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Sample records for narkootiliste ainete osakaal

  1. Spring time photochemical air pollution in Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Shinji; Uno, Itsushi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1996-12-31

    High concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are frequently observed in Osaka area in spring season. To clarify this, a series of three dimensional field observation was conducted in April 1993 covering Osaka and surrounding area. Vertical and horizontal distributions of ozone, NO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, aerosol species, hydrocarbon species and meteorological parameter such as temperature, uv radiation, wind speed, wind direction are measured on the ground and aloft. Covering the observational period yellow sand transportation from the continent and stratospheric ozone intrusion were also observed under the meteorological condition of moving high pressure system. During the aircraft observation of 19 to 21 April 1993 high concentration of photochemical air pollution was observed aloft over Osaka area. Maximum ozone concentration was me than 150 ppb. Vertical distribution of ozone showed uniform profile up to 2500m in day time. At Mt. Ikoma (600 m) ozone concentration had been almost constant ranging 80-100 ppb throughout the observational period. To clarify this phenomena three dimensional photochemical air pollution simulation model was applied based on the real meteorological and emission conditions. Simulated result showed photochemical reaction play an important role to form the spring time high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in Osaka.

  2. Nuclear physics frontier at RCNP, Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H. J.

    2014-03-05

    Cyclotron accelerator facility and research activities at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, are presented. A special focus is given on several topics in nuclear physics where interesting and important experiment results relevant to the nuclear structure as well as the nuclear astrophysics have been reported.

  3. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  4. Development of the Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University.

    PubMed

    Oie, Yoshinori; Kamei, Motohiro; Maeda, Naoyuki; Fujikado, Takashi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Osaka University is one of the largest national universities and the sixth oldest university in Japan. Its academic roots extend to Tekijuku and Kaitokudo in the Edo period. Osaka University has the motto, "Live Locally, Grow Globally." This means that they work for their own local community and also work worldwide at the same time.The Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine is famous for basic research in immunology, including research on interleukin 6 and innate immunity, and translational research for regenerative medicine. Osaka University Hospital has 31 clinical departments and 2159 staff members, including 834 physicians. It serves 2515 outpatients and 940 inpatients per day. Approximately 8500 surgeries are performed every year. The Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University is one of the largest ophthalmology departments in Japan. It has 24 faculty members, 9 graduate school students, and 9 residents. It has had 9 professors throughout its history. Their department has also produced active professors in the wide field of ophthalmology.Their department is known for a large amount of high clinical activity. Their advanced clinical practice performs translational research on the regenerative medicine of the cornea, artificial retina, diagnostic instruments and tools, apoptosis of photoreceptors, and drug discovery. Many ophthalmologists and staff members have contributed to the development of the Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University.

  5. Characterization of bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hoshika, A.; Tatsumoto, H.

    1995-06-01

    The physical, chemical, and dewatering characteristics of 19 bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan, have been analyzed to aid in the development of sediments in the coastal bay area. The sediments in the east near Osaka Port were highly polluted from the influence of human activities and were difficult to dewater. These sediments were composed of fine particles, low in pH, zetapotential, and initial settling rate, and were high in ignition loss, metal concentrations, compression volume, specific resistance, cake water content, and drying index. However, the sediments near Akashi Channel showed the reverse where they are affected by strong tidal current. A correlation analysis has been made of all the parameters. There are significant relationships between all the dewatering parameters. Therefore, sediments difficult to dewater by gravity settling are also difficult to dewater by vacuum filtration and solar evaporation. Sediments containing fine particles and pollutants are difficult to dewater. Several forms of pollutants can occur in the sediments.

  6. The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Williams, Gini; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Shimouchi, Akira; Simon, Carter

    2005-07-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) notification in Osaka City has been persistently high compared with other urban areas in Japan. Although the TB notification in Greater London has kept much lower level compared with that in Osaka City, it has been also persistently high compared with other urban areas in the UK. Nonetheless, the contexts of the two cities relating TB control programme as well as the epidemiological situation greatly vary; there must be some lessons to be learnt from each other to improve each TB control programme to tackle against TB more effectively. Comparing the epidemiological situation of TB in both cities, it is obvious that Osaka City suffers TB more than Greater London in terms of the TB notification rate. Concerning the context of the TB control programme, Osaka City has centralised approach with strong local government commitment; Greater London, on the other hand, has an approach that is greatly fragmented but coordinated through voluntary TB Networks. This paper aims to draw some constructive and practical lessons from Greater London TB control management for further improvement of Osaka City TB control management through literature review and interview to health professionals. TB epidemiology in Greater London shows distinct features in the extent of TB in new entrants and TB co-infected with HIV in comparison with those in Osaka City. TB epidemiology in Osaka City is to a great extent specifically related to homeless people whereas in Greater London, this relationship occurs to a lesser extent. Both areas have relatively high TB-notification rates compared with national figures, and they have "TB hot spots" where remarkably high TB-notification rates exist. TB control in Greater London is characterised with decentralised and devolved services to local government health authorities supplemented with co-ordinating bodies across sectors as well as across Greater London. Sector-wide TB Network as well as London TB Group (LTBG) and London TB Nurses

  7. [Explicit and implicit attitudes toward standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect language use].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.

  8. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  9. The Role and Challenges of School Social Work: An Examination from Practice in Osaka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamano, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of school social work in the Osaka Prefecture of Japan. The article focuses on micro, mezzo, and macro levels of school social work and documents the growth and development of school social work since 2005. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  10. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg(-1) dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L(-1), and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L(-1). The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay, southwestern Japan: Faunal changes over the last 50 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsujimoto, Akira; Nomura, Ritsuo; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2006-01-01

    Live benthic foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediment in Osaka Bay collected in 1999 were analyzed to characterize the distribution of the modern foraminiferal assemblages. Foraminiferal assemblages were compared with those of previous studies to document environmental changes in Osaka Bay over the past 50 years. Sixty-one species of foraminifera belonging to 37 genera were recognized from the 1999 surface sediment samples. An agglutinated assemblage containing Trochammina hadai and Eggerella advena is dominant in the inner part of the bay and is related to eutrophication. The foraminiferal assemblage in areas deeper than about 20 m is composed of Eggerella advena, Ammonia beccarii forma A, and Pseudorotalia gaimardii. This assemblage may be influenced by the large clockwise Okinose Circulation Current which extends throughout the western bay. Foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay have changed dramatically during the last 50 years. The Trochammina hadai-Eggerella advena assemblage became established in the inner part of the bay, reflecting eutrophication that progressed from the 1960s through the 1970s. This assemblage became dominant in 1983, and typically dominated the inner part of the bay. From 1983 to 1999, however, the abundance of taxa belonging to this assemblage decreased greatly following implementation of 1973 Osaka City bylaws that restricted wastewater discharge. Changes in benthic assemblages such as the decrease of Ammonia beccarii forma A and increase of Eggerella advena have occurred in response to decreased incidence of red tides, and floral change in the species that cause these tides. The results of this study demonstrate that the abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifers in Osaka Bay are intimately related to environmental changes related to the urbanization of coastal areas. ?? by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.

  12. A Coprological Survey of Intestinal Helminthes in Stray Dogs Captured in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; EDAGAWA, Akiko; KAWABUCHI-KURATA, Takako; SUGIYAMA, Hiromu; YAMASAKI, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  13. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  14. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 4: early solar research in Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Nakamura, Tsuko; Ishiguro, Masato

    2016-12-01

    For about two years, from late 1949, Minoru Oda and Tatsuo Takakura carried out solar observations from Osaka, initially with a hand-made horn and later with a small parabolic antenna connected to a 3.3 GHz receiver, but they only published one short paper on this work. At about the same time, Ojio and others at Osaka City University presented the concept of a solar grating array at a meeting of the Japan Physical Society, but this was never built. In this paper, we provide brief biographical accounts of Oda and Takakura before examining their radio telescopes and the observations that they made. We also briefly discuss the proposed Japanese solar grating array.

  15. Prediction of long-period ground motions from huge subduction earthquakes in Osaka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, H.; Kamae, K.

    2008-04-01

    There is a high possibility of reoccurrence of the Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes along the Nankai Trough in Japan. It is very important to predict the long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.1 and 8.4, respectively, to mitigate their disastrous effects. In this study, long-period (>2.5 s) ground motions were predicted using an earthquake scenario proposed by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japan. The calculations were performed using a fourth-order finite difference method with a variable spacing staggered-grid in the frequency range 0.05 0.4 Hz. The attenuation characteristics ( Q) in the finite difference simulations were assumed to be proportional to frequency ( f) and S-wave velocity ( V s) represented by Q = f · V s / 2. Such optimum attenuation characteristic for the sedimentary layers in the Osaka basin was obtained empirically by comparing the observed motions during the actual M5.5 event with the modeling results. We used the velocity structure model of the Osaka basin consisting of three sedimentary layers on bedrock. The characteristics of the predicted long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes depend significantly on the complex thickness distribution of the sediments inside the basin. The duration of the predicted long-period ground motions in the city of Osaka is more than 4 min, and the largest peak ground velocities (PGVs) exceed 80 cm/s. The predominant period is 5 to 6 s. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of earthquake damage because of future subduction earthquakes in large-scale constructions such as tall buildings, long-span bridges, and oil storage tanks in the Osaka area.

  16. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters.

  17. Strengthened tuberculosis control programme and trend of multidrug resistant tuberculosis rate in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Yoshida, Hideki; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2013-01-01

    Osaka City has the highest tuberculosis (TB) notification rates in Japan. In the period 1999–2003, the TB control programme was strengthened, and the Stop TB Strategy was implemented to reduce the number of notified cases. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of these control activities in Osaka City, including the implementation of directly observed treatment (DOT), by analysing TB surveillance and routinely collected data. We reviewed the surveillance data of all sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases registered in the Osaka City Public Health Office from 2001 to 2008 and data collected from the routine TB programme. The DOT implementation rate increased from 0% in 2001 to 68% in 2008 for smear-positive PTB cases of the general public and to 61% for all PTB cases of the homeless. The proportion of smear-positive PTB cases that had treatment failure and default combined, declined from 8.0% (52 of 650) in 2001 to 3.6% (20 of 548) in 2006. The proportion of cases among the homeless with previous treatment declined from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008. The proportion of cases with multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) among those without previous treatment declined from 1.7% in 2001 to 0.9% in 2008. It is logical that reduction in the failure and default rate would lead to the reduction of cases with previous treatment and TB transmission, including resistant TB, therefore to the reduction of MDR-TB rates. PMID:23908949

  18. Coprological survey of parasitic infections in pigs and cattle in slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kita, Toshimasa; Narushima, Tsuguto; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2009-08-01

    A coprological survey was performed at a slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan, from 2004 to 2007 on 129 pigs reared in 8 prefectures, and on 213 cattle reared in 21 prefectures. Eimeria spp., Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus spp. infections were found in 52 (40.3%), 32 (24.8%), 19 (14.7%) and 3 pigs (2.3%), respectively, while Eimeria spp., Capillaria bovis and Trichuris sp. infections were detected in 163 (76.5%), 15 (7.0%) and 8 cattle (3.8%), respectively. Our results suggest that environmentally resistant oocysts and eggs of parasites could be widespread at the farms examined.

  19. Atomic-resolution 3D structure of amyloid β fibrils: The Osaka mutation

    DOE PAGES

    Schutz, Anne K.; Wall, Joseph; Vagt, Toni; ...

    2014-11-13

    Despite its central importance for understanding the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), high-resolution structural information on amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils, which are intimately linked with AD, is scarce. We report an atomic-resolution fibril structure of the Aβ 1-40 peptide with the Osaka mutation (E22Δ), associated with early-onset AD. The structure, which differs substantially from all previously proposed models, is based on a large number of unambiguous intra- and intermolecular solid-state NMR distance restraints

  20. Occurrence and diversity of barnacles on international ships visiting Osaka Bay, Japan, and the risk of their introduction.

    PubMed

    Otani, M; Oumi, T; Uwai, S; Hanyuda, T; Prabowo, R E; Yamaguchi, T; Kawai, H

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of barnacles attached to the hulls of two intercontinental bulk carriers were studied at the port in Osaka Bay, Japan, to assess the potential risk of introduction of exotic species to the inner part of the bay. Barnacles were sampled from the bulbous bows, near the midship draft marks, and around the propeller posts and rudders. Twenty-two species were found, with 14 of these not previously recorded in Osaka Bay, including four species not previously recorded elsewhere in Japan. From an assessment of environmental similarity between Osaka Bay and native ranges, of the 14 species, Elminius modestus and Amphibalanus variegatus were considered to have the highest risk of introduction to the inner part of the bay.

  1. Achievements and Challenges in the US Summer English Program offered by the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunioshi, Nílson; Ashizawa, Shingo; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    As an extension of the subject “English for Engineers” offered by the Graduate School of Engineering to its students, a summer intensive technical English course is held every year in the United States. The contents of the summer program are customized to meet the needs of the engineering students of Osaka University, and from 2004 participants can get the credits corresponding to English for Engineers II, a subject that usually is taken in the second semester at Osaka University. The evolution in the contents of the summer program, first designed in 2003, as well as the achievements, further possible improvements and problems to be solved are analysed.

  2. Travel-related illness at a tertiary care hospital in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shirano, Michinori; Goto, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the travel-related health problems in persons returning to Japan from overseas. Data were extracted retrospectively for all patients visiting the infectious diseases department of Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan, between July 2012 and September 2013. There were 209 sick returning travelers during the period of the study. The median age of the subjects was 34.3 years, and the subjects consisted of 133 tourists (63.6%), 39 business travelers (18.7%), 17 expatriates (8.1%), 14 volunteer workers (6.7%), and four persons who visited friends and relatives (1.9%). The most visited destinations were Asia (n=162, 77.5%), including East Asia (n=26, 12.4%), Southeast Asia (n=116, 55.5%), South Asia (n=25, 12.0%), Central Asia (n=3, 1.4%), and Africa (n=30, 14.3%). The most commonly diagnosed diseases were gastrointestinal tract infection (n=81, 38.8%), dengue fever (n=26, 12.4%), and animal bites (n=26, 12.4%). Twenty-nine patients (13.8%) were hospitalized, mainly for dengue fever and gastrointestinal tract infection. PMID:27799812

  3. Incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Osaka, Japan, 1973-2001.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2010-03-01

    Mortality for childhood cancer has declined in Osaka, as well as all over Japan, since the 1970s, but whether this decline can be explained by trends of incidence or survival of childhood cancer has not been examined. A total of 5960 malignant tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2001 in children <15 years of age were registered at the Osaka Cancer Registry in Japan. The time trends for childhood cancer were analyzed over 29 years for incidence and 20 years for survival. Leukemia was the most common among childhood cancer for both sexes and accounted for one-third of all cases. The age-standardized annual incidence rate of all tumors was highest in 1988-1992: 155.1 per million for males and 135.9 for females. Five-year survival for all tumors improved from 50.1% in 1978-1982 to 73.0% in 1993-1997 for males and from 52.3% to 76.3% for females. Thus, the constant decline in mortality in childhood cancer was primarily due to improved survival between the 1970s and 1980s and reduced incidence after the 1990s.

  4. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  5. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  6. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism, Osaka, Japan, 15 19 August 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Zenji; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu; Kawamura, H.

    2007-04-01

    The Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2006 (HFM 2006) conference took place on 15-19 August 2006 at the Icho Kaikan of Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. This conference was the third one of the series, following the first one in Waterloo, Canada (HFM 2000) [1] and the second one in Grenoble, France (HFM 2003) [2]. The HFM 2006 conference was held as a satellite of the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2006) held on 20-25 August 2006 in Kyoto, Japan. The conference attracted 191 participants from all over the world. The number of participants of the HFM conference series has been increasing steadily, from about 80 participants for HFM 2000 and about 120 participants for HFM 2003, demonstrating that highly frustrated magnetism is a rapidly growing area for research in condensed matter physics. The HFM 2006 conference consisted of four plenary talks by H Takagi, F Mila, P Mendels and B D Gaulin, 18 invited presentations and about 120 poster presentations from all areas of frustrated magnetism. In the evening on the 18th of August, a special session about 'the kagome story' was given by M. Mekata, where participants learned about the history of early-day research on frustrated magnetism and the origin of the word 'kagome' (see the picture below). Kagome lattice in a traditional Japanese woven basket Kagome lattice from a Japanese traditional woven bamboo basket. During the conference period, many stimulating discussions were held both inside and outside the conference room. The subjects covered in the conference included: Quantum frustrated magnetism and spin liquids Novel ordering of geometrically frustrated magnets Itinerant frustrated systems and novel superconductivity Spin glasses and random magnets Frustration effect on the coupling to lattice, orbital and charge degrees of freedom Exotic phenomena induced by macroscopic degeneracy Field effect on frustrated magnetism etc. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is devoted to the proceedings

  7. Volcanic? Non-Volcanic? Low-Frequency Earthquakes beneath Osaka Bay - Event Search from Continuous Records -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ide, S.

    2010-12-01

    Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) and tremors are observed in Nankai subduction zone, Japan. They are recognized to occur upon the subducting Philippine Sea plate. On the other hand, LEFs apart from plate boundary surface are also known (e.g. Ohmi and Obara, 2002). Most of them are distributed around volcanoes with some exceptions. Ones of the exceptions are LEFs occurring beneath Osaka Bay area between Kinki and Shikoku regions. These LFEs occur near the extension of tremor belt in Shikoku, and they are also close to the tear of Philippine Sea plate between Kinki and Shikoku regions (Ide et al., GRL in press). In addition, the epicenters of these LFEs are aligned toward north-northwest, the direction of the tear, and its extended line passes through the epicenter of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. These facts suggest the hidden relations between LFEs, the subducting slab, and major inland earthquakes. The waveforms of the LFEs beneath Osaka Bay often have distinct spectral peak around 2Hz, unlike LFEs in subduction zones. This feature is common to some volcanic tremors. It is also suggested that mantle-derived water is blowing off along the wake of the slab tear, and some fluid likely exists beneath Osaka Bay. The LFEs have been detected by routine analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). These are small portion of overall activities, because the routine analysis is not optimized to detect small low frequency events in noisy data. To figure out whole activities of LFEs, we apply Matched Filter Analysis (Gibbons and Ringdal, 2006; Shelly et al., 2007) to continuous waveform records, using LFEs detected by JMA as template events. We used the 69 components in the 23 stations in Hi-net, maintained by the National Reserch Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. The waveforms are bandpass filtered between 2 and 8Hz. We calculated the cross-correlations of template LFEs and continuous records with 8s time window. An LFE is detected when the cross

  8. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Uehara, Shinichiro; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Endo, Ginji; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents. PMID:26902168

  9. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  10. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    PubMed

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  11. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  12. Pulse radiolysis system of OPU-LINAC in RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Hara, Masayuki; Fujita, Shin'ichi

    2004-09-01

    Micro- to milli-second pulse radiolysis apparatus using short electron pulse form 18 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) is in-service at the Research institute for advanced science and technology (RIAST), Osaka Prefecture University. This apparatus is an effective tool, not only for investigation of primary process on radiation chemistry, but also for research of electron transfer mechanism playing an important role in chemistry and bioscience. This apparatus is composed of an 18 MeV electron linear accelerator (electron pulse duration: about 4 μs) and a transient light absorption measurement system. We introduce the outline of this system, transient absorption spectrum of thiocyanate aqueous solution as an example of measured data and future plan.

  13. [Differences in influenza epidemics in Osaka City--epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Shibe, K; Minoshiro, S

    1994-05-01

    Influenza viruses in outpatients with influenza symptoms in Osaka City were analyzed in an epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease between 1989 and 1993. During influenza epidemics a mixed prevalence of several types of influenza viruses existed. Three types of influenza viruses, AH1, AH3 and B, were isolated during the 1990/1991 season. Remarkably the three types of viruses were discovered in samplings collected on the same day and within a narrow area inside a radius of 800-1,000m from the surveyed hospitals. Different types of viruses were detected between brothers and among school children from same housing complexes. Influenza AH3 viruses detected in 1992/1993 season differed in antigenicity from those detected in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons. Therefore it appears that mutation of the AH3 virus contributed to the large-scale influenza epidemic which occurred in the 1992/1993 season.

  14. Effect of surrounding fault on distributed fault of blind reverse fault in sedimentary basin - Uemachi Faults, Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.

    2012-12-01

    Several large cities and metropolitan areas, such as Osaka and Kobe are located in the Osaka basin, which has been filled by the Pleistocene Osaka group and the later sediments. The basin is surrounded by E-W trending strike slip faults and N-S trending reverse faults. The N-S trending 42-km-long Uemachi faults traverse in the central part of the Osaka city. The various geological, geophysical surveys, such as seismic reflection, micro tremor, gravity surveys and deep boreholes, revealed the complex basement configuration along the Uemachi faults. The depth of the basement is shallow in the central part of the Osaka plain. The Uemachi faults are locates on the western side of the basement upland. In the central part of the Uemachi faults, the displacement decreases. The fault model of the Uemachi faults consists of the two parts, the north and south parts. The NE-SW trending branch faults, Suminoe and Sakuragawa flexures, are also recognized based on various surveys around the central part. Kusumoto et al. (2001) reported that surrounding faults enable to form the basement configuration without the Uemachi faults model based on a dislocation model. Inoue et al. (2011) performed various parameter studies for dislocation model and gravity changes based on simplified faults model, which were designed based on the distribution of the real faults. The model was consisted of 7 faults including the Uemachi faults. In this study, the Osaka-wan fault was considered for the dislocation model. The results show the basement configuration including NE-SW branch faults. The basement configuration differs from the subsurface structure derived from the investigation of abundance geotechnical borehole data around the central part of the Uemachi faults. The tectonic developing process including the erosion and sea level change are require to understanding the structure from the basement to the surface of the Uemachi Fault Zone. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive

  15. Research and Development of the Pulsed Plasma Rocket Engine System onboard Osaka Institute of Technology Micro Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Naka, Masamichi; Takagi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke

    The Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology in 2007. In PROITERES, a micro satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) will be launched in 2010. The main mission is the first powered flight of micro satellite by electric thruster all over the world. This study aims at improvement in performance by changing configuration of PPTs. The total impulse of about 5 Ns was achieved with a teflon cylindrical discharge chamber 9.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in diameter in 53,000-shot operation with 2.43 J/shot. Finally, the engineering model of PPT system was developed, and it is under operation as final test.

  16. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the ``late time ablation'' for electrothermal PPTs.

  17. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-31

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the 'late time ablation' for electrothermal PPTs.

  18. Analysis of colors used on outdoor advertising in urban landscape: a case study in Osaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Mika; Fujibayashi, Kazumi; Shimonaka, Tomomi; Sato, Masako; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2002-06-01

    This is a case study for practical survey and assessment of urban landscapes containing outdoor advertisements in Osaka City, Japan. We practically surveyed and analyzed the colors used on the outdoor advertisements in the three urban areas: the business area long the main street, the amusement area along the shopping street, and the station plaza in front of the railroad terminal. Further by the laboratory experiments, we examined the interrelation between the atmosphere of the area and the impression arising from the outdoor advertisements using the pictures of street scenes on video monitor. In this experiment, eye movements of each subject observing the scene were analyzed by eye point recorder. (1) In general, vivid red, yellow, green and blue, and white and black were frequently used on the outdoor advertisements in every area. (2) The character of each area was respectively found out by analysis of the following factors: the type of advertisement, the size of each advertisement, and the arrangement of the advertisements. Vivid colors on the outdoor advertisements could be clearly perceived even from a distance. Then, our eyes would be attracted by vivid colors of them. (4) The atmosphere of the area would be affected by favorable or unfavorable impression from the outdoor advertisements. For instance, on the main street, the advertisements would impress us favorably if they are in harmony with each other and create an orderly and elegant streetscape. On the shopping street, various advertisements would impress us favorably if they create a lively and cheerful streetscape.

  19. Epidemics of GI.2 sapovirus in gastroenteritis outbreaks during 2012-2013 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Abe, Niichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Oka, Tomoichiro; Kaida, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans in both sporadic cases and outbreaks. During the period from January 2005 to August 2014, SaV was detected in 30 (5.9%) of 510 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Osaka City, Japan using real-time RT-PCR. Seasonal distribution of SaV-associated outbreaks revealed an increase during the 2011-2012 season and the highest frequency of outbreaks during the 2012-2013 season. Genotyping analysis based on the capsid region demonstrated that the most common genotype was GI.2 (36.7%), in which the strains were closely related. The comparison of complete capsid gene sequences with 18 GI.2 strains (7 strains in this study and 11 from GenBank) between 1990 and 2013 showed that GI.2 strains were classified into at least three genetic clusters (1990-2000, 2004-2007, and 2008-2013) with chronologically unique amino acid residues and accumulation of mutations in the predicted P domain, suggesting the one of the causes of emergence and spread of GI.2 strains. This study will also be helpful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of the SaV genome.

  20. Modelling of wave propagation and attenuation in the Osaka sedimentary basin, western Japan, during the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.

  1. Screening for hereditary angioedema (HAE) at 13 emergency centers in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tomoya; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Kishi, Masashi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Shiono, Shigeru; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Fuke, Akihiro; Akimoto, Hiroshi; Kimura, Takaaki; Kaga, Shinichiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The objective is to study the incidence of HAE among patients who visit the emergency department. This was a 3-year prospective observational screening study involving 13 urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka prefecture, Japan. Patients were included if they met the following criteria: unexplained edema of the body, upper airway obstruction accompanied by edema, anaphylaxis, acute abdomen with intestinal edema (including ileus and acute pancreatitis), or asthma attack. C1-INH activity and C4 level were measured at the time of emergency department admission during the period between July 2011 and June 2014. This study comprised 66 patients with a median age of 54.0 (IQR: 37.5–68.3) years. Three patients were newly diagnosed as having HAE, and 1 patient had already been diagnosed as having HAE. C1-INH activity levels of the patients with HAE were below the detection limit (<25%), whereas those of non-HAE patients (n = 62) were 106% (IQR: 85.5%–127.0%) (normal range, 70%–130%). The median level of C4 was significantly lower in the patients with HAE compared with those without HAE (1.2 [IQR: 1–3] mg/dL vs 22 [IQR: 16.5–29.5] mg/dL, P < 0.01) (normal range, 17–45 mg/dL). Three patients with undiagnosed HAE were diagnosed as having HAE in the emergency department during the 3-year period. If patients have signs and symptoms suspicious of HAE, the levels of C1-INH activity and C4 should be measured. PMID:28178173

  2. Increase of GII.2 norovirus infections during the 2009-2010 season in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kaida, Atsushi; Abe, Niichiro; Sekiguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Goto, Kaoru; Ogura, Hisashi; Seto, Yoshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    During the 2009-2010 season, a significant numerical increase of genotype GII.2 norovirus (NoV)-associated outbreaks was observed in Osaka City, Japan. The most common genotype in that season was GII.2 (44.6%), followed by GII.4 (39.2%). Mostly, GII.2 strains were associated with outbreaks in children and with person-to-person contact. The National Infectious Disease Surveillance Center reported that GII.2 NoV infections were widespread in Japan in that season. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid sequences revealed that this GII.2 epidemic resulted from two genetic strains. The first, GII.2p2 strains, had an identical genotype in the RdRp and capsid genes. GII.2p2 strains in the 2009-2010 season were a different genetic cluster from the strains of spring 2004, the previous epidemic of GII.2 NoV, but showed no unique amino acid change. The second, GII.2 chimera virus (GII.2p16), had GII.16 RdRp and GII.2 capsid genotypes, suggesting prior recombination at the junction of ORF1 and ORF2. GII.2p16 strains had four significant amino acid changes in the P2 subdomain, suggesting antigenic changes. Before the 2009-2010 season, GII.2 chimera viruses had been observed only sporadically. This spreading of GII.2p16 strains in the 2009-2010 season might be the first epidemic of GII.2 chimera virus. This study revealed that the NoV epidemic in the 2009-2010 season differed considerably from the prior season, when GII.4 was predominant. Furthermore, GII.2 strains persisted in human populations by drastic recombination and gradual accumulation of mutations, indicating a prevalent pattern of non-GII.4 genotypes with genetic evolution.

