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Sample records for narcissism

  1. Narcissism and Accounting Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill; Akers, Michael D.; Giacomino, Don E.

    2013-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that varies in individuals much like other characteristics. Accordingly, narcissism can positively or negatively impact the leadership style and career of business leaders. While personality research has examined the level of narcissism in college-aged students over the past 30 years, only recently has limited…

  2. Narcissism and Adjustment in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauletti, Rachel E.; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Perry, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Narcissism--a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self--is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with…

  3. Narcissism and Internet pornography use.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Thomas Edward; Short, Mary Beth; Milam, Alex Clinton

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between Internet pornography use and narcissism. Participants (N=257) completed an online survey that included questions on Internet pornography use and 3 narcissism measures (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Pathological Narcissistic Inventory, and the Index of Sexual Narcissism). The hours spent viewing Internet pornography was positively correlated to participants' narcissism level. In addition, those who have ever used Internet pornography endorsed higher levels of all 3 measures of narcissism than did those who have never used Internet pornography.

  4. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  5. Origins of narcissism in children.

    PubMed

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-24

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age.

  6. Origins of narcissism in children

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7–12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents’ inflated views of them (e.g., “I am superior to others” and “I am entitled to privileges”). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age. PMID:25775577

  7. Origins of narcissism in children.

    PubMed

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-24

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age. PMID:25775577

  8. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  9. Racism, narcissism, and integrity.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C

    1978-02-01

    Recently there has been much literature pertaining to the psychodynamics of narcissism and its relation to psychopathological and normal psychic functions. While these models of the mind are primarily aimed at understanding individual behavior in the therapeutic relationship, they are also useful in clarifying one's thinking about racism, which can be approached both from an individual and social viewpoint.The author demonstrates that the racist individual suffers from a defect in narcissistic personality development, which precludes the subsequent development of such qualities as creativity, empathy, and integrity.

  10. Five Blows to Mankind's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    1978-01-01

    Freud identified three blows to mankind's narcissism--cosmological, biological, and psychological. Conjectural fourth and fifth blows might be universological (the discovery of other intelligent beings) and earthological (the demise of this planet via waste, pollution, etc.). (Author/JC)

  11. Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2014-10-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally.

  12. Narcissism, Sex Roles, and Self-Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an adjusted narcissism was more obvious in males and in masculine subjects, and that femininity appeared to inhibit the display of an unhealthy exploitative…

  13. Pathological narcissism and the obstruction of love.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-03-01

    Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love.

  14. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  15. [Critical views on narcissism theories].

    PubMed

    Battegay, R

    1983-01-01

    After having given an overview about the different definitions of the Self, I have defined it as the seat of narcissism which furnishes the instances of Ego, Id and Super-Ego as well as to the body this narcissistic investment or information which gives the individual the feeling that the different instances and his body are belonging to his own and giving him throughout his life a feeling of continuity. Otto F. Kernberg describes, contrary to Heinz Kohut, the primarily pathological nature of narcissism of individuals having an Ego prone to fragmentation and very rigid defense mechanisms, e.g. splitting, projective identification, blind rage, hostility etc. The pathological narcissism results out of an early pathological object-relationship and of an Ego prone to fragmentation with a consecutive disturbance of the development of the Self. From these borderline personalities with their pathology of narcissism I differentiate the narcissistic neuroses--called by Kohut narcissistic personality disorders or behavior disorders--in individuals with a strong Ego, which are due to a lack--or more rarely to a surplus--of warmth-, stimulation- and cognition-experiences in early childhood. They have a tendency of undergoing more than usual a fusion with a Self-object, mirror transferences and developing a grandiose Self in their fantasy as compensations or defense mechanisms. The schizoid personalities are intermediate forms, which show a rigid defense, however do not have like the borderline-personalities the tendency to occasional break-throughs of the primary process. Whereas in the treatment of narcissistically disturbed borderline conditions early interpretations of the rigid archaic defense mechanisms and furthering reality testing are necessary, in narcissistic neuroses primarily the building up of a consistent Self and then a working through of the named narcissistic compensations and defense mechanisms are necessary.

  16. Sexual narcissism: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, D F; Apt, C; Gasar, S; Wilson, N E; Murphy, Y

    1994-01-01

    Sexual narcissism, an egocentric pattern of sexual behavior, has recently been described in the literature and has been discovered to be associated with cluster B type personality disorders. Although the research seems to have validated sexual narcissism as a characteristic of borderline and histrionic personality disorders, it is yet to be tested with narcissistic personalities. In an effort to further explore this relationship as well as the validity of sexual narcissism, this study systematically compared a sample (ages 24-33 years) of males with narcissistic personality disorder with an adequately matched sample of males without personality disorders. As compared to the control group, narcissistic men were found to have significantly lower self-esteem, more negative attitudes toward sex, greater egocentric patterns of sexual behavior, more conservative or traditional gender-role orientation, and greater sexual preoccupation. Despite these findings, there were no significant differences between the groups on sexual depression and the narcissistic men evidenced significantly higher sexual esteem. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  17. Toward an integrative study of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Blais, Mark A; Little, Jessica A

    2010-07-01

    Comments on the article by Miller and Campbell (see record 2010-17135-004). The expression of narcissism spans the continuum from normal to pathological and has meaningful correlates in clinical and nonclinical populations. There is growing speculation that narcissism also contributes to major societal concerns (e.g., terrorism and corporate malfeasance). Improving our understanding of the psychological, interpersonal, and social expressions of narcissism should be one of the most important areas in behavioral science research. Unfortunately, the study of narcissism is fragmented and underpursued. Pathological narcissism (PN), primarily narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), has been studied mainly through clinical case reports and psychodynamic theory (Ronningstam, 2005), whereas the study of trait narcissism has utilized more empirical methods. Miller and Campbell contend that the current understanding of PN is speculative and empirically lacking. His proposed remedy is for psychiatric and clinical researchers to incorporate the strategies and tools used to study trait narcissism. Although research on PN should be more empirically based, the uncritical adoption of the trait narcissism paradigm seems ill advised. Rather, an integrative research perspective incorporating knowledge and methodologies across disciplines would seem more promising. PMID:22448638

  18. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.

  19. Down-regulating narcissistic tendencies: communal focus reduces state narcissism.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-04-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing attributes that orients individuals toward self-enhancement and positive self-feelings. In this view, reducing one element of narcissism--such as a greater concern for agency than communion--may situationally reduce narcissism in a state-like manner. Across five studies, we found that increasing communal focus toward others decreases state narcissism. In Study 1, participants induced to feel empathy reported less state narcissism. In Studies 2 to 4, participants primed with interdependent self-construal reported less state narcissism than control participants and those primed with independent self-construal. Furthermore, in Study 4, changes in state narcissism mediated changes in desire for fame and perceptions that others deserve help. Thus, changes in one element of narcissism may situationally reduce narcissistic tendencies. These findings suggest that narcissism is more state-like and context-dependent than previously assumed.

  20. Narcissism and social networking Web sites.

    PubMed

    Buffardi, Laura E; Campbell, W Keith

    2008-10-01

    The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed.

  1. The Wax and Wane of Narcissism: Grandiose Narcissism as a Process or State.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2016-04-01

    Though grandiose narcissism has predominantly been studied in structural terms-focused on individuals' general tendencies to be more or less narcissistic-we tested whether it also has a meaningful process or state component. Using a daily diary study methodology and multilevel modeling (N = 178 undergraduates, 146 female; Mage  = 18.86, SD = 2.21), we examine whether there is significant variability in daily state narcissism and whether this variability relates systematically to other psychological states (i.e., self-esteem, stress) and daily events. We assessed state narcissism and daily experiences over a 10-day period. We observed significant within-person variability in daily narcissism. Notably, this variability was not simply random error, as it related systematically to other psychological states and daily events. Specifically, state narcissism was higher when people experienced more positive agentic outcomes (e.g., having power over someone) or more positive communal outcomes (e.g., helping someone with a problem). State narcissism was lower on days people experienced greater felt stress. These relations held when state self-esteem, gender, and trait narcissism were controlled. These findings suggest that grandiose narcissism has a meaningful process or state component.

  2. The Wax and Wane of Narcissism: Grandiose Narcissism as a Process or State.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2016-04-01

    Though grandiose narcissism has predominantly been studied in structural terms-focused on individuals' general tendencies to be more or less narcissistic-we tested whether it also has a meaningful process or state component. Using a daily diary study methodology and multilevel modeling (N = 178 undergraduates, 146 female; Mage  = 18.86, SD = 2.21), we examine whether there is significant variability in daily state narcissism and whether this variability relates systematically to other psychological states (i.e., self-esteem, stress) and daily events. We assessed state narcissism and daily experiences over a 10-day period. We observed significant within-person variability in daily narcissism. Notably, this variability was not simply random error, as it related systematically to other psychological states and daily events. Specifically, state narcissism was higher when people experienced more positive agentic outcomes (e.g., having power over someone) or more positive communal outcomes (e.g., helping someone with a problem). State narcissism was lower on days people experienced greater felt stress. These relations held when state self-esteem, gender, and trait narcissism were controlled. These findings suggest that grandiose narcissism has a meaningful process or state component. PMID:25388437

  3. Dependent Narcissism, Organizational Learning, and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…

  4. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  5. A Python interface with Narcisse graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Motteler, Z.C.

    1996-04-15

    Narcisse is a graphics package developed by our French colleagues at Centre d`Etudes de Limeil Valenton of the Commissariat d`Energie Atomique. Narcisse is quite comprehensive; it can do two-, three-, and four-dimensional plots (the latter meaning that the surface is colored according to the values of an arbitrary function). One can open and send plots to a Narcisse window on a distant machine. Narcisse has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) which, once a graph has appeared, allows the user to change its characteristics interactively. This enables one to find the best appearance for a particular plot without having to graph it repeatedly from the user program. Previously created files in various formats can also be imported directly into the Narcisse GUI and manipulated from there. Narcisse runs independently, as a graphics server. The user program communicates with Narcisse via Unix sockets. This communication is quite low level and very complex. The appearance of a plot is controlled by nearly 150 parameters for determining such things as the color palette, type of shading, axis scales, curve and surface labels, titles, angle and distance of view (for three- and four-dimensional graphs), hidden line removal, etc. Most end users do not wish to spend time learning the tedious details of such interfaces; they would just like to specify data and ask to have it plotted. This paper describes a high level, easy to use graphics interface which hides (as much as possible) the low level details of whatever graphics system is actually being used, so that the low level can be essentially ``plug-and-play.`` Then, whenever a better system becomes available, it should only be necessary to change low level interface routines not normally accessed by ordinary users. Python, with its easy extendability, was ideally suited for this job.

  6. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  7. Thinking Structurally About Narcissism: An Examination of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; McCain, Jessica L; Few, Lauren R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a self-report measure of the traits linked to grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), from a five-factor model perspective (FFM). In the current studies, the factor structure of the FFNI was explored and the results supported the extraction of three factors: Antagonism (e.g., Arrogance), Neuroticism (e.g., Need for Admiration), and Agentic Extraversion (e.g., Authoritativeness). In Study 2, the FFNI factors manifested convergent validity with their corresponding Big Five domains and diverging relations with measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, NPD, and self-esteem. Ultimately, the FFNI factors help explicate the differences between various expressions of narcissism such that all are related to Antagonism but differ with regard to Neuroticism (relevant to vulnerable narcissism and NPD) and Agentic Extraversion (relevant to grandiose narcissism and NPD). The results also highlight the complex relation between self-esteem and the traits that comprise narcissism measures.

  8. Clarifying the links between grandiose narcissism and parenting.

    PubMed

    Horton, Robert S; Tritch, Tanner

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links between parenting and grandiose narcissism in hopes of clarifying recent empirical discrepancies. One-hundred forty-five participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and reported about their parents' support, coldness, monitoring, psychological control, and overvaluation. Psychological control was associated positively with narcissism, whereas monitoring and coldness were associated negatively. Overvaluation and parental support showed no reliable associations with narcissism. Analysis of the components of narcissism further elucidated these links. The results are interpreted in light of previous findings and as consistent with social learning and psychodynamic theories regarding the origins of narcissism. PMID:24684075

  9. Clarifying the links between grandiose narcissism and parenting.

    PubMed

    Horton, Robert S; Tritch, Tanner

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links between parenting and grandiose narcissism in hopes of clarifying recent empirical discrepancies. One-hundred forty-five participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and reported about their parents' support, coldness, monitoring, psychological control, and overvaluation. Psychological control was associated positively with narcissism, whereas monitoring and coldness were associated negatively. Overvaluation and parental support showed no reliable associations with narcissism. Analysis of the components of narcissism further elucidated these links. The results are interpreted in light of previous findings and as consistent with social learning and psychodynamic theories regarding the origins of narcissism.

  10. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies.

  11. Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

    2008-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptualization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism-one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality research (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)-across two samples. Sample 1 (N=271) was composed of undergraduates, whereas Sample 2 (N=211) was composed of parents of the Sample 1 participants. The scales were significantly interrelated but manifested divergent relations with general personality traits, personality disorders (including expert prototypal ratings of narcissism), recollections of parenting received, and psychological distress and self-esteem. PDQ-4 narcissism captured an emotionally unstable, negative-affect-laden, and introverted variant of narcissism; NPI narcissism captured an emotionally resilient, extraverted form. The clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism primarily share a tendency to use an antagonistic interpersonal style. Implications for the DSM-V are discussed.

  12. Narcissism in the novels of Herman Melville.

    PubMed

    Dyer, S K

    1994-01-01

    The nineteenth-century novels of Herman Melville, in their exploration of the theme of the conflict of man's godlike aspirations with his all-too-human limitations, anticipate the twentieth-century psychoanalytic understanding of narcissism, as developed by Sigmund Freud and Hans Kohut, specifically its psychodynamic model of the ego ideal in conflict with reality and the finiteness of human life. Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a vivid portrait of a narcissistic character, while Captain Vere in Billy Budd stands as a model of the "transformations of narcissism" in a mature individual. Melville's imaginative fiction is still capable of giving us valuable insights into the human condition. PMID:8165264

  13. Narcissism in the novels of Herman Melville.

    PubMed

    Dyer, S K

    1994-01-01

    The nineteenth-century novels of Herman Melville, in their exploration of the theme of the conflict of man's godlike aspirations with his all-too-human limitations, anticipate the twentieth-century psychoanalytic understanding of narcissism, as developed by Sigmund Freud and Hans Kohut, specifically its psychodynamic model of the ego ideal in conflict with reality and the finiteness of human life. Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a vivid portrait of a narcissistic character, while Captain Vere in Billy Budd stands as a model of the "transformations of narcissism" in a mature individual. Melville's imaginative fiction is still capable of giving us valuable insights into the human condition.

  14. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In Study 1, we surveyed an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating 304 twin pairs, Study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship. PMID:26217251

  15. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L L

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In Study 1, we surveyed an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating 304 twin pairs, Study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship.

  16. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L L

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In Study 1, we surveyed an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating 304 twin pairs, Study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship. PMID:26217251

  17. The Relationship Between Religiosity and Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Sought to clarify the intrinsic narcissistic relationship with religiosity using the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, the Allport-Ross religious Orientation Scale and the Machiavellian Scale. Intrinsic religiosity correlated negatively and specifically with the maladaptive exploitiveness dimension of narcissism. Data are discussed in terms…

  18. Narcissism: Issues of Definition, Assessment, and Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comrie, Matthew D.

    The psychological construct of narcissism and the diagnostic label Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) have gained considerable attention in the literature in recent years, leading to the addition of the diagnostic category for NPD in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) (1980). The DSM III diagnostic criteria,…

  19. Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

  20. Personality and Perpetration: Narcissism Among College Sexual Assault Perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Mouilso, Emily R; Calhoun, Karen S

    2016-09-01

    Theory and research suggest that narcissism plays an important role in perpetration of sexual aggression. As narcissism is a multidimensional construct, our objective was to clarify the relation between perpetration and three aspects of narcissism. College men (N = 234) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-II (SCID-N) Personality Questionnaire, and Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). Perpetrators had higher scores on NPD traits, which were also associated with frequent perpetration. HSNS scores were only associated with perpetration via alcohol and/or drugs. Only the maladaptive facets of NPI narcissism correlated with perpetration. Narcissism seems to have been understudied in nonincarcerated perpetrators.

  1. Rhetoric and Narcissism: A Critique of Ideological Selfism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Isaac E.

    1986-01-01

    Argues for a redefinition of narcissism as pathological communication, rather than egoism or individualism. Contends that such a definition has heuristic advantages. Suggests directions for further research. (MS)

  2. Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

  3. There Is an "I" in TEAM: Narcissism and Social Loafing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Callow, Nichola; Rogers, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1,…

  4. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  5. Narcissism and the use of personal pronouns revisited.

    PubMed

    Carey, Angela L; Brucks, Melanie S; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Holtzman, Nicholas S; Große Deters, Fenne; Back, Mitja D; Donnellan, M Brent; Pennebaker, James W; Mehl, Matthias R

    2015-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 109(3) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2015-37773-002). The authors erroneously reported the overall correlation, first stated in the abstract, between Narcissism and total first-person-singular use as .02 (.017) instead of .01 (.010). The misreporting of the overall correlation between Narcissism and total use of first-person singular does not change the results or interpretation in any way (i.e., the near-zero association between Narcissism and I-talk). The online version of this article has been corrected.] Among both laypersons and researchers, extensive use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., I-talk) is considered a face-valid linguistic marker of narcissism. However, the assumed relation between narcissism and I-talk has yet to be subjected to a strong empirical test. Accordingly, we conducted a large-scale (N = 4,811), multisite (5 labs), multimeasure (5 narcissism measures) and dual-language (English and German) investigation to quantify how strongly narcissism is related to using more first-person singular pronouns across different theoretically relevant communication contexts (identity-related, personal, impersonal, private, public, and stream-of-consciousness tasks). Overall (r = .02, 95% CI [-.02, .04]) and within the sampled contexts, narcissism was unrelated to use of first-person singular pronouns (total, subjective, objective, and possessive). This consistent near-zero effect has important implications for making inferences about narcissism from pronoun use and prompts questions about why I-talk tends to be strongly perceived as an indicator of narcissism in the absence of an underlying actual association between the 2 variables. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The Narcissism of Depression or the Depression of Narcissism and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…

  7. Narcissism and Object Relations in Hypochondria.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolorès

    2015-08-01

    Hypochondria remains little studied from a theoretical point of view. Whereas psychoanalysts know how difficult it is to handle hypochondriac subjects, the few works studying the relationship between patients and physicians resort to a cognitive-behavioral approach. These latter conclude that the quality of this relationship is more important than the disappearance of the symptoms. The aim of this work is to show how psychoanalysis can conceptualize hypochondria as a disruption of narcissism, leading to an apparent relational deadlock. Considering hypochondria as a narcissistic transference constitutes a useful contribution of psychoanalysis to medicine and psychotherapeutic care.

  8. Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, A; Watson, P J; Biderman, M D; Reeves, A L

    1996-06-01

    The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI were also less likely to evaluate both of their parents as having been especially strong in their use of the adjustment-promoting authoritative style. Theoretical efforts to link narcissism with inadequate parenting therefore may have merit and may deserve additional research attention. PMID:8656207

  9. The narcissism epidemic: commentary on modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

    2014-04-01

    Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors agree with Paris that modern life is making people more narcissistic. In fact, the authors demonstrate with this commentary, the case for increasing narcissism is even stronger than presented in his article. An explain that expressing individualism and lack of social support play key roles in this increase. However, the current authors question the idea that therapy is building narcissism. PMID:24796568

  10. Narcissism, Bullying, and Social Dominance in Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Thomaes, Sander; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert; Aleva, Liesbeth; Van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    A few previous studies have shown that narcissistic traits in youth are positively associated with bullying. However, research examining the developmental relationship between narcissism and bullying is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether narcissists constitute a homogeneous group and whether the bullying of narcissistic youth results in establishing social dominance over peers. The present work addresses these gaps. Children (N = 393; M age = 10.3; 51% girls) were followed during the last 3 years of primary school. Person-centered analyses were used to examine whether groups with distinct developmental trajectories for narcissism and two bullying forms (direct and indirect) can be identified, and how these trajectories are related. Multiple groups emerged for all constructs examined. For girls, higher narcissism was neither related to more intense bullying, nor to higher social dominance. In contrast, highly narcissistic boys were more likely than their peers to show elevated direct bullying, and in particular elevated indirect bullying. Hence, high narcissism is a risk factor for bullying in boys, but not in girls. However, narcissism is not always accompanied by high bullying, given that many boys on the high bullying trajectories were not high in narcissism. Results show that among narcissistic youth only those who engage in high levels of bullying are high in social dominance.

  11. Rejoinder: A Construct Validity Approach to the Assessment of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    In this rejoinder, we comment on Wright's response to our reanalysis and reinterpretation of the data presented by Wright and colleagues. Two primary differences characterize these perspectives. First, the conceptualization of grandiose narcissism differs such that emotional and ego vulnerability, dysregulation, and pervasive impairments are more characteristic of Wright's conception, likely due to the degree to which it is tied to clinical observations. Our conceptualization is closer to psychopathy and describes an extraverted, dominant, and antagonistic individual who is relatively less likely to be found in clinical settings. Second, our approach to construct validation differs in that we take an empirical perspective that focuses on the degree to which inventories yield scores consistent with a priori predictions. The grandiose dimension of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI-G) yields data that fail to align with expert ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism. We suggest that caution should be taken in treating the PNI-G as a gold standard measure of pathological narcissism, that revision of the PNI-G is required before it can serve as a stand-alone measure of grandiose narcissism, and that the PNI-G should be buttressed by other scales when being used as a measure of grandiose narcissism.

  12. Narcissism, Bullying, and Social Dominance in Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Thomaes, Sander; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert; Aleva, Liesbeth; Van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    A few previous studies have shown that narcissistic traits in youth are positively associated with bullying. However, research examining the developmental relationship between narcissism and bullying is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether narcissists constitute a homogeneous group and whether the bullying of narcissistic youth results in establishing social dominance over peers. The present work addresses these gaps. Children (N = 393; M age = 10.3; 51% girls) were followed during the last 3 years of primary school. Person-centered analyses were used to examine whether groups with distinct developmental trajectories for narcissism and two bullying forms (direct and indirect) can be identified, and how these trajectories are related. Multiple groups emerged for all constructs examined. For girls, higher narcissism was neither related to more intense bullying, nor to higher social dominance. In contrast, highly narcissistic boys were more likely than their peers to show elevated direct bullying, and in particular elevated indirect bullying. Hence, high narcissism is a risk factor for bullying in boys, but not in girls. However, narcissism is not always accompanied by high bullying, given that many boys on the high bullying trajectories were not high in narcissism. Results show that among narcissistic youth only those who engage in high levels of bullying are high in social dominance. PMID:25640909

  13. Educating the Disagreeable Extravert: Narcissism, the Big Five Personality Traits, and Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Monahan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that longitudinal data have been compiled over the past 30 years among undergraduate students in higher education settings regarding narcissism, the literature is devoid of empirical investigations that explore the relationships between narcissism and learning. Because the data suggest that narcissism scores are increasing each…

  14. State narcissism and aggression: The mediating roles of anger and hostile attributional bias.

    PubMed

    Li, Caina; Sun, Ying; Ho, Man Yee; You, Jin; Shaver, Phillip R; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-07-01

    Prior research has documented a relationship between narcissism and aggression but has focused only on dispositional narcissism without considering situational factors that may increase narcissism temporarily. This study explored the possibility that an increase in state narcissism would foster aggressive responding by increasing anger and hostile attributional bias following unexpected provocation among 162 college students from China. We created a guided-imagination manipulation to heighten narcissism and investigated its effects on anger, aroused hostile attribution bias, and aggressive responses following a provocation with a 2 (narcissism/neutral manipulation) × 2 (unexpected provocation/positive evaluation condition) between-subjects design. We found that the manipulation did increase self-reported state narcissism. The increase in state narcissism in turn heightened aggression, and this relation was mediated by increased anger. Regardless of the level of state narcissism, individuals were more aggressive after being provoked and this effect of provocation was mediated by hostile attributional bias. The findings indicate that narcissism can be temporarily heightened in a nonclinical sample of individuals, and that the effect of state narcissism on aggression is mediated by anger. Differences between state and trait narcissism and possible influences of culture are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:333-345, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  16. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  17. The Relations among Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Delinquency in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…

  18. Hide-and-Seek: Narcissism and "Selfie"-Related Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Sung, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    While prior research has examined the relationship between narcissism and self-promoting behaviors on social media (e.g., posting selfies), little is known about the extent to which individuals' level of narcissism relates to how involved they are in other people's feedback (e.g., comments and "likes") received on their selfies, or how observant and responsive they are to other people's selfie postings. The present study investigates how narcissism relates to such selfie-related behaviors, as well as overall evaluation of selfie-posting behavior and intention to post selfies in the future. By employing a total of 315 Korean subjects who take and post selfies on social networking sites, the present study indicates that individuals higher in narcissism are more likely to evaluate selfie-posting behavior favorably, be involved in the feedback provided by others, and be observant of other people's selfies. However, level of narcissism did not moderate the relationship between how much one observes others' selfies and the likelihood of providing a comment or "like" on other people's selfies. PMID:27028460

  19. Hide-and-Seek: Narcissism and "Selfie"-Related Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Sung, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    While prior research has examined the relationship between narcissism and self-promoting behaviors on social media (e.g., posting selfies), little is known about the extent to which individuals' level of narcissism relates to how involved they are in other people's feedback (e.g., comments and "likes") received on their selfies, or how observant and responsive they are to other people's selfie postings. The present study investigates how narcissism relates to such selfie-related behaviors, as well as overall evaluation of selfie-posting behavior and intention to post selfies in the future. By employing a total of 315 Korean subjects who take and post selfies on social networking sites, the present study indicates that individuals higher in narcissism are more likely to evaluate selfie-posting behavior favorably, be involved in the feedback provided by others, and be observant of other people's selfies. However, level of narcissism did not moderate the relationship between how much one observes others' selfies and the likelihood of providing a comment or "like" on other people's selfies.

