. Three reaction center polypeptides were isolated and submitted for amino-terminal sequence determination. By comparing these sequences to those deduced from DNA, it was established that the M and L subunits are post-translationally modified to remove the aminoterminal Met, whereas the H subunit is not. Inhibition of O/sub 2/ evolution in photosystem II particles from spinach by naphthoquinone derivatives show O/sub 2/ inhibition by bromomethyl and acetoxymethyl derivatives but not with hydroxymethyl derivatives. Inhibition by acetoxymethyl derivatives in irreversible and dependent on illumination suggesting that reduction of the quinone is necessary. Therefore acetoxymethyl derivatives may be useful as suicide reagents for labelling quinone binding sites. Procedures were developed to extract one or both of the quinones present in reaction centers and preserve the integrity of the co-factor binding sites. The H and M subunits were cleaned using furmic acid. Both fragments were isolated from the H subunit, while the larger fragment was isolated from the M subunit. Electrophoretic mobilities of the isolated fragments agrees well with the expected molecular weights. The L subunit was digested with Staphylococcus areus vs protease. The pattern obtained was consistant with the potential sites of cleavage, but it was not possible to assign cleavage sites unambiguously. 112 references, 37 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio . E-mail: n-shimamoto@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  13. Purification and characterization of Plasmodium falciparum succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Suraveratum, N; Krungkrai, S R; Leangaramgul, P; Prapunwattana, P; Krungkrai, J

    2000-02-05

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a Krebs cycle enzyme and complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport system was purified to near homogeneity from the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum cultivated in vitro by FPLC on Mono Q, Mono S and Superose 6 gel filtration columns. The malarial SDH activity was found to be extremely labile. Based on Superose 6 FPLC, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and nondenaturing-PAGE analyses, it was demonstrated that the malarial enzyme had an apparent native molecular mass of 90 +/- 8 kDa and contained two major subunits with molecular masses of 55 +/- 6 and 35 +/- 4 kDa (n = 8). The enzymatic reaction required both succinate and coenzyme Q (CoQ) for its maximal catalysis with Km values of 3 and 0.2 microM, and k(cat) values of 0.11 and 0.06 min(-1), respectively. Catalytic efficiency of the malarial SDH for both substrates were found to be relatively low (approximately 600-5000 M(-1) s(-1)). Fumarate, malonate and oxaloacetate were found to inhibit the malarial enzyme with Ki values of 81, 13 and 12 microM, respectively. The malarial enzyme activity was also inhibited by substrate analog of CoQ, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 5 microM. The quinone had antimalarial activity against the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.27 microM and was found to completely inhibit oxygen uptake of the parasite at a concentration of 0.88 microM. A known inhibitor of mammalian mitochondrial SDH, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone. had no inhibitory effect on both the malarial SDH activity and the oxygen uptake of the parasite at a concentration of 50 microM. Many properties observed in the malarial SDH were found to be different from the host mammalian enzyme.

  14. Stability of flavin semiquinones in the gas phase: the electron affinity, proton affinity, and hydrogen atom affinity of lumiflavin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianlan; Papson, Kaitlin; Ochran, Richard; Ridge, Douglas P

    2013-11-07

    Examination of electron transfer and proton transfer reactions of lumiflavin and proton transfer reactions of the lumiflavin radical anion by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is described. From the equilibrium constant determined for electron transfer between 1,4-naphthoquinone and lumiflavin the electron affinity of lumiflavin is deduced to be 1.86 ± 0.1 eV. Measurements of the rate constants and efficiencies for proton transfer reactions indicate that the proton affinity of the lumiflavin radical anion is between that of difluoroacetate (331.0 kcal/mol) and p-formyl-phenoxide (333.0 kcal/mol). Combining the electron affinity of lumiflavin with the proton affinity of the lumiflavin radical anion gives a lumiflavin hydrogen atom affinity of 59.7 ± 2.2 kcal/mol. The ΔG298 deduced from these results for adding an H atom to gas phase lumiflavin, 52.1 ± 2.2 kcal/mol, is in good agreement with ΔG298 for adding an H atom to aqueous lumiflavin from electrochemical measurements in the literature, 51.0 kcal/mol, and that from M06-L density functional calculations in the literature, 51.2 kcal/mol, suggesting little, if any, solvent effect on the H atom addition. The proton affinity of lumiflavin deduced from the equilibrium constant for the proton transfer reaction between lumiflavin and 2-picoline is 227.3 ± 2.0 kcal mol(-1). Density functional theory calculations on isomers of protonated lumiflavin provide a basis for assigning the most probable site of protonation as position 1 on the isoalloxazine ring and for estimating the ionization potentials of lumiflavin neutral radicals.

  15. Stimulatory effect of menaquinone-7 on bone formation in elderly female rat femoral tissues in vitro: prevention of bone deterioration with aging.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is vitamin K2 which is a series of vitamins with multiisoprene units at the 3-position of the naphthoquinone. MK-7 has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an animal model for osteoporosis. This study was undertaken to determine whether MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone components of elderly female rats in vitro. The femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from young (4 weeks old) or elderly (50 weeks old) female rats were cultured for 48 h in a Dullbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose, 4.5%) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rats were significantly decreased as compared with those of young rats, indicating that aging causes a deterioration of bone formation. The presence of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in biochemical components in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rat in vitro. The anabolic effect of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) on the femoral calcium content was significantly enhanced in the presence of phytoestrogen genistein (10(-6) or 10(-5) M), suggesting that the mode of action of MK-7 differ from that of genistein. The effect of MK-7 (10(-5) M) in increasing calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and DNA content in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues was completely abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of protein synthesis in vitro. These findings demonstrate that MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone formation in the femoral tissues of elderly female rats in vitro. MK-7 may have a preventive role for bone deterioration with aging.

  16. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  17. A functional description of CymA, an electron-transfer hub supporting anaerobic respiratory flexibility in Shewanella.