  3. Modeling of Wave Propagation in the Osaka Sedimentary Basin during the 2013 Awaji Island Earthquake (Mw5.8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Sekiguchi, H.; Iwata, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Hayashida, T.; Saomoto, H.; Horikawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The three-dimensional velocity structure model for the Osaka sedimentary basin, southwest Japan is developed and improved based on many kinds of geophysical explorations for decades (e.g., Kagawa et al., 1993; Horikawa et al., 2003; Iwata et al., 2008). Recently, our project (Sekiguchi et al., 2013) developed a new three-dimensional velocity model for strong motion prediction of the Uemachi fault earthquake in the Osaka basin considering both geophysical and geological information by adding newly obtained exploration data such as reflection surveys, microtremor surveys, and receiver function analysis (hereafter we call UMC2013 model) . On April 13, 2013, an inland earthquake of Mw5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which is close to the southwestern boundary of the aftershock area of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The strong ground motions are densely observed at more than 100 stations in the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than four minutes in the Osaka urban area where its bedrock depth is about 1-2 km. This long-duration ground motions are mainly due to the surface waves excited in this sedimentary basin whereas the magnitude of this earthquake is moderate and the rupture duration is expected to be less than 5 s. In this study, we modeled long-period (more than 2s) ground motions during this earthquake to check the performance of the present UMC2013 model and to obtain a better constraint on the attenuation factor of sedimentary part of the basin. The seismic wave propagation in the region including the source and the Osaka basin is modeled by the finite difference method using the staggered grid solving the elasto-dynamic equations. The domain of 90km×85km×25.5km is modeled and discretized with a grid spacing of 50 m. Since the minimum S-wave velocity of the UMC2013 model is about 250 m/s, this calculation is valid up to the period of about 1 s. The effect of attenuation is included in the form of Q(f)=Q0(T0/T) proposed by Graves (1996). A PML is implemented in

  4. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University--Neutron flux measurement with gold foil.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, S; Sakai, M; Yoshihashi, S; Manabe, M; Zushi, N; Murata, I; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S; Nagasaki, M; Horiike, H

    2015-12-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error.

  5. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  6. The effect of long-term spatiotemporal variations in urbanization-induced eutrophication on a benthic ecosystem, Osaka Bay, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yamazaki, Hideo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Hirose, K.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed spatiotemporal patterns of the influence of urbanization-induced eutrophication on a metazoan benthic community in Osaka Bay were determined using sediment cores and fossil ostracode assemblages from the last 200 yr. Results suggest that total abundance of ostracodes increased in the middle part of the bay as a result of the increase of food supply by eutrophication. Conversely, abundance decreased in the inner bay, likely because of bottom-water hypoxia by eutrophication. The variation in species composition among sites within the bay may have decreased because of the effect of eutrophication, i.e., the dominance of species that prefer food-rich environments throughout all sites. These eutrophication-induced changes occurred around 1900 as a result of Japan's industrial revolution and around 1960 as a result of rapid urbanization, depending upon location. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  7. [A Survey of School Lunch Provision for Elementary School Students with Food Allergy in Seven Cities of Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Kyohei; Takemoto, Akiko; Okajima, Saori; Morino, Shizuka; Kakoi, Satoru; Sakuma, Junko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with food allergy is currently increasing. Moreover, the unintentional mixing or accidental ingestion of allergy-causing food materials in school lunches has attracted great attention. The aim of this study was to verify the current status of elementary school lunch provision for students with food allergy. We investigated the elementary school lunch services in seven cities in Osaka prefecture. The egg elimination diet was provided in five of the seven cities. In four of these five cities, we did not detect the presence of egg residue either on the surface of various cookware used to prepare the egg elimination diet or in the food itself. In this investigation, the egg elimination diet was provided properly, but we observed differences among the cities in the manual preparation of foods for food allergy diets. To step up these efforts, our results suggest the necessity of preparing a manual to consider individual conditions of school lunch services.

  8. Genotyping of Norovirus strains detected in outbreaks between April 2002 and March 2003 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yoshiyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Kaida, Atsushi; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Nishio, Osamu; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are the major cause of food- and waterborne nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Japan. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a total of 111 fecal specimens from 40 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan were subject to NV detection. Seventy-two samples (64.9%) from 31 outbreaks (77.5%) were NV positive by a real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. To further determine the genotype of individual NV strains, we sequenced the capsid N-terminal/shell (N/S) domain of some representative strains from each outbreak. The 51 NV strains detected in this study were segregated into 15 genotypes (6 in genogroup I and 9 in genogroup II), and GII/5 genotype NV was a dominant outbreak genotype.

  9. Tissue procurement system in Japan: the role of a tissue bank in medical center for translational research, Osaka University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, H; Fukushima, N; Kitagawa, T; Ito, T; Masutani, Y; Sawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    Although organ procurement has been regulated by The Organ Transplantation Law (brain-dead donors since 1997, donors after cardiac death since 1979), there has been no law or governmental procurement network (except for cornea) in Japan. Since the late 1980s, some university hospitals have developed original banks. Finally, in 2001 guidelines for tissue procurement were established by The Japanese Society of Tissue Transplantation and Japan Tissue Transplant Network (JTTN) to coordinate tissue harvesting. Five tissue banks were joined to the tissue transplant network (skin in one, heart valves in two, and bone in two). As the number of tissue banks is small, each bank cooperates on procurement, but cannot cover the entire country. With regard to skin transplantation, only one skin bank-The Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), which is located in Tokyo-has organized skin procurement. Therefore, it has been difficult to procure skin in areas distant from Tokyo, especially around Osaka. In order to improve such a situation, a tissue bank collaborating with the JSBN was established at The Medical Center for Translational Research (MTR), Osaka University Hospital in April 2008. The bank has played a role in skin procurement center in western Japan and supported procurement and preservation at the time of the skin procurement. Between April 2008 and September 2009, the bank participated in eight tissue procurements in the western area. In the future, the bank is planning to procure and preserve pancreatic islets and bones. Moreover, there is a plan to set up an induced pluripotent stem cells center and stem cell bank in MTR. This tissue bank may play a role to increase tissue procurement in Japan, especially in the western area.

  10. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  11. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-23

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  12. The prevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a suburb of Osaka city--based on reports on the temporary closing of classes.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    An outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred in May 2009 in Osaka and Kobe, Japan. We studied the prevalence of this strain of influenza in Yao City. According to the study, the frequency of temporary class closure did not vary significantly among the first to sixth grades of elementary schools; however, there was a markedly lower frequency of temporary closures among junior high school third-year classes.

  13. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  14. Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

  15. Vertical differences in the composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Osaka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kansuke; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    Vertical differences in PM 10 and PM 2.5 suspended particles were investigated using a building in Osaka, Japan. Samples were collected on the roof of the building (200 m above ground level) and on the ground during 5-9 August and 2-6 December 2002. In addition to determination of sample mass, concentrations have been analyzed for major chemical components including elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Particle mass concentrations of the samples collected at 200 m were lower than those collected on the ground. "Others" species, defined as the difference between the total particle mass and the sum of the masses of the measured species, dominantly accounted for the vertical difference in mass concentrations in summer, whereas EC and OC were the major contributors in winter. Vertical profiles of relative humidity observed simultaneously indicated that relative humidity on the ground was higher than that at 200 m during the summer sampling period. Hence, it is likely that the higher concentrations of "others" species in the samples collected on the ground were probably caused by water having been absorbed by deliquescent components of the particles. Vertical temperature profiles during the winter sampling period suggested that stable meteorological conditions in winter resulted in the accumulation of primary particles, mainly emitted from vehicle exhaust, leading to the high concentrations of EC and OC on the ground.

  16. Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Terao, Tomoko; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2012-08-01

    An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study.

  17. Impact of eutrophication on shallow marine benthic foraminifers over the last 150 years in Osaka Bay, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsujimoto, Akira; Nomura, Ritsuo; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yamazaki, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution foraminiferal analysis was conducted on a short sediment core from the inner part of Osaka Bay, Japan. Changes in foraminiferal assemblages were associated with eutrophication, bottom water hypoxia, and changes in red tide-causing algae. Before the 1920s, the calcareous species Ammonia beccarii, and the agglutinated species Eggerella advena and Trochammina hadai were rare, but calcareous foraminifers in general were abundant. Between the 1920s and 1940s, calcareous foraminifers decreased abruptly in abundance, while A. beccarii, E. advena and T. hadai increased in abundance. This faunal change corresponded in time to an increase in nutrients flowing in through the Yodo River, and bottom water hypoxia related to eutrophication. In the 1960s and 1970s, A. beccarii, E. advena and T. hadai further increased in abundance to become dominant, and many calcareous foraminifers nearly disappeared, corresponding to increasing bottom water hypoxia related to the rapid increase in discharged nutrients during the high economic growth period from 1953 to 1971. After the 1990s, A. beccarii decreased rapidly in abundance and E. advena and Uvigerinella glabra increased in abundance. The main components of red tide-causing algae changed from dinoflagellates to diatoms in the 1980s through 1990s, thus there was a change in the food supply to the benthos, which may have caused the increase in abundance of E. advena and U. glabra.

  18. Spinal fractures resulting from the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake of the Kobe-Osaka area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Maruo, S; Matumoto, M

    1996-07-01

    One of the worst earthquakes hit the Hanshin area between Kobe and Osaka, in the early morning at 5:46 AM on January 17th 1995. The destructive force with MG 7.2 severely damaged buildings, houses, roads and railways, leaving 6500 dead, and 34,900 injured. Hyogo College of Medicine located in this area was also severely damaged, thus there was a major challenge to provide post-quake medical support. A post-quake investigation in this area was done by 50 affiliated hospitals. More than 15,000 victim-patients were treated at these hospitals during the first 3 days after the quake. Major injuries were spinal fractures, and other trunk fractures, including rib or pelvis fractures, but fractures of long bones were uncommon, because the quake hit this area in the early morning when most people were asleep. In this study, the mechanisms of these major injuries were analysed by direct interview soon after the quake, with 230 victim-patients who had 140 spinal fractures, and 100 with rib or pelvis fractures. Most of those who had a spinal fracture had either sat up or stood up on their 'Futon' mattresses without bed frames and were struck on their backs by falling furniture or ceilings. On the other hand, patients who had fractures of the ribs or the pelvis had been lying in the supine or lateral position and were hit on their chest or pelvis. This characteristic lifestyle pattern of the Japanese people to lie down on the floor directly beside furniture, resulted in these injuries. From these results, we will emphasize the following precautions:- If an earthquake occurs during sleeping hours at home, do not stand up or sit up. The best position is to crouch on the 'Futon' mattress.

  19. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied. PMID:27150013

  20. Regional distribution of PM2.5 over a megacity Osaka in Japan derived from satellite, AERONET and/or LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Holben, B.; Sugimoto, N.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of particulate matter near the surface is very important for the Earth environment, especially for human health and atmospheric environment. In Japan, concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is similar to PM10 but sharply cutting at 10 µm for the particle diameter, has been monitored since 1975 and is still now widely available for a daily monitoring. New PM2.5 rule was defined in 1997 in the United States, however the standard rule for PM2.5 monitoring has net yet made in Japan until 2009. As a result, the number of PM2.5 instruments is very limited in Japan. In practice the PM2.5 samplers are only used for scientific objects. Therefore estimation of PM2.5 over the wide area as possible as in Japan is an urgent issue. Anthropogenic small particles dominate the air especially over the urban areas because of local emissions by diesel vehicles and industries. The distribution of these particles is complicated due to the increasing emissions of sulfuric, nitric, carbonaceous and other aerosols in association with economic growth in East Asia. The goal of this work is to estimate PM2.5 distribution over the second big city Osaka in Japan based on satellite measurements. A brief processing line of PM2.5 estimation is as follows: 1. Acquirement of surface reflectance based on satellite data to retrieve aerosol characteristics. 2. Retrieval of columnar aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Osaka from the fine resolved satellite image. 3. Vertical profile of aerosol concentration with NIES-LIDAR measurements. 4. Surface level aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from columnar AOT and LIDAR dataset. 5. Estimation of PM2.5 based on the relationship between AOT, surface AOD, LIDAR and in-situ PM2.5 dataset simultaneously accumulated at AERONET/Osaka site since 2008. Note that, collocated data set of in situ PM2.5, AERONET AOT, and NIES-LIDAR data are available at Kinki University's AERONET site as mentioned in the above item 5. It is of interest

  1. Incidence and outcomes of emergency self-harm among adolescents: a descriptive epidemiological study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hayashida, Sumito; Nitta, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku; Ohta, Bon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of self-harm from ambulance records. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 365 adolescents aged 10–19 years with emergency self-harm such as poisoning by drugs or gas, cutting skin, jumping from heights, hanging and drowning and treated by emergency medical service personnel from January 2010 through December 2012. Primary outcome measurements Incidence per 100 000 persons and outcome at the scene or hospital arrival by age and gender. Poisson regression models for incidence evaluation were used; reporting relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs. Results During the study period, a total of 425 self-harm events were documented in 365 adolescents. The incidence of self-harm increased significantly between the ages of 11 and 19 years, from 6.3 to 81.0 among boys and the ages of 12 and 19 years from 6.3 to 228.3 among girls, respectively (both p<0.001). Although there was no incidence difference between girls and boys in the group aged 11–14 years (RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.59 to 2.47), the incidence was significantly higher among girls than boys in the group aged 15–19 years (RR 4.18; 95% CI 3.20 to 5.45). The overall proportion of death by self-harm was 4.9%. The proportion of hospital admission and death by self-harm was higher among boys than among girls (38.6% vs 25.2%, p=0.016 and 14.8% vs 2.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of emergency treatment for self-harm by adolescents increased with age and our findings also demonstrated the gender paradox. It would be necessary to establish active, gender-specific and comprehensive prevention strategies for adolescent self-harm, based on our findings showing the age and gender differences of self-harm among adolescents. PMID:27381208

  2. Measurement of characteristics of an infrared free-electron laser with the L-band at Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, S.; Ishida, S.; Honda, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Free-electron laser (FEL) experiments have been conducted with the 38-MeV L-band electron linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. It is a 1.3 GHz RF linac with a thermoionic gun, and equipped with two 12th and one 6th sub-harmonic prebunchers for producing the high-intensity single-bunch beam with a charge up to 67 nC/bunch. For oscillation experiments of FEL, the gun is replaced with that with a smaller cathode area in order to reduce the emittance of the beam. The normalized emittance has been measured to be 200 {pi} mm-mrad. The linac is operated in the long-pulse mode and one of the 12th sub-harmonic bunchers and the 6th sub-harmonic buncher are operated, so that the time duration of the macropulse is 4 {mu}s and the spacing between micropulses is 9.2 ns. The length of the micropulse is 30-40 ps and the charge in each micropulse is 2 nC. The electron beam from the linac is transported to a wiggler which has the period length of 6 cm and the number of periods of 32. The first half of the macropulse is lost in the transport line because the energy of electrons in that part gradually changes and there is a momentum slit in the transport line. An optical resonator is 5.53 m long and the round-trip time of light in it is 37 ns, which is precisely four times as long as the spacing of micropulses. Since the time duration of the macropulse passing through the wiggler is 1.8 {mu}s, the number of amplifications of light in the cavity is 49. The first lasing was achieved in 1994 at wavelengths between 32 and 40 {mu}m and preliminary results were reported at the l6th FEL Conference last year. The laser light was detected with a Ge:Be detector which has the time resolution of 3 {mu}s. Since the time duration of the macropulse of the laser fight is estimated to be less than 2 {mu}s, we could measure only the total energy in a macropulse of the output light.

  3. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka.

  4. Estimated Dietary Intake of Radionuclides and Health Risks for the Citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2–3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 2.3–39×10−6 (Case 1) and 10–98×10−6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.95–14×10−6 in Tokyo, and 0.11–1.3×10−6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 7.5%–12% of all exposure (Case 1) and 12%–30% (Case 2) in Fukushima City. PMID:25390339

  5. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1) and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1) and 11%-25% (Case 2) in Fukushima City [corrected].

  6. Episodic trihalomethane species and levels in tap water at a start of operation of advanced treatment in Osaka Prefectural water supplies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Mori, Yoshiaki

    2009-11-01

    Dramatic changes in trihalomethanes of tap water caused by decreasing the chlorine dose from to break-point to zero at a pre-chlorination could be found during several years from starting the advanced treatment in Osaka Prefectural water utilities (from 1998 to 2002). In 1998 (break-point chlorination), chloroform was predominant (an average of 14.3 microg/L) and bromodichloromethane (5.96 microg/L), dibromochloromethane (4.19 microg/L) and bromoform (1.06 microg/L) were in the decreasing order. In contrast, in 1999 (chloramination), dibromochloromethane and bromodichloromethane were abundant trihalomethanes (6.61 and 5.72 microg/L) and followed by chloroform (4.14 microg/L) and bromoform (1.41 microg/L). Trihalomethane distribution in 2002 (non-chlorination) was almost the same as that in 1999.

  7. Factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service personnel: a population-based study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and prehospital demographic factors and reasons for EMS calls. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 100 649 patients transported to medical institutions by EMS from January 2013 to December 2013. Primary outcome measurements The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene was EMS personnel making ≥5 phone calls to medical institutions until a decision to transport was determined. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the relationship between difficulty in hospital acceptance and prehospital factors and reasons for EMS calls. Results Multivariable analysis showed the elderly, foreigners, loss of consciousness, holiday/weekend, and night-time to be positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. As reasons for EMS calls, gas poisoning (adjusted OR 3.281, 95% CI 1.201 to 8.965), trauma by assault (adjusted OR 2.662, 95% CI 2.390 to 2.966), self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning (adjusted OR 4.527, 95% CI 3.921 to 5.228) and self-induced trauma (adjusted OR 1.708, 95% CI 1.369 to 2.130) were positively associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. Conclusions Ambulance records in Osaka City showed that certain prehospital factors such as night-time were positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene, and reasons for EMS calls, such as self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning, were also positive predictors for difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. PMID:27798040

  8. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  9. Comparison of Air Pollution in Metropolises in China (Beijing) and Japan (Osaka and Nagoya) on the Basis of the Levels of Contaminants and Mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Furukawa, Nami; Ono, Ryo; Hasei, Tomohiro; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Public concern regarding the transport of air pollutants from mainland East Asia to the leeward area by the prevailing westerlies in spring and winter monsoon has been growing in recent years. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) in Beijing, a metropolis of China located windward of Japan, in spring (late February 2011-May 2011) and in winter (November 2012-early February 2013), then analyzed metals, ions, and organic compounds and mutagenicity, and compared the pollution levels with samples collected at two Japanese metropolises (Osaka and Nagoya) during the same periods. The medians of concentration of TSP and other factors in Beijing were much larger than those in the Japanese metropolises. Especially, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were remarkably high in Beijing in winter, and the median of total PAHs concentration in Beijing was 62-63 times larger than that in the Japanese sites. The mutagenicity of TSP from Beijing toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024, with and without a mammalian metabolic system (S9 mix), was 13-25 times higher than that from the Japanese sites in winter. These results suggest that air pollution levels in Beijing are very high compared with those at the two Japanese metropolises we evaluated. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) suggest that the major sources of PAHs and NPAHs in Beijing are different from those at the two Japanese sites in winter, and that the major source in Beijing is coal/biomass combustion.

  10. Future projections of labor hours based on WBGT for Tokyo and Osaka, Japan, using multi-period ensemble dynamical downscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki-Parker, Asuka; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Following the heatstroke prevention guideline by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, "safe hours" for heavy and light labor are estimated based on hourly wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) obtained from the three-member ensemble multi-period (the 2000s, 2030s, 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s) climate projections using dynamical downscaling approach. Our target cities are Tokyo and Osaka, Japan. The results show that most of the current climate daytime hours are "light labor safe,", but these hours are projected to decrease by 30-40 % by the end of the twenty-first century. A 60-80 % reduction is projected for heavy labor hours, resulting in less than 2 hours available for safe performance of heavy labor. The number of "heavy labor restricted days" (days with minimum daytime WBGT exceeding the safe level threshold for heavy labor) is projected to increase from ~5 days in the 2000s to nearly two-thirds of the days in August in the 2090s.

  11. Trends in 'cure' fraction from colorectal cancer by age and tumour stage between 1975 and 2000, using population-based data, Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; Rachet, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1960s, Japan has experienced a striking increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer, now the second most common cancer in the country. Meanwhile, the management of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically with the implementation of, for example, screening, endoscopy and adjuvant chemotherapy. It is therefore of interest to monitor the long-term trends in population 'cure' in Japan. We analysed 33 885 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2000 in Osaka. We applied the multivariable mixture cure model to estimate cure fraction and median survival time (MST) for 'uncured' patients, by sex, age, stage, period at diagnosis and subsite. For colon cancer, the cure fraction increased by about 25%, while MST for the uncured was prolonged from 8 to 12 months. The cure fraction was 5% higher in men than in women, while MST was similar in both. The cure fraction also increased for localized and regional tumours. For rectal cancer, the cure fraction increased by about 25-30%, but remained lower than for colon cancer. From the late 1970s, the cure fraction for colorectal cancer increased dramatically due to better management of detection and care for colorectal cancer. This improvement was obtained at the cost of shorter MST for uncured patients.

  12. Possible Linkage between Geomagnetic Field, Temperature and Monsoon: Implication of High-Resolution Magnetic and Climatic Data from a Sediment Core in Osaka Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaba, I.; Hyodo, M.; Katoh, S.; Dettman, D. L.; Sato, H.

    2013-12-01

    Observed correlation between galactic cosmic ray (CR) flux and cloud cover suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. Kitaba et al. (2013) reported a pollen-based climate cooling that coincided with a large decrease in field intensity during the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo geomagnetic polarity reversals using a sediment core from Osaka Bay, Japan. The cooling event is not attributed to orbital forcing, but to the geomagnetic field intensity variation through modulation of CR flux. If the geomagnetic field intensity disturbs global heat balance, it may further affect monsoon and/or precipitation. Our pollen-based climate data show that during the cooling the difference in mean temperature between the warmest and coldest months (indicator of land-ocean temperature gradient) increased, and the summer precipitation (indicator of summer monsoon intensity) decreased. Assuming a simple model that the monsoon is driven by the land-ocean temperature gradient, the cooling effect would be larger over the land than the sea.

  13. Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as and for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0°C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

  14. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  15. Residential proximity to main roads during pregnancy and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese infants: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Mitani, Yasuhiro; Ikemi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2010-02-01

    The role of traffic-related air pollution in the initiation of allergic disorders in children is still not clearly understood. The present prospective study examined the relation between proximity of the home during pregnancy to the nearest main road, which was used as a surrogate for traffic-related air pollutants, and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese infants in an urban area. Subjects were 756 mother-child pairs. Distance of each subject's home during pregnancy from the center line of all of the 235 main roads in Osaka Prefecture was computed using geographical information system software. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months post-partum collected information on potential confounding factors. In the third survey, which was from 16 to 24 months post-partum, a self-administered questionnaire included questions on allergic disorders. In the third survey, 22.1% and 18.7% of infants became positive for wheeze and atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), respectively. The risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma and doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema was 4.4% and 8.9%, respectively. A shorter distance of the residence during pregnancy from the nearest main road was associated with an increased risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema (adjusted odds ratios for comparison of <50 m with 200 m or more = 4.01 and 2.26, 95% confidence intervals: 1.44-11.24 and 1.08-4.59, p for trend = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). No evident relationships were observed between the distance of the residence during pregnancy from the nearest main road and the risk of wheeze or atopic eczema based on the ISAAC criteria. It was difficult to distinguish the effect of the pre-natal from the post-natal exposure because most subjects lived at the same home address both before and after childbirth. Our results are likely to support the hypothesis that intrauterine exposure to traffic

  16. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  17. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  18. Analysis of late toxicity associated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer with uniform setting of classical 4-field 70 Gy in 35 fractions: a survey study by the Osaka Urological Tumor Radiotherapy Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Osamu; Nishimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Hitoshi; Hara, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Ken; Imai, Atsushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse late toxicity associated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using uniform dose-fractionation and beam arrangement, with the focus on the effect of 3D (CT) simulation and portal field size. We collected data concerning patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma who had been treated with EBRT at five institutions in Osaka, Japan, between 1998 and 2006. All had been treated with 70 Gy in 35 fractions, using the classical 4-field technique with gantry angles of 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Late toxicity was evaluated strictly in terms of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. In total, 362 patients were analysed, with a median follow-up of 4.5 years (range 1.0–11.6). The 5-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 96%, respectively. The mean ± SD portal field size in the right–left, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior directions was, respectively, 10.8 ± 1.1, 10.2 ± 1.0 and 8.8 ± 0.9 cm for 2D simulation, and 8.4 ± 1.2, 8.2 ± 1.0 and 7.7 ± 1.0 cm for 3D simulation (P < 0.001). No Grade 4 or 5 late toxicity was observed. The actuarial 5-year Grade 2–3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) late toxicity rates were 6% and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding late rectal bleeding rate was 23% for 2D simulation and 7% for 3D simulation (P < 0.001). With a uniform setting of classical 4-field 70 Gy/35 fractions, the use of CT simulation and the resultant reduction in portal field size were significantly associated with reduced late GI toxicity, especially with less rectal bleeding. PMID:22988284

  19. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental allergic history may affect the risk.

  20. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  1. Development of an electrohydraulic total artificial heart at the National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Choi, W W; Toda, K; Ohno, T; Baba, Y; Nakatani, T; Takano, H; Uyama, C

    1995-01-01

    The authors have been developing an electrohydraulic total artificial heart with a basic concept placing the blood pumps and an electrohydraulic energy converter separately, in the thorax and the abdominal region, respectively, to minimize anatomic constraints. Major problems of the system were a high energy consumption of 56 W at 6 L/min output and an insufficient maximum output of 6.7 L/min. The energy converter was redesigned to overcome these problems. A three phase, 4 pole brushless DC motor, which has maximum efficiency of 79% at a motor rotation of 2500 rpm with a load of 0.1 Nm, was developed for the new energy converter. Flow-channel design of the regenerative oil pump was optimized, which resulted in increasing the maximum flow rate at one directional motor rotation from 18 to 29 L/min. In vitro performance of the electrohydraulic total artificial heart was evaluated in a mock circulation with physiologic pressure conditions. Maximum output was increased to 10.7 L/min at a pump rate of 120 bpm and energy consumption of the motor at 6 L/min output was reduced to 18 W. Based upon these favorable results, the system is now being assembled for chronic animal implantation.

  2. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Waygood, E. Owen D.; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  3. Maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Kitada, Mitsuyoshi; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Ishiko, Osamu; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nishio, Junko; Yamamasu, Seiichi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Kawai, Seigo; Yanagihara, Kazumi; Wakuda, Koji; Kawashima, Tokio; Narimoto, Katsuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiko; Orino, Katsuhiko; Tsunetoh, Itsuo; Yoshida, Junichi; Iito, Junichi; Kaneko, Takuzi; Kamiya, Takao; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Takemura, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Oda, Hajime; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2012-05-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is an important determinant of fetal growth. Although the effects of several nutrients and foods have been well examined, little is known about the relationship of overall maternal diet in pregnancy to fetal growth, particularly in non-Western populations. We prospectively examined the relationship of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy to neonatal anthropometric measurements at birth and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth among 803 Japanese women with live-born, singleton, term deliveries. Maternal diet in pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (g/4184 kJ) were extracted by cluster analysis. The following three dietary patterns were identified: the 'meat and eggs' (n 326), 'wheat products', with a relatively high intake of bread, confectioneries and soft drinks (n 303), and 'rice, fish and vegetables' (n 174) patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had infants with the significantly lowest birth weight (P = 0·045) and head circumference (P = 0·036) among those in the three dietary patterns. Compared with women in the 'rice, fish and vegetables' pattern, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had higher odds of having a SGA infant for weight (multivariate OR 5·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 24·4), but this was not the case for birth length or head circumference. These results suggest that a diet high in bread, confectioneries, and soft drinks and low in fish and vegetables during pregnancy might be associated with a small birth weight and an increased risk of having a SGA infant.

  4. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    Although several nutrients and foods are suggested to be preventive against postpartum depression, all previous studies have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. In contrast, studies on dietary patterns, namely the measurement of overall diet by considering the cumulative effects of nutrient, may provide new insights into the influence of diet on postpartum depression. We prospectively examined the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression among 865 Japanese women. Diet was assessed with a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (energy-adjusted food (g/d)) were extracted by factor analysis. Postpartum depression was defined as present when the subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥ 9 at 2-9 months postpartum. A total of 121 women (14·0 %) were classified as having postpartum depression. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy', 'Western' and 'Japanese' patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither the 'Healthy' nor the 'Japanese' pattern was related to the risk of postpartum depression. Compared with the first quartile of the 'Western' pattern, only the second quartile was independently related to a decreased risk of postpartum depression (multivariate OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·93), although no evident exposure-response associations were observed (P for trend = 0·36). The present study failed to substantiate clear associations between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression. Further studies with more accurate measurements are warranted to confirm the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression.

  5. Commercialization of biotechnology in the Asian region. Report of meeting of Asian Productivity Organization (APO) in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P L

    1990-01-01

    Detailed studies on the commercial development of biotechnology in five countries in the Asian Region (viz. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, India) indicate a very significant role played by government in strategic planning and R & D financing. Strong growth is projected in some traditional biotechnology products e.g. amino acids such as monosodium glutamate and L-lysine, animal and human vaccines, and in environmental applications of biotechnology. The cash flow from these products will underpin future development and marketing of diagnostics, anticancer and antiviral drugs, particularly in Japan and Korea.