  20. [Narcissism in the world of Facebook. An evolutionary psychopathological interpretation].

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework.

  1. Relations of Proactive and Reactive Dimensions of Aggression to Overt and Covert Narcissism in Nonclinical Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression—a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism--is a heterogeneous construct. In the present study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age = 15.5 years, SD = 2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression). PMID:19918915

  2. [The application of the theory of narcissism in criminal proceedings (forensic theory of narcissism)].

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    The concept of narcissism was introduced by Freud's psychoanalysis and is founded on a solid biological basis today, namely the so-called happiness hormones (endorphins, serotonin etc.), which generate happiness, joy and other positive feelings in the human being. By setting rules as to which actions are socially accepted and appreciated and thus associated with a positive feedback, society is able to promote the desirable behaviour and effectively control the integration of the individual into society. Happiness can be sought either in professional or in private life. Negative experiences in one of these fields can be compensated by positive experiences in the other. By means of a case, in which bottled-up narcissistic rage led to a state of severely impaired consciousness, the applicability of the forensic theory of narcissism in criminal law is illustrated and discussed. Depressive disorders, posttraumatic stress disorders, personality changes after extremely stressful situations and non-substance addictions such as computer addiction can be better understood on the basis of Kohut's model of the narcissistic balance of satisfaction.

  3. The superego, narcissism and Great Expectations.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Graham

    2007-06-01

    The author notes that the concepts of the superego and narcissism were linked at conception and that superego pathology may be seen as a determining factor in the formation of a narcissistic disorder; thus an examination of the superego can function as a "biopsy", indicating the condition of the personality as a whole. Charles Dickens's novel "Great Expectations" is presented as a penetrating exploration of these themes and it is argued that in Pip, the central character, Dickens provides a perceptive study of the history of a narcissistic condition. Other key figures in the book are understood as superego representations and, as such, integral to the vicissitudes of Pip's development. In particular, the lawyer Jaggers is considered as an illustration of Bion's notion of the "ego-destructive superego". In the course of the paper, the author suggests that Great Expectations affirms the psychoanalytic understanding that emotional growth and some recovery from narcissistic difficulties necessarily take place alongside modification of the superego, allowing for responsible knowledge of the state of the object and the possibility of realistic reparation. PMID:17537703

  4. An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks.

  5. Early trauma and narcissism-autism bipolarity.

    PubMed

    de Cesarei, Anna Oliva

    2005-06-01

    The analyst makes a series of considerations taken--a posteriori--from the analysis of a small number of patients. These patients have saved themselves from an early narcissistic catastrophe by developing precocious mental processes, while affective relationships rudimentarily repeat the impact with the original trauma. Primitive defences, essentially denial and vertical splitting, dissociate the tear in the psyche and structure a 'narcissism-autism bipolarity', revealed in aspects of the character which oblige the patient to automatically repeat a single matrix of experience. In therapy, it is necessary to construct a 'first time of the trauma', by finding and linking threads of the primary relationship and strengthening them in the analytic relationship. This reconstruction of the background, a screen to project what had originally been rejected, is the prerequisite for coming out, in deferred action, from the hold of the pathological identifications. The author dedicates particular attention to the undifferentiated background, the nature-environment torn by the trauma, and to the need to reconstruct this fabric of experience in the analytical relationship, as a fundamental element to the recomposition of the dissociated nuclei. In the clinical case, the analyst describes in particular how the analyst's words encounter an unbridgeable gap, a failure in the capacity for representation when opening the autistic nucleus. Through a regression lasting for about a year, a patient was able to live the experience of 'primitive agonies' and that of an unbearable helplessness and, at the same time, was able to feel how the analyst supported her sense of existence. Subsequently, the patient was able to give shape, through visual images, to deep states of being and start the process of metabolising and symbolising the trauma. PMID:16096069

  6. Narcissism in the Rorschach Revisited: Some Reflections on Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Whether the Rorschach test was able to identify pathological expressions of narcissism was studied in 91 patients with Axis II mental disorder. Results suggest that the Rorschach can differentiate narcissistic personality disorder patients from a nonclinical sample and a sample from Cluster A ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  7. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  8. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  9. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  10. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

  11. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  12. Nonpathological and pathological narcissism: which self-reported characteristics are most problematic in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Barry, Christopher T; Kauten, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates that dimensions of adolescent narcissism differ in their associations with indicators of positive and negative psychological functioning (e.g., Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007 ; Barry & Wallace, 2010 ). This study investigated correlates of 2 empirically derived factors of adolescent narcissism (i.e., pathological and nonpathological narcissism) from 2 measures thought to differ based on their inclusion of pathological versus nonpathological content. In a sample of 188 at-risk adolescents ages 16 to 18, pathological narcissism was associated with various indicators of maladjustment, including aggression, low self-esteem, internalizing problems, and poor perceived interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, nonpathological narcissism was positively associated with self-esteem and aggression but negatively associated with internalizing problems. The implications for the conceptualization of adolescent narcissism are discussed.

  13. Are Universities Creating Millennial Narcissistic Employees? An Empirical Examination of Narcissism in Business Students and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Daly, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate whether narcissism levels are significantly higher in undergraduate business students than psychology students, whether business schools are reinforcing narcissism in the classroom, and whether narcissism is influencing student salary and career expectations. Data were collected from Millennial students (n = 536) and…

  14. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be.

  15. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

  16. A neural model of mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Zajkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    From a multidimensional perspective, empathy is a process that includes affective sharing and imagining and understanding the emotions of others. The primary brain structures involved in mediating the components of empathy are the anterior insula (AI), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The AI and ACC are the main nodes in the salience network (SN), which selects and coordinates the information flow from the intero- and exteroreceptors. AI might play a role as a crucial hub – a dynamic switch between 2 separate networks of cognitive processing: the central executive network (CEN), which is concerned with effective task execution, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved with self-reflective processes. Given various classifications, a deficit in empathy may be considered a central dysfunctional trait in narcissism. A recent fMRI study suggests that deficit in empathy is due to a dysfunction in the right AI. Based on the acquired data, we propose a theoretical model of imbalanced SN functioning in narcissism in which the dysfunctional AI hub is responsible for constant DMN activation, which, in turn, centers one’s attention on the self. This might hinder the ability to affectively share and understand the emotions of others. This review paper on neural mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism aims to inspire and direct future research in this area. PMID:24189465

  17. Not all players are equally motivated: The role of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Lofthouse, Sian; Williams, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Research on motivational climates consistently demonstrates that mastery-focused climates are associated with positive outcomes and ego-involving performance climates lead to maladaptive outcomes. However, the role of personality within such a framework has been largely ignored. To redress this imbalance, we examined the potential role of narcissism in moderating the effects of different motivational climates on leader-inspired extra effort in training. Training is where rugby players spend most of their rugby time and we were keen to examine the combination of personality and climate that might maximise the yield of such training environments. Female rugby players (n = 126) from 15 clubs completed measures of narcissism, motivational climate and effort. Moderated regression analyses revealed that narcissism moderated the relationship between motivational climate and effort. Increases in either performance or mastery climates were associated with increases in effort for narcissists; no such relationship was revealed for low narcissists. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering personality within rugby training environments, as it is clear that not every player will respond the same way to specific training conditions. Coaches who understand this and are able to tailor individualised motivational climates will likely gain the greatest benefits from their different players.

  18. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  19. Narcissism and Discrepancy between Self and Friends’ Perceptions of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun W.; Colvin, C. Randall

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers’ ratings are influenced by narcissists’ stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants’ superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Method Participants (N = 66; 38 women; mean age = 20.83) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100-item California Adult Q-sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants’ personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The “optimally adjusted individual” prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Results Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Conclusion Narcissistic individuals’ self-ratings are extremely positive and more favorable than friends’ ratings of them. PMID:23799917

  20. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

  1. College Adjustment Difficulties and the Overt and Covert Forms of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism…

  2. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  3. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  4. Narcissism, Exploitative Attitudes, and Academic Dishonesty: An Exploratory Investigation of Reality versus Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Mohan K.; Sharland, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Renewed interest in the effects of narcissism in the media has generated a closer examination of the phenomenon. This coupled with an increase in academic misbehavior among both high school and university students has provided an opportunity to scrutinize the effects of narcissism on attitudes toward academic dishonesty. The authors investigated…

  5. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  6. Narcissism, Perceived Social Status, and Social Cognition and Their Influence on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.; Wiesenthal, Vered; Söderberg, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    This study had three primary goals: to explore the relationship between narcissism, participant roles, and aggression; to examine the role of gender as a moderating influence on narcissism-based aggression; and to examine how these variables work together to influence aggressive outcomes in a sample of aggressive middle and high school students.…

  7. The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Dyadic Narcissism and the Problem of Individuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprince, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of infantile gender identity as they are demonstrated through group processes amongst the carers of disturbed adolescents. It uses this and other clinical material to explore gender narcissism--both male and female. It examines how such narcissism is linked to sado-masochism, and how it can impede a healthy development…

  8. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal.

  9. Ringleader bullying: association with psychopathic narcissism and theory of mind among child psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Stellwagen, Kurt K; Kerig, Patricia K

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the association of ringleader bullying with psychopathic traits and theory of mind among 100 youth aged 10-15 (62 boys and 38 girls) receiving inpatient psychiatric services at a state facility. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated a positive association between ringleader bullying and psychopathic narcissism, and a significant interaction effect between narcissism and theory of mind. More specifically, narcissism moderated the relationship between theory of mind and ringleader bullying such that theory of mind was positively associated with ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were high, and theory of mind was negatively associated ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were low. The discussion of these results focuses on the importance of developing effective treatment techniques for youth whose bullying behavior is associated with narcissistic features and social acuity.

  10. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

  11. Associations between narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhenhong; You, Xuqun; Lü, Wei; Luo, Yun

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the direct and interactive effects of two types of narcissism (overt and covert) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity on emotion regulation difficulties in 227 undergraduate students. Overt and covert narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties were assessed with self-report measures (narcissistic personality inventory (NPI)-16, hypersensitive narcissism scale (HSNS), and difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS)), and physiological data were measured during the baseline, stress (a public-speaking task), and recovery periods in the laboratory. Results indicated that overt narcissism was negatively related to a lack of emotional awareness and emotional clarity, whereas covert narcissism was positively related to overall emotion regulation difficulties, nonacceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and a lack of emotional clarity. RSA reactivity in response to a mock job interview moderated the associations between covert narcissism (as a predictor) and overall emotion regulation difficulties and impulse control difficulties (as outcomes). This finding showed that a greater stress-induced RSA decrease may serve as a protective factor and ameliorate the effect of covert narcissism on individuals' emotion regulation difficulties.

  12. Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    There exists substantial debate about how to best assess pathological narcissism with a variety of measures designed to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 based conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Wright and colleagues published correlations between several narcissism measures (Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI]; Pathological Narcissism Inventory [PNI]; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire [PDQ] NPD) with the traits comprising the DSM-5 Section III personality trait model. In the current study, we examine the agreement manifested by Wright and colleagues' narcissism-DSM-5 trait profiles with expert ratings of the DSM-5 traits most relevant to descriptions of DSM-IV NPD. Despite concerns regarding the NPI's ability to measure pathological narcissism, its trait profile was strongly correlated with expert ratings, as was PDQ NPD's profile. Conversely, the trait profiles associated with the PNI were primarily uncorrelated with the expert rated NPD profile. The implications of these findings with regard to the assessment of narcissism are discussed.

  13. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    PubMed

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain.

  14. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    PubMed

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PMID:23586408

  15. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26011661

  17. Narcissism as a predictor of motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection.

    PubMed

    Kapidzic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism. PMID:23249240

  18. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    PubMed

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders.

  19. From archaic narcissism to empathy for the self: the evolution of new capacities in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gehrie, Mark J

    2011-04-01

    The concept of the selfobject was central to Heinz Kohut's psychology of the self. With an eye to studying the development of narcissism and its implications for the growth of new psychic structure, this concept is reviewed and reassessed. Post-Kohutian complexities regarding its definition and use extend our consideration of the development of narcissism beyond archaic configurations toward further evolution of the self and the nature of mature narcissism. The hypothesis is offered that developing narcissism and the growth of self-regulation impact the acquisition of new structure and new capacities through the emergence of newly potentiated aspects of the self. The implications of these emergent qualities of the self are examined in the context of our understanding of self-esteem regulation, the state of the self, and the goals of psychoanalysis. A clinical example illustrates how technique and process in an analysis may be organized around the development of such new capacities.

  20. Young adult sibling relations: the effects of perceived parental favoritism and narcissism.

    PubMed

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined predictors of siblings' relations in 202 young adults (aged 21-32 years), who completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results indicate that warmth between siblings is explained by gender (with women feeling closer), perceived paternal favoritism, low levels of narcissism, and an interaction suggesting that paternal favoritism moderates the link between narcissism and sibling warmth. Conflict between siblings was explained by gender (sisters), age, parental favoritism, high levels of narcissism, extreme levels of similarity or dissimilarity between siblings, and interactions indicating that older age is a predictor of conflict between siblings among women but not among men. The impact of parental favoritism and narcissism on sibling relationships in young adulthood was discussed. PMID:21290927

  1. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    PubMed

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders. PMID:10489586

  2. Commonalities and differences in characteristics of persons at risk for narcissism and mania

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Daniel; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians have long noted overlap in some of the key features of narcissism and bipolar disorder, including excessively high goals and impulsivity. In addition, empirical findings consistently document high levels of comorbidity between the two conditions. To better understand the similarities and differences in psychological qualities associated with mania- and narcissism-related vulnerabilities, we administered to 233 undergraduates a broad range of measures pertaining to goals and affects (both their experience and their dysregulation) and impulsivity. As hypothesized, tendencies toward both narcissism and hypomania related to elevations on measures of affective and goal dysregulation. In addition, hypomania tendencies were related to higher impulsivity, but that association did not appear for narcissistic tendencies. Results highlight key commonalities and differences between those at risk for mania versus narcissism. Future research should examine these relationships in clinically diagnosed samples. PMID:20376289

  3. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    560 girls and 819 boys, ages 8 to 16 years and actively interested in Finnish baseball, were tested in small groups in three training-camp championship games with the modified Mehrabian and Epstein's Empathy Scale, and the Battle Self-esteem Inventory, Form B. Narcissism was estimated on the 1984 Emmons scale. The hypothesis that the most empathetic players compared with the least empathetic players have better self-esteem and less narcissism was confirmed.

  4. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN.

  5. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Clever and crude but not kind: narcissism, self-esteem, and the self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lara L; Brunell, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    According to the agency model of narcissism (Campbell, Brunell, & Finkel, 2006) narcissists view themselves as high on agentic traits but low on communal traits. To test if this self-view extends to recall, two experiments examined the extent to which narcissism was associated with self-ratings and recall of agentic and communal traits that varied in valence. Across both experiments a trait description task was followed by a surprise recall task for the trait words and then completion of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Within the self-reference condition narcissism was related to higher selection in the trait description task and to higher recall of positive-agentic (e.g., clever) traits. This general pattern of results occurred for narcissism even while controlling for the related personality variables of self-esteem, agency, and communion. In contrast to narcissism, within the self-referent group self-esteem predicted higher recall for positive-communal traits (e.g., kind) but lower recall for negative-communal traits, a finding consistent with mnemic neglect. Overall, results supported the agency model of narcissism and extended this model to suggest that narcissists rate themselves more highly not only on positive-agentic traits but also on negative-communal traits.

  7. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522921

  8. [Narcissism dimension within an analytically oriented group psychotherapy of neurotic patients].

    PubMed

    Göth, N

    1991-08-01

    In relation to self-psychology narcissism-construct is important in analytic-oriented psychotherapy theoretical and practical and is more superior to emotional-relationship based conception by practical and living operalization opposite Roger's conception. We found based on variables-oriented multidimensional psychodiagnostical tests for neurotics in group-psychotherapy that questionnaires are suitable to diagnose narcissism in psychodynamical psychotherapy. Throughout on the one hand single scales of narcissism-states correlate with social desirability on the other hand are related to hypochondria, to psychastenic, depressive and schizoid tendencies. Through those patients having difficults to work reflexive and are attaining higher scores in narcissism-questionnaire opposite patients are optimal working, higher narcissism-scores are not condition for therapy success or unsuccess. In clusters of unsuccessful patients are reacting with defensive behaviour in group-psychotherapy in relation to higher narcissism-scores. Successful patients are more emotional-stable and additional more social-oriented and optimistic. These findings in study are therapy-valide with research-results in Psychoanalyse. PMID:1946903

  9. Developmental aspects of the interaction between narcissism, self-esteem and object relations.

    PubMed

    Dare, C; Holder, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history, within psycho-analysis, of narcissism and shows that it cannot be understood as a unitary concept. This is reflected in much of the extensive literature on the topic. The definition of narcissism solely in terms of the libidinal drive cathexis of the self representation is rejected. Instead, narcissism is defined as the sum of the positively-coloured feeling states attached to the self-representation. By pursuing a developmental investigation of narcissistic and opposing phenomena, the multiple sources which contribute to or detract from the overall level of self-esteem are demonstrated. Such an investigation clarifies the close relationship between the concepts of self-esteem, well-being and narcissism, and differentiating definitions are put forward. The term 'counter-narcissistic' is introduced to denote the negative contributions to self-esteem which detract from the narcissistic input. The interplay between the contributions to the overall quality of self-esteem, deriving on the one hand from somatic and instinctual drive sources, and on the other from object relationships, exemplifies the multiple origins of its qualities at any one time. This interplay is pursued through the sequential developmental phases from infancy to the oedipal level in order to show the complex epigenesis of narcissism, counter-narcissism and self-esteem.

  10. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

  11. Pathological narcissism and interpersonal behavior in daily life.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E; Hyde, Amanda L; Ram, Nilam

    2013-10-01

    The cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful metaframework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS metaframework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

  12. On the Measure and Mismeasure of Narcissism: A Response to "Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal".

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C

    2016-02-01

    Narcissism continues to suffer from a lack of consensual definition. Variability in the definition is reflected in the growing multitude of measures with oftentimes diverging nomological nets. Although the themes of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability appear to have achieved reasonable agreement on their central importance, the lower order structure of each is not well understood and debates remain about how (and whether) they can be integrated into a coherent whole. However, it is clear that a narrow focus on higher order grandiosity without consideration of concomitant vulnerability neglects clinically important features of narcissism. Occasioned by the potential for a new personality disorder model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition, several colleagues and I demonstrated that pathological narcissism, as measured by the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, could not be adequately summarized by the lower order traits of Grandiosity and Attention Seeking, and argued that this should be reflected in the diagnostic manual in some form. Miller, Lynam, and Campbell then subjected these same data to critical reanalysis and interpretation. I respond here to several points raised by Miller and colleagues. In so doing, I highlight areas of agreement, disagreement, and suggest directions for future research.

  13. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  14. Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Back, Mitja D; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Dufner, Michael; Gerlach, Tanja M; Rauthmann, John F; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-12-01

    We present a process model that distinguishes 2 dimensions of narcissism: admiration and rivalry. We propose that narcissists' overarching goal of maintaining a grandiose self is pursued by 2 separate pathways, characterized by distinct cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral processes. In a set of 7 studies, we validated this 2-dimensional model using the newly developed Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ). We showed that narcissistic admiration and rivalry are positively correlated dimensions, yet they have markedly different nomological networks and distinct intra- and interpersonal consequences. The NARQ showed the hypothesized 2-dimensional multifaceted structure as well as very good internal consistencies (Study 1, N = 953), stabilities (Study 2, N = 93), and self-other agreements (Study 3, N = 96). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry showed unique relations to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the Big Five, self-esteem, pathological narcissism, and other narcissism-related traits like Machiavellianism, psychopathy, self-enhancement, and impulsivity (Study 4, Ns = 510-1,814). Despite the positive relation between admiration and rivalry, the 2 differentially predicted general interpersonal orientations and reactions to transgressions in friendships and romantic relationships (Study 5, N = 1,085), interpersonal perceptions during group interactions (Study 6, N = 202), and observed behaviors in experimental observations (Study 7, N = 96). For all studies, the NARQ outperformed the standard measure of narcissism, the NPI, in predicting outcome measures. Results underscore the utility of a 2-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of narcissism.

  15. A behavioral genetic study of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu L L; Cai, Huajian; Song, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Narcissism, characterized by grandiose self-image and entitled feelings to others, has been increasingly prevalent in the past decades. This study examined genetic and environmental bases of two dimensions of narcissism: intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement. A total of 304 pairs of twins from Beijing, China completed the Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale and the Psychological Entitlement Scale. Both grandiosity (23%) and entitlement (35%) were found to be moderately heritable, while simultaneously showing considerable non-shared environmental influences. Moreover, the genetic and environmental influences on the two dimensions were mostly unique (92-93%), with few genetic and environmental effects in common (7-8%). The two dimensions of narcissism, intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement, are heritable and largely independent of each other in terms of their genetic and environmental sources. These findings extend our understanding of the heritability of narcissism on the one hand. On the other hand, the study demonstrates the rationale for distinguishing between intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism, and possibly personality in general as well.

  16. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others. PMID:23627957

  17. A Behavioral Genetic Study of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Dimensions of Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu L. L.; Cai, Huajian; Song, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Narcissism, characterized by grandiose self-image and entitled feelings to others, has been increasingly prevalent in the past decades. This study examined genetic and environmental bases of two dimensions of narcissism: intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement. A total of 304 pairs of twins from Beijing, China completed the Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale and the Psychological Entitlement Scale. Both grandiosity (23%) and entitlement (35%) were found to be moderately heritable, while simultaneously showing considerable non-shared environmental influences. Moreover, the genetic and environmental influences on the two dimensions were mostly unique (92–93%), with few genetic and environmental effects in common (7–8%). The two dimensions of narcissism, intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement, are heritable and largely independent of each other in terms of their genetic and environmental sources. These findings extend our understanding of the heritability of narcissism on the one hand. On the other hand, the study demonstrates the rationale for distinguishing between intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism, and possibly personality in general as well. PMID:24695616

  18. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

  19. Self-presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Soraya

    2010-08-01

    Online social networking sites have revealed an entirely new method of self-presentation. This cyber social tool provides a new site of analysis to examine personality and identity. The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site Facebook.com . Self-esteem and narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from 100 Facebook users at York University. Participant Web pages were also coded based on self-promotional content features. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals higher in narcissism and lower in self-esteem were related to greater online activity as well as some self-promotional content. Gender differences were found to influence the type of self-promotional content presented by individual Facebook users. Implications and future research directions of narcissism and self-esteem on social networking Web sites are discussed.

  20. Narcissists of a Feather Flock Together: Narcissism and the Similarity of Friends.

    PubMed

    Maaß, Ulrike; Lämmle, Lena; Bensch, Doreen; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Who is willing to expose himself or herself to narcissists on a long-term basis? Studies that address the interactions of narcissists focus mainly on their interactions with strangers. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which two best friends' similarity in narcissism would influence their similarities in other personality profiles. A total of 290 best friends' dyads filled out measurements of the whole Dark Triad as well as the Big Five. For each personality domain, profile similarity and its dependence on the similarity in the Dark Triad were determined. Results showed that the friends' similarity in narcissism significantly predicted similarity in all Big Five domains. For the general Big Five similarity as well as extraversion, the effect of narcissism similarity was stronger for male than female or mixed friends. Similarity in psychopathy and Machiavellianism significantly predicted all domains except for openness and extraversion, respectively. PMID:26865291

  1. Sounds like a Narcissist: Behavioral Manifestations of Narcissism in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior. PMID:20711512

  2. Two faces of narcissism and romantic attraction: evidence from a collectivistic culture.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Zhou, Hui; Liang, Yuling; Yi, Li

    2012-08-01

    The present study was aimed to extend the self-orientation model (Campbell, 1999) to vulnerable narcissism in a collectivistic culture. Two hundred and twenty-seven college students were recruited from China. Participants reported their ratings on measures of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism, attractions to different (caring vs perfect) targets, and their choices of potential romantic partners. Results indicated that those participants classified as grandiose or vulnerable narcissists were more attracted to perfect targets than non-narcissists. In addition, grandiose narcissists preferred to choose perfect targets as their romantic partners, while vulnerable narcissists did not show such a preference when choosing potential partners. These results suggested that culture could influence the function of narcissism. The self-orientation model could not fully explain the choices of vulnerable narcissists. PMID:23045842

  3. Understanding the social costs of narcissism: the case of the tragedy of the commons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W Keith; Bush, Carrie Pierce; Brunell, Amy B; Shelton, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    Two studies examined narcissism and behavior in a commons dilemma. Study 1 used a four-person, laboratory-based task and Study 2 used a dyadic task. Participants were told that they represented one of four (Study 1) or two (Study 2) forestry companies and then were asked to harvest timber from a renewable forest. Narcissism was found to be positively related to acquisitive goals and harvesting more timber in the initial round. The more narcissists harvesting in the competitive group of four (Study 1) or dyad (Study 2), the less timber was harvested overall and the more rapidly the forest was depleted. Within competitive groups and dyads, however, narcissists harvested more than the nonnarcissists competing with them. In all, narcissism provided a benefit to the self, but at a long-term cost to other individuals and to the commons.

  4. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331543

  5. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. The double-edged sword of grandiose narcissism: implications for successful and unsuccessful leadership among U.S. Presidents.

    PubMed

    Watts, Ashley L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Smith, Sarah Francis; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Waldman, Irwin D; Rubenzer, Steven J; Faschingbauer, Thomas J

    2013-12-01

    Recent research and theorizing suggest that narcissism may predict both positive and negative leadership behaviors. We tested this hypothesis with data on the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush, using (a) expert-derived narcissism estimates, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential performance, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Grandiose, but not vulnerable, narcissism was associated with superior overall greatness in an aggregate poll; it was also positively associated with public persuasiveness, crisis management, agenda setting, and allied behaviors, and with several objective indicators of performance, such as winning the popular vote and initiating legislation. Nevertheless, grandiose narcissism was also associated with several negative outcomes, including congressional impeachment resolutions and unethical behaviors. We found that presidents exhibit elevated levels of grandiose narcissism compared with the general population, and that presidents' grandiose narcissism has been rising over time. Our findings suggest that grandiose narcissism may be a double-edged sword in the leadership domain.