    PubMed

    Marritt, Sophie J; Lowe, Thomas G; Bye, Jordan; McMillan, Duncan G G; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim; Zachara, John; Richardson, David J; Cheesman, Myles R; Jeuken, Lars J C; Butt, Julea N

    2012-06-15

    CymA (tetrahaem cytochrome c) is a member of the NapC/NirT family of quinol dehydrogenases. Essential for the anaerobic respiratory flexibility of shewanellae, CymA transfers electrons from menaquinol to various dedicated systems for the reduction of terminal electron acceptors including fumarate and insoluble minerals of Fe(III). Spectroscopic characterization of CymA from Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 identifies three low-spin His/His co-ordinated c-haems and a single high-spin c-haem with His/H(2)O co-ordination lying adjacent to the quinol-binding site. At pH 7, binding of the menaquinol analogue, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, does not alter the mid-point potentials of the high-spin (approximately -240 mV) and low-spin (approximately -110, -190 and -265 mV) haems that appear biased to transfer electrons from the high- to low-spin centres following quinol oxidation. CymA is reduced with menadiol (E(m) = -80 mV) in the presence of NADH (E(m) = -320 mV) and an NADH-menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) oxidoreductase, but not by menadiol alone. In cytoplasmic membranes reduction of CymA may then require the thermodynamic driving force from NADH, formate or H2 oxidation as the redox poise of the menaquinol pool in isolation is insufficient. Spectroscopic studies suggest that CymA requires a non-haem co-factor for quinol oxidation and that the reduced enzyme forms a 1:1 complex with its redox partner Fcc3 (flavocytochrome c3 fumarate reductase). The implications for CymA supporting the respiratory flexibility of shewanellae are discussed.

  18. Naphthazarin suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the B-cell lymphoma 2/B-cell associated X protein signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Dong; Li, Hui; Li, Yong-Chun; Zeng, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the USA. Naphthazarin, one of the naturally available 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, is a natural bioactive molecule that exhibits an antitumor effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of naphthazarin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human SW480 colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to assess the effect of napthazarin on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of SW430 cells, respectively. In addition, an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis assay and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used to analyze cell and nuclei apoptosis of SW480 cells, respectively, following treatment with naphthazarin. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell associated X protein (Bax) protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Furthermore, caspase-3 activation was analyzed using a commercial kit. The results revealed that naphthazarin exhibited cell growth inhibition, an increase in cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in SW480 cells, which was associated with activation of the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway and cleaved caspase-3 activation. However, no significant differences in PARP expression were identified following treatment with naphthazarin in SW480 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that naphthazarin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of SW480 cells, indicating that naphthazarin may present a potential therapeutic agent for human colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:28101239

  19. Remarkable in vitro and in vivo activities of the hydroxynaphthoquinone 566C80 against tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F G; Huskinson, J; Remington, J S

    1991-01-01

    Compound 566C80, 2-[trans-4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl]-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, was studied for its in vitro and in vivo activities against Toxoplasma gondii. Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of tachyzoites of seven different strains, five of them isolated from AIDS patients, was inhibited by concentrations as low as 4.8 x 10(-9) M. In vivo, a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day, administered by gavage for 10 days, protected 100% of mice against death due to infection with five different strains of T. gondii, including the highly virulent RH strain. A dose of 50 mg/kg/day protected at least 80% of mice infected with the same inoculum, and a dose as low as 9.3 mg/kg/day protected 40 to 60% of mice. Treatment with 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days completely eradicated parasites from mice infected with four of five strains of T. gondii. 566C80 was active in vitro against the cyst stage of T. gondii at concentrations of 50 to 100 micrograms/ml. In vivo activity against this form of T. gondii was examined in mice infected for 6 weeks with strain ME49 and then treated orally with 100 mg of 566C80 per kg per day for 8 weeks. Treated mice sacrificed at 2-week intervals revealed a steady decline in the numbers of cysts in their brains compared with untreated controls. In addition, mortality as well as clinical signs of brain infection was absent from treated mice, whereas control mice had a high mortality rate and showed clinical signs of central nervous system infection. These results reveal remarkable in vitro and in vivo activities of 566C80 against T. gondii. PMID:2024964

  20. Decolorization of azo dyes by Geobacter metallireducens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Chen, Congcong; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Geobacter metallireducens was found to be capable of decolorizing several azo dyes with different structures to various extents. Pyruvate, ethanol, acetate, propionate, and benzoate could support 66.3 ± 2.6-93.7 ± 2.1 % decolorization of 0.1 mM acid red 27 (AR27) in 40 h. The dependence of the specific decolorization rate on AR27 concentration (25 to 800 μM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K m = 186.9 ± 1.4 μΜ, V max = 0.65 ± 0.02 μmol mg protein(-1) h(-1)). Enhanced AR27 decolorization was observed with the increase of cell concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 45 mgL(-1). AR27 decolorization by G. metallireducens was retarded by the presence of goethite, which competed electrons with AR27 and was reduced to Fe(II). The addition of low concentrations of humic acid (1-100 mgL(-1)) or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (0.5-50 μM) could improve the decolorization performance of G. metallireducens. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggested reductive pathway to be responsible for decolorization. This was the first study on azo dye decolorization by Geobacter strain and might improve our understanding of natural attenuation and bioremediation of environments polluted by azo dyes.

  1. Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) immobilization by Acinetobacter sp. HK-1 with the assistance of a novel quinone/graphene oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Kun; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Sui, Meng

    2014-11-04

    Cr(VI) biotreatment has attracted a substantial amount of interest due to its cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. However, the slow Cr(VI) bioreduction rate and the formed organo-Cr(III) in solution are bottlenecks for biotechnology application. In this study, a novel strain, Acinetobacter sp. HK-1, capable of reducing Cr(VI) and immobilizing Cr(III) was isolated. Under optimal conditions, the Cr(VI) reduction rate could reach 3.82 mg h(-1) g cell(-1). To improve the Cr(VI) reduction rate, two quinone/graphene oxide composites (Q-GOs) were first prepared via a one-step covalent chemical reaction. The results showed that 2-amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone-GO (NQ-GO) exhibited a better catalytic performance in Cr(VI) reduction compared to 2-aminoanthraquinone-GO. Specifically, in the presence of 50 mg L(-1) NQ-GO, a Cr(VI) removal rate of 190 mg h(-1) g cell(-1), which was the highest rate obtained, was achieved. The increased Cr(VI) reduction rate is mainly the result of NQ-GO significantly increasing the Cr(VI) reduction activity of cell membrane proteins containing dominant Cr(VI) reductases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to insoluble Cr(III), which was immobilized by glycolipids secreted by strain HK-1. These findings indicate that the application of strain HK-1 and NQ-GO is a promising strategy for enhancing the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater.