  6. Prevalence of Norwalk-Like Virus Infections in Cases of Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread. PMID:12682179

  7. Prevalence of Norwalk-like virus infections in cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-04-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  8. Education, but not occupation or household income, is positively related to favorable dietary intake patterns in pregnant Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-03-01

    Although a large body of epidemiologic data accumulated in Western countries show that individuals with a higher socioeconomic position consume higher quality diets, information on such socioeconomic differences in the diets of non-Western populations, including Japanese, is absolutely lacking. This cross-sectional study examined the association of socioeconomic position with dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 1002 Japanese women during pregnancy. Socioeconomic position was assessed by education, occupation, and household income. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Education was associated positively with intake of protein; total n-3 and marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; dietary fiber; cholesterol; potassium; calcium; magnesium; iron; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and folate 9 and inversely with that of carbohydrate. No associations were seen between education and intake of total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and total and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; alcohol; or sodium. Regarding food, higher education was associated with a higher intake of vegetables, fish and shellfish, and potatoes and lower intake of rice. Education was not associated with intake of bread, noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, pulses and nuts, meat, eggs, dairy products, or fruit. For occupation, housewives had a higher intake of dietary fiber, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, folate, and pulses and nuts than working women. Household income was not associated with any nutrient or food examined. In conclusion, education, but not occupation or household income, was positively associated with favorable dietary intake patterns in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  9. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB.

  10. The Selling of the Taj Mahal or Osaka Castle. 7th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Bill

    In this lesson, student teams role-play as real estate agents who have been contacted by an art collector about purchasing a large historic landmark in which to house an art collection. Teams will research an historical site and prepare a creative sales presentation. Students are provided with background information, detailed instructions, on-line…

  11. Fitness for the Aged, Disabled, and Industrial Worker. Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Council for Physical Fitness Research (Osaka, Japan, September 5-7, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Masahiro, Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of current research on the health and fitness of the aged, the disabled, and the industrial worker examines the growing health problems in those populations. These problems are the result of the rising proportion of elderly and disabled citizens in Western countries and the increasing exposure of industrial workers to…

  12. Specific Properties of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Diarrheal Patients and Comparison to Strains from Foods and Fecal Specimens from Cattle, Swine, and Healthy Carriers in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Wakushima, Mitsuko; Aota, Tetsu; Yoshida, Yuka; Kita, Toshimasa; Maehara, Tomofumi; Ogasawara, Jun; Choi, Changsun; Kamata, Yoichi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    For exhaustive detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, we previously developed a colony-hybridization method using hydrophobic grid-membrane filters in combination with multiplex real-time PCR. To assess the role of domestic animals as the source of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), a total of 679 samples (333 from foods, fecal samples from 227 domestic animals, and 119 from healthy people) were examined. Combining 48 strains previously isolated from patients and carriers, 159 aEPEC strains were classified by phylogroup, virulence profile, and intimin typing. Phylogroup B1 was significantly more prevalent among aEPEC from patients (50%) and bovine samples (79%) than from healthy carriers (16%) and swine strains (23%), respectively. Intimin type β1 was predominant in phylogroup B1; B1-β1 strains comprised 26% of bovine strains and 25% of patient strains. The virulence profile groups Ia and Ib were also observed more frequently among bovine strains than among porcine strains. Similarly, virulence group Ia was detected more frequently among patient strains than strains of healthy carriers. A total of 85 strains belonged to virulence group I, and 63 of these strains (74%) belonged to phylogroup B1. The present study suggests that the etiologically important aEPEC in diarrheal patients could be distinguished from aEPEC strains indigenous to humans based on type, such as B1, Ia, and β1/γ1, which are shared with bovine strains, while the aEPEC strains in healthy humans are different, and some of these were also present in porcine samples. PMID:23220963

  13. Dietary patterns in infancy and their associations with maternal socio-economic and lifestyle factors among 758 Japanese mother-child pairs: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Dietary habits established in early childhood contribute to lifelong dietary pattern and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Although a large body of epidemiologic data from Western countries show that the dietary pattern of children is influenced by maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, information on this topic in non-Western countries is absolutely lacking. The present study identified dietary patterns among infants aged 16-24 months, and then examined the influence of maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics on identified dietary patterns. Subjects were 758 Japanese mother-child pairs. Dietary data of infants were collected from the mothers using a questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted from the consumption of 15 foods (times week(-1)) by cluster analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' (n = 483) and 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' (n = 275) patterns. After adjustment for all other predictors, maternal educational level, number of infants' siblings and maternal dietary patterns were independently associated with dietary patterns of infants. Infants whose mothers had a higher educational level and the 'rice, fish and vegetables' dietary pattern were less likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' pattern, whereas infants whose mothers had a higher number of children and the 'wheat product' dietary pattern were more likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' than the 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' pattern. In conclusion, the mother's socio-economic position and dietary patterns were associated with the dietary patterns of infants in the Japanese pairs as observed in the Western populations.

  14. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later.

  15. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao

    2013-03-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs.

  16. Large-Scale Molecular Gas Survey in 12CO, 13CO and C18O (J=2-1) with the Osaka 1.85m mm-submm Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Tokuda, Kazuki; Harada, Ryohei; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo

    2015-08-01

    Molecular clouds are sites of star formation, and rotational transition lines of carbon monoxide (CO) have been widely used to investigate the distribution, physical properties, and kinematics to understand the star formation process in the Galaxy and external galaxies. Although J=1-0 lines of CO are powerful tools to investigate the mass of molecular content of the interstellar medium, the other transitions with different critical densities for the excitation are needed to investigate the local density and temperature, which are important to know the evolutionary status of molecular clouds. We have thus developed a new mm-submm telescope with a diameter of 1.85m installed at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Onishi et al. 2013). The scientific goal is to precisely reveal physical properties of molecular clouds in the Galaxy by obtaining a large-scale distribution of molecular gas, which also can be compared with large-scale observations in various wavelengths. The target frequency is ~230 GHz; simultaneous observations in J=2-1 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O are achieved with a beam size (HPBW) of 2.7 arcmin. Currently, about 1500 square degrees are covered including the galactic plane (L = 5° ~ 220° with |B| ≤ 1° and star forming regions (Orion, Taurus, Cygnus OB7/X, Opuichus, Aquila and so on). The observations of Orion A and B were compared with J=1-0 of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O data at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas (Nishimura et al. 2015). We then explored the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature using line combinations of 12CO(2-1), 13CO(2-1), and 13CO(1-0). We found that this line combination effectively can solve the density and temperature of the molecular cloud in this size scale, which can be compared with the star formation activity there. These J=2-1 data of the Galactic molecular clouds will be precious for the comparison with those of extra-galactic ones that will be obtained with the ALMA with the comparable spatial resolutions.

  17. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 4, Number 4, October-December 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Re- Osaka University, 32, Joan-cho, search Kita-ku, Osaka 530 June 9-10 Implantology and Bio- Kyoto, Japan Prof. H. Kawahara, Osaka Dental Col...department, in cooperation with RERF, conducts epidemiological studies of medical and dental x-ray exposures of the A-bomb survivors and takes part in...Wellington Pacific February 16-21 Australian Dental Association Hobart, Australia Dr. H. Hammer, Chairman, 130 New Hobart Convention Town Rd., New Town

  18. Developing a Detailed Integrated Optics Computational Model Capable of Quantitative Descriptions and Predictions of the Image Analysis Performance of Compound Eyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-06

    Takaku Y, Horiguchi H, Stavenga DG (2005) The leaf beetle, the jewel beetle, and the damselfly; insects with a multilayered show case. In: Structural ... color in biological systems – principles and applications (Kinoshita S, ed.), pp 153-176. Osaka University Press, Osaka 16. Stavenga DG, Foletti S

  19. JPRS Report - Science & Technology Japan: New Functional Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mori] 31 Control of Electrical Properties of Zinc Oxide- Niobium Oxide Ceramics by Nonequilibrium Microstructural Treatment [Kenya Hamano, Shigeru...Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 1. Introduction Niobium nitride and its relating compounds are expected as stable...preparation, structure, and properties of plasma polymerized thin films from titanium tetraisopropoxide. The objective of this investigation is

  20. Observations and Evaluations of a Far East Trip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    prestigious universities in Japan. Dr. Hideki Yukawa of Osaka University is the first Japanese physicist who earned the Nobel Prize (in 1949). Also, Osaka...They were also proud of their huge mechanical testing facility. The author’s visit to Nippon Steel was particularly beneficial because Dr. Hideki

  1. PREFACE: Nanospintronics design and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realization (ICNDR 2004), which was held in Kyoto, Japan, 24--28 May 2004. This conference was organized by the Nanospintronics Design and Realization project members: Hideaki Kasai, Osaka (Chair of the Conference) Hisazumi Akai, Osaka Hajime Asahi, Osaka Wilson Agerico Diño, Osaka Hiroshi Harima, Kyoto Tomoyuki Kakeshita, Osaka Junjiro Kanamori, Kyoto Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida, Osaka Koichi Kusakabe, Osaka Hiroshi Nakanishi, Osaka (Secretary) Tamio Oguchi, Hiroshima Teruo Ono, Osaka Naoshi Suzuki, Osaka Hitoshi Tabata, Osaka under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the sponsorship of Osaka University and the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers, in the rapidly developing field of nanospintronics. It aims to: provide an overview of our current understanding of the physics of spin transport in (magnetic) semiconductors and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor structures; provide a venue to present and discuss the latest developments in using spin-dependent phenomena in nano-(opto-) electronics and computing applications; provide a venue for discussion and assessment of other possible means of exploiting the spin-dependent phenomena in future nano-(opto-) electronic and computing applications; address current (and foreseeable future) problems, of fundamental and applied nature, in an effort to bridge the physics and technology gap between semiconducting and magnetic materials. All of these being geared towards bringing about the realization of a functioning nanospintronics. A total of 127 delegates from 15 countries took part in ICNDR 2004, which was comprised of 62 invited

  2. 76 FR 66324 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...; Panasonic AVC Networks Company, Kadoma City, Osaka, JAPAN; VSN Video Steam Networks, S.L., Barcelona, SPAIN..., Chime Media, Weston, VA; E!Entertainment, Los Angeles, CA; and MAGIX AG, Berlin, GERMANY, have...

  3. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  4. Investigation of Light Manipulation by the Ultrastructure of Marine Diatoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-13

    Nano-Optics in the Biological World : Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths, Chem. Rev. 99, 1935 – 1962, (1999). 14. P. Vukusic and J.R. Sambles...Principles and Applications (Osaka Univ. Press, Osaka, 2005). 16. M. Gale, Diffraction, beauty and commerce. Physics World , 2, 24–28, (1989). 17. P...Vukusic. Natural Photonics, Physics World , 17, 35-39, (2004). 18. Hutley M.C., Diffraction Gratings (Academic Press, New York, 1982). 19. T. Fuhrmann

  5. Subsurface geology of Kansai International Airport: sequence related to global glacial - interglacial cycles and island tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Kitada, N.; Furudoi, T.; Nakaseko, K.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic sedimentary basins aligned in the central part of Japan during Quaternary . Thick sediments deposited in these basins provide useful records of climatic changes and tectonics throughout Quaternary. The Osaka sedimentary basin including Osaka Bay and area of Kansai International Airport is one of them. The Quaternary Osaka sedimentary basin has developed at an eastern contractional bend of a major transcurrent fault system named the Median Tectonic Line, which divides the southwest Japan arc. The thickness of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments reaches to ca 3500m at the deepest part. These sequences are called the Osaka Group and are distributed in the Osaka Bay and exposed in the surrounding mountain areas. The Osaka Group is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata. The subsurface sediments of Kansai International Airport (KIA) is composed mainly of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments, which is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata related to glacial - interglacial cycles. . The stratigraphy at KIA was established by micropaleontological, tephrochronological and magnetostratigraphical method. The sedimentary sequence at KIX is divided into two main units (Kukojima and Sennanoki Formations in ascending order) with the uncomformity within two units. Although thick marine clay units are mainly of the subsurface sequence, characteristics of coarser sediment units have an important role of moving of water during construction of the reclaimed land.

  6. Regional and local variations in atmospheric aerosols using ground-based sun photometry during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON). We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  7. [Review of the pharmaceutical exhibitions in the Meiji Era (Supplement)].

    PubMed

    Koyama, T

    1994-01-01

    The author described (Jpn. J. History Pharm. 16(1), 9-20 (1981) the Review of the Pharmaceutical Exhibitions in the Meiji era. But afterwards the author found there were omissions of three exhibitions. These are the Nagaoka, the Osaka, and the Akita Exhibitions. The Nagaoka Exhibition was organized by the Nagaoka Pharmacists Association in June, 1890. The Osaka Exhibition opened on Jan. 18, 1891 by Osaka Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. The Akita Pharmaceutical Exhibition was held on Sept. 24-26, 1892, as the chief event of the opening ceremony of the Akita Drug-Trader Association, united pharmacists, druggists, and drug-manufacturers throughout Akita Prefecture. It is the most large-scaled of the three. The exhibits were 1,419, and the visitors were above 8,830. The planning originated with a young pharmacist Masayasu Hanyu.

  8. A radial basis function neural network based on artificial immune systems for remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qin; Zhong, Yanfei

    2008-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is a powerful method for remote sensing image classification. It has a simple architecture and the learning algorithm corresponds to the solution of a linear regression problem, resulting in a fast training process. The main drawback of this strategy is the requirement of an efficient algorithm to determine the number, position, and dispersion of the RBF. Traditional methods to determine the centers are: randomly choose input vectors from the training data set; vectors obtained from unsupervised clustering algorithms, such as k-means, applied to the input data. These conduce that traditional RBF neural network is sensitive to the center initialization. In this paper, the artificial immune network (aiNet) model, a new computational intelligence based on artificial immune networks (AIN), is applied to obtain appropriate centers for remote sensing image classification. In the aiNet-RBF algorihtm, each input pattern corresonds to an antigenic stimulus, while each RBF candidate center is considered to be an element, or cell, of the immune network model. The steps are as follows: A set of candidate centers is initialized at random, where the initial number of candidates and their positions is not crucial to the performance. Then, the clonal selection principle will control which candidates will be selected and how they will be upadated. Note that the clonal selection principle will be responsible for how the centers will represent the training data set. Finally, the immune network will identify and eliminate or suppress self-recognizing individuals to control the number of candidate centers. After the above learning phase, the aiNet network centers represent internal images of the inuput patterns presented to it. The algorithm output is taken to be the matrix of memory cells' coordinates that represent the final centers to be adopted by the RBF network. The stopping criterion of the proposed algorithm is given by a pre

  9. Association between Lifestyle and School Attendance in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…

  10. Cross-contamination of cell lines as revealed by DNA fingerprinting in the IFO animal cell bank.

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Takeuchi, M

    1993-01-01

    For quality control of cell lines, the Institute for Fermentation, Osaka (IFO) animal cell bank recently introduced DNA fingerprinting analysis, which enables verification of cell lines at the individual level, to detect cross-culture contamination. By using this analysis, we found two cases of cross-contamination of cell lines.

  11. Deletion of tumor progression locus 2 attenuates alcohol induced hepatic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves the interaction of several inflammatory signaling pathways. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), also known as Cancer Osaka Thyroid (COT) and MAP3K8, is a serine threonine kinase that functions as a critical regulator of inflammator...

  12. Polarization of Physics on Global Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinea, Allan L.; Naylor, Wade

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2010, the Chemistry-Biology Combined Major Program, an international course taught in English at Osaka University, has been teaching small classes (no more than 20 in size). We present data from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) given to first-year classical mechanics students (N = 47 students over three years) pre and post score,…

  13. Perception of the Impact of International Education: Japanese vs. American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archwamety, Teara

    This study of Japanese and American exchange students focuses on the "perceived" rather than on the "real" impact of international education on one's own society and on the society hosting the foreign student. Thirty-four randomly selected American undergraduate students attending a Japanese university in Osaka, Japan and 34…

  14. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd... complainants are: Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd., 1-17-18 Edobori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550- 8661, Japan Toyo Tire... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang...

  15. The Effects of Marital Support, Social Network Support, and Parenting Stress on Parenting: Self-Efficacy among Mothers of Young Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Sawako

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether Japanese women's perceived marital and social support affect their parenting self-efficacy directly or indirectly through their levels of parenting stress. Participants were 98 mothers of children in the second grade living in Sapporo or Osaka, Japan. Data collected through surveys were submitted to a structural…

  16. Increasing the Number of African American Students in Undergraduate Level Classes of Chinese: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Chinese language is the only ideographic language remaining in the world (Osaka, 1976). It conveys affluent Chinese culture and has great influences on the East Asian countries (Miyake, 2013). In the economic globalization of the world, China's economy and international influence are expanding. For these reasons and many more the Chinese language…

  17. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Ito, Atsushi; Kajita, Shin; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Lee, Heun Tae; Nakano, Tomohide; Tokitani, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    The 21st International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices (PSI-21) was held in Kanazawa, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan from the 26th to the 30th of May 2014. This conference was hosted by National Institute for Fusion Science and supported by Nagoya University, Kanazawa University, Osaka University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

  18. Total cholesterol performance of Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC’s Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W.; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC’s reference values. Methods AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. Results In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka) = 1.000x (CDC) + 0.032 (n = 619, R2 = 1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. Conclusions The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. PMID:25818239

  19. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2012-04-01

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R&D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  20. Σ MRL Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory System for Future Development-An International Student Network-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Tadashi

    The Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University started in 2002 the project of “An International Student Network” on Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory System for Future Development. The concept, system and activity for encouraging students to create their international human-relation network for young researchers and engineers are described. Some typical activities are introduced in detail.

  1. Long term operation of the 100-cm{sup 2} class single cell of MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The R&D on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is proceeding as one of the New Sun Shine Project sponsored by Japanese government. In ONRI (Osaka National Research Institute), the tested MCFCs were assembled with the state-of-the-art components and operated under the load condition for 40000 hours and 34000 hours. We analyzed the performance reduction.

  2. Boundary migration and disappearance of voids in Alpha-Al2O3 at 2000 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Fujita, H.

    1984-01-01

    A series of photographs taken with Osaka University's high temperature 3MV electron microscope of alpha-A1(z)O(3) at 2000 C is presented. The dynamic study shows grain boundary migration in progress and demonstrates that disappearance of voids is controlled by boundary migration.

  3. Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in Japan and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Goto, S.; Hachinohe, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Taniguchi, M.; Arimoto, H.; Kitaoka, K.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of "heat islands". We have been investigating GST histories in three areas, which are located in Japan and Thailand. The three areas are the northern part of Kanto area, Osaka area, and Bangkok area. Kanto area and Osaka area have the greatest and second greatest population in Japan, each other. Bangkok area has the greatest population in Thailand. In the northern part of Kanto area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 25 sites in 2009, 2010, and 2011. In Osaka area, temperature profiles were measured at 31 sites in 2011 as the project of the Sumitomo Foundation (M. Taniguchi). In Bangkok area, we measured temperature profiles at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last about 300 hundred years was made at two sites in the northern part of Kanto area, at six sites in Osaka area, and at six sites in Bangkok area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the northern part of Kanto area, the amount of the temperature increase from 1700 to 2010 is about 2.5 K at both sites. In Osaka area, the amount of the temperature increase from 1700 to 2010 ranges from 2.5 K to 5.0 K and is larger in the city center and the southern part

  4. Construction of In-house Databases in a Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Toshio

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. constructed Osaka Gas Technical Information System (OGTIS) in 1979, which stores and retrieves the in-house technical information and provides even primary materials by unifying optical disk files, facsimile system and so on. The major information sources are technical materials, survey materials, planning documents, design materials, research reports, business tour reports which are all generated inside the Company. At the present moment it amounts to 25,000 items in total adding 1,000 items annually. The data file is updated once in a month and also outputs the abstract journal OGTIS Report monthly. In 1983 it constructed System for International Exchange of Personal Information (SIP) as a subsystem of OGTIS in order to compile SIP database which covers exchange outlines with oversea enterprises or organizations. The data size is 2,600 totally adding about 500 annually with monthly data updating.

  5. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  6. Research and Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters onboard PROITERES Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Naka, Masamichi; Takagi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke

    2010-10-01

    The Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster. This study aims at improvement in performance by changing configuration of PPTs. The total impulse of about 5 Ns was achieved with a Teflon® (poly-tetrafluoroethylene: PTFE) cylindrical discharge room of 9.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in diameter in 53,000-shot operation with 2.43 J/shot. Finally, the engineering model of the PPT system was developed, and it is under operation as final test.

  7. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  8. Global Emerging Sciences and Technology Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    University of New South Wales (68), City University of Hong Kong (80), Hong Kong Polytechnic (89), and University of South Australia (99). The biggest...Univ., Nanyang Tech. Univ., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tsinghua Univ., Osaka Univ., Yonsei Univ. (Korea), Tohoku Univ., Nagoya...in a broad 51-100 range: City Univ. of Hong Kong, Indian Inst. of Tech. Bombay, Indian Inst. of Tech. Delhi, Indian Inst. of Tech. Kanpur, Kyoto

  9. Progress Towards a Laser Produced Relativistic Electron-Positron Pair Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, R.; Fiuza, F.; Goldstein, W.; Hazi, A.; Keane, C.; Link, A.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Shepherd, R.; Williams, G. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P. Y.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Morita, T.; Nagai, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.; Kerr, S.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    A set of experiments has been performed exploring unique characteristics of pair jets and plasmas at several energetic short-pulse laser facilities including Titan at Livermore and OMEGA EP in Rochester, as well as the Osaka LFEX and AWE Orion lasers. New results are summarized, including positron beam emittance, scaling of pair production vs. laser energy, and initial results on the pair jet collimation using electromagnetic fields.

  10. On-line Robot Adaptation to Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    background needed to understand the thesis . This robotic system was originally de- veloped for use in the RoboCup Sony legged league which is an...The league currently uses the ERS-7 AIBO model. This platform was used for all of the robotic testing in this thesis . In the legged league...Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Thesis Committee: Manuela Veloso, Chair Takeo Kanade Anthony Stentz Minoru Asada, Osaka University, Japan

  11. [Historical study of the moth repellent, "Fujisawa Camphor" (3) An exposition as an advertisement media].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Newspaper advertisements were the predominant medium in informing people about new products midway through the Meiji Era. Subscribers to these newspapers, however, were still limited. At the time, expositions were wildly popular. Seizing the opportunity , in 1903 Fujisawa promoted his "Fujisawa Camphor" through aggressive advertising at the 5th Domestic Industrial Exposition in Osaka. The advertising proved to be a success, as Fujisawa took 2nd Prize of the exposition.

  12. [Increase of poisoning by tropical mushrooms in Japan in recent years].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Gonmori, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    A tropical poisonous mushroom, Chlorophyllum molybdites, invaded into Japan in recent years, and distributed in south-eastern and central part of Japan including 27 Prefectures in 2009; Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tokyo (including Bonin Islands), Chiba, Shizuoka, Ishikawa, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kochi, Ohita, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Okinawa. Poisoning by this fungus has increased recently (Table 2). Topics on distribution and poisoning by Russula subnigricans and Podostroma cornu-damae briefly discussed.

  13. Creative Exercises for Cultivation of Creative Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, Toshio; An, Hiroshi; Ozasa, Toshihiro; Masutani, Yasuhiro; Mori, Koji; Yasutomi, Masanori; Yoshida, Haruyuki

    “Creative Exercise” is one of the most important articles in the course of technology educations at the universities and the colleges. In this paper, some trials for the creative exercises developed in Osaka Electro-Communication University are introduced ; those are (1) exercises in “Creative Design Engineering”, (2) studies and educations on robots, (3) executive plan of rescue-robot contest, and (4) supporting system for application for the qualifying examinations. Their results and effectiveness are also discussed.

  14. Progress towards a laser produced relativistic electron-positron pair plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, R.; Fiuza, F.; Goldstein, W.; Hazi, A.; Keane, C.; Link, A.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Shepherd, R.; Williams, G. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P. Y.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Morita, T.; Nagai, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.; Kerr, S.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    Here, a set of experiments has been performed exploring unique characteristics of pair jets and plasmas at several energetic short-pulse laser facilities including Titan at Livermore and OMEGA EP in Rochester, as well as the Osaka LFEX and AWE Orion lasers. New results are summarized, including positron beam emittance, scaling of pair production vs. laser energy, and initial results on the pair jet collimation using electromagnetic fields.

  15. Compact and Easy-Operation Magnetocardiograph With Four-Channel Planar Gradiometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    using fetal magnetocardiography ,” Prenat. Diagn., vol. 19, pp. 677-680, 1999. [4] S. Yamada et al., “Noninvasive diagnosis of arrhythmic foci by using...generated by human hearts. MCG has been applied to diagnosis of ischemic [1, 2] or fetal [3] heart disease and estimation of the region of arrhythmia...8] D. Suzuki et al., “Simplified magnetically shielded cylinder for high Tc SQUID magnetocardiography system,” Presented at the ISEC ’01 (Osaka), 2001

  16. Tuning the Composition and Nanostructure of Pt/Ir Films via Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Atomic Layer Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Nielsch , J. Appl . Phys. 2007 , 101 , 09J111 . [ 29 ] K. Jefi movs , J. Laukkanen , T. Vallius , T. Pilvi , M. Ritala , T...O. Jessensky , F. Muller , U. Gosele , Appl . Phys. Lett. 1998 , 72 , 1173 . [ 42 ] H. Masuda , K. Yada , A. Osaka , Jpn. J. Appl ...Mater. Chem. 2001 , 11 , 2340 . [ 20 ] C. N. Ginestra , R. Sreenivasan , A. Karthikeyan , S. Ramanathan , P. C. McIntyre , Electrochem

  17. Progress towards a laser produced relativistic electron-positron pair plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hui; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here, a set of experiments has been performed exploring unique characteristics of pair jets and plasmas at several energetic short-pulse laser facilities including Titan at Livermore and OMEGA EP in Rochester, as well as the Osaka LFEX and AWE Orion lasers. New results are summarized, including positron beam emittance, scaling of pair production vs. laser energy, and initial results on the pair jet collimation using electromagnetic fields.

  18. Development of Fudai Sun Sensor (FSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Takatoshi; Itoh, Hideaki; Kakimi, Yukitaka; Okubo, Hiroshi

    This paper describes the design process of the Fudai sun sensor (FSS) installed in a 50-kg-class micro-satellite, SOHLA-1. The FSS has been developed by the students of Osaka Prefecture University (OPU) with technical support from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Advanced Engineering Services (AES) Co. Ltd. In this project, the students experienced a series of processes required for developing satellite components, namely, design, production, test, launch, and operation.

  19. Small geographic variation in photoperiodic entrainment of the circannual rhythm in the varied carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Yuta; Numata, Hideharu

    2013-04-01

    The circannual pupation rhythm of Anthrenus verbasci is entrained to an environmental cycle by changes in photoperiod. Exposure of larvae reared under short-day conditions to long days induced a clear phase delay of the circannual rhythm. There was no notable difference in the initial phase or period of the circannual rhythm among four geographically distinct populations of A. verbasci in Japan: Takanabe (32.1°N), Osaka (34.7°N), Sendai (38.3°N), and Sapporo (43.1°N) populations. The range of photoperiodic changes effective for phase delay in the circannual pupation rhythm was compared among the four populations. Although larvae did not show a typical threshold response, but responded quantitatively to the photophase duration in intermediate conditions, the critical daylengths were calculated as those under which the pupation was delayed by 50%: 12.8 h in the Takanabe population, 13.2 h in the Osaka population, and 13.6 h in the Sendai and Sapporo populations. Thus, the critical daylength for entrainment of the circannual rhythm in A. verbasci was correlated to the habitat latitude, but the differences among the populations were much smaller than those reported in photoperiodism for induction of diapause in various insects. Consequently, the difference in the pupation time among the four geographic populations was very small under the natural photoperiod in Osaka at 20°C, and absent under the natural photoperiod and temperature in Osaka. These results suggest that A. verbasci survives and successfully produces the next generation in different geographic regions without changing the parameters of the circannual rhythm.

  20. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  1. JPRS Report Science and Technology, Japan: Atomic Energy Society 1989 Annual Meeting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Post-Irradiation Examination of Fugen MOX Fuel Assembly Outline of the PIE [K. Asahi, K, Domoto, et al.] 24 Study of Np Separation Process in...state and land-sea breeze shift (for one hour). 23 Post-Irradiation Examination of Fugen MOX Fuel Assembly Outline of the PIE 43063046e Osaka...Introduction Fugen is the world’s first thermal neutron reactor to use MOX [mixed oxide] fuel in full scale, and it has steadily operated and provided

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, STA Research on Superconducting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1986 Laboratory Niobium/ 2 wo0 germanium20 t’ ’’ -- 260 10 • Niobiumltin 1911 - 00Interalloy metal Liquid1911 -- S °mD°und <-Ihel~iu m 0 Mercury J...Toichi Okada Professor Industrial Science Research Laboratory, Osaka University Koichi Kitazawa Professor Engineering, University of Tokyo Ken Sugiura...0 . Crystal structure 0 Nagnetism Thermodynamic property Optical property Ov Basic property experiment si . 0 04 ’ s Liquid •Jnitrogeno ’ tempera- W o

  3. Maintenance Welding in Nuclear Power Plants/III, Conference Proceedings Held at Knoxville, Tennessee on 6-8 November 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-06

    4 used in this experimental program. The power source is an Osaka Transformer Corporation (OTC) Transistarc 350 which uses frequency modulation to...m .~- IwLio(Lw U wU 7,e Al 192MI 77ŗ aR APPLICATIOlS OF KIPLOSIVE V=D= J. Wayne Schroeder Foster Wheeler Development Corporation Wylie S...primarily for welding tubes to nuclear condenser tubesheets. EPRI contracted the devel- opment to Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation . Aside from

  4. Virulence determinants of pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Shinya, Kyoko; Goto, Hideo; Takano, Ryo; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Daniels, Rod S; Hungnes, Olav; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-01

    A novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus [A(H1N1)pdm09 virus] caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. Most patients exhibited mild symptoms similar to seasonal influenza, but some experienced severe clinical signs and, in the worst cases, died. Such differences in symptoms are generally associated with preexisting medical conditions, but recent reports indicate the possible involvement of viral factors in clinical severity. To better understand the mechanism of pathogenicity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, here, we compared five viruses that are genetically similar but were isolated from patients with either severe or mild symptoms. In a mouse model, A/Norway/3487/2009 (Norway3487) virus exhibited greater pathogenicity than did A/Osaka/164/2009 (Osaka164) virus. By exploiting reassortant viruses between these two viruses, we found that viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of Norway3487 in the genetic background of Osaka164 were more pathogenic in mice than other reassortant viruses, indicating a role for HA in the high virulence of Norway3487 virus. Intriguingly, a virus possessing HA, NA, and NS derived from Norway3487 exhibited greater pathogenicity in mice in concert with PB2 and PB1 derived from Osaka164 than did the parental Norway3487 virus. These findings demonstrate that reassortment between A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses can lead to increased pathogenicity and highlight the need for continued surveillance of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.