  7. The double-edged sword of grandiose narcissism: implications for successful and unsuccessful leadership among U.S. Presidents.

    PubMed

    Watts, Ashley L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Smith, Sarah Francis; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Waldman, Irwin D; Rubenzer, Steven J; Faschingbauer, Thomas J

    2013-12-01

    Recent research and theorizing suggest that narcissism may predict both positive and negative leadership behaviors. We tested this hypothesis with data on the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush, using (a) expert-derived narcissism estimates, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential performance, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Grandiose, but not vulnerable, narcissism was associated with superior overall greatness in an aggregate poll; it was also positively associated with public persuasiveness, crisis management, agenda setting, and allied behaviors, and with several objective indicators of performance, such as winning the popular vote and initiating legislation. Nevertheless, grandiose narcissism was also associated with several negative outcomes, including congressional impeachment resolutions and unethical behaviors. We found that presidents exhibit elevated levels of grandiose narcissism compared with the general population, and that presidents' grandiose narcissism has been rising over time. Our findings suggest that grandiose narcissism may be a double-edged sword in the leadership domain. PMID:24104503

  8. Threatening Men's Mate Value Influences Aggression Toward an Intrasexual Rival: The Moderating Role of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian M; Carré, Justin M; Knack, Jennifer M; Arnocky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Correlational research has linked low mate value (MV)--one's worth as a mating partner to members of the opposite sex--with aggression in men. In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of self-perceived MV on men's reported willingness to aggress directly toward a hypothetical mate poacher (Experiment 1, N = 60) and observable aggression toward a same-sex rival in a laboratory paradigm (Experiment 2, N = 54). In both experiments, the roles of narcissism in moderating the effect of MV condition on subsequent aggression were examined. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that men randomly assigned to the low MV condition were significantly more willing to report aggressive intention than men in the high MV condition. This relationship was moderated by narcissism such that men in the low MV condition who were also high in narcissism were the most likely to aggress. Results of Experiment 2 similarly showed that men in the low MV condition relative to the high MV condition aggressed more toward a same-sex rival when they were high in narcissism. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses surrounding the importance of self-perceived MV in directing aggressive mating efforts, as situated in the framework of threatened egotism. PMID:27424419

  9. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  10. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  11. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions.

  12. Threatening Men's Mate Value Influences Aggression Toward an Intrasexual Rival: The Moderating Role of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian M; Carré, Justin M; Knack, Jennifer M; Arnocky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Correlational research has linked low mate value (MV)--one's worth as a mating partner to members of the opposite sex--with aggression in men. In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of self-perceived MV on men's reported willingness to aggress directly toward a hypothetical mate poacher (Experiment 1, N = 60) and observable aggression toward a same-sex rival in a laboratory paradigm (Experiment 2, N = 54). In both experiments, the roles of narcissism in moderating the effect of MV condition on subsequent aggression were examined. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that men randomly assigned to the low MV condition were significantly more willing to report aggressive intention than men in the high MV condition. This relationship was moderated by narcissism such that men in the low MV condition who were also high in narcissism were the most likely to aggress. Results of Experiment 2 similarly showed that men in the low MV condition relative to the high MV condition aggressed more toward a same-sex rival when they were high in narcissism. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses surrounding the importance of self-perceived MV in directing aggressive mating efforts, as situated in the framework of threatened egotism.

  13. Thin Images Reflected in the Water: Narcissism and Girls' Vulnerability to the Thin-Ideal.

    PubMed

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to test how adolescent girls' narcissistic traits-characterized by a need to impress others and avoid ego-threat-influence acute adverse effects of thin-ideal exposure. Participants (11-15 years; total N = 366; all female) reported their narcissistic traits. Next, in two experiments, they viewed images of either very thin or average-sized models, reported their wishful identification with the models (Experiment 2), and tasted high-calorie foods in an alleged taste test (both experiments). Narcissism kept girls from wishfully identifying with thin models, which is consistent with the view that narcissistic girls are prone to disengage from thin-ideal exposure. Moreover, narcissism protected vulnerable girls (those who experience low weight-esteem) from inhibiting their food intake, and led other girls (those who consider their appearance relatively unimportant) to increase their food intake. These effects did not generalize to conceptually related traits of self-esteem and perfectionism, and were not found for a low-calorie foods outcome, attesting to the specificity of findings. These experiments demonstrate the importance of narcissism at reducing girls' thin-ideal vulnerability. Girls high in narcissism disengage self-protectively from threats to their self-image, a strategy that renders at least subsets of them less vulnerable to the thin-ideal.

  14. Effects of Self-Esteem and Narcissism on Bullying and Victimization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…

  15. A test of the construct validity of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-01-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210

  16. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. PMID:25330183

  17. Love, Hate, and Crystal Meth: Abjection and Teacher Narcissism in Breaking Bad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowich, David

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author looks at a particular episode of the television show, Breaking Bad, as a means to explore the pedagogical implications of the Kristevan notion of abjection, and its relation to the emotions of love and hate, and the emergence of teacher narcissism as an inevitable offshoot of the antagonisms in learning. This particular…

  18. An Examination of the Roles of Rationalization and Narcissism in Facilitating Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a significant problem among college students. Numerous factors affect levels of cheating. This study utilized an original survey on cheating and rationalization along with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between rationalization, narcissism, and academic…

  19. A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical narcissism: understanding boldness in terms of well-known personality traits.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine a Big Five 'bright-side' analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder, i.e. narcissism. A total of 6957 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the domain and the facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), which has a measure of Narcissism called Bold as one of its dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets (NEO-PI-R) and sub-clinical narcissism. The Bold (Narcissism) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Bold individuals are disagreeable extraverts with very low scores on facet Modesty but moderately high scores on Assertiveness, Competence and Achievement Striving. The study confirmed work using different population groups and different measures.

  20. How narcissistic employees respond to abusive supervision: two roles of narcissism in decreasing perception and increasing deviance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Abusive supervision, a type of interpersonal mistreatment from direct supervisors toward subordinates, has received growing attention in leadership research. However, the role of narcissism related to abusive supervision is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of narcissism with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. Ratings on the aforementioned variables were collected from 403 full-time employees at two different times with one week in between (95 men, 308 women; M age = 26.0 yr.; M tenure = 5.1 yr.). The results of regression analyses showed that narcissism was significantly and negatively related to abusive supervision. Moreover, narcissism moderated the positive relationship between abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor.

  1. How narcissistic employees respond to abusive supervision: two roles of narcissism in decreasing perception and increasing deviance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Abusive supervision, a type of interpersonal mistreatment from direct supervisors toward subordinates, has received growing attention in leadership research. However, the role of narcissism related to abusive supervision is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of narcissism with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. Ratings on the aforementioned variables were collected from 403 full-time employees at two different times with one week in between (95 men, 308 women; M age = 26.0 yr.; M tenure = 5.1 yr.). The results of regression analyses showed that narcissism was significantly and negatively related to abusive supervision. Moreover, narcissism moderated the positive relationship between abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. PMID:25243364

  2. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  3. A comparison of the criterion validity of popular measures of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder via the use of expert ratings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; McCain, Jessica; Lynam, Donald R; Few, Lauren R; Gentile, Brittany; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    The growing interest in the study of narcissism has resulted in the development of a number of assessment instruments that manifest only modest to moderate convergence. The present studies adjudicate among these measures with regard to criterion validity. In the 1st study, we compared multiple narcissism measures to expert consensus ratings of the personality traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; Study 1; N = 98 community participants receiving psychological/psychiatric treatment) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using 5-factor model traits as well as the traits associated with the pathological trait model according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In Study 2 (N = 274 undergraduates), we tested the criterion validity of an even larger set of narcissism instruments by examining their relations with measures of general and pathological personality, as well as psychopathology, and compared the resultant correlations to the correlations expected by experts for measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Across studies, the grandiose dimensions from the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) provided the strongest match to expert ratings of DSM-IV-TR NPD and grandiose narcissism, whereas the vulnerable dimensions of the FFNI and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (Pincus et al., 2009), as well as the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (Hendin & Cheek, 1997), provided the best match to expert ratings of vulnerable narcissism. These results should help guide researchers toward the selection of narcissism instruments that are most well suited to capturing different aspects of narcissism.

  4. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  5. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  6. Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2015-06-01

    The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent.

  7. From Narcissism to Face Work: Two Views on the Self in Social Interaction.

    PubMed

    Peräkylä, Anssi

    2015-09-01

    Through the analysis of conversational interaction and clinical notes, this article develops conceptual linkages between the Goffmanian concept of face and the psychoanalytic and psychiatric understandings of narcissism. Self-cathexis--the investment of libidinal emotion to the image of self--is a key issue both for Goffman and in psychoanalytic studies of narcissism. For Goffman, the self and its cathexis are inherently fragile interactional achievements, whereas for psychoanalysts such as Kernberg and Kohut, they are relatively stable intrapsychic structures. An application of Goffman's theory to narcissistic personality disorders suggests that pathological narcissism involves the isolation of the person's self-image from interactional. practices and a consequent inability to benefit from face work in ordinary social encounters. Clinical experience suggests revisions to the theory of face work: there is a biographical continuity in a person's experience of face, and successful participation in face work is made possible by the psychic capacity of playful orientation to one's own and others' narcissistic illusions. Such playful orientation is manifested through the interactional practices of role distancing. PMID:26594714

  8. From Narcissism to Face Work: Two Views on the Self in Social Interaction.

    PubMed

    Peräkylä, Anssi

    2015-09-01

    Through the analysis of conversational interaction and clinical notes, this article develops conceptual linkages between the Goffmanian concept of face and the psychoanalytic and psychiatric understandings of narcissism. Self-cathexis--the investment of libidinal emotion to the image of self--is a key issue both for Goffman and in psychoanalytic studies of narcissism. For Goffman, the self and its cathexis are inherently fragile interactional achievements, whereas for psychoanalysts such as Kernberg and Kohut, they are relatively stable intrapsychic structures. An application of Goffman's theory to narcissistic personality disorders suggests that pathological narcissism involves the isolation of the person's self-image from interactional. practices and a consequent inability to benefit from face work in ordinary social encounters. Clinical experience suggests revisions to the theory of face work: there is a biographical continuity in a person's experience of face, and successful participation in face work is made possible by the psychic capacity of playful orientation to one's own and others' narcissistic illusions. Such playful orientation is manifested through the interactional practices of role distancing.

  9. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    PubMed

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility.

  10. The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism…

  11. Sound the Alarm: The Effect of Narcissism on Retaliatory Aggression Is Moderated by dACC Reactivity to Rejection.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Narcissists behave aggressively when their egos are threatened by interpersonal insults. This effect has been explained in terms of narcissists' motivation to reduce the discrepancy between their grandiose self and its threatened version, though no research has directly tested this hypothesis. If this notion is true, the link between narcissism and retaliatory aggression should be moderated by neural structures that subserve discrepancy detection, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). This study tested the hypothesis that narcissism would only predict greater retaliatory aggression in response to social rejection when the dACC was recruited by the threat. Thirty participants (15 females; Mage  = 18.86, SD = 1.25; 77% White) completed a trait narcissism inventory, were socially accepted and then rejected while undergoing fMRI, and then could behave aggressively toward one of the rejecters by blasting him or her with unpleasant noise. When narcissists displayed greater dACC activation during rejection, they behaved aggressively. But there was only a weak or nonsignificant relation between narcissism and aggression among participants with a blunted dACC response. Narcissism's role in aggressive retaliation to interpersonal threats is likely determined by the extent to which the brain's discrepancy detector registers the newly created gap between the grandiose and threatened selves.

  12. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    PubMed

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  13. Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in Asian adolescents: relations to narcissism, anxiety, schizotypal traits, and peer relations.

    PubMed

    Seah, Suzanne L; Ang, Rebecca P

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationship between reactive and proactive aggression, and narcissism, anxiety, schizotypal traits, and interpersonal relations in a sample of 698 Asian adolescents from Grades 7 to 9. Proactive aggression was found to be significantly associated with narcissism, whereas reactive aggression was significantly associated with anxiety, schizotypal traits, and poor interpersonal relations. Study findings provide support from a cross-cultural standpoint for differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression and represent an initial attempt to illustrate the generalizability of existing findings on the distinction between the two subtypes in an Asian context. Implications for theory building of the reactive-proactive aggression typology are discussed. PMID:18506675

  14. Narcissism and United States' culture: The view from home and around the world.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Maples, Jessica L; Buffardi, Laura; Cai, Huajian; Gentile, Brittany; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Kwan, Virginia S Y; LoPilato, Alex; Pendry, Louise F; Sedikides, Constantine; Siedor, Lane; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-12-01

    The issue of Americans' levels of narcissism is subject to lively debate. The focus of the present research is on the perception of national character (PNC) of Americans as a group. In Study 1, American adults (N = 100) rated Americans as significantly more narcissistic than they perceived themselves and acquaintances. In Study 2, this finding was replicated with American college students (N = 322). PNC ratings of personality traits and externalizing behaviors revealed that Americans were perceived as disagreeable and antisocial as well. In Study 3, we examined the broader characteristics associated with PNC ratings (N = 183). Americans rated the typical American as average on a variety of characteristics (e.g., wealth, education, health, likability) and PNC ratings of narcissism were largely unrelated to these ratings. In Study 4 (N = 1,202) Americans rated PNCs for different prespecified groups of Americans; as expected, PNC ratings of narcissism differed by gender, age, and occupational status such that American males, younger Americans, and Americans working in high-visibility and status occupations were seen as more narcissistic. In Study 5 (N = 733), citizens of 4 other world regions (Basque Country, China, England, Turkey) rated members of their own region as more narcissistic than they perceived themselves, but the effect sizes were smaller than those found in the case of Americans' perceptions of Americans. Additionally, members of these other regions rated Americans as more narcissistic than members of their own region. Finally, in Study 6, participants from around the world (N = 377) rated Americans as more narcissistic, extraverted, and antagonistic than members of their own countries. We discuss the role that America's position as a global economic and military power, paired with a culture that creates and reifies celebrity figures, may play in leading to perceptions of Americans as considerably narcissistic.

  15. Narcissism and Self-Insight: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Narcissists' Self-Enhancement Tendencies.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Zhang, Luyao

    2016-01-01

    The current article reviews the narcissism-self-enhancement literature using a multilevel meta-analytic technique. Specifically, we focus on self-insight self-enhancement (i.e., whether narcissists perceive themselves more positively than they are perceived by others); thus, we only include studies that compare narcissists' self-reports to observer reports or objective measures. Results from 171 correlations reported in 36 empirical studies (N = 6,423) revealed that the narcissism-self-enhancement relationship corrected for unreliability in narcissism was .21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [.17, .25]), and that narcissists tend to self-enhance their agentic characteristics more than their communal characteristics. The average corrected relationship between narcissism and self-enhancement for agentic characteristics was .29 (95% CI = [.25, .33]), whereas for communal characteristics it was .05 (95% CI = [-.01, .10]). In addition, we individually summarized narcissists' self-enhancement for 10 different constructs (i.e., the Big Five, task performance, intelligence, leadership, attractiveness, and likeability).

  16. Self-Functioning and Perceived Parenting: Relations of Parental Empathy and Love Inconsistency with Narcissism, Depression, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.

    2008-01-01

    In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…

  17. Unraveling exercise addiction: the role of narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Quattrone, Diego; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction. PMID:25405056

  18. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Katty Kit Yee; Fu, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a multidimensional measure of narcissistic pathology. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the PNI in a sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. Eight hundred and thirty-one students completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing narcissistic pathology, self-esteem, unstable sense of self, and maladaptive self-defense strategies. Results replicated the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors of the PNI. Each of the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors had good internal consistency. Preliminary findings also supported the concurrent validity of the PNI. The PNI appeared to be a valid measure of narcissistic pathology among Chinese. Findings of this study suggest that the core pathology of pathological narcissism might involve an inflated sense of self-importance that is not substantiated by actual achievement, and bearing this unsubstantiated sense of self-importance renders narcissists highly susceptible to self-deflation when their narcissistic needs are not met. PMID:22966841

  19. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction. PMID:25405056

  20. How Online Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Influences Self-Disclosure Online among Chinese Adolescents: Moderated Mediation Effect of Exhibitionism and Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Wang, Jia; Zhen, Rui; Xu, Le

    2016-01-01

    Under the basic framework of self-determination theory, the present study examined a moderated mediation model in which exhibitionism mediated the relationship between online basic psychological need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile Internet, and this mediation effect was moderated by narcissism. A total of 296 Chinese middle school students participated in this research. The results revealed that exhibitionism fully mediated the association between online competence need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net, and partly mediated the association between online relatedness need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net. The mediating path from online basic psychological need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) to exhibitionism was moderated by narcissism. Compared to the low level of narcissism, online competence need satisfaction had a stronger predictive power on exhibitionism under the high level of narcissism condition. In contrast, online relatedness need satisfaction had a weaker predictive power on exhibitionism. PMID:27616999

  1. How Online Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Influences Self-Disclosure Online among Chinese Adolescents: Moderated Mediation Effect of Exhibitionism and Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Wang, Jia; Zhen, Rui; Xu, Le

    2016-01-01

    Under the basic framework of self-determination theory, the present study examined a moderated mediation model in which exhibitionism mediated the relationship between online basic psychological need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile Internet, and this mediation effect was moderated by narcissism. A total of 296 Chinese middle school students participated in this research. The results revealed that exhibitionism fully mediated the association between online competence need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net, and partly mediated the association between online relatedness need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net. The mediating path from online basic psychological need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) to exhibitionism was moderated by narcissism. Compared to the low level of narcissism, online competence need satisfaction had a stronger predictive power on exhibitionism under the high level of narcissism condition. In contrast, online relatedness need satisfaction had a weaker predictive power on exhibitionism.

  2. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity.

  3. How Online Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Influences Self-Disclosure Online among Chinese Adolescents: Moderated Mediation Effect of Exhibitionism and Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Wang, Jia; Zhen, Rui; Xu, Le

    2016-01-01

    Under the basic framework of self-determination theory, the present study examined a moderated mediation model in which exhibitionism mediated the relationship between online basic psychological need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile Internet, and this mediation effect was moderated by narcissism. A total of 296 Chinese middle school students participated in this research. The results revealed that exhibitionism fully mediated the association between online competence need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net, and partly mediated the association between online relatedness need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net. The mediating path from online basic psychological need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) to exhibitionism was moderated by narcissism. Compared to the low level of narcissism, online competence need satisfaction had a stronger predictive power on exhibitionism under the high level of narcissism condition. In contrast, online relatedness need satisfaction had a weaker predictive power on exhibitionism.

  4. How Online Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Influences Self-Disclosure Online among Chinese Adolescents: Moderated Mediation Effect of Exhibitionism and Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Wang, Jia; Zhen, Rui; Xu, Le

    2016-01-01

    Under the basic framework of self-determination theory, the present study examined a moderated mediation model in which exhibitionism mediated the relationship between online basic psychological need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile Internet, and this mediation effect was moderated by narcissism. A total of 296 Chinese middle school students participated in this research. The results revealed that exhibitionism fully mediated the association between online competence need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net, and partly mediated the association between online relatedness need satisfaction and self-disclosure on the mobile net. The mediating path from online basic psychological need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) to exhibitionism was moderated by narcissism. Compared to the low level of narcissism, online competence need satisfaction had a stronger predictive power on exhibitionism under the high level of narcissism condition. In contrast, online relatedness need satisfaction had a weaker predictive power on exhibitionism. PMID:27616999

  5. How To Eliminate Narcissism Overnight: DSM-V and the Death of Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pies, Ronald

    2011-02-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on "grandiosity" probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of "malignant narcissism" is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation.

  6. The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2011-02-01

    Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.

  7. Initial Reliability of the Diagnostic Interview for Narcissism Adapted for Preadolescents: Parent Version (P-DIN)

    PubMed Central

    Guilé, Jean-Marc; Sayegh, Liliane; Bergeron, Line; Fortier, Hélène; Goldberg, Deborah; Gunderson, John

    2004-01-01

    Introduction the Diagnostic Interview for Narcissism, an instrument developed by Gunderson and associates to assess pathological narcissistic traits in adults, has been adapted for use with parents of preadolescents as a semi-structured interview. A sixth section has been added to assess the parental narcissistic investment of the child. Methods the sample consists of 21 parents of children (aged 8–13 years) at risk for narcissistic personality disorder. An interviewer-observer design, with independent interview evaluation, was used to assess inter-rater reliabilities. Both raters were blind to diagnostic information. Results Very good inter-rater reliabilities (ranging from .85 to 1.00) were obtained for all 35 statements of this Parent version of the DIN (P-DIN). Good internal consistencies a=0.82, a=0.88, a=0.69, respectively) were obtained for the first three Sections of the P-DIN, which include all the DSM-IV criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Section V, Social/Moral Adaptation (a=0.54), and Section VI, Parental Narcissistic Investment of the Child (a=0.62), had weaker internal consistencies. Section IV, Mood States, had the lowest internal consistency (a=0.50). Finally, a high reliability coefficient was obtained for the total scale (a=0.92, 32 statements for Sections I to V). Conclusion present results of this pilot study justify further research into the P-DIN psychometric properties. PMID:19030504

  8. Self-functioning and perceived parenting: relations of parental empathy and love inconsistency with narcissism, depression, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Watson, P J; O'Leary, Brian J; Weathington, Bart L

    2008-03-01

    In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In a sample of university undergraduates (N=232; 78 men, 153 women, and 1 nonresponder), perceived parental empathy predicted more adaptive self-functioning, whereas parental love inconsistency was related to psychological maladjustment. These results support the theoretical assumption that perceived parental empathy is associated with healthy self-development.

  9. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  10. Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression.

  11. The maturation of narcissism: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). This series of articles raises an interesting meta-issue worthy of further consideration: How specific is vulnerability to narcissism? Is this a "Criterion A" feature of most personality disorders, with variants (e.g., paranoid, histrionic, etc.) defined by how one reacts to an inner sense of fragility, vulnerability, or immaturity? Or should vulnerability be more meaningfully incorporated into the specific criteria for narcissistic personality disorder, which have tended to overemphasize grandiosity? These are important questions that can only be worked out meaningfully with further research.

  12. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-concepts of intelligence: relations to modesty, narcissism, and achievement motivation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI–eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063

  13. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others. PMID:27180508

  14. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.

  15. The King of Norway: negative individuation, the hero myth and psychopathic narcissism in extreme violence and the life of Anders Behring Breivik.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Harri

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses negative individuation and the hero myth as developmental concepts. It is suggested that in negative individuation healthy psychological development is hindered and goes astray. Aggression then becomes the central psychic system. Repressed anger is the core element in psychopathic narcissism (Diamond) and malignant narcissism (Kernberg). Both Diamond and Kernberg extend narcissistic personality structure to antisocial, psychopathic personality in an effort to better understand extreme violence. According to Freud, love (libido) and hate (the death drive) are the major motivational systems in the human psyche. In contrast to Freud, Jung sees libido as a life force in general, not simply as a sexual drive. Jung writes about evil and the shadow but does not present a comprehensive theory of the negative development of an individual's life. The concept of negative individuation connects the shadow and the death drive with psychopathology, psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, I explore these concepts in the light of contemporary affect theory according to Kernberg. I also ask how ideology is tied to extreme violence and how it is possible that narcissistic personality structures can lead to such radically different outcomes as were manifested in the lives of Anders Behring Breivik and Steve Jobs. PMID:24237209

  16. The King of Norway: negative individuation, the hero myth and psychopathic narcissism in extreme violence and the life of Anders Behring Breivik.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Harri

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses negative individuation and the hero myth as developmental concepts. It is suggested that in negative individuation healthy psychological development is hindered and goes astray. Aggression then becomes the central psychic system. Repressed anger is the core element in psychopathic narcissism (Diamond) and malignant narcissism (Kernberg). Both Diamond and Kernberg extend narcissistic personality structure to antisocial, psychopathic personality in an effort to better understand extreme violence. According to Freud, love (libido) and hate (the death drive) are the major motivational systems in the human psyche. In contrast to Freud, Jung sees libido as a life force in general, not simply as a sexual drive. Jung writes about evil and the shadow but does not present a comprehensive theory of the negative development of an individual's life. The concept of negative individuation connects the shadow and the death drive with psychopathology, psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, I explore these concepts in the light of contemporary affect theory according to Kernberg. I also ask how ideology is tied to extreme violence and how it is possible that narcissistic personality structures can lead to such radically different outcomes as were manifested in the lives of Anders Behring Breivik and Steve Jobs.

  17. The bright-side and the dark-side of CEO personality: examining core self-evaluations, narcissism, transformational leadership, and strategic influence.

    PubMed

    Resick, Christian J; Whitman, Daniel S; Weingarden, Steven M; Hiller, Nathan J

    2009-11-01

    This article reports on an examination of the relationships between chief executive officer (CEO) personality, transformational and transactional leadership, and multiple strategic outcomes in a sample of 75 CEOs of Major League Baseball organizations over a 100-year period. CEO bright-side personality characteristics (core self-evaluations) were positively related to transformational leadership, whereas dark-side personality characteristics (narcissism) of CEOs were negatively related to contingent reward leadership. In turn, CEO transformational and contingent reward leadership were related to 4 different strategic outcomes, including manager turnover, team winning percentage, fan attendance, and an independent rating of influence. CEO transformational leadership was positively related to ratings of influence, team winning percentage, and fan attendance, whereas contingent reward leadership was negatively related to manager turnover and ratings of influence.

  18. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  19. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  20. Narcissism and the personal myth.