  2. Assessing the oxidative potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Amanda J.; Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to contribute to adverse health effects, such as asthma, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of PM2.5 and can be enhanced by atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide. However, whether biogenic SOA contributes to adverse health effects remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and SOA for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in light of the recent recognition that atmospheric oxidation of isoprene in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosol is a major contributor to the global SOA burden. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to characterize the ROS generation by the isoprene-derived epoxides, trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol (trans-β-IEPOX) and methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), and their hydrolysis products, the 2-methyltetrol diastereomers (2-MT), 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG), their organosulfate derivatives, as well as an isoprene-derived hydroxyhydroperoxide (ISOPOOH). In addition, ROS generation potential was evaluated for total SOA produced from photooxidation of isoprene and methacrolein (MACR) as well as from the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX and MAE onto acidified sulfate aerosol. The high-NOx regime, which yields 2-MG-, MAE- and MACR-derived SOA has a higher ROS generation potential than the low-NOx regime, which yields 2-MT, IEPOX- and isoprene-derived SOA. ISOPOOH has an ROS generation potential similar to 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ), suggesting a significant contribution of aerosol-phase organic peroxides to PM oxidative potential. MAE- and MACR-derived SOA show equal or greater ROS generation potential than reported in studies on diesel exhaust PM, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive investigation of the toxicity of isoprene-derived SOA.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total PAHs, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor PAH concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant PAHs in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total PAH levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant PAH source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of plumbagin through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pei; Wong, Yuen Fan; Ge, Lin; Zhang, Zhi Feng; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Hua

    2010-12-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) (PL) is a naturally occurring yellow pigment found in the plants of the Plumbaginaceae, Droseraceae, Ancistrocladaceae, and Dioncophyllaceae families. It has been reported that PL exhibits anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory action remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated and characterized the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of PL orally administrated in a range of dosages from 5 to 20 mg/kg. We also examined the role of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and proinflammatory cytokines and mediators in this effect. The results showed that PL significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the paw edema of rats induced by carrageenan and various proinflammatory mediators, including histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and prostaglandin E(2). PL reduced the number of writhing episodes of mice induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, but it did not reduce the writhing episode numbers induced by MgSO(4) in mice or prolong the tail-flick reaction time of rats to noxious thermal pain. Mechanistic studies showed that PL effectively decreased the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. It also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediators inducible nitric-oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, whereas it did not inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase 1. Further studies demonstrated that PL suppressed inhibitor of κBα phosphorylation and degradation, thus inhibiting the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. This study suggests that PL has a potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory agent for treating inflammatory diseases.

  5. Doxorubicin In Vivo Rapidly Alters Expression and Translation of Myocardial Electron Transport Chain Genes, Leads to ATP Loss and Caspase 3 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pointon, Amy V.; Walker, Tracy M.; Phillips, Kate M.; Luo, Jinli; Riley, Joan; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Parry, Joel D.; Lyon, Jonathan J.; Marczylo, Emma L.; Gant, Timothy W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs but its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity that restricts lifetime dose. Redox damage is one of the most accepted mechanisms of toxicity, but not fully substantiated. Moreover doxorubicin is not an efficient redox cycling compound due to its low redox potential. Here we used genomic and chemical systems approaches in vivo to investigate the mechanisms of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and specifically test the hypothesis of redox cycling mediated cardiotoxicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were treated with an acute dose of either doxorubicin (DOX) (15 mg/kg) or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) (25 mg/kg). DMNQ is a more efficient redox cycling agent than DOX but unlike DOX has limited ability to inhibit gene transcription and DNA replication. This allowed specific testing of the redox hypothesis for cardiotoxicity. An acute dose was used to avoid pathophysiological effects in the genomic analysis. However similar data were obtained with a chronic model, but are not specifically presented. All data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Pathway and biochemical analysis of cardiac global gene transcription and mRNA translation data derived at time points from 5 min after an acute exposure in vivo showed a pronounced effect on electron transport chain activity. This led to loss of ATP, increased AMPK expression, mitochondrial genome amplification and activation of caspase 3. No data gathered with either compound indicated general redox damage, though site specific redox damage in mitochondria cannot be entirely discounted. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate the major mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is via damage or inhibition of the electron transport chain and not general redox stress. There is a rapid response at transcriptional and translational level of many of the genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain complexes. Still

  6. Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Buckpitt, Alan; Morin, Dexter; Murphy, Shannon; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura

    2013-07-15

    Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium > mouse olfactory epithelium > murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies. - Highlights: • Naphthalene is metabolized with high catalytic efficiency in susceptible tissue. • Naphthalene is metabolized at low catalytic efficiency in non-susceptible tissue. • Respiratory tissues of the non human primate metabolize naphthalene slowly.

  7. Molecular structures and antiproliferative activity of side-chain saturated and homologated analogs of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sanjima; Jadhav, Mahesh; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Patil, Yogesh; Nethaji, M.; Kasabe, Umesh; Kathawate, Laxmi; Konkimalla, V. Badireenath; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2013-10-01

    Side chain homologated derivatives of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone {n-alkyl: pentyl; L-5, hexyl; L-6, heptyl; L-7 and octyl; L-8} have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and LC-MS. Compounds, L-4, {n-alkyl: butyl; L-4}, L-6 and L-8 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal X-ray structures reveal that L-4 and L-8 crystallizes in P21 space group, while L-6 in P21/c space group. Molecules of L-4 and L-8 from polymeric chains through Csbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O close contacts. L-6 is a dimer formed by Nsbnd H⋯O interaction. Slipped π-π stacking interactions are observed between quinonoid and benzenoid rings of L-4 and L-8. Orientations of alkyl group in L-4 and L-8 is on same side of the chain and polymeric chains run opposite to one another to form zip like structure to the alkyl groups. Antiproliferative activities of L-1 to L-8{n-alkyl: methyl; L-1, ethyl; L-2, propyl; L-3 and butyl; L-4} were studied in cancer cells of colon (COLO205), brain (U87MG) and pancreas (MIAPaCa2) where L-1, L-2 and L-3 were active in MIAPaCa2 (L-1 = L-2 > L-3) and COLO205 (L-2 = L-3 > L-1) and inactive in U87MG. From antiproliferative studies with compounds L-1 to L-8 it can be concluded that homologation of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone with saturated methyl groups yielded tissue specific compounds such as L-2 (for MIAPaCa2) and L-3 (for COLO205) with optimal activity.