  5. Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Osaka University has been developing interferometric lightning mapping systems for some time, first with narrow band VHF interferometers, and then with broadband digital VHF interferometers (DITF). Recently, a collaboration between New Mexico Tech and Osaka University resulted in the development of the NMT INTF. All of these interferometric lightning mapping systems have added greatly to our understanding of lightning physics. The next generation of digital broadband VHF interferometer is now being developed in Osaka, called the Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission (LIVE) interferometer. LIVE is capable of mapping lightning in real-time with sub-millisecond time resolution, or through post processing with sub-microsecond time resolution. Near-field corrections have been developed, so that sources very close to the array can be located accurately, and so that the baselines can lengthened for improved angular resolution. LIVE is capable of locating lighting over more than a 75 dB range of brightnesses, allowing the system to be extremely sensitive, and the long baselines allow for location uncertainties as low as tens of meters. Presented are observations of lightning recorded in the Kasai area of Japan, as well as the Pengerang region of Malaysia showing the capabilities of the LIVE interferometer.

  6. Diallyl phthalate prepolymer characterization and testing in fiberglass filled molding compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.B.; Schneider, R.E.; Schumacher, R.J.

    1983-02-21

    A program was undertaken to identify an acceptable alternative to Dapon 35, an o-diallyl phthalate (DAP) prepolymer no longer available. Three o-DAP prepolymers from the Osaka Soda Company and four laboratory-scale prepolymers from Bendix-Kansas city were characterized and evaluated in DAP-fiberglass molding compounds. Gel permeation chromatography results for the Osaka prepolymers showed all three to be very close to one another in molecular weights (mw) and mw distributions, but slightly lower in both than Dapon 35. They are also slightly higher in monomer content. All three processed readily into DAP-fiberglass molding compounds and passed required physical property tests. One Osaka prepolymer was compounded into both asbestos and Orlon-DAP compounds on a production scale. Both compounds have passed all certification tests. The Bendix prepolymers were deliberately varied in mw and mw distribution and higher in monomer content than Dapon 35. Processing difficulties were encountered with both the lowest and highest molecular weight compounds, and the lowest molecular weight compound failed a number of physical property tests. The two intermediate molecular weight compounds processed readily and passed property tests. Guidelines were established for acceptable o-DAP prepolymers: (1) weight average mw (relative to polystyrene standards): 30,000 to 150,000; (2) mw distribution: 3.0 to less than or equal to 18.0; and (3) DAP monomer content: 1.0 to less than or equal to 6.0%. 5 figures, 6 tables.

  7. [Regional development planning and migration: the fourth comprehensive national development plan].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, K

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, the National Land Agency of Japan published the Development Plan for the National Capital Region and the outline of the 4th Comprehensive National Development Plan. Ever since the 1st Comprehensive National Development Plan in 1962, basic objectives of the plans have been well-balanced development of national land, adjustment of regional disparities, and dissolution of overcongestion and depopulation. Japan experienced rapid urbanization in the period from the war reconstruction of the 1940s through the high economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s. Particularly, during the high economic growth of the 1960s, the concentration of population and industry was extremely notable in the 3 metropolitan regions centering around Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. There are indications of increases in excess migration to metropolitan regions once again, but this is due to increases of migration only to the Tokyo Metropolitan Regions. No such indications are seen for the Nagoya and Osaka Metropolitan Regions. Tokyo Metropolitan Regions are changing more and more, as a important international center of banking and information in the world; on the other hand, Osaka is lessening its sphere of influence. Particularly, from the 1980s, the concentration of population and nucleus functional institutions is extremely notable in the Tokyo Metropolitan Regions. The main objective of this paper is to analyze Tokyo New Industrial Cities, and other depopulated areas, through the distribution of population and the location of industry.

  8. Hydro-environmental changes and their influence on the subsurface environment in the context of urban development.

    PubMed

    Yoshikoshi, Akihisa; Adachi, Itsu; Taniguchi, Tomomasa; Kagawa, Yuichi; Kato, Masahiro; Yamashita, Akio; Todokoro, Taiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    The relationship between urban development and hydro-environmental change, particularly with regard to the subsurface environment is examined for three coastal cities affected by Asian monsoons (Tokyo and Osaka in Japan, and Bangkok in Thailand). Major differences in subsurface changes among these cities are closely related to city size, urban structure, and the timing, stage and extent of urbanization as well as the natural environment. The work shows that the urban development has not affected the Bangkok subsurface hydro-environment in the same way it has in Tokyo and Osaka. Three reasons for the difference account for this, (1) Bangkok's abundant annual rainfall, (2) Bangkok has the smallest ratio of impervious pavement surface area, meaning that surface water can more easily infiltrate underground., (3) the degree and extent of urbanization. Bangkok's subsurface hydro-environment has not been heavily affected because underground development has not yet reached deep subterranean areas. By researching yet more cities, at different stages of urbanization to that of Tokyo, Osaka and Bangkok, we plan to quantitatively examine urbanization and its influence on subsurface hydro-environments. This research will help limit damage to developing cities that are not yet experiencing subsurface failures but which are expected to confront these problems in the future.

  9. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary.

  10. Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-gain point design

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Tabak, M.

    2014-04-17

    Here, integrated fast ignition experiments were performed at ILE, Osaka, and LLE, Rochester, in which a nanosecond driver laser implodes a deuterated plastic shell in front of the tip of a hollow metal cone and an intense ultrashort-pulse laser is injected through the cone to heat the compressed plasma. Based on the initial successful results of fast electron heating of cone-in-shell targets, large-energy short-pulse laser beam lines were constructed and became operational: OMEGA-EP at Rochester and LFEX at Osaka. Neutron enhancement due to heating with a ~kJ short-pulse laser has been demonstrated in the integrated experiments at Osaka and Rochester. The neutron yields are being analyzed by comparing the experimental results with simulations. Details of the fast electron beam transport and the electron energy deposition in the imploded fuel plasma are complicated and further studies are imperative. The hydrodynamics of the implosion was studied including the interaction of the imploded core plasma with the cone tip. Theory and simulation studies are presented on the hydrodynamics of a high-gain target for a fast ignition point design.

  11. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 using PMF and CMB: Comparison of the Effects of Transboundary and Local Pollutions in the Western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sugata, S.

    2014-12-01

    PM2.5 has become one of the most important aspects in recent air pollution issues. In Japan, the achievement rate of the environmental quality standard for PM2.5 is in a worse situation so far (43.3% for ambient air monitoring station, 33.3% for roadside air pollution monitoring station in FY2012). Therefore, source apportionment will be essential to policy and decision making for improving the PM2.5 pollution. Since 2011, we started the field monitoring study called "Current Status Elucidation and Source Contribution Assessment of PM2.5 Pollution in Collaboration with Environmental Research Institutes across Japan" which was granted by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (5B-1101) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. PM2.5 samples were collected at 14 sites during four campaigns. Chemical analyses of carbonaceous compounds, ionic species, and elements were conducted. Source apportionment was performed by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, EPA PMF 3.0) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB, EPA CMB 8.1) models. PMF model resolved a six-factor solution. Each of these factors has a distinctive grouping of species that can be associated with a specific source sector (F1: Biomass burning, F2: Sulfate + Oil combustion, F3: Industry, F4: Nitrate, F5: Sulfate + Coal combustion, and F6: Chloride). In the winter campaign (Jan. 24 to Feb. 7) in 2013, F5 accounted for 50% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima (34.2°N 129.3°E, the westernmost remote site). The contribution of F5 tended to decrease toward the eastern sites (27% at Fukuoka (33.5°N 130.5°E, urban site), 22% at Higashi-Osaka (34.7°N 135.6°E, urban site)). CMB model showed similar results in the same campaign. Coal combustion accounted for 49%, 30%, and 22% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima, Fukuoka, and Higashi-Osaka, respectively (Fig.1). On the other hand, at urban sites, higher contributions from local sources such as secondary nitrate (16% at Fukuoka, 21% at Higashi-Osaka), diesel fuel

  12. A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Nishimori, A.; Sato, M.

    A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants over urban cities in Japan S. Mukai, I. Sano, A. Nishimori and M. Sato Kinki University For understanding urban aerosols, sun/sky photometry and polarimetry with PSR-1000 (Opto. Research) have been undertaken over Higashi-Osaka since 1996. Multi-spectral photometers CE-318 (Cimel Electronique) and POM-100P (Prede Co.) are set up later for an AERONET site and a SKYNET site, respectively. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Another aerosol properties, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on the inversion method. Higashi-Osaka, which means east side of Osaka, is an industrial city located between Osaka bay and Mt.Ikoma. Anthropogenic aerosols produced by industrial activity and oceanic aerosols flying from Osaka bay are mixed together and trapped just around our site due to reflection from Mt.Ikoma. Therefore our city is famous for heavy air pollution, and aerosols here have a complicated feature mixing with the anthropogenic compound and natural one externally and/or internally. On the other hand, suspended particles matter (SPM) concentrations at ground level are compiled for these 10 years in this city. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to relate SPM data directly to the aerosol properties, however it is possible to say that SPM data represents the mass concentration of atmospheric particles at ground level. In other word, air pollutants could have some relations to the emission and transportation of aerosols. After several aerosol parameters are derived from the measurements and compared with the SPM data, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of atmospheric particles. It is found that aerosol index shows a proportional correlation with SPM concentration, and that our aerosols are contaminated not only by surroundings but also the large scale phenomena, e.g. yellow sand event from China

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-07-01

    related research topics. The organizing committee gratefully thanks participants for presenting their recent results and for discussions with our COE members and international attendees. November 2008 Professor Tomoyuki Kakeshita Chairman of the Conference Vice Dean, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering Leader of Global COE Program, Osaka University, ''Center of Excellence for Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design'' Organization Chairman: T Kakeshita (Osaka University) Advisory Board:H Mehrer (University Münster, Germany), E K H Salje (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom), H-E Schaefer (University of Stuttgart, Germany), P Veyssiere (CNRS-ONERA, France) Organizing Committee: T Kakeshita, H Araki, H Fujii, S Fujimoto, Y Fujiwara, A Hirose, S Kirihara, M Mochizuki, H Mori, T Nagase, H Nakajima, T Nakano, R Nakatani, K Nogi, Y Setsuhara, Y Shiratsuchi, T Tanaka, T Terai, H Tsuchiya, N Tsuji, H Utsunomiya, H Yasuda, H Yasuda (Osaka University) Executive Committee: T Kakeshita, S Fujimoto, Y Fujiwara, A Hirose, T Tanaka, H Yasuda (Osaka University) Conference Secretariat: Y Fujiwara (Osaka University) Proceedings Editors: T Kakeshita and Y Fujiwara (Osaka University) Conference photograph

  14. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  15. PREFACE: Fourth International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    2010-04-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The 4th Symposium (ISAT-4) was held on November 18-19, 2009 at the Seaside Hotel MAIKO VILLA KOBE, Kobe City, Japan presided by the "Atomic Technology Project". The ISAT-4 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion on the latest progress in the atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 107 delegates. There were 10 invited and 6 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 69. From all the contributions, 22 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The "Atomic Technology Project" was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) the Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) the Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) the Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and was developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and device. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Shigefumi Okada Conference Chair Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph Kobe photograph

  16. PREFACE: The International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu

    2008-03-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Second Symposium (ISAT-2) was held on 1-2 October 2007 at the Awaji Yumebutai Conference Center, Awaji City, Japan presided by the `Atomic Technology Project'. The ISAT-2 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 106 delegates. There were 9 invited and 5 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 73. From all the contributions, 24 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The `Atomic Technology Project' was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and were developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and devices. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Yasuharu Shirai Conference Chair Center for Atomic Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph

  17. Long Period Ground Motion Prediction Of Linked Tonankai And Nankai Subduction Earthquakes Using 3D Finite Difference Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, H.; Kamae, K.

    2005-12-01

    There is high possibility of the occurrence of the Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes which are capable of causing immense damage. During these huge earthquakes, long period ground motions may strike mega-cities Osaka and Nagoya located inside the Osaka and Nobi basins in which there are many long period and low damping structures (such as tall buildings and oil tanks). It is very important for the earthquake disaster mitigation to predict long period strong ground motions of the future Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes that are capable of exciting long-period strong ground motions over a wide area. In this study, we tried to predict long-period ground motions of the future Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes using 3D finite difference method. We construct a three-dimensional underground structure model including not only the basins but also propagation field from the source to the basins. Resultantly, we can point out that the predominant periods of pseudo-velocity response spectra change basin by basin. Long period ground motions with periods of 5 to 8 second are predominant in the Osaka basin, 3 to 6 second in the Nobi basin and 2 to 5 second in the Kyoto basin. These characteristics of the long-period ground motions are related with the thicknesses of the sediments of the basins. The duration of long period ground motions inside the basin are more than 5 minutes. These results are very useful for the earthquake disaster mitigation of long period structures such as tall buildings and oil tanks.

  18. Serum Uric Acid Level Predicts Progression of IgA Nephropathy in Females but Not in Males

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuya; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Nagatoya, Katsuyuki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Terumasa; Kuragano, Takayuki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of most common forms of glomerulonephritis. At this point, the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on IgAN is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on the progression of IgAN. Study Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 935 IgAN patients who were diagnosed by kidney biopsy at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka General Hospital, and Osaka Rosai Hospital. were included in this study. Predictor Uric acid levels at renal biopsy. Outcomes The outcome of interest was the time from the kidney biopsy to the time when a 50% increase in the baseline serum creatinine level was observed, which was defined as "progression". Measurements The baseline characteristics according to the kidney biopsy at the time of diagnosis were collected from the medical records, and included age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (use of antidiabetic drugs), serum levels of creatinine, urinary protein, smoking status, RAAS blockers and steroid therapy. Results An elevated serum uric acid level was an independent risk factor for progression in female patients (per 1.0 mg/dL, multivariate-adjusted incident rate ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.64], P = 0.008) but not in male patients (1.02 [0.81, 1.29], P = 0.855). To control a confounding effect of renal function on an association between serum uric acid level and progression in female patients, age- and serum creatinine-matched and propensity score-matched analyses were performed, and these results also supported the effect by uric acid on kidney disease progression independent of basal kidney function. Limitations A cohort analyzed retorospectively. Conclusions This study revealed that an elevated uric acid level was an independent risk factor for ESKD in female IgAN patients. Therefore, uric acid might be a treatable target in female IgAN patients. PMID:27560997

  19. ONR Far East Scientific Information Bulletin. Volume 13. Number 3, July to September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    step that is probably headed by S. Kotani (recently retired from essential for calcium ion flux perturbation. Osaka University) to determine which The...AlGaAs), and H 2 flow 50 SLM. PRODUCTON OF HEMTs Within-wafr uniformity for thickness and carrier concentration was ±2.1 (± 1.6) Large-scale production...p-ZnSe using expansion difference between InP and Si. cyclopentadienyl- Li (CpLi) as a doping Many of the participants felt that much source. The

  20. Star formation in Taurus Auriga Perseus and California nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Marton, Gabor; Doi, Yasuo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki

    Star formation and interstellar medium (ISM) structure were investigated in the Taurus, Auriga, Perseus and California (TAP) nearby star forming regions. Properties of the cold ISM was derived using AKARI FIR all sky maps, the Osaka-1.85m CO survey focusing to the all-sky Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC). As many as 1041 infrared point sources were classified as young stellar object (YSO) based on multiband photometric data, and 384 of those are associated to a PGCC object. About 30% of the TAP PGCC clumps have associated YSOs.

  1. Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

    2009-06-15

    Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

  2. Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-05-12

    We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.

  3. [Cholangiocarcinoma among printing workers].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    By June 2013, seventeen workers had suffered from intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) in an offset proof-printing company in Osaka and nine of the workers had died. Ages at diagnosis were 25 to 45 years old. Known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma were not found in the patients. All of the patients were exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane at high level for long-term and were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 7 to 20 years after the first exposure. Twelve of the patients were also exposed to dichloromethane. The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recognized the cancer to be an occupational disease.

  4. [Cholangiocarcinoma developing in printing company workers: a new type of occupational cancer].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shoji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Sakata, Chikaharu; Urata, Yorihisa; Tanaka, Shogo; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Endo, Ginji

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma among the past or present workers in the department of offset color proof-printing at a printing company in Osaka was extremely high. The workers were relatively young and were exposed to several chemicals including organic solvents such as dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloropropane. Although the exact cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the patients remain unknown, it is likely that the development of cholangiocarcinoma was triggered during exposure to these chemicals. Some chemicals can act as environmental factors that lead to the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore, we believe that cholangiocarcinoma is a new type of occupational cancer.

  5. Development of Technologies to Utilize Laser Plasma Radiations Sources for Radiation Effects Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J F

    2007-01-31

    This final report will cover work performed over the period of November 11, 2005 to September 30, 2006 on the contract to develop technologies using laser sources for radiation effects sciences. The report will discuss four topic areas; the laser source experiments on the Gekko Laser at Osaka, Japan, planning for the Charge State Freeze Out experiments to be performed in calendar year 2007, a review of previous xenon gasbags on the LANL Trident laser to provide planning support to the May-June 2007 HELEN experiments.

  6. Incidence of otitis externa in dogs and cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, E; Fukata, T

    1981-05-02

    The incidence of otitis externa in dogs and cats admitted to the animal hospital of the University of Osaka Prefecture was investigated and the bacteria isolated were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Of the various breeds examined, the incidence of otitis externa was highest in miniature poodles and cocker spaniels and Himalayan and Persian cats. The organisms most commonly associated with otitis externa were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coagulase-positive staphylococci, streptococci and Escherichia coli. Most staphylococci were susceptible to the antibiotics tested, but 15 per cent of staphylococci were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes species were resistant to almost all antibiotics except gentamicin and colistin.

  7. Simultaneous Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency and Power by PID Double Feedback Control on the Acceleration and Anode Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present the results of simultaneous stabilization of both the frequency and the output power by a double PID feedback control on the acceleration and anode voltages in the 460-GHz gyrotron FU CW GVI, also known as "Gyrotron FU CW GO-1" (according to the nomenclature adopted at Osaka University). The approach used in the experiments is based on the modulation of the cyclotron frequency and the pitch factor (velocity ratio) of the electron beam by varying the acceleration and the anode voltages, respectively. In a long-term experiment, the frequency and power stabilities were made to be better than ±10-6 and ±1%, respectively.

  8. High Repetition Rate Electron Beam RF-Acceleration and Sub-Millimeter Wave Generation Via a Free Electron Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-14

    D.S. Furuno, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., W.J. Nunan , Haibo Cao, "Compact, High Power Millimeter Wave Sources," Proc. of Sixth Int. Conf. High Power Particle...Beams, Osaka, Japan (1986). (b) D.B. McDermott, W.J. Nunan and N.C. Luhmann, Jr., "A Prebunched 94 GHz Free Electron Laser," Proc. of the Eleventh IEEE...Int. Conf. IR and mm-Waves, Pisa, Italy (1986). (c) W.J. Nunan , D.B. McDermott and N.C. Luhmann, Jr., "A High Duty Cycle, Compact 94 GHz FEL," Bull

  9. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, a moderately halophilic bacterium that produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, which was isolated in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan, and which produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The total length of the assembled genome is 4,992,811 bp, and 4,220 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. Genes encoding proteins that are involved in the production and depolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were identified. The identification of these genes might be of use in the production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate.

  10. Tuberculous Fasciitis in Polymyositis: A Rare Case of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Ikue; Nagatoya, Katsuyuki; Kurahara, Yu; Mega, Akira; Morita, Masashi; Haga, Ryota; Yamanouchi, Yu; Yamaguchi, Yoshito; Oka, Tatsufumi; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with polymyositis presenting with left thigh pain and an intermittent fever was admitted to Osaka Rosai Hospital. We initially diagnosed that her pain and fever were caused by a soft tissue infection because her polymyositis was controlled. She did not respond to various antibiotic therapies. Chest computed tomography demonstrated miliary tuberculosis (TB). Ziehl-Neelsen staining of liver biopsy specimens revealed epithelioid cell granuloma and acid-fast bacilli. Therefore, we finally diagnosed the lesion as TB fasciitis that improved with anti-TB drug therapy. The atypical presentation of TB fasciitis demonstrates the clinical importance of eliminating TB infections in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:27803421

  11. Fine Structure of the Gamow-Teller Resonance in {sup 90}Nb and Level Density of 1{sup +} States

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Shevchenko, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Berg, G.P.A.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kamiya, J.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Fujita, H.; Smit, F.D.

    2006-01-13

    The fine structure of the Gamow-Teller resonance in a medium-heavy nucleus is observed for the first time in a high-resolution {sup 90}Zr({sup 3}He,t){sup 90}Nb experiment at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Using a novel wavelet analysis technique, it is possible to extract characteristic energy scales and to quantify their relative importance for the generation of the fine structure. This method combined with the selectivity of the reaction permits an extraction of the level density of 1{sup +} states in {sup 90}Nb.

  12. Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy: 1: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Kaifu, Norio; Hayashi, Masa; Nakamura, Tsuko; Stewart, Ronald; Yokoo, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-01

    Japan was one of a number of nations that made important contributions in the fledgling field of radio astronomy in the years immediately following WWII. In this paper we discuss the invention of the Yagi-Uda antenna and the detection of solar radio emission in 1938, before reviewing radio astronomical developments that occurred between 1948 and 1961 in Osaka, Nagoya, Tokyo and Hiraiso. In order to place these early Japanese experiments in a national and international context we briefly review the world-wide development of radio astronomy in the immediate post-War years before discussing the growth of optical astronomy in Japan at this time.

  13. Studying the stars on earth: astrophysics on intense lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    1999-03-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is now performing significant astrophysics experiments on its huge Nova laser facility, and a similar effort has started at the Gekko laser facility at Osaka University in Japan. Our experiments on the Nova and Gekko lasers so far encourage us that our astrophysics work is already leading to a better understanding of the hydrodynamics of supernovae and astrophysical jets. The ability of large inertial confinement fusion lasers to recreate star-like conditions in the laboratory greatly improves our understanding of the heavens; for the first time in our history, we can study the stars up close on Earth.

  14. Development and Application of Low Energy X-Ray and Electron Physics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Ala- p . Arpi. ct-. I . (v-j30 "tq. mos, New Mexico , private communication. [20] R.H. Day, 21st Ann. Meeting of the...Osaka, Japon , September 1971), pp. 367-384. 40. "The Measurement of Inner Shell ionization Cross Sections for the 100- 1000 eV Region as Involved...December 1972 I i.4 1973 - Seminar at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (University of California), Los Alamos, New Mexico , January 1973 - Seminar at

  15. Disturbed mouse circadian rhythm before the Kobe EQ in 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko

    2013-04-01

    Legends of macro-anomalies before large earthquakes have been passed down for generations in Asia. Most of the statements on earthquake precursors are considered unreliable afterthoughts by traditional scientists. However, disturbed biological rhythms in mice were observed before the Kobe EQ in 1995 (Yokoi et al, 2003). The records of unusual mouse behavior before the earthquake were obtained to study biological clock at Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University. It is clarified that the disturbance was very rare phenomena statistically. Similar phenomenon was observed before the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, too (Li et al, 2009). In the presentation, I will discuss the phenomena as one example of preseismic unusual animal behaviors.

  16. Development of an L-Band RF Electron Gun for SASE in the Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kato, Ryukou; Isoyama, Goro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Junji

    2010-02-01

    We conduct research on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) in the infrared region using the 40 MeV, 1.3 GHz L-band linac of Osaka University. The linac equipped with a thermionic electron gun can accelerate a high-intensity single-bunch beam though its normalized emittance is high. In order to advance the research on SASE, we have begun development of an RF gun for the L-band linac in collaboration with KEK. We will report conceptual design of the RF gun and present the status of development of another RF gun for STF at KEK.

  17. A review of recent fusion neutronics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews experimental activities in fusion neutronics experiments since the last International Conference on Nuclear Data. Many experiments have been carried out in Japan at FNS/JAERI, OKTAVIAN /Osaka University and KURRI/Kyoto University. Experiments on Be were performed at INEL/USA, KfK/FRG, SINPC/PRC, OKTAVIAN/Japan and several institutes in CIS, Czech Republic and Ukraine. A new series of shielding experiments have been started at FNS, ENEA/Frascati, TUD and Russian institutes for ITER/EDA R&D program.

  18. Effect of a stable prostacyclin analogue on canine renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Tobimatsu, M; Ueda, Y; Toyoda, K; Saito, S; Konomi, K

    1987-01-01

    The effect of OP-41483 (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Osaka, Japan), a stable prostacyclin analogue, on canine renal allograft rejection was investigated. Administration for 4 days after transplantation significantly increased renal cortical blood flow and urine output when compared with untreated dogs with renal allografts. Serum creatinine levels remained relatively low during postoperative days 1-4. Mean animal survival time was prolonged. Vascular lesions and mononuclear cell infiltration were greatly diminished in biopsy specimens removed on day 4. This stable prostacyclin analogue provided a degree of protection against canine renal allograft rejection. Images Figs. 1A and B. PMID:3545109

  19. The MUSIC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Makoto

    2010-03-30

    A new muon channel, MUSIC, is being constructed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) at Osaka University in Japan. The muon channel utilizes a strong solenoidal magnetic field to collect pions and to transport muons. A large-bore superconducting coil encloses the pion-production target to capture pions with a large solid angle. A long solenoid magnet transports pions and muons with the capability to select the charge and momentum of the particles. The design of the solenoid channel is described in this paper.

  20. Converging shock generation with cone target filled with low density foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemori, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Hironaka, Y.; Kawashima, T.; Hattori, S.; Nagatomo, H.; Kato, H.; Sato, N.; Watari, T.; Takagi, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have been developing an alternative scheme of fast ignition of inertial confinement targets with converging shock. Experiments were carried out on GEKKO-XII laser facility at ILE, Osaka University. We employed Au cone targets filled with low- density RF foam (2 mg/cm3). The foam-filled cone targets were irradiated by three beams of the GEKKO-XII, with pulse duration of 1.3 ns, intensity of ∼ 1014 W/cm2 in 2 :λ(ω0.527μm). Self-emission at the tip of cone was observed by one-dimensional streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) and two-dimensional images.

  1. Committees and supporting organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    Advisory Committee:Organizing Committee: Marcello Baldo (Catania)Takaharu Otsuka (Tokyo), co-chair George Bertsch (Seattle)Michael Urban (Orsay), co-chair Jean-Paul Blaizot (Saclay)Taiichi Yamada (Yokohama) Michel Girod (Bruyères-le-Châtel)Nguyen van Giai (Orsay) Hisashi Horiuchi (Osaka)Shinichiro Fujii (Tokyo) Umberto Lombardo (Catania)Jérôme Margueron (Orsay) Gerd Röpke (Rostock)Kouichi Hagino (Sendai) Hiroyuki Sagawa (Aizu)Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo (Kyoto) Piet Van Isacker (Caen) Enrico Vigezzi (Milano) IPN logo    EFES logo    CNRS logo    ihp logo

  2. Holocene relative sea-level change in Hiroshima Bay, Japan: A semi-quantitative reconstruction based on ostracodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Seto, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Holocene relative sea-level changes in Hiroshima Bay were reconstructed from fossil ostracodes from a core, using a semi-quantitative method. In Hiroshima Bay, relative sea level rose rapidly (about 25 m) between ca. 9000 cal yr BP and ca. 5800 cal yr BP, after which it gradually fell (about 5 m) to its present level. The peak in relative sea level occurred at ca. 5800 cal yr BP. The sea-level curve for Hiroshima Bay is similar to curves for tectonically stable areas of Japan (e.g., Osaka Bay). ?? by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.