    PubMed

    Lester, E P

    1986-07-01

    Kris (1956) described the concept of the personal myth as an autobiographical story built around a family romance fantasy seen specifically in obsessive characters and serving a defensive function. In this paper the concept of the personal myth was expanded to include similar defensive constellations originating from within the grandiose self, built around omnipotent and omniscient fantasies and occurring in character formations with pregenital, narcissistic pathology. The case of a known author and poet, Nikos Kazantzakis, was used to illustrate the thesis of the paper. The available biographical material and the work of the author offer evidence to support the claim that the author's personal myth was a protective shield against anxiety originating in early narcissistic traumata.

  1. Narcissism lost: on translating and being translated.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Inês N E; Brakel, Arthur

    2010-08-01

    The authors present a detailed account of the experiences shared in translating and having one's work translated. Carneiro maintains that, in order to communicate with their readers, writers should relinquish the narcissistic satisfaction they derive from their texts in the original. Beyond this, she feels that, owing to a good understanding between her and her translator, the creativity in her original text persists in the translation. Brakel introduces himself to the IJPA readership and shows how he works when translating the cultural and linguistic nuances and peculiarities of Brazilian Portuguese. He concludes with some thoughts about the affect he experiences from his original work and the work he has translated. PMID:20840638

  2. Individuality, narcissism and the bipolar self.

    PubMed

    Bragan, K

    1990-12-01

    Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Shaw are introduced as great exponents of the cult of individuality and as providing examples of the two poles of the self as defined by Kohut. Wilde's need for mirroring, and his use of defensive strategies to support the self, is contrasted with Shaw's compensatory use of idealization to create a strong and stable self. While acknowledging the way self psychology can explain some aspects of the personalities of these great men, it is also suggested that it does not explain all, and in particular does not explain the economic aspect. Questions about the latter are raised in conclusion.

  3. Narcissism and Intimacy: Treating the Wounded Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marion F.

    1994-01-01

    Couples whose early wounds cause narcissistic and borderline defenses may benefit from treatment with a psychodynamically oriented couples therapist. This article presents a treatment method that helps partners become attuned to each other's underlying injuries and vulnerabilities. The goal is to rebuild damaged structures of the self and to…

  4. Sartre's contribution to the understanding of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Klass, D B; Offenkrantz, W

    1976-01-01

    As a means for presenting Sartre's insights into the narcissistic problems of the self, we have used his phenomenological system as articulated in Being and Nothingness (1943) to illuminate these issues in the personality of Roquentin, the hero of his novel Nausea (1938). Roquentin attempts to stabilize his fragmenting self and to avoid "nausea" by using three mechanisms which Sartre argues maintain the self from drowning in the objects of the self. These are "reflection," "temporality" (continuity through time), and "being-for-others" (how we experience another's view of ourselves). In Sartre's conception of being-for-others lies many clinically useful insights which can be used to explain both the structure and the instability of the transferences seen in the treatment of narcissistic personality disorders. Sartre demonstrates by implication that the patient must maintain (by using bad faith, i.e., disavowal) that the therapist is acting freely, or these transferences collapse. Thus, the patient must feel he is the unique and special "occasion," of any warmth, empathy, or compliments. A case example is included to illustrate these issues of freedom and bad faith.

  5. Recentering Pedagogy in an Age of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ann O.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most enduring images from Wilson's "The Social Conquest of Earth" (2012) is the campfire, the place of warmth and community around which gathered early humankind. It seems an ideal metaphor for teaching and learning, with mentors and learners gathered around an enterprise of mutual society: No one at the core, but all warmed and…

  6. [The ambitio-impulse different from narcissism].

    PubMed

    Bour, P

    1984-11-01

    We should not let our dynamic drive bog down in the ambiguous concept of "libido". A concept which disturbed Freud himself as is clearly demonstrated in his latest works and which has been considerably misused afterwards. In order to achieve this aim we have in the light of psychopathology, of the symbolic nature of dreams and of our own personal experience set to describe three fundamental drives-the real roots of Man unseparable from his constitution-namely 1. ambitio: (which prompts Man to assert himself, to develop and dominate); 2. agressio: (the urge to defend our internal territory or to overcome obstacles according to our will); 3. attractio: (the disposition to be moved or attracted by this or that object). The present paper shall deal with ambitio which is not to be mixed up with conscious ambition. This unconscious drive, axial and archaic which nourishes the evolution of all living matter (even a tree trunk) should not be interspersed with guilt but is indispensable to our emergence from the Cosmos. Ambitio can be subject to hypertrophy by a compensatory process in cases of megalomania and on the contrary it can be atrophied in the case of a failure syndrome or inferiority complex for example. The most delicate stage of the process is that of its taming and of its conscious acceptance. All things which if properly dealt with and if we want to avoid the traps of authoritarianism or of the narcissistic delusion will lead us in the interest of others, to the most realistic modesty.

  7. [The politicization of narcissism: Reading Kohut with and through Morganthaler].

    PubMed

    Herzog, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    While in the US in the 1970s, Heinz Kohut's work served as a major rescue operation for a psychoanalytic profession that was in deep crisis, the reception in the German-speaking lands was, for multiple reasons, ultimately marked by far more ambivalence. No one explicated and defended Kohut more vigorously to his professional peers as well as to a younger generation of left-leaning psychoanalysts than the charismatic Swiss psychoanalyst (and coinventor of ethnopsychoanalysis) Fritz Morgenthaler. It was, furthermore, specifically in engaged grappling with Kohut's creative clinical innovations as well as his blind spots that Morgenthaler--as a close reading of their correspondence and respective writings shows--developed his own distinctive perspectives on the enduring riddle of how best to theorize the interrelationships between "the sexual" and other realms of existence. It was also in this context that Morgenthaler became the first European analyst of any nationality to articulate an eloquent rebuttal to the homophobic consensus that had become consolidated across the psychoanalytic diaspora since Freud's death. PMID:27281982

  8. Narcissism as a motivational structure: the problem of personal significance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J A

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of individual life is contingent on understanding not only man's traditional motivations but also the individual strategy for resolving the problem of personal insignificance. Man's sense of personal insignificance comes from two primary experiences: (a) the developmental experience with its increasing awareness of separation and loss, transience, and the sense of lost felt perfectibility; and (b) the increasing cognitive awareness of the immutable laws of biology and the limitations of the self and others in which idealization gives way to painful reality. Each individual seeks narcissistic reparation through the elaboration of a personal narrative or myth, a story, which gives one's life a feeling of personal significance, meaning, and purpose. What is relevant is not the presence or absence of a myth or personal narrative but within which myth one chooses to live one's life. Myths are not explanations rooted in scientific evidence but rather are belief systems lived as if they were truths. Myths provide the individual with a personal sense of identity, and they confirm and affirm memberships in a group or community, and provide guidelines and an idealized set of behaviors within which to operate. Lastly, they may endorse an explanation for the mysterious universe. Three motivational strategies in which the aim is to create a personal myth or personal narrative that ensures a sense of personal significance are described in this article: (a) transcendental or spiritual myths, (b) group or interpersonal myths, and (c) humanistic or personal myths.

  9. [Terrorist acting out, narcissism and psychopathology of identifications].

    PubMed

    Houssier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The impact of wounds and narcissistic conflicts can favour a murderous acting out. From a psychoanalytical point of view, narcissistic positions tinged with cynicism and envy in particular are identified, on a background of a pathology of ideals and the melancholisation of the social link. This article looks back at the attack in Paris in January 2015 through statements taken from social discourse. PMID:26790595

  10. [The politicization of narcissism: Reading Kohut with and through Morganthaler].

    PubMed

    Herzog, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    While in the US in the 1970s, Heinz Kohut's work served as a major rescue operation for a psychoanalytic profession that was in deep crisis, the reception in the German-speaking lands was, for multiple reasons, ultimately marked by far more ambivalence. No one explicated and defended Kohut more vigorously to his professional peers as well as to a younger generation of left-leaning psychoanalysts than the charismatic Swiss psychoanalyst (and coinventor of ethnopsychoanalysis) Fritz Morgenthaler. It was, furthermore, specifically in engaged grappling with Kohut's creative clinical innovations as well as his blind spots that Morgenthaler--as a close reading of their correspondence and respective writings shows--developed his own distinctive perspectives on the enduring riddle of how best to theorize the interrelationships between "the sexual" and other realms of existence. It was also in this context that Morgenthaler became the first European analyst of any nationality to articulate an eloquent rebuttal to the homophobic consensus that had become consolidated across the psychoanalytic diaspora since Freud's death.

  11. [Terrorist acting out, narcissism and psychopathology of identifications].

    PubMed

    Houssier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The impact of wounds and narcissistic conflicts can favour a murderous acting out. From a psychoanalytical point of view, narcissistic positions tinged with cynicism and envy in particular are identified, on a background of a pathology of ideals and the melancholisation of the social link. This article looks back at the attack in Paris in January 2015 through statements taken from social discourse.

  12. When Daughter's Sexual Abuse Is an Injury to Mother's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePinho, Connie Maria

    The mother's reaction to the disclosure of sexual abuse is often dramatic and her particular type of response in turn affects the daughter's coping mechanisms to deal with the abuse and the disclosure. The type of symptoms developed are thus considered in part dependent on the mother's reaction. Mothers of children who have been sexually abused…

  13. Narcissism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Vicky G.; Garcia-Simpson, Cynthia; Newland, Shera

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the complex issues surrounding the behaviors exhibited by students who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and the role the disorder may play in school violence. Students with NPD are often characterized by arrogance, grandiosity, and self-importance; a preoccupation with fantasies of success and…

  14. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  15. Optimism and Hope versus Anxiety and Narcissism: Some Thoughts on Children's Welfare Yesterday and Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to raise a number of issues concerning children's well-being in late modernity. In order to provide historical contrasts, the first part of the article considers three "optimistic" periods: the Liberal Reform Programme, 1906-1911; interwar developments in New Psychology, progressive education and child guidance; the post-1945…

  16. Interpersonal views of narcissism and authentic high self-esteem: it is not all about you.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J Stephen; O'Brien, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Employing peer-rating methodology, this study examined relationship issues in narcissists versus individuals with authentic high self-esteem. Undergraduates (N = 147) were assigned to rate someone (a "target") they knew well who was most similar to a narcissistic prototype, an authentic self-esteem prototype, or a control person. Participants rating narcissistic targets reported significantly more interpersonal problems with the target and more avoidant and revenge behaviors directed toward them than did participants rating authentic self-esteem or control targets. Authentic high self-esteem was associated with positive social relationships. Large effect sizes suggested substantial interpersonal differences observed by peers interacting with narcissists compared to authentic high self-esteem individuals. PMID:25153960

  17. Psychopathy and Pathological Narcissism: A Descriptive and Psychodynamic Formulation on the Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the Antisocial Personality Disorder within the context of a psychopathology model. Criticizes and reviews the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders approach and suggests revisions. Coins the term narcissistic-antisocial personality and reviews it within several contexts. (Author/ABB)

  18. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  19. Ethics and Personality: Empathy and Narcissism as Moderators of Ethical Decision Making in Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Todd A.; Sautter, John A.; Littvay, Levente; Sautter, Alberta C.; Bearnes, Brennen

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported that business students have been more apt to act in self-interested ways when compared to their counterparts in other academic fields. Beginning with the premise that ethical behavior derives in part from personality characteristics, the authors tested whether (a) measures of an empathetic or narcissistic personality…

  20. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  1. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  2. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions. PMID:26456397

  3. Nondual Psychotherapy and Second Stage Sexual Addictions Recovery: Transforming "Master of the Universe" Narcissism into Nondual Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Theriault, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process of working through the "dry drunk" second stage of sexual addiction recovery through transforming the narcissistic "Master of the Universe" personality into the experience of nondual being using the Almaas Diamond Approach of self-realization. The Diamond Approach is a transpersonal informed psychology…

  4. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

  5. Authenticity in Education: From Narcissism and Freedom to the Messy Interplay of Self-Exploration and Acceptable Tension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    The problem with authenticity--the idea of being "true to one's self"--is that its somewhat checkered reputation garners a complete range of favorable and unfavorable reactions. In educational settings, authenticity is lauded as one of the top two traits students desire in their teachers. Yet, authenticity is criticized for its tendency…

  6. National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

  7. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  8. National Denial, Splitting, and Narcissism: Group Defence Mechanisms of Teachers and Students in Palestine in Response to the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Yuval

    1996-01-01

    Explores the national defense mechanisms used by the education system of the Yishuv, the Jewish community in pre-independence Israel, in response to the Holocaust, as well as the significance of these responses and their contemporary implications. Concludes with contemporary applications of national defense mechanisms and their possible…

  9. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  10. Loving yourself abundantly: relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; LePine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce L

    2006-07-01

    The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced leadership self-perceptions; indeed, whereas narcissism was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of leadership, it was significantly negatively related to other ratings of leadership. Study 2 also revealed that narcissism was related to more favorable self-ratings of workplace deviance and contextual performance compared to other (supervisor) ratings. Finally, as hypothesized, narcissism was more strongly negatively related to contextual performance than to task performance.

  11. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  12. It Is Developmental Me, Not Generation Me: Developmental Changes Are More Important Than Generational Changes in Narcissism—Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.; Edmonds, Grant; Grijalva, Emily

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we make two points about the ongoing debate concerning the purported increase in narcissistic tendencies in college students over the last 30 years. First, we show that when new data on narcissism are folded into preexisting meta-analytic data, there is no increase in narcissism in college students over the last few decades. Second, we show, in contrast, that age changes in narcissism are both replicable and comparatively large in comparison to generational changes in narcissism. This leads to the conclusion that every generation is Generation Me, as every generation of younger people are more narcissistic than their elders. PMID:21243122

  13. Understanding and Counseling Narcissistic Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides counselors with an overview of narcissism and its treatment. In the first section, dysfunctional narcissism is described, drawing on the diagnostic indicators presented in the DSM-III and the contemporary object relations theories of Heinz Kohut and Otto Kerberg. The second section focuses on counseling narcissistic clients. (Author/JAC)

  14. 'They will not control us': Ingroup positivity and belief in intergroup conspiracies.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Marchlewska, Marta; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Olechowski, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    This research examined the role of different forms of positive regard for the ingroup in predicting beliefs in intergroup conspiracies. Collective narcissism reflects a belief in ingroup greatness contingent on others' recognition. We hypothesized that collective narcissism should be especially likely to foster outgroup conspiracy beliefs. Non-narcissistic ingroup positivity, on the other hand, should predict a weaker tendency to believe in conspiracy theories. In Study 1, the endorsement of conspiratorial explanations of outgroup actions was positively predicted by collective narcissism but negatively by non-narcissistic ingroup positivity. Study 2 showed that the opposite effects of collective narcissism and non-narcissistic ingroup positivity on conspiracy beliefs were mediated via differential perceptions of threat. Study 3 manipulated whether conspiracy theories implicated ingroup or outgroup members. Collective narcissism predicted belief in outgroup conspiracies but not in ingroup conspiracies, while non-narcissistic ingroup positivity predicted lower conspiracy beliefs, regardless of them being ascribed to the ingroup or the outgroup. PMID:26511288

  15. Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

  16. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her ...

  17. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  18. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists: Who Is at Higher Risk for Social Networking Addiction?

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia; Rugai, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Scholars have recently taken an interest in the connection between narcissism and Internet use, especially among users who frequent social networking sites (SNSs). Conversely, the association between narcissism and problematic use of SNSs (i.e., unregulated use that leads to negative outcomes) has been scarcely investigated. This study addresses this gap by comparing the mean levels of problematic use of SNSs among grandiose narcissists, vulnerable narcissists, and non-narcissists. A sample of 535 students completed the 16-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS2). Vulnerable narcissists reported (a) significant higher levels on all GPIUS2 subscales and total scores than non-narcissists and (b) a stronger preference for online social interactions and higher overall levels of problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissists. Conversely, no significant differences were found between grandiose narcissists and non-narcissists. This study suggests that vulnerable narcissism may contribute more to problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissism. PMID:27362922

  19. The Leader Ship Is Sinking: A Temporal Investigation of Narcissistic Leadership.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chin Wei; Roberts, Ross; Arthur, Calum A; Woodman, Tim; Akehurst, Sally

    2016-04-01

    Individuals higher in narcissism have leader emergent tendencies. The characteristics of their personality suggest, however, that their leadership qualities will decrease over time as a function of group acquaintance. We present data from two studies that provide the first empirical support for this theoretical position within a transformational leadership framework. In Study 1 (N = 112), we tested narcissistic leadership qualities in groups of unacquainted individuals over a 12-week period. In Study 2 (N = 152), we adopted the same protocol with groups of acquainted individuals. In Study 1, narcissism was positively associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation but not later. In Study 2, narcissism was not significantly associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation and was negatively associated with peer-rated leadership later. In Study 1, transformational leadership mediated the relationship between narcissism and leadership initially but not later on. In Study 2, transformational leadership failed to mediate the relationship between narcissism and leadership throughout the study. Despite enjoying a honeymoon period of leadership, the appeal and attractiveness of the narcissistic leader rapidly wane. This decline is explained in part by their changing transformational leadership qualities.

  20. Psychopathic traits mediate the association of serotonin transporter genotype and child externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Whitney A; Jezior, Kristen L; Lee, Steve S

    2016-09-01

    Although the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with externalizing behavior, its mediating pathways are unknown. Given their sensitivity to serotonin neurotransmission and unique association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), we tested callous-unemotional (CU) traits and narcissism as separate mediators of the association of 5-HTTLPR with ADHD and ODD. We evaluated 209 5-9 year-old children with and without ADHD at baseline; approximately 2 years later (i.e., Wave 2), parents and teachers separately rated ADHD and ODD symptoms and youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Controlling for race-ethnicity and baseline ADHD/ODD, narcissism uniquely mediated predictions of multi-informant rated Wave 2 ADHD and ODD from variation in 5-HTTLPR; CU traits mediated predictions of Wave 2 ADHD from variations in 5-HTTLPR, but did not mediate the associations of 5-HTTLPR with ODD or youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Specifically, the number of 5-HTTLPR long alleles positively predicted CU traits and narcissism; narcissism was positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD and ODD symptoms, whereas CU traits were positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD. Child sex also moderated indirect effects of CU traits and narcissism, such that narcissism mediated predictions of ADHD/ODD in girls but not boys. Psychopathic traits may represent a relevant pathway underlying predictions of prospective change in ADHD and ODD from 5-HTTLPR, particularly in girls. We consider the role of psychopathic traits as a potential intermediate phenotype in genetically sensitive studies of child psychopathology. Aggr. Behav. 42:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990675

  1. Racism: a symptom of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C

    1980-07-01

    Despite the criticism that psychoanalytic models are not applicable to social phenomena, knowledge of the dynamics of narcissistic development aids in understanding a particular kind of racist individual. Specifically, racist attitudes may be indicative of a narcissistic personality disorder or of a regression to primitive narcissistic functioning secondary to environmental forces. The differentiation between the narcissistic racist, the stress-induced racist, and the socially misinformed racist is discussed utilizing clinical paradigms discovered in psychotherapy. Life experiences and religion are discussed as possible aids in the transformation of primary narcissism into secondary narcissism.

  2. Heartless and cunning? Intelligence in adolescents with antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer L; Briskman, Jacqueline; Humayun, Sajid; Dadds, Mark R; Scott, Stephen

    2013-12-30

    Clinical theory predicts that individuals high in psychopathic traits possess average or above average intelligence; however findings in adult and child samples have been mixed. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the three dimensions of psychopathy (callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissism, impulsivity); and (2) whether these dimensions moderate the association between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the severity of antisocial behavior. Participants were 361 adolescents aged 9-18 years (68% boys) and their parents, drawn from four samples with different levels of risk for antisocial behavior. Families were disadvantaged and 25% were from an ethnic minority. Verbal intelligence was unrelated to parent-reported CU traits, narcissism or impulsivity after controlling for gender, sociodemographic disadvantage, sample, antisocial behavior and hyperactivity. Narcissism, but not CU traits or impulsivity, was significantly related to lower nonverbal IQ. None of the three psychopathic trait dimensions moderated the relationship between verbal or nonverbal IQ and antisocial behavior. CU traits, narcissism, hyperactivity and inclusion in the very high or high risk samples were significantly related to more severe antisocial behavior. Results contradict the widely held view that psychopathic traits are associated with better than average verbal or nonverbal intelligence. PMID:24011851

  3. Teaching Generation Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Today's college students are significantly different from previous generations. On average, they are overconfident, have high expectations, report higher narcissism, are lower in creativity, are less interested in civic issues, and are less inclined to read long passages of text. They are highly confident of their abilities and received…

  4. The analyst's awkward gift: balancing recognition of sexuality with parental protectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The author describes the many roles that the analyst is called upon to fulfill in the transference during the course of an analysis. The loving transference is distinguished from the erotic transference and the erotized transference. Repetition is discussed, as is narcissism, especially in the light of clinical situations in which oedipal issues take center stage. Four brief clinical examples are presented. PMID:21387998

  5. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  6. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  7. Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

  8. The narcissistic mask: an exploration of 'the defensive grandiosity hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Hashmi, Amani Al; Chung, Man Cheung; Morgan, Keith; Lyons, Minna

    2013-05-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as involving attempts to defend against negative self-schemata (implicit negative beliefs about one's own self-worth). This idea has been termed the 'mask model of narcissism'. This study explores the mask model, examining the association between extreme narcissistic personality traits and performance on a task purported to assess the influence of negative self-schemata. Participants (n = 232) from the UK and the UAE completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and also performed an incidental learning task involving the surprise recall of self-referential adjectives (traits). A greater recall of negative adjectives was viewed as indicative of negative self-schemata. Looking at the sample as a whole, there were no associations between narcissistic traits and negative adjective recall. However, amongst those scoring in the upper quartile of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, narcissism scores were positively correlated with the recall of negative adjectives even after controlling for age and memory. Narcissism may reflect self-enhancement strategies rooted in negative self-beliefs. PMID:24343942

  9. [Identity and aging. A metapsychological point of view].

    PubMed

    Péruchon, Marion

    2004-06-01

    After having outlined the concept of identity which refers to the psyche and narcissism, the author analyses the normal and pathological defensive mechanisms of the people facing the afflictions of aging. These defensive mechanisms are aimed to the maintain of identity, its consolidation, but can also lead to its self-destruction. PMID:15683975

  10. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  11. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  12. Narcissists’ social pain seen only in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara H.; Falk, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Narcissism is a complex phenomenon, involving a level of defensive self-enhancement. Narcissists have avoidant attachment styles, maintain distance in relationships and claim not to need others. However, they are especially sensitive to others’ evaluations, needing positive reflected appraisals to maintain their inflated self-views, and showing extreme responses (e.g. aggression) when rejected. The current study tested the hypothesis that narcissists also show hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress during exclusion. We measured individual differences in narcissism (Narcissistic Personality Inventory) and monitored neural responses to social exclusion (Cyberball). Narcissism was significantly associated with activity in an a priori anatomically defined social pain network (anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) during social exclusion. Results suggest hypersensitivity to exclusion in narcissists may be a function of hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress, and suggests a potential pathway that connects narcissism to negative consequences for longer-term physical and mental health—findings not apparent with self-report alone. PMID:24860084

  13. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760

  14. Appreciating Similarities and Valuing Differences: The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Gelso, Charles J.; Pannu, Raji; Liu, Will; Touradji, Pegah; Holloway, Pauline; Fuertes, Jairo

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of study of a 45-item scale developed to measure the construct and administered to four separate samples. The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale significantly correlated in theoretically predicted ways with measures of racial identity, empathy, health narcissism, feminism, androgyny, homophobia, and dogmatism (the last…

  15. The Creative Side of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Hansika

    2015-01-01

    This study associates the subclinical dark triad (DT) of personality--narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, and their composite--with negative creativity. An instrument developed by the author assessed the likelihood of engaging in creativity, where negative creativity was defined as an act that is original and useful to the individual.…

  16. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  17. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. PMID:27254651

  18. [20th century Galileo? The significance of Freud's life and work, seen in terms of the history of science (lecture on May 6th, 2006)].

    PubMed

    Hirschmiüller, Albrecht

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a sketch of Freud's life and work, discusses the difficulties of reception he met, and, referring to the well-known statement that psychoanalysis represents the third blow to the narcissism of mankind, maintains that, in terms of the history of science, a more meaningful parallel can be drawn between Freud and Galileo than between Freud and Copernicus or Darwin.

  19. A Perception Study of Computer Science and Information Systems Students on Bullying Prevalence in the Information Systems Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James; Molluzzo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is considered to be omnipresent in business firms and prevalent in entrepreneurial firms in information systems and in departments of information systems in industry. Entrepreneurialism and narcissism of personalities in the information systems profession may be perceived as especially predisposed to bullying. The authors of this paper…

  20. The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

  1. The "Dark Traits" of Sociopathic Leaders: Could They Be a Threat to Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Some sociopathic personality traits in managers can derail business organisations even though the leaders have been carefully selected and considered "high flyers". Three of those traits are narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism. These traits are "socially-aversive" because the sociopaths have an ingrained disregard for…

  2. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  3. An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

  4. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem.

  5. Narcissists' social pain seen only in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Christopher N; Konrath, Sara H; Falk, Emily B

    2015-03-01

    Narcissism is a complex phenomenon, involving a level of defensive self-enhancement. Narcissists have avoidant attachment styles, maintain distance in relationships and claim not to need others. However, they are especially sensitive to others' evaluations, needing positive reflected appraisals to maintain their inflated self-views, and showing extreme responses (e.g. aggression) when rejected. The current study tested the hypothesis that narcissists also show hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress during exclusion. We measured individual differences in narcissism (Narcissistic Personality Inventory) and monitored neural responses to social exclusion (Cyberball). Narcissism was significantly associated with activity in an a priori anatomically defined social pain network (anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) during social exclusion. Results suggest hypersensitivity to exclusion in narcissists may be a function of hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress, and suggests a potential pathway that connects narcissism to negative consequences for longer-term physical and mental health-findings not apparent with self-report alone. PMID:24860084

  6. [From vertical to horizontal. Writing in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Catheline-Antipoff, N

    1995-04-01

    Writing at adolescence has a non negligible part in identity's construction. Vertical writing as tags, graphs and graffiti refer to a narcissism deficiency and express a pulsional necessity, whereas, horizontal writing as private diaries, letters and novels express object's search and are made in dreaming attitude.