  8. Promotion or suppression of experimental metastasis of B16 melanoma cells after oral administration of lapachol

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Masayo; Murakami, Manabu; Takegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Takahide

    2008-06-01

    Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] is a vitamin K antagonist with antitumor activity. The effect of lapachol on the experimental metastasis of murine B16BL6 melanoma cells was examined. A single oral administration of a high toxic dose of lapachol (80-100 mg/kg) 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells drastically promoted metastasis. This promotion of metastasis was also observed in T-cell-deficient mice and NK-suppressed mice. In vitro treatment of B16BL6 cells with lapachol promoted metastasis only slightly, indicating that lapachol promotes metastasis primarily by affecting host factors other than T cells and NK cells. A single oral administration of warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells also drastically promoted the metastasis of B16BL6 cells. The promotion of metastasis by lapachol and warfarin was almost completely suppressed by preadministration of vitamin K3, indicating that the promotion of metastasis by lapachol was derived from vitamin K antagonism. Six hours after oral administration of lapachol or warfarin, the protein C level was reduced maximally, without elongation of prothrombin time. These observations suggest that a high toxic dose of lapachol promotes metastasis by inducing a hypercoagulable state as a result of vitamin K-dependent pathway inhibition. On the other hand, serial oral administration of low non-toxic doses of lapachol (5-20 mg/kg) weakly but significantly suppressed metastasis by an unknown mechanism, suggesting the possible use of lapachol as an anti-metastatic agent.

  9. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  10. Development of Enantioselective Synthetic Routes to (–)-Kinamycin F and (–)-Lomaiviticin Aglycon

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Christina M.; Gholap, Shivajirao L.; Lu, Liang; Kaneko, Miho; Li, Zhenwu; Ravikumar, P. C.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enantioselective synthetic routes to (–)-kinamycin F (9) and (–)-lomaiviticin aglycon (6) is described. The diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional group of the targets was prepared by fluoride-mediated coupling of a β-trimethylsilylmethyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone (38) with an oxidized naphthoquinone (19), palladium-catalyzed cyclization (39→37), and diazo transfer (37→53). The D-ring precursors 60 and 68 were prepared from m-cresol and 3-ethylphenol, respectively. Coupling of the β-trimethylsilylmethyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone 60 with the juglone derivative 61, cyclization, and diazo transfer, provided the advanced diazofluorene 63, which was elaborated to (–)-kinamycin F (9) in three steps. The diazofluorene 87 was converted to the C2-symmetric lomaiviticin aglycon precursor 91 by enoxysilane formation and oxidative dimerization with manganese tris(hexafluoroacetylacetonate) (94, 26%). The stereochemical outcome is attributed to the steric bias engendered by the mesityl acetal of 87 and contact ion pairing of the intermediates. The coupling product 91 was deprotected (tert-butylhydrogen peroxide, trifluoroacetic acid–dichloromethane) to form the chain isomer of lomaiviticin aglycon 98, which cyclizes to (–)-lomaiviticin aglycon (6, 39–41% overall). The scope of the fluoride-mediated coupling process is delineated (nine products, average yield = 72%, Table 2); a related enoxysilane quinonylation reaction is also described (10 products, average yield = 77%, Table 1). We establish that dimeric diazofluorenes undergo hydrodediazotization 3-fold faster then related monomeric diazofluorenes (Table 6). The simple diazofluorene 103 is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer stem cells (IC50 = 500 nM). PMID:23030272

  11. Effective Antibiofilm Polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus from the Pyranonaphthoquinone Biosynthetic Pathways of Streptomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Oja, Terhi; San Martin Galindo, Paola; Taguchi, Takaaki; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M; Ichinose, Koji; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko; Fallarero, Adyary

    2015-10-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, synthetic biology has enabled the production of intermediates and shunt products, which may have altered biological activities compared to the end products of the pathways. Here, we have evaluated the potential of recently isolated alnumycins and other closely related pyranonaphthoquinone (PNQ) polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The antimicrobial potency of the compounds against planktonic cells and biofilms was determined by redox dye-based viability staining, and the antibiofilm efficacy of the compounds was confirmed by viable counting. A novel antistaphylococcal polyketide, alnumycin D, was identified. Unexpectedly, the C-ribosylated pathway shunt product alnumycin D was more active against planktonic and biofilm cells than the pathway end product alnumycin A, where a ribose unit has been converted into a dioxane moiety. The evaluation of the antibiofilm potential of other alnumycins revealed that the presence of the ribose moiety in pyranose form is essential for high activity against preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential of other closely related PNQ polyketides was examined. Based on their previously reported activity against planktonic S. aureus cells, granaticin B, kalafungin, and medermycin were also selected for testing, and among them, granaticin B was found to be the most potent against preformed biofilms. The most active antibiofilm PNQs, alnumycin D and granaticin B, share several structural features that may be important for their antibiofilm activity. They are uncharged, glycosylated, and also contain a similar oxygenation pattern of the lateral naphthoquinone ring. These findings highlight the potential of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways as a source of effective antibiofilm compounds.

  12. Toxicological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives on respiratory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in ambient aerosols and particulate matter. Experimental studies have shown that PAHs and related chemicals can induce toxicological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAHs and their derivatives on the respiratory and immune systems and the underlying mechanisms. The human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was exposed to PAHs and their derivatives, and the cytotoxicity and proinflammatory protein expression were then investigated. A cytotoxic effect was observed in BEAS-2B exposed to PAH derivatives such as naphthoquinone (NQ), phenanthrenequinone (PQ), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP). In addition, 1,2-NQ and 9,10-PQ showed more effective cytotoxicity than 1,4-NQ and 1,4-PQ, respectively. Pyrene showed a weak cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed no significant effects. Pyrene, 1-NP, and 1-AP also increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-6 production in BEAS-2B. The increase was partly suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and nuclear receptor antagonists such as the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. The present study suggests that the toxicological effects of chemicals may be related to the different activities resulting from their structures, such as numbers of benzene rings and functional groups. Furthermore, the chemical-induced increase in proinflammatory protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells was possibly a result of the activation of protein kinase pathways and nuclear receptors. The increase may partly contribute to the adverse health effects of atmospheric PAHs.

  13. Plumbagin induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Song-Ning; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Yang, Tianxing; Sun, Tao; Li, Min; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Plumbagin (PLB), an active naphthoquinone compound, has shown potent anticancer effects in preclinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of PLB for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is unclear. This study aimed to examine the pancreatic cancer cell killing effect of PLB and investigate the underlying mechanism in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that PLB exhibited potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells via the modulation of cell cycle regulators including CDK1/CDC2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. PLB treatment concentration- and time-dependently increased the percentage of autophagic cells and significantly increased the expression level of phosphatase and tensin homolog, beclin 1, and the ratio of LC3-II over LC3-I in both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. PLB induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activities of PLB in both cell lines. Furthermore, SB202190, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and wortmannin, a potent, irreversible, and selective PI3K inhibitor, remarkably enhanced PLB-induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, indicating the roles of PI3K and p38 MAPK mediated signaling pathways in PLB-induced autophagic cell death in both cell lines. In addition, PLB significantly inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition phenotype in both cell lines with an increase in the expression level of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. Moreover, PLB treatment significantly suppressed the expression of Sirt1 in both cell lines. These findings show that PLB promotes cell cycle arrest and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3