  3. Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Jago-on, Karen Ann Bianet; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujikura, Ryo; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Toru; Zhang, Junyi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Katsuya; Lee, Backjin; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    This paper synthesizes existing information and knowledge on subsurface environments to understand the major cause and effect relationships of subsurface environmental issues by using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response) approach as the framework of analysis. Description is given to the major subsurface environmental issues common among the selected Asian cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei and Tokyo), such as excessive groundwater abstraction, land subsidence and groundwater contamination. The DPSIR framework is used to analyze the issues and problems of subsurface in key stages and suggestions are made for additional indicators to improve our description of the stages of urban development for the future.

  4. EGDM foam shell status report (TAT 95-049)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.; Overturf, G.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1995-06-27

    We have completed an investigation of a low density foam made from ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM). We are confident that we have attained foam properties similar to those reported by Osaka, such as foam density ({approximately}60 mg/cc) and visibility of optical interference fringes. However, the material undergoes significant shrinkage during supercritical CO{sub 2} drying which hinders additional target fabrication steps. We also discuss issues related to preparing shells using a droplet generator and overcoating this material with hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of diallyl phthalate prepolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.; Parker, B.G.

    1982-12-01

    Methods for the laboratory synthesis of diallyl phthalate prepolymers were evaluated. The chemical, physical, and molecular weight properties of several prepolymers synthesized were also evaluated and compared to those properties exhibited by Dapon 35 and Daiso 35, manufactured by FMC Corporation and Osaka-Soda, respectively. Glass-filled molding compounds from four of the prepolymers having molecular weight distributions ranging from 1.9 to 40.2 were prepared and tested at the Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility. The processing characteristics and physical and electrical properties of two molding compounds were found to be comparable to similar compounds made from Dapon 35 and Daiso 35.

  6. Construction of In-house Databases in a Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yohzo

    The author outlines the inhouse technical information system, OSTI of Osaka Research Institute, Sumitomo Chemical company as an example of inhouse database construction and use at a chemical industry. This system is to compile database for technical information generated inside the Laboratory and to provide online searching as well as title lists of the latest data output from it aiming at effective use of information among the departments, prevention from overlapped research thema, and support of research activities. The system outline, characteristics, materials to be covered, input items and search examples are described.

  7. myPresto/omegagene: a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulator tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kota; Ma, Benson; Goto, Kota; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Higo, Junichi; Fukuda, Ikuo; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Akiyama, Yutaka; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational approach to investigate dynamical behavior of molecular systems at the atomic level. Here, we present a new MD simulation engine named “myPresto/omegagene” that is tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic potential scheme. Our enhanced conformational sampling methods, e.g., the virtual-system-coupled multi-canonical MD (V-McMD) method, replace a multi-process parallelized run with multiple independent runs to avoid inter-node communication overhead. In addition, adopting the non-Ewald-based zero-multipole summation method (ZMM) makes it possible to eliminate the Fourier space calculations altogether. The combination of these state-of-the-art techniques realizes efficient and accurate calculations of the conformational ensemble at an equilibrium state. By taking these advantages, myPresto/omegagene is specialized for the single process execution with Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We performed benchmark simulations for the 20-mer peptide, Trp-cage, with explicit solvent. One of the most thermodynamically stable conformations generated by the V-McMD simulation is very similar to an experimentally solved native conformation. Furthermore, the computation speed is four-times faster than that of our previous simulation engine, myPresto/psygene-G. The new simulator, myPresto/omegagene, is freely available at the following URLs: http://www.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/rcsfp/pi/omegagene/ and http://presto.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/myPresto4/. PMID:27924276

  8. A Study on Site Diversity Techniques Related to Rain Area Motion Using Ku-Band Satellite Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Yasuyuki; Nakatani, Takayuki; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Hatsuda, Takeshi

    Directions and speeds of the motion of rain areas are estimated for each type of rain fronts, using time differences detected in the rain attenuation of the Ku-band satellite radio wave signals that have been measured at Osaka Electro-Communication University (OECU) in Neyagawa, Osaka, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH) in Uji, Kyoto, and MU Observatory (MU) of Kyoto University in Shigaraki, Shiga, for the past five years since September 2002. These directions and speeds are shown to agree well with those directly obtained from the motion of rain fronts in the weather charts published by Japan Meteorological Agency. The rain area motion is found to have characteristic directions according to each rain type, such as cold and warm fronts or typhoon. A numerical estimate of the effects of site diversity techniques indicates that between two sites among the three locations (OECU, RISH, MU) separated by 20-50km, the joint cumulative time percentages of rain attenuation become lower as the two sites are aligned along the directions of rain area motion. In such a case, compared with the ITU-R recommendations, the distance required between the two sites may be, on an average, reduced down to about 60-70% of the conventional predictions.

  9. Investigation of the environmental change pattern of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery clearly identifies the relationships between the status of erosion, effluent patterns affected by the coastal current, and the cultural construction activities. Simple photographic techniques can be used for detecting water mass distribution separately from cloud cover and also noise caused by reflected sunlight from wave surfaces. Polluted water does not diffuse continuously into the oceanic water, but forms masses in the water in the Kuroshio area. The polluted or turbid water in the area just north of the Tomogashima Channel, the south outlet of the Osaka Bay, shows that the northward tidal current runs in a clockwise eddy at the tidal period when the imagery was taken. Such an eddy-like pattern of tidal current had never been revealed by conventional oceanographic data. A front between an oceanic water mass and a polluted water mass runs in a NW-SE direction in the central part of the Osaka Bay. The patterns of turbid water discharged from the Kii River and Yoshino River show a northward tidal current in the North Kii Straits. The pattern of lighter turbid or polluted water located in the northwest region of the North Kii straits suggests the existence of a clockwise eddy in the straits.

  10. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  11. Genetic Testing for Huntington's Disease in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Nagai, Y; Popiel, H A; Fujikake, N; Okamoto, Y; Ahmed, M U; Islam, M A; Islam, M T; Ahmed, S; Rahman, K M; Uddin, M J; Dey, S K; Ahmed, Q; Hossain, M A; Jahan, N; Toda, T

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to find out Huntington's disease (HD) by genetic analysis from those presenting with parkinsonism in the Neurology department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. A sample of about 5ml blood was collected by veni puncture in EDTA tube with informed consent from 9 patients & 7 healthy individuals after approval of the institutional ethics committee for genetic study. The neurological disorder along with a complete history and physical findings were recorded in a prescribed questionnaire by the neurologists of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. Extraction of genomic DNA from the venous blood using FlexiGene DNA kit (Qiagen, Japan) was performed in Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The extracted DNA was stored and accumulated and then these DNA were sent to Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan for PCR and further analysis. PCR amplification of the CAG repeat in the 1T15 gene was performed with primers HD1 and HD3. HD PCR products revealed the DNA product of about 110bp (no. of CAG repeats=21) to 150bp (no. of CAG repeats=34) in both healthy individual and suspected PD patient DNA.

  12. Oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Norimichi; Daimon, Tohru; Sato, Keiichi

    1996-12-31

    Nitrite is known to be oxidized to nitrate by freezing much more rapidly than in solution. Furthermore, the oxidation efficiency of nitrite to nitrate by freezing is varied by pH or kinds and concentration of coexistences. We report here the oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples. The field rain samples were collected at Mt. Ikoma, which is located at about 20 km east of Osaka city, and Osaka Prefecture University. Concentration of nitrite was usually sub to a few {mu}mol/L order in rain and {mu}mol/L order in fog and less than 1 {mu}mol/L in snow. The highest value of nitrite concentration was 43 {mu}mol/L in rain and 620 {mu}mol/L in fog. Nitrite was oxidized immediately to nitrate by freezing at pH lower than 5.2, even when the sample droplet (about 1 mm diameter) was frozen very quickly in liquid nitrogen (77K). The oxidation efficiency was higher at lower pH. However, the efficiency varied from sample to sample. This is probably due to that kinds and concentration of coexistences were difference between samples. The effect of solutes will be also reported. Freezing of rain droplets are observed in freezing of super cooled droplets, growing of graupel and hail, growing of cumulonimbus, and so on. Ratio of nitrate to nitrite was higher in snow than that in rain or fog.

  13. Comparison of two confocal micro-XRF spectrometers with different design aspects

    PubMed Central

    Smolek, S; Nakazawa, T; Tabe, A; Nakano, K; Tsuji, K; Streli, C; Wobrauschek, P

    2014-01-01

    Two different confocal micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometers have been developed and installed at Osaka City University and the Vienna University of Technology Atominstitut. The Osaka City University system is a high resolution spectrometer operating in air. The Vienna University of Technology Atominstitut spectrometer has a lower spatial resolution but is optimized for light element detection and operates under vacuum condition. The performance of both spectrometers was compared. In order to characterize the spatial resolution, a set of nine specially prepared single element thin film reference samples (500 nm in thickness, Al, Ti, Cr, Fe Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, and Au) was used. Lower limits of detection were determined using the National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material glass standard 1412. A paint layer sample (cultural heritage application) and paint on automotive steel samples were analyzed with both instruments. The depth profile information was acquired by scanning the sample perpendicular to the surface. © 2013 The Authors. X-Ray Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26430286

  14. [Facts visualized through job support activities for mentally disordered persons--what is the objective of medical treatment for mental disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent investigation by the Public Employment Security Office, the rate of employing mentally disordered persons is increasing. In the report, it was predicted that the number of employed mentally disordered persons will exceed the number of physically disordered persons within a few years, and will become the highest of the main three disabled types. Despite the strong desire of mentally disordered persons to work, supporting systems have been inadequate. In 2007, mental clinic doctors in Osaka took the lead and established the NPO Osaka Job Support Network for Mentally Disordered Persons (JSN) to support their employment persons. We aimed to establish a support system for mentally disordered persons who have a strong will to work, stating "I would like to work" to their family doctors, who introduce JSN to the patients, and then the family doctors and JSN cooperate to support the patients to realize the desire to "work". Since April 2013, 49 persons have found a job and "graduated" from JSN. Over 6 years until the end of March, 2013, a total of 154 persons found jobs and "graduated" from JSN. From now on, it is expected that around 50 persons will find jobs and "graduate" from JSN every year. It is definitely insufficient just to repeat "temporary" medical treatment for mental disorders with a long course like schizophrenia. A care management view that values the hopes and dreams of patients is required in psychiatric treatment.

  15. myPresto/omegagene: a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulator tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic scheme.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Ma, Benson; Goto, Kota; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Higo, Junichi; Fukuda, Ikuo; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Akiyama, Yutaka; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational approach to investigate dynamical behavior of molecular systems at the atomic level. Here, we present a new MD simulation engine named "myPresto/omegagene" that is tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic potential scheme. Our enhanced conformational sampling methods, e.g., the virtual-system-coupled multi-canonical MD (V-McMD) method, replace a multi-process parallelized run with multiple independent runs to avoid inter-node communication overhead. In addition, adopting the non-Ewald-based zero-multipole summation method (ZMM) makes it possible to eliminate the Fourier space calculations altogether. The combination of these state-of-the-art techniques realizes efficient and accurate calculations of the conformational ensemble at an equilibrium state. By taking these advantages, myPresto/omegagene is specialized for the single process execution with Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We performed benchmark simulations for the 20-mer peptide, Trp-cage, with explicit solvent. One of the most thermodynamically stable conformations generated by the V-McMD simulation is very similar to an experimentally solved native conformation. Furthermore, the computation speed is four-times faster than that of our previous simulation engine, myPresto/psygene-G. The new simulator, myPresto/omegagene, is freely available at the following URLs: http://www.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/rcsfp/pi/omegagene/ and http://presto.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/myPresto4/.

  16. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  17. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  18. Distribution and pollutant load of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage treatment plants and water from Japanese Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kakutani, Naoya; Sudo, Miki

    2014-09-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, and ε-HBCD) were investigated in river water, sewage influent, and sewage effluent from the Yodo River basin, Japan. The mean annual values of HBCDs ranged from 0.19 to 14ngL(-1) in river water. We observed that the concentrations of HBCDs in the brackish water area were low compared with that in the fresh water area. It was implied that, when the flow of the river stagnated in the estuarine area, HBCDs settled with suspended matter because of their hydrophobic character. In the sewage treatment plants, HBCDs ranged from 16 to 400ngL(-1) in sewage influent, whereas they ranged from 0.39 to 12ngL(-1) in sewage effluent. Over 90% of HBCDs were removed from the wastewater in the sewage treatment plants. By using these results, we estimated the pollutant load of HBCDs that flows into Osaka Bay from the study area. It was estimated that approximately 15kg of HBCDs flow into Osaka Bay from the study area in a year. This value is five orders of magnitude lower than the 2010 market demand for HBCDs (3019 metrictons) in Japan.

  19. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  20. PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express

  1. Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Yamaura, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sano, T.; Shimoda, R.; Tomita, K.; Uchino, K.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mizuta, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Crowston, R.; Woolsey, N.; Doyle, H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Michaut, C.; Pelka, A.; Yuan, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J.; Wang, F.; Takabe, H.

    2016-03-01

    One of the important and interesting problems in astrophysics and plasma physics is collimation of plasma jets. The collimation mechanism, which causes a plasma flow to propagate a long distance, has not been understood in detail. We have been investigating a model experiment to simulate astrophysical plasma jets with an external magnetic field [Nishio et al., EPJ. Web of Conferences 59, 15005 (2013)]. The experiment was performed by using Gekko XII HIPER laser system at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We shot CH plane targets (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 μm) and observed rear-side plasma flows. A collimated plasma flow or plasma jet was generated by separating focal spots of laser beams. In this report, we measured plasma jet structure without an external magnetic field with shadowgraphy, and simultaneously measured the local parameters of the plasma jet, i.e., electron density, electron and ion temperatures, charge state, and drift velocity, with collective Thomson scattering.

  2. Seismic monitoring and real time damage estimation for lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro; Ogawa, Yasuo

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the number of damaged locations of lifeline systems based on seismic monitoring ground motions taking consideration of liquefaction phenomena. The liquefaction area and the number of damage to the lifeline facilities can be synthetically indicated by a personal computer program developed for this purpose. The method is based on the real time observed data of strong ground motions. Osaka Gas Company had been developing the real time damage simulation system by planning to set additional tele-meter seismographs when the Hanshin Great Earthquake occurred. Other lifelines such as electricity, telecommunication, water and sewage systems in quake-hit area had not such a real time damage simulation tool based on observed ground motions. On the other hand, these lifelines have their own damage detection system such as pressure, flow, relay signal, etc.

  3. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  4. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. Level Structure Above the T1/2 = 2 . 0 ×105 yr Isomer in 186Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matters, D. A.; McClory, J. W.; Kondev, F. G.; Carpenter, M. P.; Carroll, J. J.; Chiara, C. J.; Lane, G. J.; Kibédi, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Fang, Y.; Watanabe, H.; E435 Cagra Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The level structure above the Kπ = (8+) , 149-keV isomer in 186Re is largely undeveloped. The isomer could play a role in the s-process nucleosynthesis of 187Os and 187Re and affect the accuracy of the Re-Os cosmochronometer. An experiment was conducted at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) at Osaka University, Japan, using the Clover Array Gamma-ray spectrometer at RCNP/RIBF for Advanced research (CAGRA) to measure γ-ray coincidences from (d , 2 n) reactions on an enriched 186W target. The γ - γ coincidence data obtained from the CAGRA array were analyzed along with data from a similar experiment performed in 2006 at the Australian National University. A preliminary analysis of the data reveals several new levels and transitions feeding the 186mRe isomer.

  6. Program of Research Internship as Vocational Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Masanori

    Program of Research Internship as Vocational Education has been carried out in Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University last year. Agreement of the internship has been promoted by discussing plan, adjustment and practice for the graduate school students in the company. The company has proposed many research themes for students and explained the contents in the meeting. The students submitted the application forms including their desired theme, curriculum vitae, motivation, appeal and activity, and the company accepted the students as research students. The selected students experienced the internship research works in various research centers. The meeting for reporting the experiences was set, joined by the students, persons in charge of the internship in the company, university supervisors, dean, members of the internship committee and office workers. Resultantly, the students caught different and fresh impression for the internship research and were considered to be encouraged for the advanced study.

  7. The progress in the neutron diagnostics in the Fast Ignition experiment with GEKKO XII and LFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Sakata, Shohei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    In the fast ignitor experiment the neutron diagnostics is very challenging due to too large backgrounds originated from hard X ray. In the Fast Ignition integrated experimental campaign held in 2010 in GEKKO XII and LFEX facility in Institute of Laser Engineering Osaka (ILE), the Xylen based new liquid scintillator coupled with the gated photomultiplier tube has successfully recorded neutron signal with heating the energy of up to 400 J. However there was significant large background in the signal originated from neutrons via (γ,n) reaction from the target chamber wall. The neutron collimator was developed and implemented to suppress these neutron backgrounds. We succeeded to record a very clear neutron signals in every shot in the fast ignitor experimental campaign held in July 2012 with the heating laser energy of around 1000 J with the pulse width of 2.2 ps. The details of the detector and the result of the fast ignition experiment will be presented.

  8. CHRONICLE: International forum on advanced high-power lasers and applications (AHPLA '99)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, Yurii V.; Zavestovskaya, I. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Senatsky, Yu V.; Starodub, Aleksandr N.

    2000-05-01

    A review of reports made on the International Forum on Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications, which was held at the beginning of November 1999 in Osaka (Japan), is presented. Five conferences were held during the forum on High-Power Laser Ablation, High-Power Lasers in Energy Engineering, High-Power Lasers in Civil Engineering and Architecture, High-Power Lasers in Manufacturing, and Advanced High-Power Lasers. The following trends in the field of high-power lasers and their applications were presented: laser fusion, laser applications in space, laser-triggered lightning, laser ablation of materials by short and ultrashort pulses, application of high-power lasers in manufacturing, application of high-power lasers in mining, laser decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear reactors, high-power solid-state and gas lasers, x-ray and free-electron lasers. One can find complete information on the forum in SPIE, vols. 3885-3889.

  9. Complete dipole strength distributions in 208Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° at incident energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon is established as a new spectrospcopic tool for the study of E1 and M1 strength distributions. Experiments of this type have been realized recently at RCNP, Osaka, Japan with high energy resolution of the order 25 - 30 keV (FWHM). Using 208Pb as an example, the physics potential of such data is discussed. It includes information on the properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance but also on complete E1 and M1 strength distributions and thus the gamma strength function. The E1 polarizability can be extracted with a precision of about 4% providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb.

  10. Shell model description of Gamow-Teller strengths in pf-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Srivastava, P. C.

    2016-06-01

    A systematic shell model description of the experimental Gamow-Teller transition strength distributions in 42Ti , 46Cr , 50Fe and 54Ni is presented. These transitions have been recently measured via β -decay of these T_z=-1 nuclei, produced in fragmentation reactions at GSI and also with (3He, t) charge-exchange (CE) reactions corresponding to T_z=+1 to T_z=0 carried out at RCNP-Osaka. The calculations are performed in the pf model space, using the GXPF1a and KB3G effective interactions. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the individual transitions, while the calculated summed transition strengths closely reproduce the observed ones.

  11. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from 300 MeV Proton Scatttering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk

    The gamma strength function (GSF) as well as total level densities (LDs) in 208Pb and 96Mo were extracted from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at RCNP, Osaka, Japan, and compared to experimental results obtained with the Oslo method in order to test the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The case of 208Pb is inconclusive because of strong fluctuations of the GSF due to the small level density in a doubly closed-shell nucleus. In 96Mo the data are consistent with the BA hypothesis. The good agreement of LDs provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LDs in Oslo-type experiments.

  12. Numerical analysis of Laser Driven Rayleigh-Tayor instability at short wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Mima, Kunioki; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Sawada, Keisuke; Takabe, Hideaki

    2001-10-01

    For the inertial confinement fusion, it is important to simulate and predict the hydrodynamic instabilities. An integrated implosion simulation code was developed in ILE Osaka for IFE and other application usage. This new 2-D implosion code is based on ALE algorithm extended from CIP method which is robust and less numerical dissipation. To validate the code, various simulations of implosion and planner target were performed. In this presentation, the analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability will be shown mainly. In recent experiment by GXII Laser, the growth of RT instability at the range of short wavelength of the perturbation below the 30μm were measured with precision. Numerical analysis of the same condition using the new code was performed. The detail result will be shown in this presentation.

  13. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-15

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  14. Development of e-Learning Courses for Promoting Student's Global Competency-Basic Courses as a Guide to ESP Education in Advanced Science and Technology-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Mikako; Nakajima, Mikio; Iwai, Chiharu; Ogasawara, Fumie; Kishino, Fumio; Fukui, Kiichi

    Osaka University has been chosen for the FY2005's “Selected Efforts of the Distinctive University Education Support Program (Gendai GP/Good Practice) ”by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) . The aim of this project is to improve English proficiency of undergraduate students with scientific backgrounds. Under this strategic fund, e-Learning course contents were developed for instructing basic, yet practical English for Biotechnology during FY2005. Throughout the project, e-Learning contents will be developed for five other selected subjects of science i.e., 1) biotechnology, 2) information technology, 3) nano-technology, 4) environmental technology and 5) robotics technology, for undergraduate students as guiding courses to ESP education in graduate (higher) level.

  15. Results of Education Program of “Training of Designers for Town Renovation”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Yasutsugu; Inoi, Hiroto

    The paper introduces the outline and results of the education program of “Training of designers for town renovation”, which has been done for two years in Osaka University, sponsored by the Ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology. The program has three main aims as follows ; to understand three factors of town planning, “Shape”, “System” and “Mind” and master the design skills for realizing three factors, to master the design skills integrating three factors which are “Environment”, “Social” and “Economic”, and to perceive various people living, improve the ability of communicating and enhance the desire of participating town planning process.

  16. From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.

    2015-07-01

    Life Sciences in Space Research had a prominent presence at the International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR) meeting held in Kyoto, Japan from May 25th-29th, with seven of the eleven editors attending the meeting. A journal booth was also put up at the pre-ICRR satellite meeting on Space Radiation and Heavy Ions in Therapy (SRHITS) held a few days earlier in Osaka. Since the inception of LSSR last year, the editors and publisher have promoted the journal at a number of major conferences including COSPAR 2014 in Moscow, the annual meeting of the Radiation Research Society and the NASA Space Radiation Investigators Meeting. These efforts have increased awareness of the journal among investigators in space life sciences and related fields. The number of monthly downloads of articles from the journal website averages 2000, a respectable number for a brand new journal.

  17. Direct measurement of chemical composition of SOx in impact vapor using a laser gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Sohsuke; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hamura, Taiga; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Sugita, Seiji; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Watari, Takeshi; Matsui, Takafumi

    2011-06-01

    The SO3/SO2 ratio of the impact vapor cloud is a key parameter for understanding the environmental perturbation caused by the impact-induced SOx and the killing mechanism of. the mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. We conducted hypervelocity impact experiments using a high-speed laser gun (GEKKO XII-HIPER, ILE, Osaka University) and measured the chemical compositions of the SOx released from CaSO4. The experimental result indicates that SOx are dominated by SO3. It implies that the SOx generated by the K-Pg impact would have been also dominated by SO3, because the SO3/SO2 ratio of natural planetary scale impact vapor clouds would have been larger than that of the experimental result of this study.

  18. Bibliographic description of photo database : The case study of "EXPO '90", The Photo Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Advanced electronic technology enables to convert image information such as photos into the digital form and store the resulting data on to computers. Thus we have seen the movement toward constructing photo databases. One of the examples is the photo database exhibited at the Photo Museum of "EXPO '90" which will be held at Osaka in this coming April. Even image information database such as photos we have to still rely on languages when retrieving them. However, there exist different aspects from document information database so that we need to have much discussion on how to prepare guidelines or standards for bibliographic description of photo databases. Taking the Photo Museum as the case study this paper considers the photo databases. The bibliographic elements are categorized into four items; photographing behavior, photographing technique, title and subject. Particularly, subject category which can be searching keys, consists of sense information, subject class and keywords.

  19. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  20. Fabrication procedure for LiMn2O4/Graphite-based Lithium-ionRechargeable Pouch Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Zheng, Honghe; Battaglia, Vincent S.

    2007-04-30

    Procedures were developed at LBNL specifically for making electrodes and batteries of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) and MCMB (meso carbon micro beads) graphite for high-power applications (HEVs). Electrode performance can be very dependent on the materials used so it is pointed out that Toda M809 was used for the cathode active material and MCMB 10-28 from Osaka Gas was used for the anode active material. The conductive additives were Dankon black, an acetylene black, and SFG-6, a micron-size graphite. The binder used was PVdF (Kureha 1100). More details of these procedures can be found in the lab notebook of Gao Liu. These procedures are documented here but are continuously being refined, and should therefore be considered a work in progress.

  1. SAFIR operation and evaluation of it's performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.-I.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsuura, K.; Richard, P.; Matsui, Toshiaki; Sonoi, Yasuo; Shimokura, Naoyoshi

    1994-06-01

    SAFIR (Surveillance et d'Alerte Foudre par Interferometrie Radioelectrique) has been equipped and operated in Japan since June 12th, 1991 as a cooperative project among Osaka University, Kansai Electric Power Co. INC.(KEPCO), and the French manufacturer DIMENSIONS. The operational coverage covers Northern Kinki District, Wakasa District, and Hokuriku District. Hokuriku District is well known for its winter thunderstorm activity. The method for the evaluation was to take the cross-correlation between the meteorological radar echo pattern and the distribution pattern of lightning discharges detected by SAFIR. We obtained high cross-correlation coefficients and concluded that the SAFIR locations were shown to have statistically high accuracy. We also show the case study of the occurrence of the lightning strike, which is recorded by KEPCO, to evaluate the usefulness of the warning by SAFIR.

  2. Effects of the irradiation of a finite number of laser beams on the implosion of a cone-guided target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, T.; Sakagami, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Sunahara, A.

    2016-03-01

    In direct drive laser fusion, the non-uniformity of the laser absorption on the target surface caused by the irradiation of a finite number of laser beams is a sever problem. GekkoXII laser at Osaka University has twelve laser beams and is irradiated to the target with a dodecahedron orientation, in which the distribution of the laser absorption on the target surface becomes non-uniform. Furthermore, in the case of a cone-guided target, the laser irradiation orientation is more limited. In this paper, we conducted implosion simulations of the cone- guided target based on GekkoXII irradiation orientation and compared the case of using the twelve beams and nine beams where the three beams irradiating the cone region are cut. The implosion simulations were conducted by a three-dimensional pure hydro code.

  3. Operational experience of a large area x-ray camera for protein crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Joachimiak, A.; Jorden, A. R.; Loeffen, P. W.; Naday, I.; Sanishvili, R.; Westbrook, E. M.

    1999-07-13

    After 3 years experience of operating very large area (210mm x 210mm) CCD-based detectors at the Advanced Photon Source, operational experience is reported. Four such detectors have been built, two for Structural Biology Center (APS-1 and SBC-2), one for Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (Gold-2) at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source and one for Osaka University by Oxford Instruments, for use at Spring 8 (PX-21O). The detector is specifically designed as a high resolution and fast readout camera for macromolecular crystallography. Design trade-offs for speed and size are reviewed in light of operational experience and future requirements are considered. Operational data and examples of crystallography data are presented, together with plans for more development.

  4. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  5. Integrated simulations for ion beam assisted fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, H.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.

    2016-03-01

    Although the energy conversion efficiency from the heating laser to fast electrons is high, the coupling efficiency from fast electrons to the core is estimated to be very low due to large divergence angle of fast electrons in fast ignition experiments at ILE, Osaka University. To mitigate this problem, a plastic thin film or low-density foam, which can generate not only proton (H+) but also carbon (C6+) beams, is combined with currently used cone-guided targets and additional core heating by ions is expected. According to integrated simulations, it is found that these ion beams can enhance the core heating by 20∼60% and it shows a possibility of ion beam assisted fast ignition.

  6. COMMITTEES: Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009 Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Bruce Allen, AEI, Germany Patrick Brady, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA Deepto Chakrabarty, MIT, USA Eugenio Coccia, INFN, Gran Sasso, Italy James Cordes, Cornell University, USA Mario Díaz (Chair), University of Texas Brownsville, USA Sam Finn, Penn State, USA Neil Gehrels, NASA GSFC, USA Fredrick A Jenet, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Nobuyuki Kanda, Osaka City University, Japan Erik Katsavounides, MIT, USA Dick Manchester, ATNF, Australia Soumya Mohanty, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Benoit Mours, LAPP-Annecy, France Maria Alessandra Papa, AEI, Germany Kate Scholberg, Duke University, USA Susan Scott, The Australian National University Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham, UK Andrea Vicere, INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Italy Stan Whitcomb, LIGO CALTECH, USA Local Organising Committee (LOC) Paulo Freire (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Murray Lewis (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Wanda Wiley (University of Texas Brownsville, USA)

  7. [Study of novel artificial lung surfactants incorporating partially fluorinated amphiphiles].