  7. Contemporary Film and the Representative Anecdote of "Unmasking": Coping Strategies for a Narcissistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scodari, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Examines contemporary films--including "The Terminator,""Witness,""Jagged Edge," and "The Big Chill,"--and discusses their metaphoric anecdotes of "unmasking," the inverse of the process of becoming narcissistic. Asserts that "unmasking" films provide coping strategies for an audience faced with problems stemming from narcissism in society. (MM)

  8. Passing On: Personal Attributes Associated with Midlife Expressions of Intended Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicky J.; Jones, Brady K.

    2016-01-01

    Expressions of the intent to leave behind something when we die can contain elements of both selflessness and selfishness. In this paper, we identify 3 different types of expressed legacy (personal, broader, and composite), and distinguish between them by examining their correlates (generativity, narcissism, and community involvement), as well as…

  9. The Relation between Different Facets of Creativity and the Dark Side of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahmen-Wassenberg, Phoebe; Kämmerle, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between different facets of creativity and personality, focusing on the dark side of personality. In a sample of 247 students, psychometric measures for the assessment of the dark triad of personality (subclinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy), personality organization (structural deficit:…

  10. What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Witt, Edward A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Robins, Richard W.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies…

  11. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale

    PubMed Central

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Persson, Björn N.; Rosenberg, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on

  12. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  13. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder-a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R

    2013-06-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD.

  14. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD. PMID:24174893

  15. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account.

  16. You Probably Think this Paper’s About You: Narcissists’ Perceptions of their Personality and Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Erika N.; Vazire, Simine; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, we examined others’ perceptions, self-perceptions and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3). Results bring us to three surprising conclusions about narcissists: 1) they understand that others see them less positively than they see themselves (i.e., their meta-perceptions are less biased than are their self-perceptions), 2) they have some insight into the fact that they make positive first impressions that deteriorate over time, and 3) they have insight into their narcissistic personality (e.g., they describe themselves as arrogant). These findings shed light on some of the psychological mechanisms underlying narcissism. PMID:21604895

  17. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

  18. Personality and ethical decision-making in research: the role of perceptions of self and others.

    PubMed

    Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Murphy, Stephen T; Waples, Ethan P; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2007-12-01

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED BASIC PERSONALITY characteristics, narcissism, and cynicism as predictors of ethical decision-making among graduate students training for careers in the sciences. Participants completed individual difference measures along with a scenario-based ethical decision-making measure that captures the complex, multifaceted nature of ethical decision-making in scientific research. The results revealed that narcissism and cynicism (individual differences influencing self-perceptions and perceptions of others) showed consistently negative relationships with aspects of ethical decision-making, whereas more basic personality characteristics (e.g., conscientiousness, agreeableness) were less consistent and weaker. Further analyses examined the relationship of personality to metacognitive reasoning strategies and socialbehavioral response patterns thought to underlie ethical decision-making. The findings indicated that personality was associated with many of these social-cognitive mechanisms which might, in part, explain the association between personality and ethical decisions.

  19. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2005-04-01

    The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.

  20. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  1. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows. Conclusions Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  2. Creativity and the third age.

    PubMed

    Limentani, A

    1995-08-01

    The paper discusses aspects of the creative process in the elderly and, indeed, in the old. After a definition of the third age, the writer goes on to discuss the nature and aims of creativity. Particular attention is paid to the roles of sexuality, regression in the service of the ego, narcissism, sublimation, the depressive position and reparation. There follows discussion on therapeutic work with creative elderly individuals.

  3. The fuzzy reality of perceived harms.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Sara; Cheung, Irene

    2013-02-01

    We review two subjective (mis)perceptions that influence revenge and forgiveness systems. Individual differences predict more (e.g., narcissism) or less (e.g., empathy) revenge, with the opposite pattern for forgiveness. Moreover, differences in victim versus perpetrator perceptions can influence revenge and forgiveness systems, perpetuating never-ending cycles of revenge. These two examples point to the need for theories of revenge and forgiveness to address the role of cognitive and motivational biases in the functionality of such behavioral responses.

  4. Behavioral processes underlying the decline of narcissists' popularity over time.

    PubMed

    Leckelt, Marius; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2015-11-01

    Following a dual-pathway approach to the social consequences of grandiose narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying (a) the decline of narcissists' popularity in social groups over time and (b) how this is differentially influenced by the 2 narcissism facets admiration and rivalry. In a longitudinal laboratory study, participants (N = 311) first provided narcissism self-reports using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and subsequently interacted with each other in small groups in weekly sessions over the course of 3 weeks. All sessions were videotaped and trained raters coded participants' behavior during the interactions. Within the sessions participants provided mutual ratings on assertiveness, untrustworthiness, and likability. Results showed that (a) over time narcissists become less popular and (b) this is reflected in an initially positive but decreasing effect of narcissistic admiration as well as an increasing negative effect of narcissistic rivalry. As hypothesized, these patterns of results could be explained by means of 2 diverging behavioral pathways: The negative narcissistic pathway (i.e., arrogant-aggressive behavior and being seen as untrustworthy) plays an increasing role and is triggered by narcissistic rivalry, whereas the relevance of the positive narcissistic pathway (i.e., dominant-expressive behavior and being seen as assertive) triggered by narcissistic admiration decreases over time. These findings underline the utility of a behavioral pathway approach for disentangling the complex effects of personality on social outcomes.

  5. The narcissistic personality disorder and the differential diagnosis of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F

    1989-09-01

    This article describes a dimension of antisocial behavior that links the narcissistic personality disorder with the antisocial personality disorder, with the syndrome of malignant narcissism as intermediate between the two. Starting with a critique of the DSM-III-R description of the antisocial personality disorder, the author reviews some salient contributions to the concept of the antisocial personality disorder derived from descriptive, sociologic, and psychoanalytic viewpoints. Cleckley's classic description forms the historical background for an updated description of the key characteristics of the antisocial personality disorder. What follows is a summary of the differential diagnosis of antisocial behavior as found in the antisocial personality disorder, the syndrome of malignant narcissism, the narcissistic personality disorders with antisocial behaviors, other severe personality disorders with antisocial features, neurotic personality disorders with antisocial features, symptomatic neuroses, and, finally, dissocial reactions. Prognostic and therapeutic considerations regarding the treatment of antisocial behavior are briefly summarized in the light of this differential diagnosis. A final section describes the psychodynamics of the syndrome of malignant narcissism and of the antisocial personality disorder.

  6. Relation between parenting stress and psychopathic traits among children.

    PubMed

    Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems.

  7. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission.

  8. Mirror mirror on the ward, who’s the most narcissistic of them all? Pathologic personality traits in health care

    PubMed Central

    Bucknall, Vittoria; Burwaiss, Suendoss; MacDonald, Deborah; Charles, Kathy; Clement, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stereotypes in medicine have become exaggerated for the purpose of workplace amusement. Our objective was to assess the levels of “dark triad” personality traits expressed by individuals working in different health care specialties in comparison with the general population. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study within multiple departments of a UK secondary care teaching hospital. A total of 248 health care professionals participated, and 159 members of the general population were recruited as a comparison group. We measured 3 personality traits — narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy — through the validated self-reported personality questionnaires Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), MACH-IV and the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), respectively. Results: Health care professionals scored significantly lower on narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy (mean scores 12.0, 53.0 and 44.7, respectively) than the general population (p < 0.001). Nursing professionals exhibited a significantly higher level of secondary psychopathy than medical professionals (p = 0.04, mean LSRP score 20.3). Within the cohort of medical professionals, surgeons expressed significantly higher levels of narcissism (p = 0.03, mean NPI score 15.0). Interpretation: Health care professionals expressed low levels of dark triad personality traits. The suggestion that health care professionals are avaricious and untrustworthy may be refuted, even for surgeons. PMID:26644545

  9. Behavioral processes underlying the decline of narcissists' popularity over time.

    PubMed

    Leckelt, Marius; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2015-11-01

    Following a dual-pathway approach to the social consequences of grandiose narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying (a) the decline of narcissists' popularity in social groups over time and (b) how this is differentially influenced by the 2 narcissism facets admiration and rivalry. In a longitudinal laboratory study, participants (N = 311) first provided narcissism self-reports using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and subsequently interacted with each other in small groups in weekly sessions over the course of 3 weeks. All sessions were videotaped and trained raters coded participants' behavior during the interactions. Within the sessions participants provided mutual ratings on assertiveness, untrustworthiness, and likability. Results showed that (a) over time narcissists become less popular and (b) this is reflected in an initially positive but decreasing effect of narcissistic admiration as well as an increasing negative effect of narcissistic rivalry. As hypothesized, these patterns of results could be explained by means of 2 diverging behavioral pathways: The negative narcissistic pathway (i.e., arrogant-aggressive behavior and being seen as untrustworthy) plays an increasing role and is triggered by narcissistic rivalry, whereas the relevance of the positive narcissistic pathway (i.e., dominant-expressive behavior and being seen as assertive) triggered by narcissistic admiration decreases over time. These findings underline the utility of a behavioral pathway approach for disentangling the complex effects of personality on social outcomes. PMID:26191958

  10. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

  11. The Role of Sports in the Development of the Superego of the Male Latency Child.

    PubMed

    Shopper, Moisy

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalytic literature has often overlooked the child's participation in organized sports, which often can facilitate or impede not only expression of aggression and narcissism, but enhance or skew the growth of the child's superego and ego ideal. Specific outcomes are largely determined by the experience and knowledge of the parents, the coaches, and sports organizations for latency-aged youth. Sports participation facilitates a major step forward in psychic development, that is, an agreed-upon adherence to a set of rules and regulations, monitored by an official embodying the final word regarding rules and their infractions. This paper is an attempt to delineate the role of sports in the life of the latency child, the parents who become involved, the coaches who teach and supervise, and the social and individual milieu within which sports take place. All these contribute to common goals: the engendering of good sportsmanship and the encouragement of psychic growth, particularly regarding how aggression and narcissism contribute to the development of superego and ego ideals. The fate of aggression and narcissism in superego and ego ideal development is influenced to a large degree by the nature, orientation, and motivations of all involved in sports for the latency-aged.

  12. Cognitive schemas and aggressive behavior in adolescents: the mediating role of social information processing.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2010-05-01

    This study assesses the association between cognitive schemas of justification of violence, grandiosity and abuse, and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior, and whether this association is mediated by social information processing (SIP). For this purpose, a sample of 1371 adolescents (638 girls and 580 boys) completed measures of cognitive schemas, SIP, and Reactive-Proactive Aggression. The results showed that the cognitive schemas of justification of violence and narcissism are more relevant for proactive aggression, whereas the abuse schema is more relevant for reactive aggression. SIP mediated particularly the association between cognitive schemas and reactive aggression. Each cognitive schema was shown to be associated with some particular SIP component: justification of violence and abuse with the component of interpretation, and narcissism with the experience of anger, Moreover, the abuse schema was negatively associated with the selection of aggressive responses. Lastly, a general model of paths between schemas, SIP, and aggression was found to be quite similar for boys and girls, although the former scored higher in proactive aggression, partly because of their higher scores in the justification of violence and narcissism schemas. PMID:20480688

  13. Empathy as a Mediator of Attitudes Toward Infidelity Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Shimberg, Jessica; Josephs, Lawrence; Grace, Laura

    2016-05-18

    This study examined attitudes about infidelity among college students. Due to increased sexual opportunities and normalization of casual sex in the college campus environment, commitment level is generally more likely to be lower than for post-college-aged individuals. While lower commitment may contribute to infidelity among college students, we aimed to more closely examine the relative role of individual characteristics. The literature has shown that individuals with certain personality traits, such as narcissism and an insecure attachment style, are more likely to commit infidelity, but less is known about the interaction between sex and these traits and about possible underlying mechanisms that account for why some people resist the temptation to be unfaithful and others don't. Working under the assumption that higher empathy might be the underlying mechanism that enables individuals to resist the temptation to be unfaithful, we demonstrated that empathy partially mediates the relationship between sex, narcissism, entitlement, attachment style and attitudes toward infidelity in college students. Thus, college students who are securely attached, low in narcissism, and high in empathy are more likely to oppose sexual behavior outside of their dating relationships despite the fact that their commitment level may be relatively low. PMID:26010265

  14. Personality in Relation to Genetic Liability for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Differential Associations with the COMT Val108/158Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Silberschmidt, Amy L.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology. Evidence supports the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene as potentially contributing to the etiology of both disorders. To determine whether the COMT gene is associated with personality traits related to genetic risk for either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, we examined dimensions of personality psychopathology in biological relatives of individuals with the disorders. Specifically, we contrasted personality characteristics of first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of people with bipolar-I disorder, and nonpsychiatric control participants using scores from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology – Brief Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also characterized the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism of subjects. Compared to controls, relatives of schizophrenia patients scored lower on stimulus seeking and higher on restrictive expression and social avoidance. Compared to relatives of bipolar patients, relatives of schizophrenia patients had lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality (i.e., rejection of ideas of others), stimulus seeking, passive-aggressive oppositionality, and self-harm. The subset of relatives of schizophrenia patients who were COMT val homozygotes exhibited lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality, and stimulus seeking than met homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients and control participants. Although relatives of bipolar patients showed scale elevations consistent with emotional dysregulation, the scores failed to be associated with the Val108/158Met polymorphism. Abnormally low narcissism and rejectionality in val homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients suggests that the val allele of the COMT polymorphism may be associated with an underdeveloped self-concept phenomenologically similar to made volition and passivity experiences comprising first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia

  15. The technique of partial identification: waking up to the world.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Lucy

    2009-04-01

    A capacity to make partial identification with others is a skill that brings group members out of the loneliness of narcissism and into the lively world of immediacy and progressive emotional communication. Partial identification, which requires empathy and intuition, involves both knowing what another is feeling and also what we feel toward that other. Developing partial identification will meet with different resistances in men and women. Using clinical examples, the author defines and demonstrates the concept of partial identification and discusses how the pathway to achieving the technique can differ along gender lines.

  16. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion.

    PubMed

    Frank, J D

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed "pride" by theologians and "narcissism" by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  17. The Rorschach and the DSM-III-R antisocial personality: a tribute to Robert Lindner.

    PubMed

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1992-05-01

    This study utilized the Rorschach as a psychometric measure for understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Comprehensive System (Exner, 1986) Rorschach data for a sample of 60 ADP subjects and Rorschach object relations and defensive operations for 22 psychopathic APD (P-APD) and 21 nonpsychopathic APD (NP-APD) subjects are presented and discussed. The data support the absence of anxiety and attachment and the presence of pathological narcissism and borderline personality organization in P-APDs. The Rorschach's ability to differentiate antisocial groups based on level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985) strongly supports the need to use psychopathy as an independent measure when one is studying APD.

  18. Under the mirror of the sleeping water: Poussin's Narcissus.

    PubMed

    Tutter, Adele

    2014-12-01

    Examined in conjunction with a close reading of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Nicolas Poussin's four paintings on the preoccupying theme of Narcissus and Echo reflect a developing aesthetic interpretation of its textual source. Poussin's reflective vision supports a radical reappraisal of the enigmatic myth at the heart of psychoanalytic theory and practice, in which Narcissus is construed as a far more object-related figure that seeks the formative, affirmative mirroring of the other. This in turn encourages a more versatile conceptualization of narcissistic disturbance, in which an etiologically heterogenous constellation of issues stems from a variety of disturbances in the myriad dynamic and developmental aspects of mirroring and attunement: the narcissisms.

  19. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  20. A psychoanalytic study of the appreciation of art.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, C T

    1985-01-01

    In this article I have used the self-object phenomenon, a discovery emanating from Kohut's new view of narcissism, as an organizing concept to consider the appreciation of art. The palpable art piece is described as a linking object which connects the psychological subjectivities of the artist and his audience. Immersion in the creative process is described as a progressive force which promotes the development of the personal self of the artist and also the viewing public who share in the artist's imaginative discoveries.

  1. Commentary: toward a psychodynamic understanding of filicide--beyond psychosis and into the heart of darkness.

    PubMed

    Papapietro, Daniel J; Barbo, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Much of the literature on filicide explores acute psychosis, sociopathy, or malignant narcissism (psychiatrically ill versus not psychiatrically ill) as primary explanations of why parents kill children. In this issue, Hatters Friedman et al. review the literature on acute psychiatric symptoms in an effort to identify key risk factors for filicide that might have predictive value. In this commentary, we assert the argument that filicide is a complex phenomenon that is the result of more than just psychosis or environmental stressors and that, because not all parents who become psychiatrically ill kill, there may be specific risk factors related to individual underlying psychodynamic conflicts. PMID:16394227

  2. Elaborating on the construct validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure in a criminal offender sample.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jennifer H; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger (2009) developed the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in an effort to integrate historical theories and contemporary measurement models. The model proposes 3 phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Patrick (2010) developed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), a 58-item self-report measure, to index these 3 domains. This study examined the construct validity of the TriPM in a sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 141) and found evidence of good construct validity in that the scales were related to conceptually relevant normal-range and dysfunctional personality trait criteria, as well as narcissism and deficits in empathy. PMID:23113864

  3. The metallic womb.

    PubMed

    Somerstein, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    This study of malevolent narcissism examines the relationship between the Washington Snipers, Muhammad and Malvo, from the perspectives of attachment theory and Kleinian theory. Muhammad embodied a perverted understanding of manliness. Malvo was desperate for the love of a father, and fused with the omnipotent destructiveness of John Muhammad. Together they embarked on a failed Quest, recreating the original infant/caregiver scenario, which in their experience was about destruction and death, rather than gratitude and life. Malvo and Muhammad were perfect together, merged into one unit devoted to murder. Their victims were random and multiple, like their early caregivers.

  4. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.

    1994-11-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

  5. Parental love pills: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2011-11-01

    It may soon be possible to develop pills that allow parents to induce in themselves more loving behaviour, attitudes and emotions towards their children. In this paper, I consider whether pharmacologically induced parental love can satisfy reasonable conditions of authenticity; why anyone would be interested in taking such parental love pills at all, and whether inducing parental love pharmacologically promotes narcissism or results in self-instrumentalization. I also examine how the availability of such pills may affect the duty to love a child.

  6. Ganyphilia

    PubMed Central

    NASH, JAMES L.

    1992-01-01

    The author describes a role for psychotherapy in ganyphilia, the homoerotic interest by adult males in adolescents. This paraphilia, which is commonly pandered to by street hustlers, often comes to light when the subject is arrested. When ganyphilia is embedded within a framework of disordered narcissism, the personality disorder itself can be effectively treated by a psychoanalytic psychotherapy informed by contemporary self psychology. After locating ganyphilia in a historical/mythological context, the author presents aspects of the psychotherapy of a court-mandated case to demonstrate both etiologic forces and the treatment process. PMID:22700100

  7. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995

  8. Why Do People Use Facebook?

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Ashwini; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987

  9. Determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor from the results of measurements of the reactivity effects and the neutron importance function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Glushkov, E. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Kapitonova, A. V.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Nosov, V. I.; Petrushenko, R. P.; Smirnov, O. N.

    2012-12-01

    A method for experimental determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor based on measurements of fuel reactivity effects and importance of neutrons from a californium source is proposed. The method was perfected on two critical assembly configurations at the NARCISS facility of the Kurchatov Institute, which simulated a small-size heterogeneous nuclear reactor. The neutron importance measurements were performed on subcritical and critical assemblies. It is shown that, along with traditionally used activation methods, the developed method can be applied to experimental studies of special features of the power density distribution in critical assemblies and reactors.

  10. Determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor from the results of measurements of the reactivity effects and the neutron importance function

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, A. A.; Glushkov, E. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Kapitonova, A. V.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Nosov, V. I. Petrushenko, R. P.; Smirnov, O. N.

    2012-12-15

    A method for experimental determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor based on measurements of fuel reactivity effects and importance of neutrons from a californium source is proposed. The method was perfected on two critical assembly configurations at the NARCISS facility of the Kurchatov Institute, which simulated a small-size heterogeneous nuclear reactor. The neutron importance measurements were performed on subcritical and critical assemblies. It is shown that, along with traditionally used activation methods, the developed method can be applied to experimental studies of special features of the power density distribution in critical assemblies and reactors.

  11. Violence and personality disorders: clinical and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Esbec, E; Echeburúa, E

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have provided strong evidence that personality disorders (PD) represent a significant clinical risk for violence. This review has aimed to examine the relationship of greater risk for violence among persons with certain PD in terms of four fundamental personality dimensions: 1) impulse control; 2) affect regulation; 3) threatened egotism or narcissism; and 4) paranoid cognitive personality style. Two of these dimensions -impulse control and affect regulation- are probably substantially affected by virtually all PDs linked to violence. Narcissism or threatened egotism and paranoid cognitive personality style have also been empirically linked to violence and mental disorder. PD symptoms have proven to be even stronger predictors of violence than the PDs per se. In fact, increased symptoms of DSM-IV cluster A or cluster B PD, such as paranoid, narcissistic and antisocial PD symptoms, correlate significantly with violence. Finally, there are three important principles about the relationship between PDs and violence: 1) PDs are rarely egosyntonic; 2) most patients and violent situations that come to clinical attention involve comorbid conditions; and 3) violence and risk of violence are often associated with substance abuse. Implications of this review for further research are discussed.

  12. Narcissistic Symptoms in German School Shooters.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2015-12-01

    School shooters are often described as narcissistic, but empirical evidence is scant. To provide more reliable and detailed information, we conducted an exploratory study, analyzing police investigation files on seven school shootings in Germany, looking for symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) in witnesses' and offenders' reports and expert psychological evaluations. Three out of four offenders who had been treated for mental disorders prior to the offenses displayed detached symptoms of narcissism, but none was diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. Of the other three, two displayed narcissistic traits. In one case, the number of symptoms would have justified a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. Offenders showed low and high self-esteem and a range of other mental disorders. Thus, narcissism is not a common characteristic of school shooters, but possibly more frequent than in the general population. This should be considered in developing adequate preventive and intervention measures. PMID:25063684

  13. [Narcissistic disorders in the light of modern psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Battegay, R

    1987-01-01

    Whereas psychoanalysis in its beginnings was based preponderantly on drive-theory, later on attention was paid essentially on ego-psychology and in the last years on self-psychology. This development is seen in the context of developments in society, especially of the fact of an increasing outer direction of man in the modern world with the danger linked with it of loss of ego and of self. The designed development may be understood as a reactive one. After an overview on the different concepts of the self it is defined as the narcissism which gives to the instances ego, id and super-ego as well as to the body the feeling and the impression, to be an individual capable for feeling and cognitive processes, forming an entity which is experienced continuously and in its continuity. Two different narcissistic disturbances are described: Narcissistic neuroses (= narcissistic personality disorders in the sense of Kohut) with a consistent ego, but a lack in self-representation because of deficiency experiences in early childhood, Borderline-conditions with a severe ego-pathology and, as a consequence of it, rigid defense-mechanisms, extreme fusion tendencies and projective identification, splitting etc. The development of normal narcissism is discussed. At the end the slightly modified psychoanalytic technique in the treatment of patients with narcissistic neuroses and the analytically oriented expressive psychotherapy of borderline-patients which is directed on reality testing is described. PMID:2436292

  14. An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other personality disorders; depression, anxiety). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution. Likewise, the 2 factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a 2-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a 2-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed.

  15. Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the TOPAZ-2 safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J.; Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Lobynstev, V.A.

    1995-01-20

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  16. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Kalak, Nadeem; Shamsi, Mahin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT) refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA) and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1) to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2) to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women. Methods A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18–37 years) took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA. Results Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively). DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy), while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes. Conclusion DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless. PMID:26869790

  17. [Schema Therapy: An Approach for Treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder].

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, E; Behary, W

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we review the history of the construct of narcissism and the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. We then discuss some etiological models of narcissism and introduce the model of Jeffrey Young, who developed Schema Therapy (ST) as an alternative to standard cognitive therapy for patients with personality disorders. ST differs from standard cognitive therapies in important respects, including limited reparenting, a focus on the patient's basic needs, and emotional activating techniques in addition to cognitive and behavioral ones. We then discuss Young's theory of basic needs, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes. According to ST theory, narcissists are traumatized in the schema domain having to do with attachment needs. They are prone to vulnerable emotions in response to narcissistic injuries, although they often do not show these emotions directly. Instead, they use maladaptive coping strategies, resulting in emotional states, known as "schema modes". This includes the Self-Aggrandizer mode and Detached Self-Soother mode, in which a superior, arrogant self-presentation and addictive or compulsive behavior serve a self-regulatory function. These concepts are illustrated by case examples of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

  18. Empathy in Narcissistic Personality Disorder: From Clinical and Empirical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others’ mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients’ behavior and motivational structure. PMID:24512457

  19. The associations among dark personalities and sexual tactics across different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel N; Olderbak, Sally G

    2014-04-01

    Although malevolent individuals may be willing to use any tactic necessary to obtain sex, not all antagonistic traits will predict coercion or coaxing in all situations. A sample of 447 adult men, collected in two waves, reported their intentions to engage in coercion or coaxing of hypothetical targets. Study 1 provided three hypothetical scenarios that result in sexual rejection: (a) an expensive date, (b) a stranger, and (c) a relationship partner, and Study 2 provided the same scenarios, and three additional scenarios: (d) a rival's partner, (e) a bet, and (f) a powerful person. A Structural Equations Model indicated that a common antagonistic factor, indicated by Social Dominance and the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, predicted coaxing across all situations, whereas only psychopathy predicted coercion across all situations. In addition, narcissism accounted for additional variance in coaxing when rejected by an expensive date. These findings suggest that across the different scenarios, psychopathy is primarily associated with coercive tactics and the common malevolent core among the traits is associated with coaxing tactics.

  20. Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR): The Validity of a New Measure.