  14. Nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II. A picosecond time-resolved study of the low yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence induced by single-turnover flash in isolated spinach thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    1998-08-04

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission is widely used as a noninvasive measure of a number of parameters related to photosynthetic efficiency in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The most important component for the estimation of photochemistry is the relative increase in fluorescence yield between dark-adapted samples which have a maximal capacity for photochemistry and a minimal fluorescence yield (F0) and light-saturated samples where photochemistry is saturated and fluorescence yield is maximal (Fm). However, when photosynthesis is saturated with a short (less than 50 micro(s)) flash of light, which induces only one photochemical turnover of photosystem II, the maximal fluorescence yield is significantly lower (Fsat) than when saturation is achieved with a millisecond duration multiturnover flash (Fm). To investigate the origins of the difference in fluorescence yield between these two conditions, our time-resolved fluorescence apparatus was modified to allow collection of picosecond time-resolved decay kinetics over a short time window immediately following a saturating single-turnover flash (Fsat) as well as after a multiturnover saturating pulse (Fm). Our data were analyzed with a global kinetic model based on an exciton radical pair equilibrium model for photosystem II. The difference between Fm and Fsat was modeled well by changing only the rate constant for quenching of excitation energy in the antenna of photosystem II. An antenna-based origin for the quenching was verified experimentally by the observation that addition of the antenna quencher 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone to thylakoids under Fm conditions resulted in decay kinetics and modeled kinetic parameters very similar to those observed under Fsat conditions in the absence of added quinone. Our data strongly support the origin of low fluorescence yield at Fsat to be an antenna-based nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II which has not usually been considered explicitly in

  15. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens: A Bounding Approach for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Based on PBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-05-11

    stochastic carcinogenesis modeling results all clearly indicate that naphthalene is a DMOA carcinogen. Plausibility bounds on rat rat-tumor tumor-type specific DMOA DMOA-related uncertainty were obtained using a 2-stage model adapted to reflec reflect the empirical link between genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of t the most potent identified genotoxic naphthalene metabolites, 1,2 1,2- and 1,4 1,4-naphthoquinone. Bound Bound-specific 'adjustment' factors were then used to reduce naphthalene risk estimated by linear ex extrapolation (under the default genotoxic MOA assumption), to account for the DMOA trapolation exhibited by this compound.

  16. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens:Lower Bounds for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Implied byPBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-01-30

    As reflected in the 2005 USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment, some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate ''linear'' (genotoxic) vs. ''nonlinear'' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach--similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints--can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low-dose risk as a function of administered or internal dose. Even when a ''nonlinear'' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was illustrated for the rodent carcinogen naphthalene. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based pharmacokinetic and 2-stage stochastic carcinogenesis modeling results all clearly indicate that naphthalene is a DMOA carcinogen. Plausibility bounds on rat-tumor-type specific DMOA-related uncertainty were obtained using a 2-stage model adapted to reflect the empirical link between genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the most potent identified genotoxic naphthalene metabolites, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Resulting bounds each provided the basis for a corresponding

  17. Interaction of ascorbate with photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Mamedov, Mahir D; Semenov, Alexey Yu; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2014-11-01

    Ascorbate is one of the key participants of the antioxidant defense in plants. In this work, we have investigated the interaction of ascorbate with the chloroplast electron transport chain and isolated photosystem I (PSI), using the EPR method for monitoring the oxidized centers [Formula: see text] and ascorbate free radicals. Inhibitor analysis of the light-induced redox transients of P700 in spinach thylakoids has demonstrated that ascorbate efficiently donates electrons to [Formula: see text] via plastocyanin. Inhibitors (DCMU and stigmatellin), which block electron transport between photosystem II and Pc, did not disturb the ascorbate capacity for electron donation to [Formula: see text]. Otherwise, inactivation of Pc with CN(-) ions inhibited electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text]. This proves that the main route of electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] runs through Pc, bypassing the plastoquinone (PQ) pool and the cytochrome b 6 f complex. In contrast to Pc-mediated pathway, direct donation of electrons from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] is a rather slow process. Oxidized ascorbate species act as alternative oxidants for PSI, which intercept electrons directly from the terminal electron acceptors of PSI, thereby stimulating photooxidation of P700. We investigated the interaction of ascorbate with PSI complexes isolated from the wild type cells and the MenB deletion strain of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In the MenB mutant, PSI contains PQ in the quinone-binding A1-site, which can be substituted by high-potential electron carrier 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (Cl2NQ). In PSI from the MenB mutant with Cl2NQ in the A1-site, the outflow of electrons from PSI is impeded due to the uphill electron transfer from A1 to the iron-sulfur cluster FX and further to the terminal clusters FA/FB, which manifests itself as a decrease in a steady-state level of [Formula: see text]. The addition of ascorbate promoted photooxidation

  18. Taurine reduction in anaerobic respiration of Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU.

    PubMed

    Laue, H; Denger, K; Cook, A M

    1997-05-01

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204-210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was

  19. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service studies on polyketide toxins of Fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Liu, Jinggao; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Orta, Heather

    2003-01-01

    A group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f sp vasinfectum (Atk) Sny & Hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. All isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. Most isolates of race 1 (previously denoted as races 1, 2 and 6; and also called race A) also synthesized the heptaketide naphthoquinones, nectriafurone, anhydrofusarubin lactol and 5-O-methyljavanicin. Nine avirulent isolates of F oxysporum from Upland cotton roots, three isolates of race 3 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum, and four isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum from Australia, all of which previously failed to cause disease of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in stem-puncture assays, also failed to synthesize or secrete more than trace amounts of the heptaketide compounds. These results indicate that the heptaketides may have a unique role in the virulence of race 1 to Upland cotton. The synthesis of all polyketide toxins by ATCC isolate 24908 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum was regulated by pH, carbon/nitrogen ratios, and availability of calcium in media. Synthesis was greatest below pH 7.0 and increased progressively as carbon/nitrogen ratios were increased by decreasing the amounts of nitrogen added to media. The nonaketides were the major polyketides accumulated in synthetic media at pH 4.5 and below, whereas the heptaketides were predominant at pH 5.0 and above. The heptaketides were the major polyketides formed when 10 F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum race 1 isolates were grown on sterilized stems of Fusarium wilt-susceptible cotton cultivars, but these compounds were not produced on sorghum grain cultures. Both groups of polyketide toxins were apparently secreted by F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum