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    Lung surfactants (LS), a complex of ∼90 wt% lipids (mainly dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine or DPPC) and ∼10 wt% surfactant proteins (SP-A, -B, -C, and -D), adsorb to an air-alveolar fluid interface and then lower its surface tension down to near zero during expiration. Intratracheal instillation of exogenous LS preparations can effectively compensate for surfactant deficiency in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfacten® (Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Osaka, Japan), a modified bovine lung extract and an effective surfactant replacement in treatment for RDS patients, is supplemented with DPPC, palmitic acid, and tripalmitin. For the premature infants suffering from RDS, instillation of Surfacten® leads to a dramatic improvement in lung function and compliance. Herein, the author reviews potential use of newly designed preparations containing a mimicking peptide of SP-B and also introduces the current research on the preparations incorporated with partially fluorinated amphiphiles to improve their efficacy.

  8. COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, E M; Sale, K E; Buck, R M; Descalle, M

    2004-02-23

    We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with experimental data and generally within a few % of MCNP results. There are several possible sources of discrepancy between MCNP and COG results: (1) the cross-section database versions are different, MCNP uses ENDFB VI 1.1 while COG uses ENDFB VIR7, (2) the code implementations are different, and (3) the models may differ slightly. We also limited the use of variance reduction methods when running the COG version of the problems.

  9. An observational study of insomnia and nightmare treated with trazodone in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Murai, Tasuku; Okazaki, Namiko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Kabeshita, Yasunobu; Ohno, Yumiko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2013-06-01

    Patients with cancer often experience insomnia. Nightmares are also a strong factor that interferes with the maintenance of comfortable and satisfying sleep. However, the prevalence and standard treatment of nightmares in patients with cancer have not been established yet. We aimed to treat insomnia and nightmares with trazodone. From 2008 to 2011, trazodone was prescribed to 30 patients with cancer who reported experiencing insomnia with or without nightmares to the palliative care team in Osaka University Hospital. Effective treatment was seen in 15 patients (50%). Four patients with cancer reported having severe nightmares and 2 patients had beneficial effects, with frightening dreams transformed into acceptable ones. Trazodone may be an effective drug for the treatment of insomnia and nightmares in patients with advanced cancer.

  10. Time-dependent density functional study on the photoisomerization mechanism of azobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Norihisa; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Takahisa

    2004-03-01

    Photochemical reactions in organic molecules have attracted considerable attention in semiconductor physics and also in bioscience. Azobenzene is a simple molecule which shows the reversible photoisomerization at high quantum yields, and can be used as a light-driven molecular switch and so on. However, the photoisomerization process of azobenzene is still an open question because of its femtosecond ultra-fast reaction. In this talk, we present time-dependent density functional calculations for the azobenzene molecule, and discuss the mechanism of photoisomerization induced by S1 and S2 excitations. This research is partially supported by ACT-JST, and also by FSIS and Special Coordination Funds of MEXT of Japanese Government. The calculations were carried out partly using the Numerical Materials Simulator in National Institute for Materials Science, and partly using the NEC-SX5 at Cybermedia Center of Osaka University.

  11. Estimating how and why Dr Okuda made a complete wooden human skeleton in the Edo era, Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hisao

    2007-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was precisely carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton, by a craftsman under the supervision of the medical doctor Banri Okuda in Osaka City. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. However, the claviculae, distal ends of the femora and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that the bones of the original model skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Furthermore, the skeleton may not have been used for medical education, but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  12. Impact of genotype-specific herd immunity on the circulatory dynamism of norovirus: a 10-year longitudinal study of viral acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Sakon, Naomi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Nakata, Keiko; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Yoda, Tomoko; Mantani, Masanobu; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Komano, Jun

    2015-03-15

    Human norovirus is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the transition of endemic norovirus genotypes remains poorly understood. The characteristics of natural immunity against norovirus are unclear because few studies have been performed in the natural infection setting. This prospective 10-year surveillance study of acute gastroenteritis in the province of Osaka, Japan, revealed that norovirus spread shows temporal, geographic, and age group-specific features in the humans. Genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was detected in most sporadic pediatric cases, as well as in foodborne and nursing home outbreaks, respectively. The dominant genotypes in outbreaks at childcare facilities and schools shifted every season and involved GI, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6. Evidence at both the facility and individual levels indicated that genotype-specific herd immunity lasted long enough to influence the endemic norovirus genotype in the next season. Thus, norovirus circulates through human populations in a uniquely dynamic fashion.

  13. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  14. Characterization of Hundreds of MeV 7Li(p,n) Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutron Source at RCNP Using a Proton Recoil Telescope and TOF Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Satoh, Daiki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tamii, Atsushi; Shima, Tatsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Nakamura, Takashi

    The peak neutron fluence of a quasi-monoenergetic 7Li(p,n) neutron source at RCNP of Osaka University have been measured for four incident proton energies between 100 and 300 MeV, using a proton recoil telescope (PRT) with event selection by a time-of-flight technique. We deduced the cross section of the peak neutron production reaction, 7Li(p,n0,1)7Be, at 0° and compared with that previously obtained with a time-of-flight (TOF) method employing an organic liquid scintillator. The results obtained with different methods are in agreement within their uncertainties and generally consistent with the other experimental data in several hundreds of MeV region.

  15. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  16. Identification of metabolites of nerve agent VX in serum collected from a victim.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, H; Katagi, M; Nishikawa, M; Tatsuno, M

    1998-09-01

    A human serum sample collected from a victim of the Osaka VX incident was analyzed according to our developed technique for metabolites of VX. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full-scan electron impact and chemical ionization modes were used, and, for more reliable confirmation, GC-MS-MS was also employed. In the serum sample, both ethyl methylphosphonic acid and 2-(diisopropylamino-ethyl)methyl sulfide were detected. These results indicated that the techniques using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS were applicable to biological samples such as serum. These results also provide the first documented, unequivocal identification of the specific metabolites of VX in victim's serum and, furthermore, clarify a part of the metabolic pathway of VX in the human body.

  17. [Historical study of a moth repellent "Fujisawa Camphor" (4) - newspaper advertisements for "Fujisawa Camphor" in the Meiji Era].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Newspaper advertisements were frequently available as one way of communicating news about new products to the general public during the middle of the Meiji Era. The first newspaper advertisement of "Fujisawa Camphor"' appeared in the Osaka Asahi on June 1, 1989. At that time, the newspaper advertisements of OTC were brilliant and the space taken by them was large, in some cases covering a full page. They appeared daily. However, the ad for Fujisawa Camphors was small and simple. The appeal points of the Fujisawa Camphor advertisement were as follows: 1. Fujisawa Camphor, crystals of refined camphor, are hard and colorless.2. It is effective for insecticide and prevents moisture.3. It is widely used by governments and the military.4. It removes bad smell to protect against infectious diseases.

  18. Measurements of Radiative Capture Cross Sections at Big Bang Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tanaka, Yutaro; Du, Hang; Ohnishi, Kousuke; Yagi, Shoichi; Sugihara, Takanobu; Hori, Taichi; Nakamura, Shoken; Yanagihara, Rikuto; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu; Nishimura, Daiki; Iwakiri, Shuichi; Kambayashi, Shohei; Kunimatsu, Shota; Sakakibara, Hikaru; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    We measured d(p, γ )3He cross sections at ECM = 0.12, 0.19, 0.44, and 0.57 MeV. In this energy region, available experimental values are systematically smaller than the recent calculation, so that additional experiments are desired for understanding the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The experiment was performed by bombarding proton beams to the D2 gas target with the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. The experimental d(p, γ )3He cross sections of the present study are systematically larger than previous data. On the other hand, recent theoretical results by Marcucci et al. are in good agreement with present experimental results.

  19. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  20. Delivering the world's most intense muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Edmonds, A.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Tran, N. H.; Truong, N. M.; Wing, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2017-03-01

    A new muon beam line, the muon science innovative channel, was set up at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, in Osaka, Japan, using the 392 MeV proton beam impinging on a target. The production of an intense muon beam relies on the efficient capture of pions, which subsequently decay to muons, using a novel superconducting solenoid magnet system. After the pion-capture solenoid, the first 36° of the curved muon transport line was commissioned and the muon flux was measured. In order to detect muons, a target of either copper or magnesium was placed to stop muons at the end of the muon beam line. Two stations of plastic scintillators located upstream and downstream from the muon target were used to reconstruct the decay spectrum of muons. In a complementary method to detect negatively charged muons, the x-ray spectrum yielded by muonic atoms in the target was measured in a germanium detector. Measurements, at a proton beam current of 6 pA, yielded (10.4 ±2.7 )×1 05 muons per watt of proton beam power (μ+ and μ-), far in excess of other facilities. At full beam power (400 W), this implies a rate of muons of (4.2 ±1.1 )×1 08 muons s-1 , among the highest in the world. The number of μ- measured was about a factor of 10 lower, again by far the most efficient muon beam produced. The setup is a prototype for future experiments requiring a high-intensity muon beam, such as a muon collider or neutrino factory, or the search for rare muon decays which would be a signature for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such a muon beam can also be used in other branches of physics, nuclear and condensed matter, as well as other areas of scientific research.

  1. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  2. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal

  3. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys’ teasing, 67.1% of girls’ teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08–7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53– 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  4. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  5. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe.

  6. Occurrence of fluoroquinolones and fluoroquinolone-resistance genes in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Fumie; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Kawahara, Ryuji

    2013-02-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have been detected in aquatic environments in several countries. Long-term exposure to low levels of antimicrobial agents provides selective pressure, which might alter the sensitivity of bacteria to antimicrobial agents in the environment. Here, we examined FQ levels and the resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to FQs by phenotyping and genotyping. In the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, enfloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 570 ng L(-1). FQ-resistant E. coli were also found. Although no obvious correlation was detected between the concentration of FQs and the presence of FQ-resistant E. coli, FQ-resistant E. coli were detected in samples along with FQs, particularly ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Most FQ-resistant E. coli carried mutations in gyrA, parC, and parE in quinolone resistance-determining regions. No mutations in gyrB were detected in any isolates. Amino acid changes in these isolates were quite similar to those in clinical isolates. Six strains carried the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrS1 and expressed low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid: the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.25 μg mL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, and from 8 to 16 μg mL(-1) for nalidixic acid. This finding confirmed that plasmids containing qnr genes themselves did not confer full resistance to quinolones. Because plasmids are responsible for much of the horizontal gene transfer, these genes may transfer and spread in the environment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrS1 in the aquatic environment, and this investigation provides baseline data on antimicrobial resistance profiles in the Osaka area.

  7. Associations of day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the impacts of temperature on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day temperature change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold temperature in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) ranging from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day temperature change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day temperature change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean temperature. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for temperature-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean temperature and DTR.

  8. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  10. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys' teasing, 67.1% of girls' teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08-7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53- 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  11. Trend analysis of cancer incidence in Japan using data from selected population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Ajiki, Wakiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ioka, Akiko; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-02-01

    Population-based cancer registries are operated by over 80% of prefectures in Japan. However, only a limited proportion of the registries can provide long-term incidence data. Here, we aimed to establish a method for monitoring cancer incidence trends in Japan using data from selected prefectures. Based on the availability of long-term (≥ 20 years) high-quality data, we collected incidence data from five prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, Osaka, and Nagasaki), which included an annual average of 54,539 primary cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 2004. Cancer mortality data for 1995-2004 were obtained from the vital statistics. Representativeness and homogeneity of the trends were examined by funnel plot analysis of log-linear regression coefficients calculated for the most recent 10 years of data (1995-2004) of age-standardized rates (ASR). The ASR of incidence for five prefectures in total (5-pref total) showed a significant decrease, with an annual percent change (APC) of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.4: -0.6) for males and -0.4 (95% CI -0.8: -0.1) for females. Excluding data from Osaka (4-pref total) reversed the decreasing trend; the corresponding APC was +0.4 (95% CI -0.2: +1.0) for males and +0.7 (95% CI +0.5: +0.9) for females. The APCs for the ASR of mortality for the 4-pref total (males, -1.5; females, -1.3) were more representative of nationwide data (males, -1.4 [95% CI -1.7: -1.2]; females, -1.1 [95% CI -1.4: -0.9]) than those for the 5-pref total (males, -1.7; females, -1.4). We conclude that using data from Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, and Nagasaki prefectures, with continuous monitoring of the representativeness of the data, is a provisionally relevant way to evaluate cancer incidence trends in Japan.

  12. Regional differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan: application of relative survival models with funnel plots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2009-07-01

    We used new methods to examine differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan, after adjustment for age and stage at diagnosis. We applied regression models for relative survival to data from population-based cancer registries covering each prefecture for patients diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer during 1993-1996. Funnel plots were used to display the excess hazard ratio (EHR) for each prefecture, defined as the excess hazard of death from each cancer within 5 years of diagnosis relative to the mean excess hazard (in excess of national background mortality by age and sex) in all six prefectures combined. The contribution of age and stage to the EHR in each prefecture was assessed from differences in deviance-based R(2) between the various models. No significant differences were seen between prefectures in 5-year survival from breast cancer. For cancers of the stomach and lung, EHR in Osaka prefecture were above the upper 95% control limits. For stomach cancer, the age- and stage-adjusted EHR in Osaka were 1.29 for men and 1.43 for women, compared with Fukui and Yamagata. Differences in the stage at diagnosis of stomach cancer appeared to explain most of this excess hazard (61.3% for men, 56.8% for women), whereas differences in age at diagnosis explained very little (0.8%, 1.3%). This approach offers the potential to quantify the impact of differences in stage at diagnosis on time trends and regional differences in cancer survival. It underlines the utility of population-based cancer registries for improving cancer control.

  13. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

    2008-12-01

    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  14. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  15. Cyclic Steps and Antidunes : Relating Their Features to a Suspension Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kishima, Y.; Parker, G.

    2010-12-01

    Cyclic Steps and Antidunes : Relating Their Features to a Suspension Index Miwa Yokokawa (1), Yasushi Kishima (1), Gary Parker (2, 3) 1: Osaka Institute of Technology, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan 2: Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A. 3: Dept. of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A. There are very few comparative studies of the differences in hydraulic conditions and morphologic features of bed- and water-surface-waves associated with cyclic steps and antidunes. In this study, the features of both the bed and the water surface, as well as hydraulic conditions are examined over the spectrum from antidune to cyclic steps. Experiments were performed using a flume at the Osaka Institute of Technology. The resultant features of the bedforms are as follows. In the case of antidunes, bed waves and water surface waves are in phase except when they collapse. Antidunes show several kinds of behavior; migrating downstream, standing, or migrating upstream. Upstream-migrating antidunes are divided into non-breaking, and breaking-types. Breaking antidunes appear alternatively with the plane bed state. Cyclic steps migrate upstream regularly associated with trains of hydraulic jumps, which divide each step. There is a significant change in water depth at the hydraulic jump, so that the phasing between the bed waves and water surface waves break at the each hydraulic jump. There is a kind of compromise between cyclic steps and antidunes, which we designate as “intermediate steps”. They move upstream and are associated with regular trains of hydraulic jumps. The jumps, however, occasionally collapse toward upstream. When this happens, bed waves move rapidly upstream; low-amplitude water surface waves and bed waves become in phase all over the bed shortly after the collapse. Then after some time, water surface waves become sufficiently prominent to yield regular hydraulic jumps. This cycle is then repeated

  16. Stress transferred by the 1995 Mw = 6.9 Kobe, Japan, shock: Effect on aftershocks and future earthquake probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Dieterich, J.H.; Yoshida, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Kobe earthquake struck at the edge of the densely populated Osaka-Kyoto corridor in southwest Japan. We investigate how the earthquake transferred stress to nearby faults, altering their proximity to failure and thus changing earthquake probabilities. We find that relative to the pre-Kobe seismicity, Kobe aftershocks were concentrated in regions of calculated Coulomb stress increase and less common in regions of stress decrease. We quantify this relationship by forming the spatial correlation between the seismicity rate change and the Coulomb stress change. The correlation is significant for stress changes greater than 0.2-1.0 bars (0.02-0.1 MPa), and the nonlinear dependence of seismicity rate change on stress change is compatible with a state- and rate-dependent formulation for earthquake occurrence. We extend this analysis to future mainshocks by resolving the stress changes on major faults within 100 km of Kobe and calculating the change in probability caused by these stress changes. Transient effects of the stress changes are incorporated by the state-dependent constitutive relation, which amplifies the permanent stress changes during the aftershock period. Earthquake probability framed in this manner is highly time-dependent, much more so than is assumed in current practice. Because the probabilities depend on several poorly known parameters of the major faults, we estimate uncertainties of the probabilities by Monte Carlo simulation. This enables us to include uncertainties on the elapsed time since the last earthquake, the repeat time and its variability, and the period of aftershock decay. We estimate that a calculated 3-bar (0.3-MPa) stress increase on the eastern section of the Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) near Kyoto causes fivefold increase in the 30-year probability of a subsequent large earthquake near Kyoto; a 2-bar (0.2-MPa) stress decrease on the western section of the ATTL results in a reduction in probability by a factor of 140 to

  17. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  18. PREFACE: Yamada Conference LX on Research in High Magnetic Fields (RHMF2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

    2006-12-01

    The 60th Yamada Conference on Research in High Magnetic Fields (RHMF2006) was held at Sendai Civic Auditorium, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from 16 19 August 2006, as the 8th RHMF. The first was held in Osaka (1982) followed by Leuven (1988), Amsterdam (1991), Nijmegen (1994), Sydney (1997), Porto (2000), and Toulouse (2003). RHMF2006, which was also a satellite conference of the 17th International Conference on Magnetism (Kyoto, 20 25 August 2006), covered a broad range of topics concerned with research in high magnetic fields: (1) magnetism, (2) strongly correlated electron systems, (3) superconductors, (4) metals and metallic nanostructures, (5) molecular systems, (6) semiconductors, (7) field effects on non-magnetic systems, (8) neutron and x-ray experiments in high magnetic fields, (9) magnet technology, (10) measurement techniques in high magnetic fields, and (11) high field facilities. First of all we would like to express sincere thanks to the Yamada Science Foundation for their support and encouragement. We would like to thank all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Program Committee for their collaboration. The conference was organized as usual with oral sessions having both invited and contributed talks and poster sessions. The technical program started on the morning of Thursday 17 August, with a tutorial lecture by Professor M von Ortenberg. The special posters were invited to introduce recent activities and up-to-date equipment of 17 high field facilities in the world. On the Friday evening, we had a banquet at Sendai City Museum for the history and culture of Sendai, with Emeritus Professor M Date (a Chairman for the first conference in Osaka) and many other guests. The conference was closed with a talk by Professor F Herlach on the afternoon of Saturday 19 August. We heard with great pleasure the announcement from Professor J Wosnitza that next RHMF will be held in Dresden in 2009. This conference had 197 participants, 9 of

  19. PREFACE: Yamada Conference LX on Research in High Magnetic Fields (RHMF2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

    2006-12-01

    The 60th Yamada Conference on Research in High Magnetic Fields (RHMF2006) was held at Sendai Civic Auditorium, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from 16 - 19 August 2006, as the 8th RHMF. The first was held in Osaka (1982) followed by Leuven (1988), Amsterdam (1991), Nijmegen (1994), Sydney (1997), Porto (2000), and Toulouse (2003). RHMF2006, which was also a satellite conference of the 17th International Conference on Magnetism (Kyoto, 20 - 25 August 2006), covered a broad range of topics concerned with research in high magnetic fields: (1) magnetism, (2) strongly correlated electron systems, (3) superconductors, (4) metals and metallic nanostructures, (5) molecular systems, (6) semiconductors, (7) field effects on non-magnetic systems, (8) neutron and x-ray experiments in high magnetic fields, (9) magnet technology, (10) measurement techniques in high magnetic fields, and (11) high field facilities. First of all we would like to express sincere thanks to the Yamada Science Foundation for their support and encouragement. We would like to thank all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Program Committee for their collaboration. The conference was organized as usual with oral sessions having both invited and contributed talks and poster sessions. The technical program started on the morning of Thursday 17 August, with a tutorial lecture by Professor M von Ortenberg. The special posters were invited to introduce recent activities and up-to-date equipment of 17 high field facilities in the world. On the Friday evening, we had a banquet at Sendai City Museum for the history and culture of Sendai, with Emeritus Professor M Date (a Chairman for the first conference in Osaka) and many other guests. The conference was closed with a talk by Professor F Herlach on the afternoon of Saturday 19 August. We heard with great pleasure the announcement from Professor J Wosnitza that next RHMF will be held in Dresden in 2009. This conference had 197 participants, 9 of

  20. Postseismic Deformation from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake Detected with InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Ozawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    About 20 years have passed since the 1995 earthquake of Mw 6.9 hit the Kobe and Awaji areas in Japan. This earthquake was a right lateral faulting on the nearly vertical Rokko fault trending in the NE-SW direction. Coseismic deformations were studied using campaign GPS, leveling and InSAR, but postseismic deformations have not been well investigated. Nakano and Hirahara (1997) and Kato et al. (1997) reported postseismic deformation detected by GPS up to 1996, while Ozawa et al. (2004) presented the results of the analysis of JERS-1 SAR images acquired during 1995 - 1998. We reexamined postseismic deformation from the 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake using ERS/Envisat and JERS-1 SAR data. 14 ERS-1/2, 22 Envisat and 7 JERS-1 images acquired during 1992 to 2007 that cover the Kobe and northern Osaka areas were collected and analyzed. We applied 2-pass interferometry. We divided whole period into 5 intervals, preseismic, coseismic and 1995 - 2004 for ERS-1/2, 2003 - 2004 and 2004 - 2007 for Envisat, and stacked interferograms during each period. We found that rapid subsidence in a wedge shaped region near the northeastern tip of the source fault. This wedge shaped area is bounded by two active faults; the Arima-Takatsuki fault on the north side, and the Rokko fault on the other side. This deformation is already pointed out by Ozawa et al. (2004). It is noteworthy that this subsidence is not clear in the preseismic interferogram, which implies the Kobe earthquake may have triggered this subsidence. Considering the shape of subsided region, the configuration of basement structure is closely related to the deformation, while it is difficult to explain any model of simple afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation with the assumption of homogeneous structure. This subsidence decayed slowly and became less clear after 2007 according our previous study using ALOS/PALSAR. Furthermore there are two spots of further rapid subsidence of > 10 mm/yr in this region. These two spots are

  1. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  2. 97-ERD-022 final report: Supernova on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    1999-03-11

    This is the final year of the 3-year LDRD-ERD involving Lasers, D&NT, Physics, and ILSA to develope astrophysics experiments on intense lasers such as the Nova and Gekko lasers. During this 3 year period, we have developed a highly successful experiment probing the hydrodynamics of the explosion phase of core-collapse supernovae, which occurs during the first ~3 hours after core collapse. This was in collaboration with the Univ. of Arizona and CEA/Saclay. We also developed a very successful experiment to probe the hydrodynamics of the later time, young remnant phase, meaning the first ~10-20 years after core collapse. This was in collaboration with the Univ. of Michigan and Univ. of Colorado. Finally, we developed during the final year an exquisite experiment to probe the dynamics of radiative, high Mach number astrophysical jets, in collaboration with the Univ. of Maryland and Osaka Univ. Each experiment has received very high visibility, with a multitude of publications, both in the technical journals (most importantly, the astrophysical journals) and in the popular press. The attached publication list shows 25 papers published or submitted to technical journals, 5 articles appearing in the popular press (including a cover story of Sky and Telescope), and 65 conference presentations, ~10 of which were invited talks. The most important papers to come out of this effort was a comprehensive theory paper for Ap. J. establishing the rigorous scaling between laboratory laser experiments and the astrophysical subjects of interest: supernovae, supernova remnants, and jets; and a review article for Science covering this emerging subfield of Astrophysics on Intense Lasers. Since there are so many publications that have resulted from this LDRD project, only these two most important papers are attached. The rest are properly referenced, and can be found online or in the library. In anticipation of the closing of the Nova laser, we have successfully proposed transferring the

  3. Study for Nuclear Structures of 22-35Na Isotopes via Measurements of Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn., Kochi Univ. of Tech.) Reaction cross sections (σR) for 22-35Na isotopes have been measured at around 240 MeV/nucleon. The σR for 22-35Na were measured for the first time. Enhancement in cross sections is clearly observed from the systematics for stable nuclei, for isotopes with large mass numbers. These enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the nuclear deformation. We will discuss the nuclear structure (neutron skin, nuclear shell structure) for neutron-excess Na isotopes. T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn

  4. Proton Beam Focusing and Heating in Petawatt Laser-Solid Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, R A; Gu, P; King, J; Hey, D; Akli, K; Zhang, B B; Freeman, R; Hatchett, S; Key, M H; Koch, J; Langdon, A B; Lasinsky, B; MacKinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Wilks, S; Stephens, R; Tsutsumi, T; Chen, Z; Yabuuchi, T; Kurahashi, T; Sato, T; Adumi, K; Toyama, Y; Zheng, J; Kodama, R; Tanaka, K A; Yamanaka, T

    2003-08-13

    It has recently been demonstrated that femtosecond-laser generated proton beams may be focused. These protons, following expansion of the Debye sheath, emit off the inner concave surface of hemispherical shell targets irradiated at their outer convex pole. The sheath normal expansion produces a rapidly converging proton beam. Such focused proton beams provide a new and powerful means to achieve isochoric heating to high temperatures. They are potentially important for measuring the equation of state of materials at high energy density and may provide an alternative route to fast ignition. We present the first results of proton focusing and heating experiments performed at the Petawatt power level at the Gekko XII Laser Facility at ILE Osaka Japan. Solid density Aluminum slabs are placed in the proton focal region at various lengths. The degree of proton focusing is measured via XUV imaging of Planckian emission of the heated zone. Simultaneous with the XUV measurement a streaked optical imaging technique, HISAK, gave temporal optical emission images of the focal region. Results indicate excellent coupling between the laser-proton conversion and subsequent heating.

  5. Operational fact-finding report on heat pump systems for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamisawa, Jun

    1988-03-01

    Operational circumstances of heat pump systems for industrial use were widely investigated to open their successful cases in practical applications to the public and to widely spread them throughout the industrial sector. As a summary of questionaire totaled 144 cases, 79 cases were motor-operated heat pumps, 37 cases absorption heat pumps and 28 cases engine-driven heat pumps, and, in application, 65 cases were manufacturing process use, 46 cases for factory air conditioning and 5 cases for others (such as snow melting and pool water heating). Most of them were motor-operated heat pumps in application of heat sources for manufacturing process and air conditioning, however, it was recognized a trend toward spreading uses for primary industries and increasing absorption heat pumps and engine-driven heat pumps. As for successful examples, outlines of a motor-operated heat pump system for distilling alcohol at Osaka Plant of Suntory Ltd. and an absorption heat pump system for refining alcohol at Ishioka Alcohol Factory of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) and others were illustrated. Their operational circumstances and energy conservation results were investigated.

  6. The Meningo-Orbital Band: Microsurgical Anatomy and Surgical Detachment of the Membranous Structures through a Frontotemporal Craniotomy with Removal of the Anterior Clinoid Process

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Evins, Alexander I.; Burrell, Justin C.; Iwasaki, Koichi; Stieg, Philip E.; Bernardo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the microanatomy of the meningo-orbital band (MOB) and its associated membranes, and propose a stepwise method for their detachment while minimizing potential complications. Design Cadaveric and prospective clinical. Setting Microneurosurgery Skull Base Laboratory, Weill Cornell Medical College (New York, NY) and Shiroyama Hospital (Osaka, Japan). Participants Five preserved cadaveric heads (10 sides) and five patients requiring surgical detachment of the MOB in 2012. Results MOB detachment and subsequent extradural anterior clinoidectomies were successfully performed on five clinical cases. Detachment of the MOB was accomplished using a four-step dissection based on the structure's detailed microanatomy and included (1) partial removal of the lateral wall of the superior orbital fissure, (2) incising of the lateral periosteal dura of the superior orbital fissure, (3) peeling off the dura propria of the temporal lobe from the inner cavernous membrane, and (4) fully detaching the exposed MOB from the periorbita. Conclusion Understanding the complex microanatomy of these structures enabled a safe and effective stepwise detachment of the MOB. We recommend that surgeons possess sufficient anatomical knowledge before surgically manipulating this structure. PMID:24719799

  7. A pathway to laser fusion energy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    High-density compression of DT to one thousand times its liquid density is the critical path of inertial fusion and was demonstrated in Japan and US in late 1980's. The Osaka group has achieved high-density compression that meets one of the critical requirements for thermonuclear ignition and bum. Although the compression densities were well reproduced by computer simulations, the neutron yields were much lower than the simulation predictions by three orders of magnitudes, suggesting catastrophic collapse of a hot spark, from which thermonuclear reactions are triggered. In order to overcome this difficulty the international ICF community has adopted two approaches: one is to generate a larger hot spark than the mixed layer with MJ-Class lasers, such as NIF and LMJ. The other approach is to externally heat the compressed fuel. The second approach is the fast ignition. After the proof-of-concept experiment in 2002, we started the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FlREX) project to complete the world most powerful high-energy peta-watt laser "LFEX" as a heating laser.