    PubMed

    DuBois, James M; Chibnall, John T; Tait, Raymond C; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Baldwin, Kari A; Antes, Alison L; Mumford, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR) measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability (alpha = .84) and parallel form correlation (r = .70). As hypothesized, the PDR was significantly negatively correlated with narcissism, cynicism, moral disengagement, and compliance disengagement; it was not correlated with socially desirable responding. In regression analysis, the strongest predictors of higher PDR scores were low compliance disengagement, speaking English as a native language, conducting clinical research with human subjects, and low levels of narcissism. Given that the PDR was written at an eighth grade reading level to be suitable for use with English as a second language participants and that only one-fourth of items focused on clinical research, further research into the possible roles of culture and research ethics training across specialties is warranted. This initial validity study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the PDR as an educational outcome assessment measure and a research instrument for studies on professionalism and integrity in research.

  1. The case for moderate-risk buyers: An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joowon; Yi, Sunghwan

    2016-06-30

    Despite recent increase in research on compulsive buying and excessive buying, the category of buyers whose buying patterns are approaching the clinical level but still somewhat below it has rarely been recognized in the literature. In this paper, we propose the case for the category of moderate-risk buyers. Following Ridgway et al.'s (2008) findings, moderate-risk buyers were operationalized as scoring 21-24 on Compulsive Buying Index. We hypothesized that moderate-risk buyers would hold significantly higher materialistic values than non-compulsive buyers, while exhibiting significantly less depressive symptoms and covert narcissism than full-fledged compulsive buyers. An online survey of individuals who frequently engaged in buying lapses was used (N=809). We found that moderate-risk buyers were significantly different from both compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in the frequency of buying lapses, hiding purchases and frequency of experiencing negative feelings leading to buying lapses. Furthermore, consistent with our hypothesis, moderate-risk buyers held significantly lower covert narcissism and depression than full-fledged compulsive buyers, but their materialism was not significantly different from each other. Our findings support the case for moderate-risk buyers as a separate group from full-fledged compulsive buyers. PMID:27138822

  2. The unholy trinity: The Dark Triad, coercion, and Brunswik-Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Gladden, Paul Robert; Sisco, Melissa Marie; Patch, Emily Anne; Jones, Daniel Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy, Narcissism, and Machiavellianism (the Dark Triad) have each been hypothesized as predictors of socially deviant behavior including sexual coercion, but the three traits also covary significantly with one another. The purpose of this study was to examine several alternative Multisample Structural Equation Models (MSEMs) exploring the relations between the Dark Triad and Sexually Coercive Behavior, testing whether any or all of the three specific "Dark Personality" traits uniquely contributed to predicting sexually coercive behavior. Self-report questionnaires measuring Primary and Secondary Psychopathy, Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Sexually Coercive Behavior were administered to a sample of undergraduates. The relative fit of each of the MSEMs to the data was examined by means of hierarchically nested model comparisons. The most parsimonious yet explanatory model identified was one in which a single common factor composed of the three Dark Triad indicators explained the relationships among the Dark Triad traits and Sexually Coercive Behavior without any direct contributions from the specific Dark Triad indicators. Results indicate that the three Dark Triad traits, controlling for the common factor, do not differentially predict Sexually Coercive Behavior. These results are interpreted with respect to the principle of Brunswik-Symmetry.

  3. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care.

  4. Stability Subtypes of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Their Correlates.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Demetriou, Chara A; Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Fanti, Kostas A

    2016-09-01

    Callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms tend to co-occur across development, with existing evidence pointing to individual differences in the co-development of these problems. The current study identified groups of at risk adolescents showing stable (i.e., high on both conduct disorder and callous-unemotional symptoms, high only on either callous-unemotional or conduct disorder symptoms) or increasing conduct disorder and callous-unemotional symptoms. Data were collected from a sample of 2038 community adolescents between 15 and 18 years (1070 females, M age = 16) of age. A longitudinal design was followed in that adolescent reports were collected at two time points, 1 year apart. Increases in conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional traits were accompanied by increases in anxiety, depressive symptoms, narcissism, proactive and reactive aggression and decreases in self-esteem. Furthermore, adolescents with high and stable conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional traits were consistently at high risk for individual, behavioral and contextual problems. In contrast, youth high on callous-unemotional traits without conduct disorder symptoms remained at low-risk for anxiety, depressive symptoms, narcissism, and aggression, pointing to a potential protective function of pure callous-unemotional traits against the development of psychopathological problems. PMID:27299762

  5. On corruption.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1994-01-01

    This paper begins with the premise that in most individuals and in most cultures there is an inevitable force that presses toward the production of corruption as time passes, a force that requires vigilant resistance. Corruption is here defined as a falling away from the ego ideal of the individual or the ideals of the culture, which results in certain unfortunate and maladaptive changes in attitude and behavior of both the group and the individual. Support is given to the premise by a brief review of the work of Robert Hutchins and of Oswald Spengler, both of whom were eloquent and learned advocates of the premise, although, perhaps for personal reasons, they were too pessimistic. There follows a discussion of the metapsychology of corruption both in individuals and in cultures, both from an ego psychology point of view and from a self psychology point of view. Freud's paper on narcissism and Kohut's "psychology of the self in the narrow sense" are taken as starting points. Using the terms of the former, a divestment of the ego ideal of narcissistic libido is described, along the lines of, and somewhat parallel to, Freud's concept of secondary narcissism. Using Kohut's early concept of a separate line of development for narcissism, it is suggested that a similar separate line of development can exist for "corruption" in both individuals and cultures. At the root of this development are the repeated narcissistic wounds inevitable in the course of individual life and in the life of a culture as it tries to live up to its ideals. Resistance to the demoralizing effects of the vicissitudes of life is an important function of the ego, and depends on the strength of the ego, of the cohesiveness of the sense of self, and of a conscious awareness of the dangerous pressures toward corruption that pervade our civilization and resolve not to be swept up by these pressures. This leads to the main point of the paper, focus on the status of the ego ideal of the psychoanalyst or

  6. Clergy burnout: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Grosch, W N; Olsen, D C

    2000-05-01

    Understanding how clergy, who begin their careers with high idealism, optimism, and compassion, burn out is difficult. One body of research suggests that clergy, among others, burn out because of the systems in which they work. From this perspective, burnout is the result of external systemic factors such as bureaucracy, poor administrative support, and difficult work conditions. The other body of research suggests that burnout is the result of intrapersonal factors such as high idealism, Type-A personality, narcissism, and perfectionism. It is our position that these two bodies of research are compatible, and that by integrating the Self psychology of Kohut with the general systems theory of Bowen, it becomes easier to understand burnout. Further, by integrating these two theories, principles for treatment become clearer.

  7. The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish Version and Extension of the Nomological Net.

    PubMed

    Czarna, Anna Z; Jonason, Peter K; Dufner, Michael; Kossowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In five studies (total N = 1300) we developed and validated a Polish version of the Dirty Dozen measure (DTDD-P) that measures the three traits of the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. We detail the presence and stability of a bifactor structure of the 12 items and present evidence for good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We examine the nomological network surrounding the Dark Triad and show that both the Dark Triad total score and the subscales have acceptable validity. We also present evidence on the Dark Triad and moral behavior. Dark Triad predicts utilitarian moral choice (e.g., approval for sacrificing somebody's life for the sake of saving others) and this link is mediated by low empathic concern. In total, our results suggest that the Polish Dirty Dozen-Parszywa Dwunastka-is valid, stable, and useful for the study of lingering puzzles in the literature.

  8. On the subject of homosexuality: What Freud said.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Sara; Ladame, Francois; Carlsberg, Anders; Heymanns, Petra; Naziri, Despina; Panitz, Denny

    2016-06-01

    The article explores Freud's writing on homosexuality, from his early hypotheses, expressed in his letters to Fleiss to his last observations in The Outline of Psychoanalysis, published in 1940 after his death. We trace the continuities as well as changes in his thinking, and have organized the paper conceptually, under the headings: 1) Bisexuality 2) Narcissism and Object choice, 3) On Normality and Pathology, and 4) The Quantitative factor and Aggression. We show that Freud was the first to confirm the existence of homosexualities, that he offers no black and white solution to the question of normality and pathology, although he contributes to the understanding of the vehemence that surrounds the subject, and that, in the considerable body of work, he has offered a rich and varied foundation for further thinking on the subject. PMID:27437635

  9. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  10. Polish Version of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS): Psychometric Properties and Validation.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Konrad S; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Styła, Rafał; Zajenkowska, Anna; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Linke, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion skills (Poor skills), and use of diversion to enhance another's mood (Divert). The results showed that among MEOS dimensions, Enhance was the most strongly related to performance-based emotional intelligence. Among the Dark Triad, Narcissism was related to the greatest number of MEOS subscales-all except Poor skills. The results indicated that the MEOS has a similar factor structure, reliability, and pattern of correlations with personality and emotional intelligence in Poland as in previous studies. PMID:27154378

  11. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  12. Personality in cyberspace: personal Web sites as media for personality expressions and impressions.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bernd; Machilek, Franz; Schütz, Astrid

    2006-06-01

    This research examined the personality of owners of personal Web sites based on self-reports, visitors' ratings, and the content of the Web sites. The authors compared a large sample of Web site owners with population-wide samples on the Big Five dimensions of personality. Controlling for demographic differences, the average Web site owner reported being slightly less extraverted and more open to experience. Compared with various other samples, Web site owners did not generally differ on narcissism, self-monitoring, or self-esteem, but gender differences on these traits were often smaller in Web site owners. Self-other agreement was highest with Openness to Experience, but valid judgments of all Big Five dimensions were derived from Web sites providing rich information. Visitors made use of quantifiable features of the Web site to infer personality, and the cues they utilized partly corresponded to self-reported traits. PMID:16784349

  13. The triggering of psychosis and its clinical treatment in substitutive mental health equipment: a theoretical contribution in the Freudian perspective.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lilian; Kirschbaum, Débora Isane Ratner

    2007-01-01

    The present study goal was to build a framework based on the Freudian psychoanalysis in order to understand the psychosis mode of production. The methodology consisted of content analysis of terms related to the concept studied. Based on the assumption that the psychotic symptoms are a result of a fixation on the primary narcissism, we conclude that the fusion of life and death pulses, as well as the egoic constitution through identification processes in the oral phase, can keep the individual tied to primitive figures of identification and prevent him(er) from making new libidinal investments, which lead the individual to feel a constant threat and death in life. The attempts made by the psychotic person to escape from this state of death and to relate with external reality are expressed in forms known as symptoms, such as delusions and aggressiveness. PMID:18157446

  14. Explicit and implicit approach motivation interact to predict interpersonal arrogance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Ode, Scott; Palder, Spencer L; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-07-01

    Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360

  15. Good Liars Are Neither ‘Dark’ Nor Self-Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gordon R. T.; Berry, Christopher J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others—replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  16. Narcissistic behaviour and the successful conservation of ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Fourie, David P

    2010-02-01

    Central to narcissistic behaviour is the tendency to elicit admiration from others, but it is done in such a high-handed way that these same others are, in time, alienated from the narcissist. This is widely thought to be due to some internal deficit in the narcissist psyche which leads them to fail at what is to them of utmost importance. This paper uses a social rather than an intrapsychic perspective to question the failure hypothesis and to show by means of self-organization theory that the apparent failure can be seen as part of a goal-directed way of conserving an ambivalent autonomy or identity. Narrative descriptions are presented for two cases of female narcissism to illustrate how narcissistic behaviour operates differently in different cases in order to conserve successfully and simultaneously both poles of an ambivalent autonomy.

  17. Change over time in obedience: The jury's still out, but it might be decreasing.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M

    2009-01-01

    Jerry M. Burger's partial replication of Stanley Milgram's (1974) obedience study shows both the influence of culture and generations on behavior and the power of the situation. In Burger's data, disobedience has nearly doubled among male participants since the 1960s, a shift just as large as the increase in Americans' body mass index that has been labeled the "obesity epidemic." Differences in the ethnic composition of the two studies' samples, particularly the large numbers of Asian Americans in Burger's sample, may have suppressed what might have been an even larger increase in disobedience. Halting the experiment at 150 volts may also have suppressed change. Nevertheless, situations have a strong influence on behavior; thus generational shifts would not be expected to completely eliminate the effect. Burger's results are consistent with documented changes in personality traits over the generations, including increases in nonconformist traits such as assertiveness, self-esteem, and narcissism.

  18. I like me if you like me: on the interpersonal modulation and regulation of preadolescents' state self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly judged by a jury consisting of popular and unpopular peers. Participants randomly received negative, neutral, or positive feedback from the jury. Next, they could examine the feedback that each individual judge gave them. As expected, peer disapproval decreased self-esteem, especially in children high in narcissism. In contrast, peer approval increased self-esteem. Moreover, disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges. These findings support sociometer theory.

  19. 2. Freud's 'id' and Jung's 'self' as aids in self-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    The id and the self are described as constructs of our unconscious which can be deployed in describing the analytic process. They can be used like the x in mathematics or the joker in a pack of cards as fitting in almost anywhere. But we can call on them as important aids to concentration, when additional room is made for meditating on the past which then comes to life again. They are useful for analysing ourselves and others. In this way the id as well as the self become aide-mémoires. The analysis of the repressed by means of the transference is not the only road to hitherto unconscious memories. This kind of meditation has helped me despite all reservations to undertake self-analysis and to write an autobiography. I maintain that one can have a transference to oneself. It is, of course, narcissistic. But then, no one can write an autobiography without a healthy dose of narcissism.

  20. Estimating facets of psychopathy from normal personality traits: a step toward community epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Benning, Stephen D; Patrick, Christopher J; Blonigen, Daniel M; Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G

    2005-03-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI factors themselves, MPQ-estimated PPI-I related negatively with internalizing disorder symptoms and fearfulness and positively with thrill and adventure seeking, sociability, activity, and narcissism. MPQ-estimated PPI-II was associated negatively with socialization and positively with externalizing disorder symptoms, impulsivity, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and trait anxiety and negative emotionality. Additionally, PPI-I was selectively related to the interpersonal facet of Factor 1 of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), whereas PPI-II was related preferentially to Factor 2 of the PCL-R. PMID:15695739

  1. Is the Dark Triad Better Studied Using a Variable- or a Person-Centered Approach? An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Despite Allport’s early call to study personality as a coordinated system of traits within individual rather than separate traits, researchers often assume personality variables are largely distinct, independent characteristics. In the current research, we examined the usual assumption that Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) are best studied using a variable-centered (dimensional), rather than a person-centered (taxonic), approach. Results showed that a variable-centered approach is appropriate in understanding the Dark Triad, and yet individuals scoring high on one Dark Triad dimension also tend to score high on other dimensions. Based on these results, we concluded that it is appropriate to study individual differences in the Dark Triad (inferences based on persons) by capturing the common variance among the three traits using a variable-centered approach, rather than treating these traits as independent or uncoordinated characteristics. PMID:27580224

  2. Narcissistic behaviour and the successful conservation of ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Fourie, David P

    2010-02-01

    Central to narcissistic behaviour is the tendency to elicit admiration from others, but it is done in such a high-handed way that these same others are, in time, alienated from the narcissist. This is widely thought to be due to some internal deficit in the narcissist psyche which leads them to fail at what is to them of utmost importance. This paper uses a social rather than an intrapsychic perspective to question the failure hypothesis and to show by means of self-organization theory that the apparent failure can be seen as part of a goal-directed way of conserving an ambivalent autonomy or identity. Narrative descriptions are presented for two cases of female narcissism to illustrate how narcissistic behaviour operates differently in different cases in order to conserve successfully and simultaneously both poles of an ambivalent autonomy. PMID:20402447

  3. [Hatred of foreigners and purity--current aspects of an illusion. Social psychological and psychoanalytic considerations].

    PubMed

    Heim, R

    1992-08-01

    This study draws upon both Carlo Ginzburg's procedures for establishing and preserving (historical) evidence and Claude Lévi-Strauss' structuralist approach with its analysis of "primitive" mythologies to demonstrate that binary coding of the social domain is an all-pervasive structural principle. Heim's intention in this is to show that (present-day) xenophobia and racism are the products of a phantasm centering around the division of the world into pure and impure. The author brings into alignment collective fantasies about the homogeneity of the "body politic" with a form of primary narcissism which, if it is to preserve the illusion of original purity, is forced to externalize instinctual urges experienced as heterogeneous and unpleasurable and project them onto "foreigners" and things foreign.

  4. Success in everyday physics: The role of personality and academic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Norvilitis, Bret M.

    2002-05-01

    Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.

  5. Who are the people reluctant to participate in research? Personality correlates of four different types of nonresponse as inferred from self- and observer ratings.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bernd; Schütz, Astrid

    2005-08-01

    This article outlines a typology of nonresponse biases that may occur in research based on voluntary participation and presents empirical evidence on the relationships between nonresponse and personality traits. We describe four different types of nonresponse occurring at the recruitment stage, during data collection, and at the stage of recruitment for further research. Personality correlates of all types of nonresponse were investigated using data from an online survey e-mailed to owners of personal Web sites, and observer ratings on the targets' personality were obtained. After reviewing the target persons' Web sites, observers judged complete nonrespondents as less agreeable and less open to experience than respondents. Furthermore, higher extraversion, higher openness to experience, and higher narcissism differentiated volunteers for follow-up research from nonvolunteers in both self- and observer ratings. We found only weak evidence of personality correlates of careless and selective item nonresponse. Findings show that nonresponse biases may have significant implications for representativeness in surveys and personality test norms.

  6. Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Thomas; McFarland, Sam

    2007-05-01

    The authors investigated whether students who selectively volunteer for a study of prison life possess dispositions associated with behaving abusively. Students were recruited for a psychological study of prison life using a virtually identical newspaper ad as used in the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE; Haney, Banks & Zimbardo, 1973) or for a psychological study, an identical ad minus the words of prison life. Volunteers for the prison study scored significantly higher on measures of the abuse-related dispositions of aggressiveness, authoritarianism, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and social dominance and lower on empathy and altruism, two qualities inversely related to aggressive abuse. Although implications for the SPE remain a matter of conjecture, an interpretation in terms of person-situation interactionism rather than a strict situationist account is indicated by these findings. Implications for interpreting the abusiveness of American military guards at Abu Ghraib Prison also are discussed.

  7. Pychoanalysis and art, Freud and Leonardo.

    PubMed

    Blum, H P

    2001-01-01

    Freud was the first to apply psychoanalysis to art, choosing for his subject the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci. Observing Leonardo's partly fused image of the Virgin and St. Anne, he inferred that the artist had depicted his two mothers, his biological mother and his stepmother. This very early analytic discourse on parent loss and adoption changed the course of the interpretation of art. Freud explored the psychology of art, the artist, and aesthetic appreciation. Confronting the age-old enigma of the Mona Lisa, he proposed a daring solution to the riddle of the sphinxlike smile of this icon of art. His paper prefigures concepts of narcissism, homosexuality, parenting, and sublimation. Lacking modern methodology and theory, Freud's pioneering insights overshadow his naive errors. In this fledgling inquiry, based on a childhood screen memory and limited knowledge of Leonardo's artistic and scientific contributions, Freud identified with this Renaissance genius in his own self-analytic and creative endeavor.

  8. [The future of a nation. Political and psychoanalytic reflections on German re-unification].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M; Gimbernat, J A

    1993-05-01

    Taking a lead from Alexander and Margarete Mitscherlich's psychogram of post-war German society in The Inability to Mourn and Heinz Kohut's remarks on a theory of narcissism, the authors interpret the over-hasty reunification process and the liquidation of the GDR as an attempt to remedy the precarious nature of the collective narcissistic equilibrium. As in the post-war period, when concern with the immediate past was stifled by "reconstruction" and the "economic miracle", so the advent of "deutschmark nationalism" after 1989/90 was marked by the central role played by money. In the emotional cathexis centering around money the authors identify a collective tendency to restore a lost self-object and revive an archaic megalo-self that was thought to have been abandoned for good with the downfall of Hitler. PMID:8511326

  9. Alliance building and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Building a therapeutic alliance with a patient with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder is a challenging process. A combined alliance building and diagnostic strategy is outlined that promotes patients' motivation and active engagement in identifying their own problems. The main focus is on identifying grandiosity, self-regulatory patterns, and behavioral fluctuations in their social and interpersonal contexts while engaging the patient in meaningful clarifications and collaborative inquiry. A definition of grandiosity as a diagnostic characterological trait is suggested, one that captures self-criticism, inferiority, and fragility in addition to superiority, assertiveness, perfectionism, high ideals, and self-enhancing and self-serving interpersonal behavior. These reformulations serve to expand the spectrum of grandiosity-promoting strivings and activities, capture their fluctuations, and help clinicians attend to narcissistic individuals' internal experiences and motivation as well as to their external presentation and interpersonal self-enhancing, self-serving, controlling, and aggressive behavior. A case example illustrates this process. PMID:22729478

  10. The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish Version and Extension of the Nomological Net.

    PubMed

    Czarna, Anna Z; Jonason, Peter K; Dufner, Michael; Kossowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In five studies (total N = 1300) we developed and validated a Polish version of the Dirty Dozen measure (DTDD-P) that measures the three traits of the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. We detail the presence and stability of a bifactor structure of the 12 items and present evidence for good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We examine the nomological network surrounding the Dark Triad and show that both the Dark Triad total score and the subscales have acceptable validity. We also present evidence on the Dark Triad and moral behavior. Dark Triad predicts utilitarian moral choice (e.g., approval for sacrificing somebody's life for the sake of saving others) and this link is mediated by low empathic concern. In total, our results suggest that the Polish Dirty Dozen-Parszywa Dwunastka-is valid, stable, and useful for the study of lingering puzzles in the literature. PMID:27065915

  11. Continuity and correlates of emotions and motives in self-defining memories.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Robins, Richard W

    2005-06-01

    Two studies examined emotions and motives in self-defining memories. In Study 1, participants recalled five self-defining memories (four recent and one earliest childhood), rated their emotions and motives during each memory, and completed a set of personality measures. A subset of participants provided a second set of memories, as well as emotion and motive ratings, approximately 2 weeks after the initial session. Results suggest that emotions and motives are moderately stable across memories and over time and show theoretically meaningful relations with self-esteem, narcissism, and affective dispositions. Study 2 extended the findings of Study 1 to a longitudinal context. Emotions and motives coded from self-defining memories were associated with changes in personality, well-being, and academic performance over a 4-year period.

  12. The incremental validity of the dark triad in predicting driving aggression.

    PubMed

    Burtăverde, Vlad; Chraif, Mihaela; Aniţei, Mihai; Mihăilă, Teodor

    2016-11-01

    This research tested the association between the Dark Triad and driving aggression as well as the incremental validity of the Dark Triad in predicting aggressive driving and the mediation role of the Dark Triad in the relationship between Big Five personality factors and aggressive driving. 274 undergraduate students in Study 1 and 95 amateur drivers in Study 2 completed measures of the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy), the Big Five personality factors and the aggressive driving expression. Results showed that all the Dark Triad traits were related to aggressive driving behavior in both Study 1 and Study 2 and that the Dark Triad predicted driving aggression after the effect of the Big five personality factors was controlled, with Psychopathy being the strongest predictor of driving aggression in both Study 1 and Study 2. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy mediated the relationship between Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness on one hand and aggressive driving on the other hand.

  13. A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A

    2009-04-01

    The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors.

  14. Positive illusions about the self: short-term benefits and long-term costs.

    PubMed

    Robins, R W; Beer, J S

    2001-02-01

    Two studies addressed parallel questions about the correlates and consequences of self-enhancement bias. Study 1 was conducted in a laboratory context and examined self-enhancing evaluations of performance in a group-interaction task. Study 2 assessed students' illusory beliefs about their academic ability when they first entered college and then followed them longitudinally to test claims about the long-term benefits of positive illusions. Both studies showed that self-enhancement bias was related to narcissism, ego involvement, self-serving attributions, and positive affect. Study 2 found that self-enhancement was associated with decreasing levels of self-esteem and well-being as well as with increasing disengagement from the academic context. Self-enhancement did not predict higher academic performance or higher graduate rates. Thus, the findings suggest that self-enhancing beliefs may be adaptive in the short term but not in the long term.

  15. Winners, Losers, Insiders, and Outsiders: Comparing Hierometer and Sociometer Theories of Self-Regard

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Nikhila; Gregg, Aiden P.; Sedikides, Constantine; de Waal-Andrews, Wendy G.

    2016-01-01

    What evolutionary function does self-regard serve? Hierometer theory, introduced here, provides one answer: it helps individuals navigate status hierarchies, which feature zero-sum contests that can be lost as well as won. In particular, self-regard tracks social status to regulate behavioral assertiveness, augmenting or diminishing it to optimize performance in such contests. Hierometer theory also offers a conceptual counterpoint that helps resolve ambiguities in sociometer theory, which offers a complementary account of self-regard’s evolutionary function. In two large-scale cross-sectional studies, we operationalized theoretically relevant variables at three distinct levels of analysis, namely, social (relations: status, inclusion), psychological (self-regard: self-esteem, narcissism), and behavioral (strategy: assertiveness, affiliativeness). Correlational and mediational analyses consistently supported hierometer theory, but offered only mixed support for sociometer theory, including when controlling for confounding constructs (anxiety, depression). We interpret our results in terms of a broader agency-communion framework. PMID:27065896

  16. Some psychoanalytic reflections on the concept of dignity.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Salman

    2015-09-01

    After reviewing the pertinent philosophical and psychoanalytic writings on the concept of dignity, this paper proposes three categories of dignity. Conceptualized as phenomenological clusters, heuristic viewpoints, and levels of abstraction, these include (i) metaphysical dignity which extends the concept of dignity beyond the human species to all that exists in this world, (ii) existential dignity which applies to human beings alone and rests upon their inherent capacity for moral transcendence, and (iii) characterological dignity which applies more to some human beings than others since they possess a certain set of personality traits that are developmentally derived. The paper discusses the pros and cons of each category and acknowledges the limitations of such classification. It also discusses the multiple ways in which these concepts impact upon clinical work and concludes with some remarks on the relationship of dignity to choice, narcissism, and suicide.