  20. Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to have various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0–2 μM shikonin. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic mechanism of shikonin, adipogenic transcription factors, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Results Shikonin effectively suppressed adipogenesis and downregulated the protein levels of 2 major transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2. Adipocyte differentiation was mediated by ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, which was confirmed by pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK 1/2 inhibitor) or FGF-2 (an ERK 1/2 activator). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during the early stages of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by shikonin. We also confirmed that FGF-2-stimulated ERK 1/2 activity was attenuated by shikonin. Conclusions These results demonstrate that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation via suppression of the ERK signaling pathway

  1. Structural-functional characterization and physiological significance of ferredoxin-NADP reductase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Tondo, María Laura; Musumeci, Matías A; Delprato, María Laura; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Orellano, Elena G

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a phytopathogen bacterium that causes severe citrus canker disease. Similar to other phytopathogens, after infection by this bacterium, plants trigger a defense mechanism that produces reactive oxygen species. Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases (FNRs) are redox flavoenzymes that participate in several metabolic functions, including the response to reactive oxygen species. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri has a gene (fpr) that encodes for a FNR (Xac-FNR) that belongs to the subclass I bacterial FNRs. The aim of this work was to search for the physiological role of this enzyme and to characterize its structural and functional properties. The functionality of Xac-FNR was tested by cross-complementation of a FNR knockout Escherichia coli strain, which exhibit high susceptibility to agents that produce an abnormal accumulation of (•)O(2)(-). Xac-FNR was able to substitute for the FNR in E. coli in its antioxidant role. The expression of fpr in X. axonopodis pv. citri was assessed using semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. A 2.2-fold induction was observed in the presence of the superoxide-generating agents methyl viologen and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. Structural and functional studies showed that Xac-FNR displayed different functional features from other subclass I bacterial FNRs. Our analyses suggest that these differences may be due to the unusual carboxy-terminal region. We propose a further classification of subclass I bacterial FNRs, which is useful to determine the nature of their ferredoxin redox partners. Using sequence analysis, we identified a ferredoxin (XAC1762) as a potential substrate of Xac-FNR. The purified ferredoxin protein displayed the typical broad UV-visible spectrum of [4Fe-4S] clusters and was able to function as substrate of Xac-FNR in the cytochrome c reductase activity. Our results suggest that Xac-FNR is involved in the oxidative stress response of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and

  2. Investigations of solvent properties and solvent effects on chemical equilibria and reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Laura Lynn Thomas

    Thermodynamic and structural properties computed via simulations of pure liquids and dilute solutions are routinely used as a metric of accuracy for condensed-phase force fields and in the development and testing of new methodology. Additionally, reliable modeling of solvent systems is critical to investigations of physical phenomena, such as the elucidation of solvent effects on chemical equilibria and reaction rates. This dissertation highlights a series of studies that span these topics. The Lennard-Jones 12-6 functional form, often invoked to model van der Waals interactions, has been argued to be too repulsive at short internuclear separations. Monte Carlo simulations of organic liquids at various temperatures and pressures show that this function, in conjunction with OPLS parameters, is capable of reproducing experimental densities. In order to address potential cumulative deviations of computed properties and conformational differences between the gas phase and pure liquids, Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the homologous n-alkane series C4H10-C12H26 using the OPLS-AA force field. Favorable structural motifs of longer alkanes were also investigated to study self solvation in the gas phase. Next, an overview of the computation of free energy changes in solution using perturbation theory, overlap sampling, and related approximate methods is presented. Results are provided for free energies of hydration of OPLS-AA substituted benzenes in TIP4P water. For comparable amounts of computer time, the double-wide and overlap sampling methods yield very similar results. QM/MM simulations of the Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopentadiene with 1,4-naphthoquinone, methyl vinyl ketone, and acrylonitrile have been carried out at the water-vacuum interface and in the gas phase. The relative free energies of activation and transition structure geometries at the interface were intermediate between those calculated in the gas phase and in bulk water, consistent

  3. Absorption of lawsone through human skin.

    PubMed

    Kraeling, Margaret E K; Bronaugh, Robert L; Jung, Connie T

    2007-01-01

    Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is the principal color ingredient in henna, a color additive approved with limitations for coloring hair by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under 21 CFR 73.2190. In 2002, the scientific committee on cosmetics and non-food products (SCCNFP), now known as the scientific committee for consumer products (SCCP), evaluated the safety of lawsone as a coloring agent in hair dye products of the European Union (EU). The SCCNFP concluded that lawsone was mutagenic and not suitable for use as a hair coloring agent. As a result, studies were conducted to measure the extent of lawsone absorption through human skin. Lawsone skin absorption was determined from two hair coloring products and two shampoo products, all containing henna. [(14)C]-Lawsone (sp. act. 22.9 mCi/mmol) was added to each commercial product and the products were applied to dermatomed, nonviable human skin mounted in flow-through diffusion cells perfused with a physiological buffer (HEPES-buffered Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.4). Products remained on the skin for 5 minutes (shampoos) and 1 hour (hair color paste). For the henna hair paste products, 0.3 and 1.3% of the applied dose was absorbed into the receptor fluid in 24 hours while 2.2 and 4.0% remained in the skin. For both henna shampoo products, 0.3% of the applied dose was absorbed into the receptor fluid at 24 hours while 3.6 and 6.8% remained in the skin. For all products, most of the lawsone applied was washed from the surface of the skin (83-102%) at the end of the exposure period. Extended absorption studies were conducted for 72 hours to determine if skin levels of lawsone in the 24 hour studies might eventually be percutaneously absorbed. These studies determined that the majority of the lawsone remained in the skin with only a small but significant increase (for three out of four products) in receptor fluid values. Therefore, it appears that receptor fluid values would give a good estimate of

  4. Electrodegradation of the Acid Green 28 dye using Ti/β-PbO2 and Ti-Pt/β-PbO2 anodes.

    PubMed

    Irikura, Kallyni; Bocchi, Nerilso; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Biaggio, Sonia R; Iniesta, Jesús; Montiel, Vicente

    2016-12-01

    The statistical Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of different parameters (current density, j, NaCl concentration, [NaCl], pH, and temperature, θ) and their interactions on the electrochemical degradation of the Acid Green (AG) 28 dye using a Ti/β-PbO2 or Ti-Pt/β-PbO2 anode in a filter-press reactor. LC/MS is employed to identify intermediate compounds. For both anodes, the best experimental conditions are j = 50 mA cm(-2), [NaCl] = 1.5 g L(-1), pH = 5, and θ = 25 °C. After 3 h of electrolysis, a dye solution treated under these conditions presents the following parameters: electric charge per unit volume of the electrolyzed solution required for 90% decolorization (Q(90)) of 0.34-0.37 A h L(-1), %COD removal of ∼100%, specific energy consumption of 18-20 kW h m(-3), and %TOC removal of 32-33%. No loss of the β-PbO2 film is observed during all the experiments. The β-PbO2 films present excellent stability for solutions with pH ≥ 5 ([Pb(2+)] < 0.5 mg L(-1)). Chloroform is the only volatile organic halo compound present in the treated solution under those optimized conditions. Hydroxylated anthraquinone derivatives, aromatic chloramines, and naphthoquinones are formed during the electrolyses. The Ti/β-PbO2 and Ti-Pt/β-PbO2 anodes show significantly better performance than a commercial DSA anode for the electrochemical degradation of the AG 28 dye. The Ti/β-PbO2 anode, prepared as described in this work, is an excellent option for the treatment of textile effluents because of its low cost of fabrication and good performance.