  8. The second generation superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron Source at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Edgard; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Jeong, Sun Chan; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Shin, Yun Chang; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu

    2014-09-01

    The project of a second generation superthermal ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source is currently going on at RCNP, Osaka University, Japan. It is aiming to produce the world's highest density of polarized UCNs using down-scattering of spallation-produced and moderated cold neutrons in superfluid helium (He-II) at 0.6 K. This project is developed in collaboration between KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and RCNP. The first generation UCN source was using a vertical extraction and was optimized from 2002 to 2012 to increase its density of UCN from 0.7 UCN/cc to 26 UCN/cc. We have built a second generation UCN source which use a horizontal extraction system thanks to the energy boost induced by the field of a superconducting polarizer magnet (SCM). The SCM allows only one spin state to pass through, which make our UCN source a source of polarized UCN. Polarization is kept thanks to new UCN guides. The first experimental results, the performances and the future improvements of this second generation source will be presented in this talk.

  9. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  10. Long-term outcome of adrenalectomy for metastasis resulting from colorectal cancer with other metastatic sites: A report of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Mamoru; Kim, Ho Min; Ikeda, Masataka; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the adrenal glands is a relatively frequent observation at autopsy of patients that have succumbed to cancer. Long-term disease-free survival has been reported in patients following the resection of solitary adrenal metastasis resulting from colorectal cancer. In addition, following primary resection for colorectal cancer, solitary metastasis to the adrenal glands is rare, even in outpatients at routine follow-ups. Therefore, adrenal metastasis is usually detected in combination with multiple synchronous metastases at other sites in the terminal stages of cancer. Between 1998 and 2002, 3 patients with adrenal metastasis and other synchronous metastatic sites underwent surgery for adrenal metastasis at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery at Osaka University. The other synchronous metastatic sites observed in the 3 patients consisted of lung and para-aortic lymph nodes. In total, 2 out of the 3 patients experienced long-term disease-free survival for >5 years following surgery and 1 patient underwent curative resection for recurrence of metastases in the liver and right adrenal gland 79 months subsequent to the initial resection for adrenal metastasis. All 3 patients survived for >90 months. In conclusion, aggressive surgical resection for adrenal metastasis and other metastatic sites resulting from colorectal cancer may result in a survival benefit in selected patients. PMID:27602101

  11. Recombinant mumps virus as a cancer therapeutic agent

    PubMed Central

    Ammayappan, Arun; Russell, Stephen J; Federspiel, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Mumps virus belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae and has the potential to be an oncolytic agent. Mumps virus Urabe strain had been tested in the clinical setting as a treatment for human cancer four decades ago in Japan. These clinical studies demonstrated that mumps virus could be a promising cancer therapeutic agent that showed significant antitumor activity against various types of cancers. Since oncolytic virotherapy was not in the limelight until the beginning of the 21st century, the interest to pursue mumps virus for cancer treatment slowly faded away. Recent success stories of oncolytic clinical trials prompted us to resurrect the mumps virus and to explore its potential for cancer treatment. We have obtained the Urabe strain of mumps virus from Osaka University, Japan, which was used in the earlier human clinical trials. In this report we describe the development of a reverse genetics system from a major isolate of this Urabe strain mumps virus stock, and the construction and characterization of several recombinant mumps viruses with additional transgenes. We present initial data demonstrating these recombinant mumps viruses have oncolytic activity against tumor cell lines in vitro and some efficacy in preliminary pilot animal tumor models. PMID:27556105

  12. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Milz, Patricia; Herrmann, Werner M.; Koukkou, Martha; Saito, Naomi; Winterer, Georg; Kochi, Kieko

    2014-01-01

    Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N = 9; Osaka N = 9; Berlin N = 12) and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs). The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha-1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation. PMID:25191252

  13. A cicada that ensures its fitness during climate warming by synchronizing its hatching time with the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu

    2011-12-01

    A shift in phenology due to climate change is associated with some recent changes in populations, as it can disrupt the synchrony between organisms' requirements and resource availability. This conceptual framework has been developed mostly in systems of trophic interactions. Many coincidental changes, however, are involved in trophic interactions, preventing us from describing the direct impact of phenological shifts on fitness consequences. Here we address the phenological relationship in a simple non-trophic interaction to document a causal process of a warming-driven fitness change in a cicada, Cryptotympana facialis, whose numbers increased dramatically in Osaka, Japan in the late 20th century. We show that synchrony of the rainy season and hatching time may have a substantial influence on hatching success, by 1) shifting the time of completion of embryonic development, and 2) supplying water at various intervals. We estimate the change in hatching time over the last eleven decades (1901-2009) based on meteorological records and the temperature-dependent rate of C. facialis embryogenesis. Our estimate shows that hatching had initially occurred after the rainy season, and that warming had advanced it into the rainy season in the late 20th century. The probability of hatching success was markedly variable, and often very low before this synchronization occurred, but became stably high thereafter. Our findings suggest that the stabilizing effect of this synchrony on fitness was indispensable to the recent population increase of C. facialis.

  14. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Kato, Yushi

    2016-02-01

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  15. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiokada, Takuya Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  16. Clinical implications of preoperative chemoradiotherapy prior to laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced low rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Keisaku; Shimbo, Taiju; Tanaka, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Masashi; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Okuda, Junji; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has any adverse effects on laparoscopic surgery (LS) for locally advanced low rectal cancer (LARC). The study was performed at the Osaka Medical College Hospital, and included patients who were operated on between July 2006 and December 2013. The short-term outcomes in 156 patients who underwent surgery for LARC following CRT were evaluated, of whom 152 underwent LS. Among the patients who were followed for >40 months, 77 patients (the CRT group) were compared with 39 patients who underwent LS without CRT (the surgery-alone group) for long-term outcomes. The total number of patients who received sphincter-preserving surgery was 74%. No positive longitudinal resection margins were identified, and only 1.3% had identifiable positive circumferential resection margins. The complication rate was 14%, and no serious complications occurred. There were no significant differences between the CRT and the surgery-alone groups in terms of the 5-year relapse-free survival rate (70.1 vs. 61.5%; P=0.81) or the 5-year overall survival rate (88.3 vs. 69.2%; P=0.06). However, the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rate was significantly improved in the CRT group patients (96.1 vs. 79.5%; P=0.009). In conclusion, our results have demonstrated that LS with preoperative CRT appears to be feasible and safe, and may have beneficial effects on local recurrence. PMID:28123724

  17. Radioactive pollution and accumulation of radionuclides in wild plants in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Komiyama, Chiyo; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclide status of wild plants and soil in the Fukushima area was investigated during the period May 2011 to October 2012, using an imaging plate (autoradiograms) or a high purity germanium detector. Analyses of autoradiograms showed that wild plants grown in March 2011 were strongly polluted with fallout released from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The radioactivity was mostly due to fallout adsorbed on the surface of the plants. On the other hand, a number of herbaceous plants were regularly collected in the Fukushima area and their radionuclide concentrations were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Plants grown in March 2011 showed very high levels of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs, but these radioactivity levels decreased rapidly after July 2011 and eventually became lower than that of endogenous ⁴⁰K. During this period, the radioactivity of the soil remained high. We therefore suppose that a significant proportion of the radioactivity detected from plants harvested after July 2011 was most likely derived from soil dust attached on the plant surface. Autoradiograms of rice plants were virtually identical between plants cultivated in Fukushima and Osaka area, reflecting the background radiation due to ⁴⁰K.

  18. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  19. Second Symposium on ``Current trends in international fusion research: review and assessment`` Chairman`s summary of session

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-26

    This session began with a keynote speech by B. Coppi of M.I.T., entitled: ``Physics of Fusion Burning Plasmas, Ignition, and Relevant Technology Issues.`` It continued with a second paper on the tokamak approach to fusion, presented by E. Mazzucato of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, entitled ``High Confinement Plasma Confinement Regime in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear.`` The session continued with three talks discussing various aspects of the so-called ``Field Reversed Configuration`` (FRC), and concluded with a talk on a more general topic. The first of the three FRC papers, presented by J. Slough of the University of Washington, was entitled ``FRC Reactor for Deep Space Propulsion.`` This paper was followed by a paper by S. Goto of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Osaka University in Japan, entitled ``Experimental Initiation of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Toward Helium-3 Fusion.`` The third of the FRC papers, authored by H. Mimoto and Y. Tomito of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan, and presented by Y. Tomita was entitled ``Helium-3 Fusion Based on a Field-Reversed Configuration.`` The session was concluded with a paper presented by D. Ryutov of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entitled: ``A User Facility for Research on Fusion Systems with Dense Plasmas.``

  20. Polarization of physics on global courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinea, Allan L.; Naylor, Wade

    2015-03-01

    Since October 2010, the Chemistry-Biology Combined Major Program, an international course taught in English at Osaka University, has been teaching small classes (no more than 20 in size). We present data from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) given to first-year classical mechanics students (N = 47 students over three years) pre and post score, for a class that predominantly uses interactive engagement, such as MasteringPhysics. Our findings show a G-factor improved score of about ˜0.18, which is marginally about the average of a traditional-based course. Furthermore, we analyze in detail a set of six questions from the FCI, involving the identification of forces acting on a body. We find that student answers tend to cluster about ‘polarizing choices’—a pair of choices containing the correct choice and a wrong choice, with the latter corresponding to a superset of forces in the former. Our results are suggestive that students have a good idea of the right set of forces acting on a given system, but the inclusion of extra force(s) brings about confusion; something that may be explained by misleading ontological categorization of forces. In an appendix A we also comment on possible correlations between the pre/post score and the level of English ability on entry to the course.

  1. Reflective property of typical microstructures under a white light interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Weckenmann, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper studies the reflective property of several typical microstructures while a white light interferometer (WLI) is used to measure them. Siemens stars, gratings with rectangular profile and atomic force microscopy cantilevers are measured under the WLI. To compare with the measurement results, the propagation behavior of white light reflection on the surface with micro-objects is simulated numerically on the basis of Maxwell's equations. An interference which is contrived by the steep edges of the surface structures is recognized. This interference plays a key role with the surface plasmon (Raether H 1988 Surface Plasmons ed G Hohler (Berlin: Springer)) when the reflective light does not follow the law of reflection in the area close to the structure edges. The above phenomenon could lead to a measuring error, a decrease in lateral resolution, inducing vertical measuring uncertainty, or even a non-measured signal when using the WLI. This paper was presented at ISMQC-2010, the 10th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control, held in Osaka, Japan, on 5-9 September 2010. Two other papers from that meeting also appear in this issue.

  2. Does laser-driven heat front propagation depend on material microstructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, J. D.; Matsukuma, H.; Fournier, K. B.; Yoga, A.; Kemp, G. E.; Tanaka, N.; Zhang, Z.; Kota, K.; Tosaki, S.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nishimura, H.

    2016-10-01

    We showed earlier that the laser-driven heat front propagation velocity in low-density Ti-silica aerogel and TiO2 foam targets was slower than that simulated with a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code incorporating an atomic kinetics model in non-LTE and assuming initially homogeneous material. Some theoretical models suggest that the heat front is slowed over what it would be in a homogeneous medium by the microstructure of the foam. In order to test this hypothesis we designed and conducted a comparison experiment on the GEKKO laser to measure heat front propagation velocity in two targets, one an Ar/CO2 gas mixture and the other a TiO2 foam, that had identical initial densities and average ionization states. We found that the heat front traveled about ten times faster in the gas than in the foam. We present the details of the experiment design and a comparison of the data with the simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and the joint research project of ILE Osaka U. (contract Nos. 2014A1-04 and 2015A1-02).

  3. Child abuse and neglect in Japan: coin-operated-locker babies.

    PubMed

    Kouno, A; Johnson, C F

    1995-01-01

    The coin-operated-locker baby is a type of child abuse that may be unique to Japan. The term refers to newborns who are placed, while alive or dead, in coin-operated lockers. This practice has been decreased by specific measures. It is likely that social and economic variables in Japan account for differences in the frequency and types of child abuse cases when compared to American or European societies as social conditions in Japan change the reported incidence of child abuse may increase in the future. Recently, the government of Osaka organized a group specifically designed to deal with the detection and protection of abused and neglected children. In 1993, they published a manual on how to deal with child abuse, but the Japanese judicial administration still uses old laws for abuse cases. The development of new laws is occurring in parts of the country now. This paper introduces the present status of coping with child abuse and neglect in Japan.

  4. Comparison of cytotoxicity and wound healing effect of carboxymethylcellulose and hyaluronic acid on human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Soo; Lee, Seung Uk; Che, Cheng-Ye; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cytotoxic effect on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and the ability to faciliate corneal epithelial wound healing of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA). METHODS HCECs were exposed to 0.5% CMC (Refresh plus®, Allergan, Irvine, California, USA) and 0.1% and 0.3% HA (Kynex®, Alcon, Seoul, Korea, and Hyalein mini®, Santen, Osaka, Japan) for the period of 30min, and 4, 12, and 24h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT)-based calorimetric assay was performed to assess the metabolic activity of cellular proliferation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay to assess the cytotoxicity. Apoptotic response was evaluated with flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence staining with Annexin V and propiodium iodide. Cellular morphology was evaluated by inverted phase-contrast light microscopy and electron microscopy. The wound widths were measured 24h after confluent HCECs were scratch wounded. RESULTS The inhibitory effect of human corneal epithelial proliferation and cytotoxicity showed the time-dependent response but no significant effect. Apoptosis developed in flow cytometry and apoptotic cells were demonstrated in fluorescent micrograph. The damaged HCECs were detached from the bottom of the dish and showed the well-developed vacuole formations. Both CMC and HA stimulated reepithehlialization of HCECs scratched, which were more observed in CMC. CONCLUSION CMC and HA, used in artificial tear formulation, could be utilized without any significant toxic effect on HCECs. Both significantly stimulated HCEC reepithelialization of corneal wounds. PMID:25938030

  5. Doubly robust estimator for net survival rate in analyses of cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Komukai, Sho; Hattori, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Cancer population studies based on cancer registry databases are widely conducted to address various research questions. In general, cancer registry databases do not collect information on cause of death. The net survival rate is defined as the survival rate if a subject would not die for any causes other than cancer. This counterfactual concept is widely used for the analyses of cancer registry data. Perme, Stare, and Estève (2012) proposed a nonparametric estimator of the net survival rate under the assumption that the censoring time is independent of the survival time and covariates. Kodre and Perme (2013) proposed an inverse weighting estimator for the net survival rate under the covariate-dependent censoring. An alternative approach to estimating the net survival rate under covariate-dependent censoring is to apply a regression model for the conditional net survival rate given covariates. In this article, we propose a new estimator for the net survival rate. The proposed estimator is shown to be doubly robust in the sense that it is consistent at least one of the regression models for survival time and for censoring time. We examine the theoretical and empirical properties of our proposed estimator by asymptotic theory and simulation studies. We also apply the proposed method to cancer registry data for gastric cancer patients in Osaka, Japan.

  6. Experimental Test of the Polarization Persistence in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelez, J. P.; Deutsch, C.; Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2016-03-01

    The complete deuteron and triton polarization in the DT fusion increases the reactivity by 50%. For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), due to the dynamics of the fusion reaction process, the fusion rate could even be further increased. It has been argued that the polarization would survive as well in magnetic as in inertial confinements. Recently, we have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a powerful laser hitting a polarized HD target.The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse. The corresponding reaction is: D + D → 3He + n. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are signatures to estimate the polarization persistency. A proposal to test the persistence of the polarization in ICF has been accepted at ILE: the POLAF project (POlarization in LAser Fusion Process). It uses the polarized HD targets produced at RCNP and the powerful ILE lasers, as well as the neutron detectors existing there. Both institutions are on the same campus at Osaka University. The description of the POLAF experiment and of the corresponding set-up is given.

  7. Spatial Clustering Properties in the Temporal Variation of Suicide Rates/Numbers among Japanese Citizens: A Comprehensive Comparison and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Makoto; Kubota, Takafumi; Ishioka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of suicides in Japan has remained high for many years. To effectively resolve this problem, firm understanding of the statistical data is required. Using a large quantity of wide-ranging data on Japanese citizens, the purpose of this study was to analyze the geographical clustering properties of suicides and how suicide rates have evolved over time, and to observe detailed patterns and trends in a variety of geographic regions. Methods Using adjacency data from 2008, the spatial and temporal/spatial clustering structure of geographic statistics on suicides were clarified. Echelon scans were performed to identify regions with the highest-likelihood ratio of suicide as the most likely suicide clusters. Results In contrast to results obtained using temporal/spatial analysis, the results of a period-by-period breakdown of evolving suicide rates demonstrated that suicides among men increased particularly rapidly during 1988–1992, 1993–1997, and 1998–2002 in certain cluster regions located near major metropolitan areas. For women, results identified cluster regions near major metropolitan areas in 1993–1997, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007. Conclusions For both men and women, the cluster regions identified are located primarily near major metropolitan areas, such as greater Tokyo and Osaka. PMID:26161651

  8. Functional characterization of protein domains common to animal viruses and mouse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many viruses contain genes that originate from their hosts. Some of these acquired genes give viruses the ability to interfere with host immune responses by various mechanisms. Genes of host origin that appear commonly in viruses code for proteins that span a wide range of functions, from kinases and phosphotases, to cytokines and their receptors, to ubiquitin ligases and proteases. While many important cases of such lateral gene transfer in viruses have been documented, there has yet to be a genome-wide survey of viral-encoded genes acquired from animal hosts. Results Here we carry out such a survey in order to gain insight into the host immune system. We made the results available in the form of a web-based tool that allows viral-centered or host-centered queries to be performed (http://imm.ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp/musvirus/). We examine the relationship between acquired genes and immune function, and compare host-virus homology with gene expression data in stimulated dendritic cells and T-cells. We found that genes whose expression changes significantly during the innate antiviral immune response had more homologs in animal virus than genes whose expression did not change or genes involved in the adaptive immune response. Conclusions Statistics gathered from the MusVirus database support earlier reports of gene transfer from host to virus and indicate that viruses are more likely to acquire genes involved in innate antiviral immune responses than those involved in acquired immune responses. PMID:22369715

  9. Charged-particle Decay of the Isoscalar giant dipole resonance in ^58Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Hunyadi, Matyas; Garg, Umesh; Hoffman, Joe; Nayak, B. K.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Itoh, M.; Murakami, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Kishi, S.; Sakaguchi, H.; Terashima, S.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2004-10-01

    The isoscalar giant dipole resonance(ISGDR) has been measured by single experiments with the use of inelastic α-scattering in many nuclei[1]. However, information on its decay properties is scarce. The decay properties, especially the relative population and total strength of hole states in the (A-1) nucleus resulting from particle decay of giant resonance in nuclei can provide crucial tests for the microscopic model calculations. Caculations based on continuum-RPA approach have recently become abailable and provide results on partial branching ratios for direct neutron and proton decay of ISGDR [2]. We report on a coincidence experiment searching for these direct particle decay branches from the ISGDR in the nucleus ^58Ni. The experiment was performed at the RCNP, Osaka University, using inelastic α-scattering at a beam energy of 400 MeV. The inelastically scattered α particles were detected by the magnetic spectrometer ``Grand Raiden'' at 2.5^rc, with the decay protons detected by a set of sixteen Si(Li) detectors with a thickness of 5.0 mm and an effective area of 400 mm^2 each placed at backward angles. The result for the observed final states in ^57Co will be presented and compared with the theoretical calculations. References: [1] M.Uchida et al., Phys.Rev. C 69, 051301 (2004), [2] M.L. Gorelik et al., Phys. Rev. C 69, 054322 (2004)

  10. BCS, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio, and Han-Nambu: A sketch of Nambu's works in 1960-1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The years 1960-1965 were a remarkable period for Yoichiro Nambu. Starting with a reformulation of BCS theory with emphasis on gauge invariance, he recognized the realization of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in particle physics as evidenced by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A concrete model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio illustrated the essence of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the idea of soft pions. After the proposal of the quark model by Gell-Mann, he together with Han constructed an alternative model of integrally charged quarks with possible non-Abelian gluons. All these remarkable works were performed during the years 1960-1965. Here I briefly review those works following the original papers of Nambu chronologically, together with a brief introduction to a formulation of Noether's theorem and the Ward-Takahashi identities using path integrals. This article is mostly based on a lecture given at the Nambu Memorial Symposium held at Osaka City University in September 2015, where Nambu started his professional career.

  11. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  12. Pitch-based short carbon fiber. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.S.

    1991-12-01

    Short carbon fiber manufactured from coal tar pitch by Osaka Gas Co. is examined by chemical composition analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, optical microscope, and electron spectroscopic techniques. The present analytical results are compared with the data obtainable from other sources. Owing to the low cost of the short fiber, it is recommended that the fiber could be used for a wide variety of reinforcement applications such as, cement/concrete mixtures, polymer composites, and high temperature materials. Processing includes the mechanical separation of mesophase microbeads of three to 30 micron diameters from crude coal tar during three heat treatment stages. The mesophases obtained are then subjected to solvent extraction, hydrogenation, and polymerization to yield isotropic and anisotropic pitches suitable for melt spinning. The short fiber is fabricated from isotropic pitch by the rotary gas jet method, and the process yields a higher quality fiber as compared to other melt spinning methods. The most important feature is that this process is highly cost effective.

  13. Geological support for the Umbrella Effect as a link between geomagnetic field and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The weakening of the geomagnetic field causes an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. Some researchers argue that enhanced GCR flux might lead to a climatic cooling by increasing low cloud formation, which enhances albedo (umbrella effect). Recent studies have reported geological evidence for a link between weakened geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. However, more work is needed on the mechanism of this link, including whether the umbrella effect is playing a central role. In this research, we present new geological evidence that GCR flux change had a greater impact on continental climate than on oceanic climate. According to pollen data from Osaka Bay, Japan, the decrease in temperature of the Siberian air mass was greater than that of the Pacific air mass during geomagnetic reversals in marine isotope stages (MIS) 19 and 31. Consequently, the summer land-ocean temperature gradient was smaller, and the summer monsoon was weaker. Greater terrestrial cooling indicates that a reduction of insolation is playing a key role in the link between the weakening of the geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. The most likely candidate for the mechanism seems to be the increased albedo of the umbrella effect.

  14. A history of the cancer registration system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2008-04-01

    In Japan, the first actual survey of morbidity from cancer was conducted by Dr. Mitsuo Segi in Miyagi Prefecture from 1951 to 1953. Population-based cancer registries were started in 1957 in Hiroshima and 1958 in Nagasaki for the follow-up of survivors of the atomic bombings. Public population-based cancer registries, under the cancer control programs of the prefectural governments, were started in Aichi and Osaka prefectures in 1962. After the Law on Health and Medical Services for the Aged was enacted in 1983, population-based cancer registries were initiated promptly in many prefectures. As of 2007, there were population-based cancer registries in 35 of Japan's 47 prefectures and in one city. The Research Group for Population-Based Cancer Registration in Japan was organized by Dr. Isaburo Fujimoto, the chairperson in 1975, with a grant-in-aid from the National Cancer Research Promotion Program. This research group has continued until now and has been making continuous efforts. To promote standardization of the registry process and to improve the quality of registry data, the Japanese Association of Cancer Registries (JACR) was organized in 1992. The Japanese government Third-Term 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy for Cancer Control was launched in 2004, with the slogan "Targeting a drastic reduction in cancer morbidity and mortality." This strategy includes not only promoting cancer research but also promoting cancer prevention, improving the quality of cancer care, promoting social support systems, and promoting effective systems for monitoring cancer incidence and survival.

  15. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-09-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  16. The Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell program: Clean, efficient energy for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gockley, G.B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology and field testing program. The development program for the field testing was initiated in 1986 with a 400 W unit. This program has progressed to the installation and start-up in early 1992 of the 25 kill field unit at Rokko Island in Japan. In mid-1992 the second 25 kill field unit, a cogeneration system producing both ac electric power and intermediate pressure steam, will be delivered to the Joint Gas Utilities, a consortium of the Tokyo Gas Company and the Osaka Gas Company. This will be followed by the 20 kill SOFC unit to be supplied to Southern California Edison in early 1993. Future plans include the 100 kill Cogeneration Proof-of-Concept unit for the Southern California Gas Company which is scheduled for delivery in late 1993. Applications for SOFC technology range from on-site power generation for commercial second small industrial applications to dispersed generating plants and central station electric power generation. The design studies have included integrated coal gasification SOFC-steam turbine power plants. Installed capital costs of a 250 MW plant of this configuration compares favorably with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants.

  17. The Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell program: Clean, efficient energy for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gockley, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology and field testing program. The development program for the field testing was initiated in 1986 with a 400 W unit. This program has progressed to the installation and start-up in early 1992 of the 25 kill field unit at Rokko Island in Japan. In mid-1992 the second 25 kill field unit, a cogeneration system producing both ac electric power and intermediate pressure steam, will be delivered to the Joint Gas Utilities, a consortium of the Tokyo Gas Company and the Osaka Gas Company. This will be followed by the 20 kill SOFC unit to be supplied to Southern California Edison in early 1993. Future plans include the 100 kill Cogeneration Proof-of-Concept unit for the Southern California Gas Company which is scheduled for delivery in late 1993. Applications for SOFC technology range from on-site power generation for commercial second small industrial applications to dispersed generating plants and central station electric power generation. The design studies have included integrated coal gasification SOFC-steam turbine power plants. Installed capital costs of a 250 MW plant of this configuration compares favorably with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants.

  18. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  19. Charge-exchange reactions and nuclear matrix elements for {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frekers, D.

    2009-11-09

    Charge-exchange reactions of (n, p) and (p, n) type at intermediate energies are a powerful tool for the study of nuclear matrix element in {beta}{beta} decay. The present paper reviews some of the most recent experiments in this context. Here, the (n, p) type reactions are realized through (d, {sup 2}He), where {sup 2}He refers to two protons in a singlet {sup 1}S{sub 0} state and where both of these are momentum analyzed and detected by the same spectrometer and detector. These reactions have been developed and performed exclusively at KVI, Groningen (NL), using an incident deuteron energy of 183 MeV. Final state resolutions of about 100 keV have routinely been available. On the other hand, the ({sup 3}He, t) reaction is of (p, n) type and was developed at the RCNP facility in Osaka (JP). Measurements with an unprecedented high resolution of 30 keV at incident energies of 420 MeV are now readily possible. Using both reaction types one can extract the Gamow-Teller transition strengths B(GT{sup +}) and B(GT{sup -}), which define the two ''legs'' of the {beta}{beta} decay matrix elements for the 2v{beta}{beta} decay The high resolution available in both reactions allows a detailed insight into the excitations of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei and, as will be shown, some unexpected features are being unveiled.

  20. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    AbeTakashiUniversity of Tokyotabe@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp AmusiaMironRacah Institute of Physics, Jerusalemamusia@vms.huji.ac.il BaldoMarcelloINFN Cataniabaldo@ct.infn.it BansalManiePanjab University, Chandigarhbansalmanni@gmail.com BarrancoFranciscoUniversity of Sevillebarranco@us.es BertschGeorgeUniversity of Washington, Seattlebertsch@u.washington.edu BhagwatAmeeyaCBS Mumbaiameeya@kth.se BorderieBernardIPN Orsayborderie@ipno.in2p3.fr CarbonellJaumeLPSC Grenoblejaume.carbonell@lpsc.in2p3.fr CarlsonJoeLos Alamos National Laboratorycarlson@lanl.gov ColòGianlucaINFN - Università degli Studi di Milanocolo@mi.infn.it DanielewiczPawelNSCL, Michigan State Universitydanielewicz@nscl.msu.edu DescouvemontPierreUniversité Libre de Bruxellespdesc@ulb.ac.be Dohet-EralyJérémyUniversité Libre de Bruxellesjdoheter@ulb.ac.be DraayerJerryLouisiana State Universitydraayer@lsu.edu DufourMarianneIPHC, Université de Strasbourgmarianne.dufour@ires.in2p3.fr DuguetThomasCEA Saclaythomas.duguet@cea.fr DukelskyJorgeCSIC Madriddukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es EbranJean-PaulCEA-DAM, Arpajonebran@ipno.in2p3.fr FreerMartinUniversity of Birminghamm.freer@bham.ac.uk FujiiShinichiroUniversity of Tokyosfujii@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp FunakiYasuroRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakofunaki@riken.jp GrassoMarcellaIPN Orsaygrasso@ipno.in2p3.fr HaginoKouichiTohoku Universityhagino@nucl.phys.tohoku.ac.jp HansenHubertUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon 1hansen@ipnl.in2p3.fr HolzmannMarkusLPMMC Grenoblemarkus@lptl.jussieu.fr HoriuchiHisashiRCNP, Osaka Universityhoriuchi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp HoriuchiWataruGSI Darmstadtw.horiuchi@gsi.de HupinGuillaumeGANIL, Caenhupin@ganil.fr JinMengHuazhong Normal University, Wuhanjinm@iopp.ccnu.edu.cn KamimuraMasayasuRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakomkamimura@riken.jp Kanada-En'yoYoshikoKyoto Universityyenyo@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KatoKiyoshiHokkaido University, Sapporokato@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp KawabataTakahiroKyoto Universitykawabata@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KhanEliasIPN Orsaykhan@ipno.in2p3.fr

  1. First measurements of muon production rate using a novel pion capture system at MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Truong, N. M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Wing, M.