  17. The association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in non-referred boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Silverthorn, Persephanie; Frick, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in a non-referred sample of boys (n=86) and girls (n=114) in the fifth through ninth grades at two public schools in a large urban area. Psychopathic traits were measured by both teacher- and self-report ratings, whereas aggression and delinquency were assessed through self-report ratings. Self-reported psychopathic traits were associated with both aggression and delinquency and teacher-reported psychopathic traits were associated with higher levels of aggression. There were no clear differences for the callous-unemotional, narcissism, or impulsivity dimensions in their associations with aggression and delinquency. Also, psychopathic traits predicted aggression and delinquency for both boys and girls. The one clear gender difference was in the stronger associations between psychopathic traits and relational aggression for girls.

  18. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I.; Marshall, A.C.; Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B.

    1995-01-20

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  19. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  20. On the subject of homosexuality: What Freud said.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Sara; Ladame, Francois; Carlsberg, Anders; Heymanns, Petra; Naziri, Despina; Panitz, Denny

    2016-06-01

    The article explores Freud's writing on homosexuality, from his early hypotheses, expressed in his letters to Fleiss to his last observations in The Outline of Psychoanalysis, published in 1940 after his death. We trace the continuities as well as changes in his thinking, and have organized the paper conceptually, under the headings: 1) Bisexuality 2) Narcissism and Object choice, 3) On Normality and Pathology, and 4) The Quantitative factor and Aggression. We show that Freud was the first to confirm the existence of homosexualities, that he offers no black and white solution to the question of normality and pathology, although he contributes to the understanding of the vehemence that surrounds the subject, and that, in the considerable body of work, he has offered a rich and varied foundation for further thinking on the subject.

  1. Good Liars Are Neither 'Dark' Nor Self-Deceptive.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others-replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  2. Winners, Losers, Insiders, and Outsiders: Comparing Hierometer and Sociometer Theories of Self-Regard.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Nikhila; Gregg, Aiden P; Sedikides, Constantine; de Waal-Andrews, Wendy G

    2016-01-01

    What evolutionary function does self-regard serve? Hierometer theory, introduced here, provides one answer: it helps individuals navigate status hierarchies, which feature zero-sum contests that can be lost as well as won. In particular, self-regard tracks social status to regulate behavioral assertiveness, augmenting or diminishing it to optimize performance in such contests. Hierometer theory also offers a conceptual counterpoint that helps resolve ambiguities in sociometer theory, which offers a complementary account of self-regard's evolutionary function. In two large-scale cross-sectional studies, we operationalized theoretically relevant variables at three distinct levels of analysis, namely, social (relations: status, inclusion), psychological (self-regard: self-esteem, narcissism), and behavioral (strategy: assertiveness, affiliativeness). Correlational and mediational analyses consistently supported hierometer theory, but offered only mixed support for sociometer theory, including when controlling for confounding constructs (anxiety, depression). We interpret our results in terms of a broader agency-communion framework. PMID:27065896

  3. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture. PMID:27480012

  4. The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish Version and Extension of the Nomological Net

    PubMed Central

    Czarna, Anna Z.; Jonason, Peter K.; Dufner, Michael; Kossowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In five studies (total N = 1300) we developed and validated a Polish version of the Dirty Dozen measure (DTDD-P) that measures the three traits of the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. We detail the presence and stability of a bifactor structure of the 12 items and present evidence for good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. We examine the nomological network surrounding the Dark Triad and show that both the Dark Triad total score and the subscales have acceptable validity. We also present evidence on the Dark Triad and moral behavior. Dark Triad predicts utilitarian moral choice (e.g., approval for sacrificing somebody's life for the sake of saving others) and this link is mediated by low empathic concern. In total, our results suggest that the Polish Dirty Dozen—Parszywa Dwunastka—is valid, stable, and useful for the study of lingering puzzles in the literature. PMID:27065915

  5. Is the Dark Triad Better Studied Using a Variable- or a Person-Centered Approach? An Exploratory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Despite Allport's early call to study personality as a coordinated system of traits within individual rather than separate traits, researchers often assume personality variables are largely distinct, independent characteristics. In the current research, we examined the usual assumption that Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) are best studied using a variable-centered (dimensional), rather than a person-centered (taxonic), approach. Results showed that a variable-centered approach is appropriate in understanding the Dark Triad, and yet individuals scoring high on one Dark Triad dimension also tend to score high on other dimensions. Based on these results, we concluded that it is appropriate to study individual differences in the Dark Triad (inferences based on persons) by capturing the common variance among the three traits using a variable-centered approach, rather than treating these traits as independent or uncoordinated characteristics. PMID:27580224

  6. Identifying the death gender -- the ghost of masochism in queer subject.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article re-assesses the theories of death, narcissism and identification from a selection of essays by Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan in order to demonstrate that gender is generated out of masochism and the 'death drive' (Todestrieb). In closely reading and amending key sections of Judith Butler's queer theories, the author argues against her Foucaltian claim that the queer subject is constituted in the face of a sadistic Law, which s/he is forced to eroticise and internalise, and therefore conflate with her/his own masochism. It is argued that the subject's masochism is a queer attempt not to be; to bridge the constitutional split enforced by the Lacanian idea of the assumption of subjectivity through misidentification, and to become a living mortuary for the (dead) identifications that found the subject on his/her illusory ground through the (contingent) foreclosure of the Other.

  7. Personality in cyberspace: personal Web sites as media for personality expressions and impressions.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bernd; Machilek, Franz; Schütz, Astrid

    2006-06-01

    This research examined the personality of owners of personal Web sites based on self-reports, visitors' ratings, and the content of the Web sites. The authors compared a large sample of Web site owners with population-wide samples on the Big Five dimensions of personality. Controlling for demographic differences, the average Web site owner reported being slightly less extraverted and more open to experience. Compared with various other samples, Web site owners did not generally differ on narcissism, self-monitoring, or self-esteem, but gender differences on these traits were often smaller in Web site owners. Self-other agreement was highest with Openness to Experience, but valid judgments of all Big Five dimensions were derived from Web sites providing rich information. Visitors made use of quantifiable features of the Web site to infer personality, and the cues they utilized partly corresponded to self-reported traits.

  8. Does the Dark Triad of Personality Predict Corrupt Intention? The Mediating Role of Belief in Good Luck.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first attempt to examine the association between the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and corruption through a mediator-belief in good luck. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we assumed that individuals with Dark Triad would be more likely to engage in corruption as a result of belief in good luck. In Study 1, a set of hypothetical scenarios was used to assess the bribe-offering intention and the corresponding belief in good luck. Results indicated that while the Dark Triad of personality positively predicted bribe-offering intention, it was mediated by the belief in good luck in gain-seeking. In Study 2, we presented participants with some hypothetical scenarios of bribe-taking and the corresponding belief in good luck. Findings revealed that the Dark Triad of personality was positively related to bribe-taking intention; the relationship between narcissism and bribe-taking intention, and that between psychopathy and bribe-taking intention was mediated by the belief in good luck in penalty-avoidance. However, this belief in good luck did not mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and bribe-taking intention. These results hold while controlling for demographic variables, dispositional optimism, and self-efficacy. Taken together, this study extended previous research by providing evidence that belief in good luck may be one of the reasons explaining why people with Dark Triad are more likely to engage in corruption regardless of the potential outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:27199841

  9. Does the Dark Triad of Personality Predict Corrupt Intention? The Mediating Role of Belief in Good Luck

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first attempt to examine the association between the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and corruption through a mediator—belief in good luck. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we assumed that individuals with Dark Triad would be more likely to engage in corruption as a result of belief in good luck. In Study 1, a set of hypothetical scenarios was used to assess the bribe-offering intention and the corresponding belief in good luck. Results indicated that while the Dark Triad of personality positively predicted bribe-offering intention, it was mediated by the belief in good luck in gain-seeking. In Study 2, we presented participants with some hypothetical scenarios of bribe-taking and the corresponding belief in good luck. Findings revealed that the Dark Triad of personality was positively related to bribe-taking intention; the relationship between narcissism and bribe-taking intention, and that between psychopathy and bribe-taking intention was mediated by the belief in good luck in penalty-avoidance. However, this belief in good luck did not mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and bribe-taking intention. These results hold while controlling for demographic variables, dispositional optimism, and self-efficacy. Taken together, this study extended previous research by providing evidence that belief in good luck may be one of the reasons explaining why people with Dark Triad are more likely to engage in corruption regardless of the potential outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:27199841

  10. Does the Dark Triad of Personality Predict Corrupt Intention? The Mediating Role of Belief in Good Luck.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first attempt to examine the association between the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and corruption through a mediator-belief in good luck. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we assumed that individuals with Dark Triad would be more likely to engage in corruption as a result of belief in good luck. In Study 1, a set of hypothetical scenarios was used to assess the bribe-offering intention and the corresponding belief in good luck. Results indicated that while the Dark Triad of personality positively predicted bribe-offering intention, it was mediated by the belief in good luck in gain-seeking. In Study 2, we presented participants with some hypothetical scenarios of bribe-taking and the corresponding belief in good luck. Findings revealed that the Dark Triad of personality was positively related to bribe-taking intention; the relationship between narcissism and bribe-taking intention, and that between psychopathy and bribe-taking intention was mediated by the belief in good luck in penalty-avoidance. However, this belief in good luck did not mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and bribe-taking intention. These results hold while controlling for demographic variables, dispositional optimism, and self-efficacy. Taken together, this study extended previous research by providing evidence that belief in good luck may be one of the reasons explaining why people with Dark Triad are more likely to engage in corruption regardless of the potential outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  11. Prayer as therapeutic process toward transforming destructiveness within a spiritual direction relationship.

    PubMed

    Kuchan, Karen L

    2011-03-01

    This article will expand previous conceptualizations (Kuchan, Presence Int J Spiritual Dir 12(4):22-34, 2006; J Religion Health 47(2):263-275, 2008; J Pastoral Care Counsel, forthcoming) of what might be occurring during a prayer practice that creates space within a spiritual direction relationship for the creation of inner images that reveal a person's unconscious relational longings and co-created representations of God that seem to facilitate therapeutic process toward aliveness. In previous articles, I suggest one way to understand the prayer experience is through a lens of Winnicottian notions of transitional space, illusion, and co-creation of God images. This article expands on these ideas to include an understanding of God as Objective Other (Lewis, The four loves, 1960) interacting with a part of a person's self (Jung, in: The structure and dynamics of the psyche, collected works 8, 1934; Symington, Narcissism, a new theory, 1993) that has capacity for subjectivity (Benjamin, Like subjects, love objects: Essays on recognition and sexual difference, 1995) and co-creation (Winnicott, Home is where we start from: Essays by a psychoanalyst, 1990), of inner representations of God (Ulanov, Winnicott, god and psychic reality, 2001). I also expand on a notion of God as "Source of aliveness" by integrating an aspect of how Symington (Narcissism, a new theory, 1993) thinks about "the lifegiver," which he understands to be a mental object. After offering this theoretical expansion of the prayer practice/experience, one woman's inner representations of self and God are reflected upon in terms of a therapeutic process toward transforming destructiveness, utilizing ideas from Winnicott, Kohut, and Benjamin.

  12. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument) rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument). We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube) comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com). Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high levels of

  13. Self-analysis: a fool for a patient?

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1990-01-01

    In this paper I first reviewed the scanty publications on the subject of self-analysis. Although it was recommended by Freud as early as 1910 for every analyst, self-analysis turns out to have many pitfalls and to be quite a complicated and controversial procedure. There is no agreement on the proper technique of self-analysis in the literature, nor is there any discussion of the determinants of the particular choice of technique of self-analysis that is employed, nor even of the reasons why some analysts do not engage in it at all. Using clinical data gathered from written material of many years of self-analysis following the termination of a successful training psychoanalysis, I have attempted to elucidate some of the problems posed by this procedure. These problems are in some ways similar to formal psychoanalysis, but are in some ways contingent on the fact that it is basically a different technique. It is a solitary occupation and therefore suffers from the dangers of disintegration into autism, narcissism, and obsessional rumination. There is no living presence of an analyst to serve either as a transference figure or to make interpretations and stimulate the production of material. The identification with the analyst's analyzing function is far from simple in self-analysis because of the complex nature of the various internalizations of the analyst that take place over years of a formal training analysis. Thus, Ticho (1967) is correct when she claimed that self-analysis is a skill that the analysand has to acquire by himself or herself. An important phase of the beginning of self-analysis involves the working through of the separation from the psychoanalyst and the re-evaluation of the analyst and the analytic process. This results in a heightened sense of independence and autonomy, increased cohesion of the self, and maturation--which is manifested by greater autonomous ego functioning, a more mature sense of identity, and continued transformations of

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest. PMID:26079137

  15. Psychic skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown.

  16. Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates

    PubMed Central

    Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem. PMID:15014712

  17. Envy: one or many?

    PubMed

    Laverde-Rubio, Eduardo

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports conceptual and clinical research about envy. It consists of an examination and comparison of Klein's points of view of 1952, where the feeling of exclusion from the envious object is stressed, and of 1957, based on the split death instinct that is projected onto the envied object. These two approaches are contrasted with the point of view of the author, where envy is understood as the result of a particular kind of object relation, in which the subject registers an asymmetry with its peer, that he considers unfair, due to the biased action of an idealized omnipotent object, on whom the subject depends and that gives to the envied one, and deceives the envious one, leading to experiencing a compound of emotions: hatred, love, sense of unfairness, wish of revenge, helplessness and incapacity of the subject to provide for himself. The mental state just described emerges from clinical observations, and is illustrated with the passage from the Bible where Abel, the envied one, is killed by Cain, the envious one, showing their relationship with Jehovah, biased in his preferences, a situation designated by the author as 'Cain's complex'. In this paper some considerations are also made concerning the modalities of envy: penis envy in women, the relationship between envy and narcissism, the difference between envy and jealousy, and the interpretative handling of envy. To answer the question posed in the title, the conclusion is that envy presents a central nucleus with different elaborative branches. PMID:15142292

  18. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    PubMed

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial. PMID:1635907

  19. The concept of the self in psychoanalytic theory and its philosophical foundations.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, L A

    1991-01-01

    Concepts of "the self" in psychoanalytic theory have important philosophic underpinnings which may not be adequately appreciated. Both self psychology and ego psychology, with their contrasting positions on the self as a mental structure, retrace paths taken by Western philosophy beginning at least with Hume and Descartes. They reflect traditional philosophic questions, notably of a homuncular self internal to consciousness and the isolation of the subject from other selves. Psychoanalysis has not utilized Hegel's conception of the intersubjective origins of the self, in which the self emerges only in an encounter with another subject, although this approach is implicit in the work of Winnicott on the mother-infant dyad. This movement from a one- to a two-person psychology also presents conceptual problems, as illustrated by the psychoanalytic theories of Sartre and Lacan, who take up opposing positions on the status of consciousness and on intersubjectivity in the formation of the self. Sartre's phenomenology, with its emphasis on the questing nature of the subject in search of an identity, resonates with contemporary theories of narcissism in which the painful isolation of self from self-affirming and mirroring objects is central to clinical practice. Lacan's insight into the role of acquisition of language helps us to understand the formation of the subject in pursuit of a virtual selfhood, as Sartre described, but embedded within an intersubjective matrix.

  20. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  1. Prosocial Behavior: Long-Term Trajectories and Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Elinor; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated developmental trajectories for prosocial behavior for a sample followed from age 10 – 18 and examined possible adjustment outcomes associated with membership in different trajectory groups. Participants were 136 boys and 148 girls, their teachers, and their parents (19.4% African American, 2.4% Asian, 51.9% Caucasian, 19.5% Hispanic, and 5.8% other). Teachers rated children’s prosocial behavior yearly in grades 4 – 12. At the end of the 12th grade year, teachers, parents, and participants reported externalizing behaviors and participants reported internalizing symptoms, narcissism, and features of borderline personality disorder. Results suggested that prosocial behavior remained stable from middle childhood through late adolescence. Group-based mixture modeling revealed three prosocial trajectory groups: low (18.7%), medium (52.8%), and high (29.6%). Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior as compared to the low prosocial trajectory group, and for girls, lower levels of internalizing symptoms. Membership in the medium prosocial trajectory group also predicted being lower on externalizing behaviors. Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of borderline personality features for girls only. PMID:26236108

  2. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    PubMed

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research.

  3. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. PMID:26431683

  4. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita

    2015-01-30

    Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies. PMID:25480545

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest. PMID:26079137

  6. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  7. Primal repression: clinical and theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Kinston, W; Cohen, J

    1986-01-01

    Primal repression, long an obscure and unusable concept, has been given a precise place in a recent re-working of the theory of repression (Cohen & Kinston, 1984); and this paper specifically examines its properties and presentation. Primal repression refers to an absence of psychic structure which can be made good in the process of emotional growth. It is a part of the mind where trauma persists; and it has a close connexion to the unrepressed unconscious. Direct emergence of primal repression is a threat to life and its activation is therefore risky. During psychoanalysis, primal repression is normally avoided by object-narcissism buttressed by neurotic defences, but it may be reached and worked with in the presence of a non-internalizable valuing and nurturing relationship which we label 'primary relatedness'. This relation is therefore the interactional context for emotional growth. Numerous clinical examples are provided to demonstrate characteristic features of this region of the mind as seen in psychoanalyses. Vignettes illustrate the experiences of patient and analyst as primary relatedness is established; the consequent re-emergence of traumatic states and unmet needs, often initially in the form of severe physical and psychological deterioration; primitive forms of symbolization in the course of repairing primal repression; and the role of action in emotional growth. PMID:2427464

  8. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  9. A Buddhist contribution to the psychoanalytic psychology of self.

    PubMed

    Falkenström, Fredrik

    2003-12-01

    The author attempts to integrate the concepts of self used in psychoanalytic theory with the understanding of the nature of self as explained within the Buddhist meditative tradition. He divides different concepts of self in psychoanalytic theory into three major levels of consciousness and abstraction: self as experience, representational self and self as system. The representational level is defined as consisting of unconscious organizing structures of interaction: the system level is a hierarchically higher organization of representations, while the experiential level consists of the moment-to-moment flow of consciousness. He argues that for the sake of theoretical clarity these levels should be differentiated in discussions of self. He then describes the Buddhist psychology of self and tries to show how this perspective can enrich psychoanalytic understanding of the experiential self and of narcissism, which in Buddhist language would be described as clinging to (seeking or avoiding) images of self that arise in the mind. Last, he describes a model of therapeutic development using different levels of self and the interrelationship between them, showing how psychoanalytic psychotherapy and Buddhist insight meditation emphasize different levels of self using complementary rather than mutually exclusive methods.

  10. Prisoners of hate.

    PubMed

    Beck, Aaron T

    2002-03-01

    The terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001 as well as domestic terrorism in the United States and elsewhere in the world has prompted an analysis of the psychology of the terrorist. The perpetrators' profound sense of being wronged--their values undermined by foreign powers or a corrupt domestic power structure--has cried out for revolution and revenge. The fanatic ideology of the perpetrators has provided the matrix for a progressively more malevolent representation of the oppressors: the Image of the Enemy. Retribution against the Enemy in the form of mass murder of anonymous civilians becomes an imperative. The counterpart of the image of the Enemy is the idealized collective self-image of members of the movement, faction, or cult. The group narcissism of the white supremacists in the United States, the Aum Shinrikyo in Japan, and the Islamic extremists enhance their collective self-image as pure, righteous, and united. While the foot soldiers, as in any war, gain glory through martyrdom, the instigators and leaders have their own personal narcissistic goals (power and prestige) and plan. For the extremist Islamists the ultimate goal has been overthrow of the moderate Islamic governments; for the domestic terrorists, destabilization of the national government and reinstitution of the traditional values. PMID:11863233

  11. Klein and Lacan meet 21st century schizoid man: fairy stories for the modern era.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Melanie Klein invited us into the phenomenology of the schizoid dilemma through her depictions of the paranoid-schizoid position. By inserting his recursive arrows, Bion extended this conceptualization, showing us the folly of believing that we can ever entirely move beyond the frightening fantasies and realities of social exclusion and isolation. The 21st century has brought, along with the explosion of technology, an expulsion from the social order of many children who have found refuge from isolation and humiliation in the more accessible and less terrifying world of media and technological invention. What may look like narcissism can mask a terrible underlying schizoid failure to enter into the human race. This is the realm of fantasy run amok, where desire becomes alien and alienated such that one is haunted and hunted down by its very possibility. In this universe, conceptualizations from Klein, Bion, and Lacan help us to locate the individual who has become caught in a massive psychic retreat such that there is no subject because there are no objects. To illustrate, I describe my work with a young man who is living in a terrible "zombie zone" where people are not real and therefore are incomprehensible and terribly dangerous. The poignancy of his dilemma is heartbreaking. Perhaps that is one lesson we can still take from our old fairy tales: when one's heart can be broken by another's plight, then comes the possibility of a healing, an entry through that piercing of what had been impenetrable.

  12. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  13. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita

    2015-01-30

    Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies.

  14. Depression, masochism, and biology.

    PubMed

    Asch, S S

    1985-01-01

    In examining the conditions of depression and masochism, my intention has been to expand our area of study beyond psychodynamics alone. My first aim was to present what I believe are the intimately intertwined dynamics of each condition, a metaphorical double helix of depression and masochism in a matrix of narcissism. It may make clearer how either depression or masochism may present clinically in combination, at times in tandem, or manifestly as either state alone. My second, but major, aim is ecumenical: to interweave contributions from outside psychoanalysis. The neurophysiological bases and genetic determinants for most depressions are by now well-recognized. Masochism, much like depression, with which it is closely allied, may not necessarily arise out of conflict alone. I have presented brief excerpts of material, much of it still speculative, from areas of genetics, biochemistry, and ethology, to support the concept of a biological anlage for masochism. This would help explain the enormous difficulties therapists find in the path of its successful treatment. I believe Lorenz's theories on animal "bonding" suggest precursors to our concepts of masochism. I further believe our field of study has reached the point at which these and probably additional scientific disciplines can be helpful or even necessary for the further understanding of character, and for the solution of the persistent riddle of masochism, whose full understanding has continued to elude us. PMID:2991102

  15. Psychic skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. PMID:22288539

  16. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet. PMID:23396051

  17. A Psychological Exploration of Engagement in Geek Culture.

    PubMed

    McCain, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    Geek culture is a subculture of enthusiasts that is traditionally associated with obscure media (Japanese animation, science fiction, video games, etc.). However, geek culture is becoming increasingly mainstream; for example, in the past year alone, Dragon*Con, a major Geek convention in Atlanta, Georgia, attracted an attendance of over 57,000 members. The present article uses an individual differences approach to examine three theoretical accounts of geek culture. Seven studies (N = 2354) develop the Geek Culture Engagement Scale (GCES) to quantify geek engagement and assess its relationships to theoretically relevant personality and individual differences variables. These studies present evidence that individuals may engage in geek culture in order to maintain narcissistic self-views (the great fantasy migration hypothesis), to fulfill belongingness needs (the belongingness hypothesis), and to satisfy needs for creative expression (the need for engagement hypothesis). Geek engagement is found to be associated with elevated grandiose narcissism, extraversion, openness to experience, depression, and subjective well-being across multiple samples. These data lay the groundwork for further exploration of geek culture as well as provide a foundation for examining other forms of subculture participation.

  18. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    PubMed

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial.

  19. A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2014-06-01

    Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

  20. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-04

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  1. [Images of the unconscious. On the history of psychoanalytic film theory].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1994-11-01

    In contrast to the customary practice of classifying everything that proceeds on theoretical lines vaguely connected with psychoanalysis as representing a contribution to "psychoanalytic film theory", the author reserves this term exclusively for work proceeding from Freud's version of psychoanalysis and done by actual psychoanalysts. Zeul traces the history of psychoanalytic film theory from its beginnings to the present, and shows that the majority of authors addressing the subject of psychoanalysis and cinema interpret films largely in terms of their content or "storyline", drawing upon categories of wish-fulfilment and narcissism to do so. In contrast to this, the author insists that the symbolic richness of a film can only be truly appreciated if its formal and aesthetic structure is taken seriously and the moving images are acknowledged as functioning in their own right. This contrast between content-oriented and formal film interpretation is to some extent reminiscent of the so-called "realism debate" in the thirties and forties, its protagonists being Georg Lukács and Bertolt Brecht. PMID:7809396

  2. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet.

  3. Self-perceptions and their Prediction of Aggression in Male Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie D; Lynch, Rebecca J; Stephens, Haley F; Kistner, Janet A

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated multiple facets of self-perceptions that have been theorized and shown to play a contributory role in the development of aggression for less clinically severe populations in a sample of youths from the juvenile justice system. Independent and unique associations of low self-esteem and inflated self-perceptions with aggression were examined in a sample of male juvenile offenders (N = 119; Mean age = 16.74 years) using a longitudinal study design. Latent growth curve modeling analyses revealed that self-esteem, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism independently predicted juvenile offenders' initial levels of aggression. It was also found that perceptual bias independently predicted changes in aggression over time. With the inclusion of all variables in the same model, self-esteem was no longer associated with aggression; however, all other relationships remained significant. The implications of these findings as well as the importance of interventions targeting self-perceptions to decrease aggression among high-risk youths are discussed.