  5. Micro Electrochemical pH Sensor Applicable for Real-Time Ratiometric Monitoring of pH Values in Rat Brains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Limin; Tian, Yang

    2016-02-16

    To develop in vivo monitoring meter for pH measurements is still the bottleneck for understanding the role of pH plays in the brain diseases. In this work, a selective and sensitive electrochemical pH meter was developed for real-time ratiometric monitoring of pH in different regions of rat brains upon ischemia. First, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) was employed and optimized as a selective pH recognition element to establish a 2H(+)/2e(-) approach over a wide range of pH from 5.8 to 8.0. The pH meter demonstrated remarkable selectivity toward pH detection against metal ions, amino acids, reactive oxygen species, and other biological species in the brain. Meanwhile, an inner reference, 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FcHT), was selected as a built-in correction to avoid the environmental effect through coimmobilization with 1,2-NQ. In addition, three-dimensional gold nanoleaves were electrodeposited onto the electrode surface to amplify the signal by ∼4.0-fold and the measurement was achieved down to 0.07 pH. Finally, combined with the microelectrode technique, the microelectrochemical pH meter was directly implanted into brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex and successfully applied in real-time monitoring of pH values in these regions of brain followed by global cerebral ischemia. The results demonstrated that pH values were estimated to 7.21 ± 0.05, 7.13 ± 0.09, and 7.27 ± 0.06 in the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex in the rat brains, respectively, in normal conditions. However, pH decreased to 6.75 ± 0.07 and 6.52 ± 0.03 in the striatum and hippocampus, upon global cerebral ischemia, while a negligible pH change was obtained in the cortex.

  6. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, Nobuaki; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1

  7. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses

  8. Identification of natural inhibitors of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine synthase from microbial secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mihoko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Masuda, Yui; Sakai, Kazunari; Tsukui, Kumiko; Waluyo, Danang; Tarwadi; Watanabe, Yoshio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a common worldwide diarrheal disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its known side effects and low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers. E. histolytica is also capable of surviving sub-therapeutic levels of metronidazole in vitro. Novel drugs with different mode of action are therefore urgently needed. The sulfur assimilatory de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for various cellular activities, including the proliferation and anti-oxidative defense of E. histolytica. Since the pathway, consisting of two reactions catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase), does not exist in humans, it is a rational drug target against amebiasis. To discover inhibitors against the CS of E. histolytica (EhCS), the compounds of Kitasato Natural Products Library were screened against two recombinant CS isozymes: EhCS1 and EhCS3. Nine compounds inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3 with IC50 values of 0.31–490 μM. Of those, seven compounds share a naphthoquinone moiety, indicating the structural importance of the moiety for binding to the active site of EhCS1 and EhCS3. We further screened >9,000 microbial broths for CS inhibition and purified two compounds, xanthofulvin and exophillic acid from fungal broths. Xanthofulvin inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3. Exophillic acid showed high selectivity against EhCS1, but exhibited no inhibition against EhCS3. In vitro anti-amebic activity of the 11 EhCS inhibitors was also examined. Deacetylkinamycin C and nanaomycin A showed more potent amebicidal activity with IC50 values of 18 and 0.8 μM, respectively, in the cysteine deprived conditions. The differential sensitivity of trophozoites against deacetylkinamycin C in the presence or absence of L-cysteine in the medium and the IC50 values against EhCS suggest the amebicidal effect of deacetylkinamycin C is due to

  9. Understanding amyloid fibril nucleation and aβ oligomer/drug interactions from computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-02-18

    the critical nucleus size might be on the order of 20 chains under physiological conditions. The transition state might be characterized by a simultaneous change from mixed antiparallel/parallel β-strands with random side-chain packing to the final antiparallel or parallel states with the steric zipper packing of the side chains. Second, we review our current computer-based knowledge of the 3D structures of inhibitors with Aβ42 monomer and oligomers, a prerequisite for developing new drugs against AD. Recent extensive all-atom simulations of Aβ42 dimers with known inhibitors such as the green tea compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate and 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan provide a spectrum of initial Aβ42/inhibitor structures useful for screening and drug design. We conclude by discussing future directions that may offer opportunities to fully understand nucleation and further AD drug development.

  10. Plumbagin attenuates cancer cell growth and osteoclast formation in the bone microenvironment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Ting-yu; Fan, Qi-ming; Du, Lin; Xu, Jia-ke; Zhai, Zan-jing; Li, Hao-wei; Tang, Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human breast cancer cell growth and the cancer cell-induced osteolysis in the bone microenvironment of mice. Methods: Human breast cancer cell subline MDA-MB-231SA with the ability to spread and grow in the bone was tested. The cell proliferation was determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V/PI double-labeled flow cytometry. Red fluorescent protein-labeled MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were injected into the right tibia of female BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Three days after the inoculation, the mice were injected with plumbagin (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg, ip) 5 times per week for 7 weeks. The growth of the tumor cells was monitored using an in vivo imaging system. After the mice were sacrificed, the hind limbs were removed for radiographic and histological analyses. Results: Plumbagin (2.5–20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231SA cells in vitro (the IC50 value of inhibition of cell viability was 14.7 μmol/L). Administration of plumbagin to breast cancer bearing mice delayed the tumor growth by 2–3 weeks and reduced the tumor volume by 44%–74%. The in vivo imaging study showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited MDA-MB-231SArfp cell growth in bone microenvironment. Furthermore, X-ray images and micro-CT study demonstrated that plumbagin reduced bone erosion area and prevented a decrease in bone tissue volume. Histological studies showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited the breast cancer cell growth, enhanced the cell apoptosis and reduced the number of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts. Conclusion: Plumbagin inhibits the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in mice bone microenvironment, leading to significant reduction in osteolytic lesions caused by the tumor cells. PMID:24384612