  4. A Psychological Exploration of Engagement in Geek Culture

    PubMed Central

    McCain, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Geek culture is a subculture of enthusiasts that is traditionally associated with obscure media (Japanese animation, science fiction, video games, etc.). However, geek culture is becoming increasingly mainstream; for example, in the past year alone, Dragon*Con, a major Geek convention in Atlanta, Georgia, attracted an attendance of over 57,000 members. The present article uses an individual differences approach to examine three theoretical accounts of geek culture. Seven studies (N = 2354) develop the Geek Culture Engagement Scale (GCES) to quantify geek engagement and assess its relationships to theoretically relevant personality and individual differences variables. These studies present evidence that individuals may engage in geek culture in order to maintain narcissistic self-views (the great fantasy migration hypothesis), to fulfill belongingness needs (the belongingness hypothesis), and to satisfy needs for creative expression (the need for engagement hypothesis). Geek engagement is found to be associated with elevated grandiose narcissism, extraversion, openness to experience, depression, and subjective well-being across multiple samples. These data lay the groundwork for further exploration of geek culture as well as provide a foundation for examining other forms of subculture participation. PMID:26580564

  5. The scenic function of the ego and its role in symptom and character formation.

    PubMed

    Argelander, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The author argues that the scenic function of the ego permits the situationally appropriate representation of an unconscious, infantile configuration - that is, of a relatively stable, personality-based drive scene having the same status as latent dream thoughts. The products of conflict elaboration (symptoms, etc.) are manifested in different ways in accordance with the conditions of the relevant situation. The contents of the drive scene are created by the psychical apparatus on the basis of infantile perceptions and are revealed in screen memories. The capacity for situationally appropriate representation is apparently bound up with the mobile drive, including its narcissistic transformations. Desexualization (in the sense of neutralization) renders scenic elaboration impossible. The drive derivatives withdrawn from the scenic configuration contribute to ego organization and the formation of character traits, which no longer vary according to the situation, but can only be modified by a change in personality structure itself. It is as yet unclear whether a process of resexualization can make them amenable once more to analytic work. The form of narcissistic libido that can assume a scenic configuration is closely related to primary narcissism. Its manifestations, which may likewise emerge in situation-dependent symptom formations, appear accessible to analysis.

  6. A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2014-06-01

    Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object.

  7. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    PubMed

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research. PMID:25395693

  8. The little prince: psychotherapy of a boy with borderline personality structure.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, M K

    1975-01-01

    The author describes the history and treatment of a nine-year-old boy who had presented autistic features of withdrawal and bizarre behavior until the age of four and was later diagnosed as suffering from a minimal brain dysfunction. Treatment was recommended because of enuresis, violent arguments, especially with mother, odd interests, fears, dangerous accident-proneness and inability to tolerate physical closeness, and was continued for two years. The therapy dealt initially with apparently typical oedipal conflicts, but interpretations were followed by rage reactions and the emergence of primitive defenses: projection, grandiosity, idealization and depreciation. The therapist was forced into physically controlling the patient's rage, challenging the narcissistic reality distortion and vigorously interpreting the negative transference. Support of the family was secured by monthly joint therapy sessions. Psychotherapy helped the family to resolve a deadlock created by the patient's rages, and helped the patient to progress from a borderline personality organization, with predominance of narcissism and primitive defenses, into a more advanced organization, centered upon masculine identification.

  9. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.

    PubMed

    Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

    2009-02-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.

  10. Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

    2011-04-01

    The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits.

  11. Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

  12. A Psychological Exploration of Engagement in Geek Culture.

    PubMed

    McCain, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    Geek culture is a subculture of enthusiasts that is traditionally associated with obscure media (Japanese animation, science fiction, video games, etc.). However, geek culture is becoming increasingly mainstream; for example, in the past year alone, Dragon*Con, a major Geek convention in Atlanta, Georgia, attracted an attendance of over 57,000 members. The present article uses an individual differences approach to examine three theoretical accounts of geek culture. Seven studies (N = 2354) develop the Geek Culture Engagement Scale (GCES) to quantify geek engagement and assess its relationships to theoretically relevant personality and individual differences variables. These studies present evidence that individuals may engage in geek culture in order to maintain narcissistic self-views (the great fantasy migration hypothesis), to fulfill belongingness needs (the belongingness hypothesis), and to satisfy needs for creative expression (the need for engagement hypothesis). Geek engagement is found to be associated with elevated grandiose narcissism, extraversion, openness to experience, depression, and subjective well-being across multiple samples. These data lay the groundwork for further exploration of geek culture as well as provide a foundation for examining other forms of subculture participation. PMID:26580564

  13. Online social networking and addiction--a review of the psychological literature.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

  14. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools

    PubMed Central

    Coren, Sidney A.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research. PMID:25395693

  15. Some key features in the evolution of self psychology and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fosshage, James L

    2009-04-01

    Psychoanalysis, as every science and its application, has continued to evolve over the past century, especially accelerating over the last 30 years. Self psychology has played a constitutive role in that evolution and has continued to change itself. These movements have been supported and augmented by a wide range of emergent research and theory, especially that of cognitive psychology, infant and attachment research, rapid eye movement and dream research, psychotherapy research, and neuroscience. I present schematically some of what I consider to be the key features of the evolution of self psychology and their interconnection with that of psychoanalysis at large, including the revolutionary paradigm changes, the new epistemology, listening/experiencing perspectives, from narcissism to the development of the self, the new organization model of transference, the new organization model of dreams, and the implicit and explicit dimensions of analytic work. I conclude with a focus on the radical ongoing extension of the analyst's participation in the analytic relationship, using, as an example, the co-creation of analytic love, and providing several brief clinical illustrations. The leading edge question guiding my discussion is "How does analytic change occur?"

  16. Klein and Lacan meet 21st century schizoid man: fairy stories for the modern era.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Melanie Klein invited us into the phenomenology of the schizoid dilemma through her depictions of the paranoid-schizoid position. By inserting his recursive arrows, Bion extended this conceptualization, showing us the folly of believing that we can ever entirely move beyond the frightening fantasies and realities of social exclusion and isolation. The 21st century has brought, along with the explosion of technology, an expulsion from the social order of many children who have found refuge from isolation and humiliation in the more accessible and less terrifying world of media and technological invention. What may look like narcissism can mask a terrible underlying schizoid failure to enter into the human race. This is the realm of fantasy run amok, where desire becomes alien and alienated such that one is haunted and hunted down by its very possibility. In this universe, conceptualizations from Klein, Bion, and Lacan help us to locate the individual who has become caught in a massive psychic retreat such that there is no subject because there are no objects. To illustrate, I describe my work with a young man who is living in a terrible "zombie zone" where people are not real and therefore are incomprehensible and terribly dangerous. The poignancy of his dilemma is heartbreaking. Perhaps that is one lesson we can still take from our old fairy tales: when one's heart can be broken by another's plight, then comes the possibility of a healing, an entry through that piercing of what had been impenetrable. PMID:25117781

  17. [Diogenes syndrome: a transnosographic approach].

    PubMed

    Hanon, C; Pinquier, C; Gaddour, N; Saïd, S; Mathis, D; Pellerin, J

    2004-01-01

    , reckon it may represent stress-related defence mechanisms of the elderly or may be related to natural ageing process. However, psychiatric pathologies as paranoid and paranoiac psychoses, mood disorders and obsessive and compulsive disorders have been described to be associated with it in the literature. Dementia, in particular temporo-frontal dementia, should be looked for and excluded clinically. Alcohol abuse seems to be an aggravating rather than a precipitating factor. Finally, the link between these pathologies and Diogenes syndrome is not yet determined: are they triggering, co-morbid or etiological factors? Should this syndrome be considered as a true illness or as a symptom? This paper presents Diogenes syndrome as a behavioural disorder and distinguishes 2 types: the "active type"--patients who collect from outside to clutter inside--and the "passive type"--patients who passively become invaded by their rubbish. Active type patients fill their home to fill in the vacuum of their life, as it deteriorates and looses its narcissical appeal. Passive type patients accumulate by default and emptiness. A psychopathological understanding is presented here, referring to psychoanalytical theories of the Moi-peau (ego-skin) described by Anzieu. The Moi-peau represents a structure of the psyche founded on the following principle: any psychic function develops itself according to a bodily function from which it transposes its functioning at a mental level. The skin has three functions: the containing shell, the protective barrier of the psyche, and a medium of exchange. The Moi-peau is organised as a double-wall acting both as a defence mechanism and as a filter between the psyche and the external world. It preserves the relationship and the cohesion "container-content". As a result of a narcissical wound, the Moi-peau is damaged and looses its function of a container. In the case of Diogenes Syndrome, the accumulated items repair the Moi-peau and the home becomes an

  18. Some roots of persistent homosexual fantasy and the quest for father's love: conflicted parental identifications in a male patient: fragment of an analysis.

    PubMed

    Lax, R F

    1997-12-01

    father figure whom he could have used as a suitable model. This led to the development in Rodney of a strong sense of effeminization. Rodney in his homosexual fantasies assumed the so-called "feminine victimized" role. The regression to the negative oedipal phase contributed to an exacerbation of erotic, father-directed feelings, intensified by the identification with mother. Rodney was fixated in his quest for father's love. In addition, Rodney's unconscious guilt related to father and mother directed incestuous impulses, and his intense aggressivesadistic feelings contributed to the masochistic cast of his masturbation fantasies. Rodney's narcissistic aims and the quality of his narcissism changed during the analysis. His grandiosity almost disappeared. Rodney's goals became realistic and he acquired the skills necessary to achieve them. Inhibitions related to the "fear of success" were worked through. This enabled Rodney to compete successfully. His healthy narcissism derives from the success of his many achievements. Though Rodney remained a basically narcissistic personality, he did derive great pleasure from being a giving person. This was one of the many ways in which he identified with his mother. At the present, Rodney's identifications are selective and do not evoke intrapsychic conflict. PMID:9522407

  19. Psychopathy in adolescent offenders: an item response theory study of the antisocial process screening device-self report and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required.

  20. Magic and the aesthetic illusion.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2002-01-01

    The aesthetic illusion is the subjective experience that the content of a work of art is reality. It has an intrinsic relation to magic, an intrapsychic maneuver oriented toward modification and control of the extraspyschic world, principally through ego functioning. Magic is ontogenetically and culturally archaic, expresses the omnipotence inherent in primary narcissism, and operates according to the logic of the primary process. Magic is a constituent of all ego functioning, usually latent in later development. It may persist as an archaic feature or may be evoked regressively in global or circumscribed ways. It causes a general disinhibition of instincts and impulses attended by a sense of confidence, exhiliration, and exuberance. The aesthetic illusion is a combination of illusions: (1) that the daydream embodied by the work of art is the beholder's own, the artist being ignored, and (2) that the artistically described protagonist is a real person with a real "world." The first illusion arises through the beholder's emotional-instinctual gratification from his or her own fantasy-memory constellations; the second comes about because the beholder, by taking the protagonist as proxy, mobilizes the subjective experience of the imaginary protagonist's "reality." The first illusion is necessary for the second to take place; the second establishes the aesthetic illusion proper. Both illusions are instances of magic. Accordingly, the aesthetic illusion is accompanied by a heady experience of excitement and euphoria. The relation among the aesthetic illusion, magic, and enthusiasm is illustrated by an analytic case, J. D. Salinger's "The Laughing Man," Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam, Don Quixote, and the medieval Cult of the Saints.

  1. Attitudes Toward Selfie Taking in School-going Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Era; Sharma, Payal; Dikshit, Reetika; Shah, Nilesh; Sonavane, Sushma; Bharati, Anup; De Sousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smartphones have become a necessary evil in our lives. Selfies have become the newest technological fad to take over the youth, due to the wide and easy availability of mobile phones. There is paucity of scientific data on selfies in general, and from our country in particular. This study aimed to analyze the attitudes toward selfie taking, body image acceptance, and narcissism personality traits among an urban school-going population in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-two students of 11th standard, belonging to an urban Mumbai school, were interviewed in a single centric cross-sectional study. Scales used were – attitude towards selfie-taking questionnaire, body image acceptance, and action questionnaire (BIAAQ) and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Statistical Analysis Used: Scores obtained were computed using basic descriptive statistics as well as computerized statistical software. Results: Of the 230 completely filled questionnaires, 54% were males. About 42.6% reported that they regularly clicked selfies of themselves. No gender difference was noticed. On an average, 18.1% girls and 15.2% boys clicked more than 4 selfies/day. The gender difference was statistically not significant (P = 0.5273). Difference in mean BIAAQ between the two genders was noticed to be statistically significant, whereas the NPI scores difference was insignificant. Conclusions: This study is a pioneering/novel/innovative work in the field of selfies. It gives us an insight into the youth's viewpoint towards selfies, which was positive in the majority of the population. A worrisome aspect is the higher body image dissatisfaction among girls. Behavioral addictions such as selfies need more focused research in the future. PMID:27335520

  2. The PMHT: solutions for some of its problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieneke, Monika; Koch, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    Tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment is a challenging task. Probabilistic Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (PMHT) is an efficient approach for dealing with it. Essentially PMHT is based on the method of Expectation-Maximization for handling with association conflicts. Linearity in the number of targets and measurements is the main motivation for a further development and extension of this methodology. Unfortunately, compared with the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF), PMHT has not yet shown its superiority in terms of track-lost statistics. Furthermore, the problem of track extraction and deletion is apparently not yet satisfactorily solved within this framework. Four properties of PMHT are responsible for its problems in track maintenance: Non-Adaptivity, Hospitality, Narcissism and Local Maxima. 1, 2 In this work we present a solution for each of them and derive an improved PMHT by integrating the solutions into the PMHT formalism. The new PMHT is evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulations. A sequential Likelihood-Ratio (LR) test for track extraction has been developed and already integrated into the framework of traditional Bayesian Multiple Hypothesis Tracking. 3 As a multi-scan approach, also the PMHT methodology has the potential for track extraction. In this paper an analogous integration of a sequential LR test into the PMHT framework is proposed. We present an LR formula for track extraction and deletion using the PMHT update formulae. As PMHT provides all required ingredients for a sequential LR calculation, the LR is thus a by-product of the PMHT iteration process. Therefore the resulting update formula for the sequential LR test affords the development of Track-Before-Detect algorithms for PMHT. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.

  3. Lacan.

    PubMed

    Diatkine, Gilbert

    2007-06-01

    Jacques Lacan belonged to the second generation of French psychoanalysts which, thanks to the arrival in France of Rudolf Loewenstein, was the first to benefit from a training analysis of sufficient quality and duration. Lacan left the Société Psychanalytique de Paris and the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1953, following a controversy over the short sessions he gave his patients. For Lacan, the anxiety of being absorbed by the object is the principal anxiety from which the anxieties of separation, castration or fragmentation are derived, which may explain why he did not keep his patients for a sufficient length of time. Lacan transformed his difficulty into an advocated technique, which he justified by making a critique of the classical technique. He founded his own international psychoanalytic association, in which selection only occurs when the analyst is already at a very advanced stage in his career ("the authorization of an analyst can only come from himself"). We are indebted to Lacan for having drawn the attention of analysts to the role of language, and especially of words with a double meaning, in the genesis of interpretation, but his theory of language, founded on the assimilation of psychoanalysis to structural linguistics and anthropology, has collapsed. Many of Lacan's other theoretical contributions, such as the renewed interest in the après-coup, the place of mirror relations in narcissism, the distinction between what he calls jouissance and the orgasm, or between the "real" and reality, have been gradually integrated by analysts who accept neither his technique nor his laxity in training.

  4. Individual, social, and behavioral factors associated with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A

    2013-07-01

    Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N = 1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age = 12.12) and middle (Mean age = 14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support. PMID:23408037

  5. Perceptions and attitudes toward androgenic-anabolic steroid use among two age categories: a qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Fetro, Joyce V

    2007-05-01

    We attempted to qualitatively investigate why men of 2 age categories have chosen not to use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs). Twelve men (22.28 +/- 1.38 years [group I] and 53.00 +/- 13.28 years [group II]) were selected on the basis of specific inclusion criteria, including age and fitness levels (i.e., "do you weight train?"). Subjects were classified in 1 of 2 categories-younger or older precluders-and were asked to complete 2 survey instruments before their participation. The Drive for Muscularity Scale (reliability 0.85) and Body Image Questionnaire were used to gain a better understanding of perceptions and motivations regarding health, fitness, and body image. A series of semistructured questions were used to enhance focus group discussion regarding attitudes. Questions were validated by a panel of experts in qualitative methods. Member checks were conducted to enhance trustworthiness of the data. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with thematic open-coding techniques. Various behaviors were reported regarding body image. Emerging themes showed a clear demarcation between age categories. Younger subjects cited power, control, body image, and narcissism, whereas older subjects viewed AAS use as more of an athletic-based phenomenon, such as with performance enhancement, when asked about steroids. Groups were in agreement that media trends and perceptions of the ideal male body are becoming "superhuman" and unattainable without chemical means. Understanding attitudinal perspectives might help complement national data on AAS trends. Future investigations could help coaches and allied health professionals collaborate with each other, as well as with national groups and foundations, to devise more appropriate strategies in addressing this growing athletic and public health concern.

  6. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  7. [The suicide problem in Stefan Zweig's works].

    PubMed

    Haenel, T

    1981-01-01

    The life of the Vienna-born writer Stefan Zweig, whose centenary will be on November 28th, 1981, is portrayed in the light of some external data. His works - mainly novellas - in which the theme of suicide plays a central role, are briefly presented, and his preference for describing psychological borderline and extreme states is stressed. One of his first poems and his last one - more than forty years lie between them - are discussed with reference to his depression and suicidal tendencies. Zweig, who at least since the First World war had been periodically suffering from depressions, was looked after and in a sense also treated by his first wife Friderike von Winternitz, until he had to leave his home in Salzburg in 1935. In 1939, he divorced from his wife and married his sickly secretary, Lotte Altmann, who suffered from asthma and depression. After prolonged stays in England, North and South America he settled in Petropolis near Rio de Janeiro in Brasil, where he spent the last months of his life. Zweig was the second son of a dominating, self-willed mother and a dignified, almost "motherly" father. He felt his childhood to have been constricted and hemmed in. His narcissism, which has played an essential role in relation to his suicide, has its roots in his childhood. Direct as well as indirect hints at suicide were not lacking during the last two years of Zweig's life, which were increasingly filled with depression and anxiety. The preface to his autobiography "The World of Yesterday" may be interpreted as an indirect announcement of suicide. On February 22nd, 1942, Zweig committed suicide together with his second wife in Petropolis.

  8. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research.

  9. [Empathy for pain: A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral laboratory animal model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen; Lv, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting

    2015-12-25

    Empathy, a basic prosocial behavior, is referred to as an ability to understand and share others' emotional state. Generally, empathy is also a social-behavioral basis of altruism. In contrast, impairment of empathy development may be associated with autism, narcissism, alexithymia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Thus, study of the brain mechanisms of empathy has great importance to not only scientific and clinical advances but also social harmony. However, research on empathy has long been avoided due to the fact that it has been considered as a distinct feature of human beings from animals, leading to paucity of knowledge in the field. In 2006, a Canadian group from McGill University found that a mouse in pain could be shared by its paired cagemate, but not a paired stranger, showing decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses through emotional contagion while they were socially interacting. In 2014, we further found that a rat in pain could also be shared by its paired cagemate 30 min after social interaction, showing long-term decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses, suggesting persistence of empathy for pain (empathic memory). We also mapped out that the medial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, is involved in empathy for pain in rats, suggesting that a neural network may be associated with development of pain empathy in the CNS. In the present brief review, we give a brief outline of the advances and challenges in study of empathy for pain in humans and animals, and try to provide a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for study of pain and its emotional comorbidity using laboratory animals.

  10. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.

  11. [Empathy for pain: A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral laboratory animal model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen; Lv, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting

    2015-12-25

    Empathy, a basic prosocial behavior, is referred to as an ability to understand and share others' emotional state. Generally, empathy is also a social-behavioral basis of altruism. In contrast, impairment of empathy development may be associated with autism, narcissism, alexithymia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Thus, study of the brain mechanisms of empathy has great importance to not only scientific and clinical advances but also social harmony. However, research on empathy has long been avoided due to the fact that it has been considered as a distinct feature of human beings from animals, leading to paucity of knowledge in the field. In 2006, a Canadian group from McGill University found that a mouse in pain could be shared by its paired cagemate, but not a paired stranger, showing decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses through emotional contagion while they were socially interacting. In 2014, we further found that a rat in pain could also be shared by its paired cagemate 30 min after social interaction, showing long-term decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses, suggesting persistence of empathy for pain (empathic memory). We also mapped out that the medial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, is involved in empathy for pain in rats, suggesting that a neural network may be associated with development of pain empathy in the CNS. In the present brief review, we give a brief outline of the advances and challenges in study of empathy for pain in humans and animals, and try to provide a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for study of pain and its emotional comorbidity using laboratory animals. PMID:26701631

  12. Lacan.

    PubMed

    Diatkine, Gilbert

    2007-06-01

    Jacques Lacan belonged to the second generation of French psychoanalysts which, thanks to the arrival in France of Rudolf Loewenstein, was the first to benefit from a training analysis of sufficient quality and duration. Lacan left the Société Psychanalytique de Paris and the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1953, following a controversy over the short sessions he gave his patients. For Lacan, the anxiety of being absorbed by the object is the principal anxiety from which the anxieties of separation, castration or fragmentation are derived, which may explain why he did not keep his patients for a sufficient length of time. Lacan transformed his difficulty into an advocated technique, which he justified by making a critique of the classical technique. He founded his own international psychoanalytic association, in which selection only occurs when the analyst is already at a very advanced stage in his career ("the authorization of an analyst can only come from himself"). We are indebted to Lacan for having drawn the attention of analysts to the role of language, and especially of words with a double meaning, in the genesis of interpretation, but his theory of language, founded on the assimilation of psychoanalysis to structural linguistics and anthropology, has collapsed. Many of Lacan's other theoretical contributions, such as the renewed interest in the après-coup, the place of mirror relations in narcissism, the distinction between what he calls jouissance and the orgasm, or between the "real" and reality, have been gradually integrated by analysts who accept neither his technique nor his laxity in training. PMID:17537697

  13. [The "Ice Bucket Challenge": wondering about the impact of social networks to promote public health interventions].

    PubMed

    Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Bert, Fabrizio; Gili, Renata; Andriolo, Violetta; Scaioli, Giacomo; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The "Ice Bucket Challenge" was an activity launched to promote awareness of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and encourage donations to research for this disease. The campaign went viral on social media during July to August 2014. It consisted in nominating people and challenging them to donate 100 dollars to the ALS Association or pour a bucket of ice water over their head and post the video on the web. Participants in turn then had to challenge others to do the same. The initiative was hugely successful, involved millions of people and, just in the US, collected 35 times more money than in the same time period in 2013. We analyzed possible factors that determined the success of this initiative, to identify strengths and weaknesses of the activity and evaluate the possibility of applying the same model to promote public health interventions. Several features of the challenge were identified as strengths: the involvement of wellknown people from different contexts, the "public platform" which triggers a positive combination of competitiveness, social pressure and narcissism, the chain-letter like method of nomination, the ironic and entertaining nature of the performance. Besides these strengths, weaknesses were also identified: information spread via social media can only partially reach potential donors and supporters, due to the digital divide phenomenon which excludes people who do not have web access. Also, it is not possible to predict if the message will be long-lasting or will cease shortly after the end of the campaign. The latter could be acceptable for fund-raising, where the aim is simply to collect as much money as possible, but not for a public health intervention program, whose success requires that the intended message has a long-lasting effect to produce an effective change in people's behavior. Despite the above-mentioned limits, social networks undeniably show great potential to spread messages to the community and to involve a large number of

  14. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity

  15. Teaching strategies for coping with stress – the perceptions of medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in life’s quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting one’s limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile

  16. [The "Ice Bucket Challenge": wondering about the impact of social networks to promote public health interventions].

    PubMed

    Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Bert, Fabrizio; Gili, Renata; Andriolo, Violetta; Scaioli, Giacomo; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The "Ice Bucket Challenge" was an activity launched to promote awareness of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and encourage donations to research for this disease. The campaign went viral on social media during July to August 2014. It consisted in nominating people and challenging them to donate 100 dollars to the ALS Association or pour a bucket of ice water over their head and post the video on the web. Participants in turn then had to challenge others to do the same. The initiative was hugely successful, involved millions of people and, just in the US, collected 35 times more money than in the same time period in 2013. We analyzed possible factors that determined the success of this initiative, to identify strengths and weaknesses of the activity and evaluate the possibility of applying the same model to promote public health interventions. Several features of the challenge were identified as strengths: the involvement of wellknown people from different contexts, the "public platform" which triggers a positive combination of competitiveness, social pressure and narcissism, the chain-letter like method of nomination, the ironic and entertaining nature of the performance. Besides these strengths, weaknesses were also identified: information spread via social media can only partially reach potential donors and supporters, due to the digital divide phenomenon which excludes people who do not have web access. Also, it is not possible to predict if the message will be long-lasting or will cease shortly after the end of the campaign. The latter could be acceptable for fund-raising, where the aim is simply to collect as much money as possible, but not for a public health intervention program, whose success requires that the intended message has a long-lasting effect to produce an effective change in people's behavior. Despite the above-mentioned limits, social networks undeniably show great potential to spread messages to the community and to involve a large number of

  17. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    PubMed

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  18. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it

  19. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it

  20. The McCollough Facial Rejuvenation System: expanding the scope of a condition-specific algorithm.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E Gaylon; Ha, Chi D

    2012-02-01

    The ideal facial rejuvenation algorithm is comprised of an appropriate combination of procedures, thoughtfully chosen from an assortment of reliable alternatives, that when skillfully performed provide both short- and long-term enhancement to the undesirable conditions of aging that exists at the time of treatment. In 2010, the senior author published the first scientific article in which a condition-specific classification system and a treatment plan algorithm were applied to the discipline of facial rejuvenation. In the landmark article, the senior author reviewed his surgical experience of more than 5000 face-lifts and grouped patients into five major categories (or stages), based upon the extent of aging identified in various regions of the face and neck and the procedures performed to correct them. The criteria (that have now been suggested on a facial aging worksheet) were recorded in a data blank comprised of a first-generation worksheet. Once the data were collected--and using algorithmic charts for each region and/or facial feature--the most appropriate plan of action for a given patient was created. The sole objective in sharing the senior author's methodology was to launch a scholarly discussion among physicians and surgeons involved in the various disciplines that provide rejuvenation procedures on the face, head, and neck. From such a debate would, hopefully, emerge a definitive algorithmic system--one based squarely on the venerable ethics of medicine, coupled with the appropriate application of and skillful performance of the fundamental principles of surgery. A single, science-based system would restore order to a noble discipline, currently being challenged by narcissism, gimmickry, and commercialization. The implementation of a system rooted in universal truths would require its advocates to agree upon a common "language," the implementation of which allows aesthetically focused surgeons to share both new ideas and time-tested experiences. More