  11. Seasonal nutrient dynamics in the Anacostia River (D.C., USA): geochemistry and hydrocarbon biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraino, S.; Frantz, D. E.; Macavoy, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The seasonal biogeochemistry of the urban Anacostia River (Washington D.C. USA) was investigated. Chemical parameters examined include: inorganics (Ca, Mg, Na, S, K, P, NO3, NH4, PO4, B, Ba, Ni, Co); fatty acids and other hydrocarbons; C, N and S stable isotopes; and other water chemistry indicators (hardness, salinity, alkalinity, soluble salts, SAR, TDS). Between April and July 2010, water and sediment were sampled from three tidal freshwater sites along the Anacostia River (UP, MID, and DWN). Two of the selected sites, UP and DWN, are located next to a combined sewage outflow. Water column nutrient analysis shows increasing availability of ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3) at all sites between April and July. At MID, the site showing the highest rates of nutrient growth over the sampling period, NH4 concentrations increase from 0.13 to 1.49 µg/L and NO3 concentrations increase from 0.71 to 2.88 mg/L. A marked NO3 pulse is observed at the DWN site in early May; NO3 concentrations jump from 0.68 to 3.36 mg/L between April 5 and May 6, decreasing to 1.22 mg/L by May 20. Unlike UP and MID, which show NH4 and NO3 increasing concurrently, this NO3 pulse at DWN is accompanied with a decline in NH4 levels, suggestive of an allochthonous NO3 source. Forthcoming stable isotope data are expected to characterize the source of such nitrogen inputs, as well as organic material, throughout the year. Preliminary GC-MS analysis of isolated fatty acids does not explicitly suggest bacterial or higher plant dominance in the spring; however, some notable compounds were identified, such as the PAH fluoranthene, naphthoquinone, and testosterone, as well as a number of cholesterols and other steroids. Higher proportions of bacterial fatty acid biomarkers are expected during the summer. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the chemistry data suggests geochemical variables, rather than nutrients, are the driving forces of observed trends. PCA, along with fatty acid characterization and

  12. NapGH components of the periplasmic nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli K-12: location, topology and physiological roles in quinol oxidation and redox balancing.

    PubMed Central

    Brondijk, T Harma C; Nilavongse, Arjaree; Filenko, Nina; Richardson, David J; Cole, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    Nap (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operons of many bacteria include four common, essential components, napD, napA, napB and napC (or a homologue of napC ). In Escherichia coli there are three additional genes, napF, napG and napH, none of which are essential for Nap activity. We now show that deletion of either napG or napH almost abolished Nap-dependent nitrate reduction by strains defective in naphthoquinone synthesis. The residual rate of nitrate reduction (approx. 1% of that of napG+ H+ strains) is sufficient to replace fumarate reduction in a redox-balancing role during growth by glucose fermentation. Western blotting combined with beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase fusion experiments established that NapH is an integral membrane protein with four transmembrane helices. Both the N- and C-termini as well as the two non-haem iron-sulphur centres are located in the cytoplasm. An N-terminal twin arginine motif was shown to be essential for NapG function, consistent with the expectation that NapG is secreted into the periplasm by the twin arginine translocation pathway. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to show that NapH interacts, presumably on the cytoplasmic side of, or within, the membrane, with NapC. As expected for a periplasmic protein, no NapG interactions with NapC or NapH were detected in the cytoplasm. An in vitro quinol dehydrogenase assay was developed to show that both NapG and NapH are essential for rapid electron transfer from menadiol to the terminal NapAB complex. These new in vivo and in vitro results establish that NapG and NapH form a quinol dehydrogenase that couples electron transfer from the high midpoint redox potential ubiquinone-ubiquinol couple via NapC and NapB to NapA. PMID:14674886

  13. Destruction of leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigotes within macrophages in culture by phenazine methosulfate and other electron carriers

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, M; Dedet, J-P; Ryter, A; Robineaux, R; Topper, G; Brunet, E

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of macrophages infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis to phenazine methosulfate (PMS) resulted in rapid damage and disappearance of the intracellular amastigotes without obvious ill effects to the host cells. The reduction of the percent infection was related to the concentration of PMS and to the duration of the pulse. Most Leishmania disappeared within 2 h of a 2-h pulse with 10 μM of the drug. In contrast, pretreatment of the macrophages with PMS followed by removal of the drug before infection did not result in disappearance of the parasites. The pH of the PMS medium markedly influenced the disappearance of Leishmania: maximum effect was observed at pH 8.0, while the effect was negligible at pH 6.3. The pH effect may be related to pseudobase formation by the PMS cation. Dose-response curves for PMS were similar for resident, elicited, or activated macrophages. Observations by time-lapse cinemicrography documented the explosion-like fragmentation of the amastigotes within 1-2 h of exposure of infected macrophages to the drug. Parasite-derived granules and vacuoles were seen to scatter within the parasitophorous vacuoles. This early damage to the parasites was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic observations. Infected macrophages incubated with PMS displayed detectable vacuolar fluorescence, indicating that PMS or a metabolite of PMS had access to the vacuoles. A series of other electron carriers, including phenyl methanes, phenazines, oxazines, a xanthene, and a naphthoquinone, given continuously for 18 h, also induced the disappearance of the Leishmania. The most potent was crystal violet, active at 70 nM. The presence of apolar substituents enhanced activity and this is probably related to increased permeation of the dyes. Finally, PMS, as well as other electron carriers examined, also reduced the growth of Leishmania promastigotes in culture. The results are compatible with a direct effect of the drugs on the intracellular

  14. Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Mössbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Ahmed, Khursheed; Varret, François; Linares, Jorge; Zaware, Santosh; Date, Sadgopal; Rane, Sandhya

    2008-07-01

    Purple acid phosphatase, ( PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2 + 2, + 3 site with characteristic Fe + 3 ← Tyr ligand to metal charge transfer in coordination. Phthiocoloxime (3-methyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime) ligand L, mimics (His/Tyr) ligation with controlled and unique charge transfers resulting in valence tautomeric coordination with mixed valent diiron site in model compound Fe-1: [μ-OH-Fe2 + 2, + 3 ( o-NQCH3ox) ( o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe + 3( o-NQCH3ox) ( p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Mössbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe + 3]A and [Fe + 2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are δ A = 0.152, (Δ E Q)A = 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at δ B = 0.410 and (Δ E Q)B = 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe + 3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift δ = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe + 3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split Δ E Q = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2 + 2, + 3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g 1 = 4.17 and g 2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe + 3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of χ _m^{corr} .T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange ( J = -13.5 cm - 1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 × 10 - 5). The lower J