    2013-02-01

    The MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative Channel) beam line at RCNP (Research Centre for Nuclear Physics), Osaka will be the most intense source of muons in the world. A proton beam is incident on a target and, by using a novel capture solenoid, guides the produced pions into the beam line where they subsequently decay to muons. This increased muon flux will allow more precise measurements of cLFV (charged Lepton Flavour Violation) as well as making muon beams more economically feasible. Currently the first 36° of solenoid beam pipe have been completed and installed for testing with low proton current of 1 nA. Measurements of the total particle flux and the muon life time were made. The measurements were taken using thin plastic scintillators coupled to MPPCs (Multi-Pixel Photon Counter) that surrounded a magnesium or copper stopping target. The scintillators were used to record which particles stopped and their subsequent decay times giving a muon yield of 8.5 × 105 muons W-1proton beam or 3 × 108 muons s-1 when using the RCNP's full power (400 W).

  2. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Associated with the Emergence of the New GII.4 Sydney Norovirus Variant during the Epidemic of 2012/13 in Shenzhen City, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kena; Zhang, Hailong; Yang, Hong; Zhuo, Fei; Zhao, Dejian; Zeng, Huatang; Yao, Xiangjie; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Long; Zhou, Yuanping; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans worldwide. Since late 2012, a new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 has caused a significant increase in NoV epidemics in several countries. From November of 2012 to January of 2013, three gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in two social welfare homes (Outbreaks A and B) and a factory (Outbreak C) in Shenzhen city of China. Feces and swabs were collected for laboratory tests for causative agents. While no bacterial pathogen was identified, all three outbreaks were caused by NoVs with detection rates of 26.2% (16/61) at Outbreak A, 35.2% (38/108) at Outbreak B), and 59.3% (16/27) at Outbreaks C. For Outbreak B, 25 of the 29 symptomatic individuals (86.2%) and 13 of the 79 asymptomatic individuals (16.5%) were found NoV-positive. For Outbreak C, an asymptomatic food handler was NoV-positive. All thirteen NoV sequences from the three outbreaks were classified into genogroup II and genotype 4 (GII.4), which we identified to be the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant. The genome of two isolates from Outbreaks A and B were recombinant with the opening reading frame (ORF) 1 of GII.4 Osaka 2007 and ORF2 and 3 of the GII.4 New Orleans. Our study indicated that the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant emerged and caused the outbreaks in China. PMID:27829005

  3. Ion-assisted coating for large-scale Bimorph deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Takuya; Okamoto, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kunio; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Motokoshi, Shinji; Samarkin, Vadim V.; Kudryashov, Alexis V.; Kawanaka, Junji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2016-07-01

    We have fabricated a 410 x 468 mm size deformable mirror with 100 Bimorph piezoceramic actuators for the LFEX laser system at Osaka University. In the case of Bimorph-type deformable mirrors, the mirror surface had to be polished and coated after bonding the piezoceramic actuators to the rear side of the thin mirror substrate. This provides a good surface figure, but the coating temperature for the high-reflection mirror was strictly limited because of the thermal fragility of piezoceramic actuators. The mirror substrate with the actuators was polished, and an ion-assisted multilayer dielectric coating was produced at 60 degrees Celsius with our 80-inch coating chamber. The flatness of the mirror just after coating was 7 μm, and reduced by aging to 3.2 μm when the mirror was assembled. The surface figure of the assembled mirror with 20 piezostack bonded actuators is demonstrated and a laser-induced damage threshold tested with a witness sample is also reported.

  4. Estimation of age by epidermal image processing.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, S; Noda, H; Sugiyama, S

    1999-12-01

    Small pieces of human precordial skin were obtained from 266 individuals during autopsy performed in Osaka Prefecture. The area from the stratum corneum to the stratum basale in a unit area of the epidermal cross-section was extracted as a segmented area of white image by image processing. The number of pixels surrounding this area was measured in individuals of various ages, and the age-associated changes were evaluated. The number of pixels around this binary image in the epidermal cross-section showed a strong correlation with age. The number tended to decrease with an increase in age in individuals aged 20 years and above, which could be closely approximated by an exponential function. A formula for estimating age was obtained as an inverse function of the number of pixels and age, and the accuracy of estimation using this formula was examined by comparing the estimated age with the actual age. Such age-associated changes in the epidermis were considered to be closely related with increased roughening of the stratum basale, flattening of dermal papillae, and a decreased percentage of the stratum granulosum per unit area of epidermis observed by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy.

  5. New data acquisition system for the focal plane polarimeter of the Grand Raiden spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Yosoi, M.; Akimune, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ogata, H.; Tanaka, M.; Togawa, H.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a new data acquisition system for the focal plane polarimeter of the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan. Data are acquired by a Creative Electronic Systems (CES) Starburst, which is a CAMAC auxiliary crate controller equipped with a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) J11 microprocessor., The data on the Starburst are transferred to a VME single-board computer. A VME reflective memory module broadcasts the data to other systems through a fiber-optic link. A data transfer rate of 2.0 Mbytes/s between VME modules has been achieved by reflective memories. This rate includes the overhead of buffer management. The overall transfer rate, however, is limited by the performance of the Starburst to about 160 Kbytes/s at maximum. In order to further improve the system performance, the authors developed a new readout module called the Rapid Data Transfer Module (RDTM). RDTM`s transfer data from LeCroy PCOS III`s or 4298`s, and FERA/FERET`s directly to CES 8170 High Speed Memories (HSM) in VME crates. The data transfer rate of the RDTM from PCOS III`s to the HSM is about 4 Mbytes/s.

  6. Gamow-Teller Transitions Starting from T{sub z} = +3/2 Nucleus {sup 47}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Ganioglu, E.; Susoy, G.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Hirota, K.; Ishikawa, D.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Ong, H. J.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Zenihiro, J.; Algora, A.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Rubio, B.; Csatlos, M.; Gulyas, J.

    2011-10-28

    Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are mediated by the {sigma}{tau} operator. Owing to its simplicity and also its spin-isospin nature, GT transitions play key roles in the studies of nuclear structure as well as astro-nuclear processes. In violent neutrino-induced reactions at the core-collapse stage of type II supernovae, Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions starting from stable as well as unstable pf-shell nuclei play important roles. We study GT transitions starting from {sup 47}Ti in a high-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reactions at 0 deg. and at an intermediate incident energy of 140 MeV/nucleon at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka. Individual GT transitions up to high excitations were observed. Assuming the isospin symmetry for the strengths of T{sub z} = {+-}3/2{yields}{+-}1/2 analogous GT transitions, we can deduce the detailed strength distribution starting from mirror unstable nucleus {sup 47}Mn.

  7. High-precision (p,t) reaction measurement to determine {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Fisker, J. L.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.

    2009-11-15

    x-ray bursts are identified as thermonuclear explosions in the outer atmosphere of accreting neutron stars. The thermonuclear runaway is fueled by the {alpha}p process that describes a sequence of ({alpha},p) reactions triggered by the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na breakout reaction from the hot CNO cycles. We studied the level structure of the compound nucleus {sup 22}Mg by measuring the {sup 24}Mg(p,t){sup 22}Mg reaction at the Grand Raiden spectrometer at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. A large number of {alpha}-unbound states was identified and precise excitation energies were determined. Based on shell model and {alpha}-cluster model calculations we predict the level parameters for determining the stellar reaction rate of {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na for a wide temperature range. x-ray burst simulations have been performed to study the impact of the reaction on the x-ray burst luminosity.

  8. High-precision (p,t) reaction to determine {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Since the identification of ongoing {sup 26}Al production in the universe, the reaction sequence {sup 24}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 25}Al({beta}{sup +{nu}}){sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al has been studied intensively. At temperatures where the radiative capture on {sup 25}Al (t{sub 1/2}=7.2 s) becomes faster than the {beta}{sup +} decay, the production of {sup 26}Al can be reduced due to the depletion of {sup 25}Al. To determine the resonances relevant for the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si bypass reaction, we measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with high-energy precision using the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Several new energy levels were found above the p threshold and for known states excitation energies were determined with smaller uncertainties. The calculated stellar rates of the bypass reaction agree well with previous results, suggesting that these rates are well established.

  9. Controllability in Multi-Stage Laser Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.

    2015-11-01

    The present paper shows a concept for a future laser ion accelerator, which should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers and ion post acceleration devices. Based on the laser ion accelerator components, the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled, and a future compact laser ion accelerator would be designed for ion cancer therapy or for ion material treatment. In this study each component is designed to control the ion beam quality. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. A combination of each component provides a high controllability of the ion beam quality to meet variable requirements in various purposes in the laser ion accelerator. The work was partly supported by MEXT, JSPS, ASHULA project/ ILE, Osaka University, CORE (Center for Optical Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Japan), Fudan University and CDI (Creative Dept. for Innovation) in CCRD, Utsunomiya University.

  10. Laser Ion Acceleration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    An intense femtosecond pulsed laser is employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, the ion particle energy control, etc. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, Japan/US Cooperation program, ASHULA and ILE/Osaka University.

  11. Nonuniformity Mitigation of Beam Illumination in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. The oscillating frequency may be several 100 MHz ~ 1 GHz. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on a HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs' illumination nonuniformity. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates with the same wobbling HIBs frequency. In general a perturbation of physical quantity would feature the instability onset. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown so that the instability growth is discussed with the growth rate. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations; the well-known mechanism is a feedback control to compensate the displacement of physical quantity. If the perturbation is induced by, for example, a HIB axis wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, ASHULA, Japan / US Cooperation program and ILE/Osaka University.

  12. Analysis of the Mild strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus, which overcomes Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance in tomato line H24.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Jun; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    In tomato line H24, an isolate of the Mild (Mld) strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld [JR:Kis]) overcomes Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance and causes typical symptoms of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). No systemic infection with visible symptoms or accumulation of viral DNA in the upper leaves was observed in H24 challenged with another isolate, TYLCV-IL (TYLCV-IL [JR:Osaka]), confirming that H24 is resistant to the IL strain. To elucidate the genomic regions that cause the breakdown of the Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance, we constructed a series of chimeras by swapping genes between the two strains. A chimeric virus that had the overlapping C4/Rep region of the Mld strain in the context of the IL strain genome, caused severe TYLCD in H24 plants, suggesting that the overlapping C4/Rep region of the Mld strain is associated with the ability of this strain to overcome Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance.

  13. Degree of ambulation and factors associated with the median distance moved per day in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nishikata, Shiori; Yamakawa, Miyae; Shigenobu, Kazue; Suto, Shunji; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Circuit tag monitoring system became available to measure wandering in terms of the distance moved by dementia patients. The purposes of the study were to describe degree of ambulation in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to examine factors associated with the distance moved. AD patients were recruited at a dementia care unit in Asakayama Hospital, Osaka, Japan. The monitoring system generated the distance moved per day. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Mini-Mental State Examination was used to measure cognitive function. A multiple linear regression was used to predict the distance moved per day. The research was approved by the ethics committee of the university and the hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from the patients' proxies. Majority of the AD subjects monitored had moderate to advance stage of dementia. Patients' age and cognitive function were predictors of the median distance moved/day, and these two variables explained almost half of the variance. Older age and lower cognitive function were associated with reduced median distance moved per day in AD patients.

  14. Isotopica: a tool for the calculation and viewing of complex isotopic envelopes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Cossio, Jorge; Gonzalez, Luis Javier; Satomi, Yoshinori; Betancourt, Lazaro; Ramos, Yassel; Huerta, Vivian; Amaro, Abel; Besada, Vladimir; Padron, Gabriel; Minamino, Naoto; Takao, Toshifumi

    2004-07-01

    The web application Isotopica has been developed as an aid to the interpretation of ions that contain naturally occurring isotopes in a mass spectrum. It allows the calculation of mass values and isotopic distributions based on molecular formulas, peptides/proteins, DNA/RNA, carbohydrate sequences or combinations thereof. In addition, Isotopica takes modifications of the input molecule into consideration using a simple and flexible language as a straightforward extension of the molecular formula syntax. This function is especially useful for biomolecules, which are often subjected to additional modifications other than normal constituents, such as the frequently occurring post-translational modification in proteins. The isotopic distribution of any molecule thus defined can be calculated by considering full widths at half maximum or mass resolution. The combined envelope of several overlapping isotopic distributions of a mixture of molecules can be determined after specifying each molecule's relative abundance. The results can be displayed graphically on a local PC using the Isotopica viewer, a standalone application that is downloadable from the sites below, as a complement to the client browser. The m/z and intensity values can also be obtained in the form of a plain ASCII text file. The software has proved to be useful for peptide mass fingerprinting and validating an observed isotopic ion distribution with reference to the theoretical one, even from a multi-component sample. The web server can be accessed at http://bioinformatica.cigb.edu.cu/isotopica and http://coco.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/isotopica [correction].

  15. Report of the Workshop on Light Particle-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study meeting on light particle (mass number = 3 - 11) induced reaction was held for three days from 5-7 Dec. 1991 at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. This book records the reports based on the lectures presented at the meeting. In the new facility of the RCNP, the experiment on the nuclear reaction using 400 MeV polarized protons and 200 MeV polarized deuterons is about to begin. When the acceleration of polarized He-3 beam which is being developed becomes feasible, by combining it with the high resolution spectrometer GRAND RAIDEN, it is expected that the unique, high accuracy research using the polarized He-3 having intermediate energy (540 MeV) becomes possible. At this time, by focusing attention to what new physics is developed by the nuclear reaction induced by the composite particles having the intermediate energy of mass number 3 - 11, this study meeting was planned and held. As the result, 29 lectures collected were to cover wide fields, and active discussion was carried out.

  16. Functional evaluation of communication speed for an interactive telesurgery system with open MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kuwata, Shigeki; Nakano, Hirohiko; Nakamura, Hitonobu; Kawasaki, Hikaru; Tamura, Shinichi; Ochi, Takahiro

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to define system configuration for an interactive telesurgery with open MRI, and secondly to elucidate optimum bandwidths of B-ISDN in the standpoint view of functionality to cost ratio. The test bed of B-ISDN network was established between Osaka University Hospital (OUH) and Kawasaki Hospital (KH). The interactive telesurgery has divided into three phases. Phase 1 is to transfer DICOM data of a patient from KH to OUH where image files are archived for data processing. Phase 2 is to make interactive videoconferencing with simultaneous sharing of the DICOM images. Phase 3 is to assist surgical navigation from OUH to KW with open MRI images and three dimensional images overlay. In order to satisfy these functions of the three phases and optimize running cost and functionality, the survey were made and the results were summarized as functional requirements. By using scalable bandwidths control, the optimum bandwidths in each phase were decided. The data obtained indicate functional requirements for telesurgical operations and will provide the basis for future challenging tele-robotic surgery which is under developing in our project between OUH and KH.

  17. The Long-Run Socio-Economic Consequences of a Large Disaster: The 1995 Earthquake in Kobe

    PubMed Central

    duPont IV, William; Noy, Ilan; Okuyama, Yoko; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the ‘permanent’ socio-economic impacts of the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake in 1995 by employing a large-scale panel dataset of 1,719 cities, towns, and wards from Japan over three decades. In order to estimate the counterfactual—i.e., the Kobe economy without the earthquake—we use the synthetic control method. Three important empirical patterns emerge: First, the population size and especially the average income level in Kobe have been lower than the counterfactual level without the earthquake for over fifteen years, indicating a permanent negative effect of the earthquake. Such a negative impact can be found especially in the central areas which are closer to the epicenter. Second, the surrounding areas experienced some positive permanent impacts in spite of short-run negative effects of the earthquake. Much of this is associated with movement of people to East Kobe, and consequent movement of jobs to the metropolitan center of Osaka, that is located immediately to the East of Kobe. Third, the furthest areas in the vicinity of Kobe seem to have been insulated from the large direct and indirect impacts of the earthquake. PMID:26426998

  18. Development of a high-power solid-state switch using static induction thyristors for a klystron modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuchi, Akira; Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Furukawa, Kazuya; Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Fujimoto, Masaki; Osumi, Hiroki; Funakoshi, Sousuke; Tsutsumi, Ryouta; Suemine, Shoji; Honda, Yoshihide; Isoyama, Goro

    2015-01-01

    We developed a solid-state switch with static induction thyristors for the klystron modulator of the L-band electron linear accelerator (linac) at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. This switch is designed to have maximum specifications of a holding voltage of 25 kV and a current of 6 kA at the repetition frequency of 10 Hz for forced air cooling. The turn-on time of the switch was measured with a matched resistor to be 270 ns, which is sufficiently fast for the klystron modulator. The switch is retrofitted in the modulator to generate 1.3 GHz RF pulses with durations of either 4 or 8 μs using a 30 MW klystron, and the linac is successfully operated under maximum conditions. This finding demonstrates that the switch can be used as a high-power switch for the modulator. Pulse-to-pulse variations of the klystron voltage are measured to be less than 0.015%, and those of RF power and phase are lower than 0.15% and 0.1°, respectively. These values are significantly smaller than those obtained with a thyratron; hence, the stability of the main RF system is improved. The solid-state switch has been used in normal operation of the linac for more than a year without any serious trouble. Thus, we confirmed the switch's robustness and long-term reliability.

  19. Japanese consumer categorisation of beef into quality grades, based on Meat Standards Australia methodology.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, Rod J; Nishimura, Takanori; Neath, Kate E; Watson, Ray

    2011-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the sensory categorisation of beef by Japanese consumers, based on Meat Standards Australia methodology. Various cuts of beef, with a wide range of quality (from Australian and Japanese cattle) and three cooking methods (grill, yakiniku, shabu shabu), were evaluated by 1620 Japanese consumers in Tokyo and Osaka. Consumers rated each sample for four sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall satisfaction), then selected one of four grades (unsatisfactory/2-star, good everyday/3-star, better than everyday/4-star, and premium quality/5-star), based on the quality of the beef within each cooking method. Meat quality scores, denoted as MQ4 scores (weighted combination of the four sensory attributes) were calculated from the Japanese consumer test results, to describe the Japanese consumer rating of beef. The distribution of the Japanese consumer MQ4 scores showed a clear distinction between grades, with the majority of scores being included within the boundaries of each grade. The MQ4 score allocated approximately 64% of the samples to their correct consumer grades. The MQ4 score showed potential to be used as a tool in developing and monitoring a consumer-focused grading system that is able to predict Japanese consumer satisfaction of individual beef cuts prepared by different cooking methods.

  20. Research and application of role theory in ocean carbon cycle ontology construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Haipeng; Xiong, Jing; Xu, Jianliang; Wang, Jipeng

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers have studied the ocean carbon cycle model trying to regulate the level of CO2 in atmosphere from viewpoint of quantification. Unlike other researches, this paper analyzes the conversion process of carbon element in the ocean from the qualitative viewpoint. There are many complex roles in the ocean carbon cycle, and it is hard to represent the case that an entity plays different role in different environment. An ontology technology Hozo role theory developed by Osaka University Mizoguchi Laboratory is proposed as a solution. The basic concepts and representation mode of Hozo role theory is introduced. The conversion process of ocean carbon cycle is abstracted and an ontology model using Hozo role theory is proposed. Instead of comprehensive common ontology construction method, we propose our own ontology development steps. Then an ontology about ocean carbon cycle is built in order to describe and share the basic knowledge of ocean carbon cycle. A knowledge base of material circulation is proposed based on the ontology. Its construction framework is described and some knowledge base query examples are also illustrated. Conclusions show that the role theory can effectively solve the problem of multirole description in ocean carbon cycle, and knowledge reasoning based on ontology is also effective.

  1. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yushi; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.

  2. International innovations in optical finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy in two Japanese siblings with Fabry disease, and its effectiveness on angiokeratoma and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Furujo, Mahoko; Kubo, Toshihide; Kobayashi, Masahisa; Ohashi, Toya

    2013-11-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease does not show a clear benefit in angiokeratoma. We describe two Japanese siblings with Fabry disease, who were diagnosed when angiokeratomas were found on the older sibling at the age of 13 years. Neither of the boys complained of pain, while both suffered from hypohidrosis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ERT with recombinant human agalsidase alfa (Replagal®, Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Osaka, Japan) in these siblings over a 5-year period. In both siblings, sweating was observed 3 months after the initiation of ERT, which motivated them to adhere to ERT. Pain sensation was regained after 12 to 36 months of ERT, followed by a decrease after 48 to 60 months. Angiokeratomas on the lateral side of the knee of the older sibling partially disappeared after 48 months of ERT. Although the height of both siblings at baseline was lower than the corresponding average age-related heights in the normal Japanese population, during ERT they were within, or close to, the average +1 standard deviation in the non-Fabry population. Their growth rate seemed to indicate catch-up growth. Other clinical symptoms were maintained at baseline levels. Immunoglobulin G anti-agalsidase alfa antibodies were not detected in both sibling during ERT, and no infusion-associated reaction was observed. The treatment was generally well tolerated. ERT was a safe and effective treatment for angiokeratoma and neuropathic pain for these two siblings with Fabry disease.

  4. Tactical behaviour of winning athletes in major championship 1500-m and 5000-m track finals.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Sonia; Lapresa, Daniel; Arana, Javier; Anguera, M Teresa; Garzón, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the tactics employed by middle-distance (1500-m) and long-distance (5000-m) runners from an observational methodology perspective. The subject of investigation has received little attention from specialists in the field of athletics, with most research focusing on physiological studies of athlete performance. Using an ad hoc observation tool and a database containing systematically recorded data we detected time patterns (T-patterns) within the data recorded using the Theme software program (version 5.0), and analysed the tactics employed by winners of the men's 1500-m and 5000-m finals of the World Championships in Athletics [Edmonton 2001, Paris 2003, Helsinki 2005 (1500-m final only), Osaka 2007 (1500-m final only), Berlin 2009 and Daegu 2011], the European Athletics Championships (Munich 2002, Göteborg 2006, and Barcelona 2010) and the Olympic Games (Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008 and London 2012). T-pattern detection and investigation of the relationship between category systems corresponding to the criteria comprising the observation tool revealed both similarities (starting lane and lane used during race, runner's position during race and sprint zone and lane) and differences (variations in pace, zones in which changes of pace occur, sprint initiation zone and winner's position at the start of the sprint) between the two disciplines.

  5. Geological support for the Umbrella Effect as a link between geomagnetic field and climate

    PubMed Central

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The weakening of the geomagnetic field causes an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. Some researchers argue that enhanced GCR flux might lead to a climatic cooling by increasing low cloud formation, which enhances albedo (umbrella effect). Recent studies have reported geological evidence for a link between weakened geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. However, more work is needed on the mechanism of this link, including whether the umbrella effect is playing a central role. In this research, we present new geological evidence that GCR flux change had a greater impact on continental climate than on oceanic climate. According to pollen data from Osaka Bay, Japan, the decrease in temperature of the Siberian air mass was greater than that of the Pacific air mass during geomagnetic reversals in marine isotope stages (MIS) 19 and 31. Consequently, the summer land-ocean temperature gradient was smaller, and the summer monsoon was weaker. Greater terrestrial cooling indicates that a reduction of insolation is playing a key role in the link between the weakening of the geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. The most likely candidate for the mechanism seems to be the increased albedo of the umbrella effect. PMID:28091595

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp), ORF2 (1,623 bp), and ORF3 (807 bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  7. Integrated experiments of fast ignition targets by Gekko-XII and LFEX lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Watari, T.; Nakamura, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Hosoda, H.; Nagai, T.; Koga, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Ishii, Y.; Sogo, T.; Shigemori, K.; Nishimura, H.; Zhang, Z.; Tanabe, M.; Ohira, S.; Fujii, Y.; Namimoto, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Maegawa, O.; Ozaki, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Shimada, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Murakami, M.; Sakagami, H.; Taguchi, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Homma, H.; Fujimoto, Y.; Iwamoto, A.; Miyanaga, N.; Kawanaka, J.; Jitsuno, T.; Nakata, Y.; Tsubakimoto, K.; Sueda, K.; Morio, N.; Matsuo, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Sawai, K.; Tsuji, K.; Murakami, H.; Kanabe, T.; Kondo, K.; Kodama, R.; Sarukura, N.; Shimizu, T.; Mima, K.; Azechi, H.

    2012-09-01

    Implosion and heating experiments at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University on Fast Ignition (FI) targets for the FIREX-1 project have been performed with Gekko-XII laser for implosions and LFEX laser for heating. We tried to reduce the prepulse level in the LFEX laser system and have improved the plasma diagnostics to observe the plasma in the harsh hard X-ray environment. A plastic (CD) shell target, 7-μm thick and 500 μm in diameter with a hollow gold cone was used in this experiment to guide the short-pulse laser at the time of the maximum compression. The shell target was imploded with 9 or 12 beams of Gekko-XII laser (527 nm) with energy of 300 J/beam in a 1.5 ns pulse. Two of the four LFEX laser (1053 nm) beams were injected into the inside bottom of the cone with an energy up to 0.7 kJ/beam in a 1.5 ps pulse at the time around the maximum implosion. We have observed neutron enhancement up to 3.5 × 107 with total heating energy of 300 J, which is higher than the yield obtained in the previous experiment in 2002 [R. Kodama et al. Nature 418, 933 (2002)]. We found the estimated heating efficiency is at a level of 10-20%. Fuel heating to 5 keV is expected when the full output of LFEX is used.

  8. Development of a color 3D display visible to plural viewers at the same time without special glasses by using a ray-regenerating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamagishi, Goro; Ando, Takahisa; Higashino, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsuhiro; Mashitani, Ken; Inoue, Masutaka; Kishimoto, Shun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-05-01

    We have newly developed a few kinds of new auto-stereoscopic 3D displays adopting a ray-regenerating method. The method is invented basically at Osaka University in 1997. We adopted this method with LCD. The display has a very simple construction. It consists of LC panel with a very large number of pixels and many small light sources positioned behind the LC panel. We have examined the following new technologies: 1) Optimum design of the optical system. 2) Suitable construction in order to realize very large number of pixels. 3) Highly bright back-light system with optical fiber array to compensate the low lighting efficiency. The 3D displays having wide viewing area and being visible for plural viewers were realized. But the cross-talk images appeared more than we expected. By changing the construction of this system to reduce the diffusing factors of generated rays, the cross-talk images are reduced dramatically. Within the limitation of the pixel numbers of LCD, it is desirable to increase the pinhole numbers to realize the realistic 3D image. This research formed a link in the chain of the national project by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) in Japan.

  9. The Meningo-Orbital Band: Microsurgical Anatomy and Surgical Detachment of the Membranous Structures through a Frontotemporal Craniotomy with Removal of the Anterior Clinoid Process.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Evins, Alexander I; Burrell, Justin C; Iwasaki, Koichi; Stieg, Philip E; Bernardo, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Objective To describe the microanatomy of the meningo-orbital band (MOB) and its associated membranes, and propose a stepwise method for their detachment while minimizing potential complications. Design Cadaveric and prospective clinical. Setting Microneurosurgery Skull Base Laboratory, Weill Cornell Medical College (New York, NY) and Shiroyama Hospital (Osaka, Japan). Participants Five preserved cadaveric heads (10 sides) and five patients requiring surgical detachment of the MOB in 2012. Results MOB detachment and subsequent extradural anterior clinoidectomies were successfully performed on five clinical cases. Detachment of the MOB was accomplished using a four-step dissection based on the structure's detailed microanatomy and included (1) partial removal of the lateral wall of the superior orbital fissure, (2) incising of the lateral periosteal dura of the superior orbital fissure, (3) peeling off the dura propria of the temporal lobe from the inner cavernous membrane, and (4) fully detaching the exposed MOB from the periorbita. Conclusion Understanding the complex microanatomy of these structures enabled a safe and effective stepwise detachment of the MOB. We recommend that surgeons possess sufficient anatomical knowledge before surgically manipulating this structure.

  10. A Case of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with HIV Infection in Which HAART Possibly Influenced the Prognosis of Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Kitagaki, Takakuni; Sato, Takaki; Hirai, Junko; Kimura, Daisaku; Kakurai, Keigo; Fukumoto, Masanori; Tajiri, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kida, Teruyo; Kojima, Shota; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Background We report on a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who exhibited extremely active PDR followed by a rapid onset of blindness in the right eye. The progression of visual disturbance in the patient's left eye was slowed after starting highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and vision in that eye was rescued after vitrectomy. Case Report A 72-year-old male developed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia stemming from an HIV infection and began HAART at the Department of Hematology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, Japan. Prior to HAART, the patient had shown rapidly progressing retinopathy in the right eye accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, ultimately leading to early-onset blindness. After starting HAART, the progression of the retinopathy in the left eye became slower compared to the right eye, with corrected visual acuity improving to 0.6 after vitrectomy, despite being accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage. The patient's overall condition has remained stable following the operation, and the condition of the ocular fundus in the left eye has also settled. Conclusion Significant differences were found in the progression rate of PDR with HIV infection between before and after starting HAART. Our findings suggest that early administration of HAART to HIV patients with diabetic retinopathy is crucial for maintaining visual function. PMID:27990117

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  12. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.

  13. A grid computing infrastructure for MEG data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, S; Kosaka, T; Date, S; Shimojo, S; Tonoike, M

    2004-11-30

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is widely used for studying brain functions, but clinical applications of MEG have been less prevalent. One reason is that only clinicians who have highly specialized knowledge can use MEG diagnostically, and such clinicians are found at only a few major hospitals. Another reason is that MEG data analysis is getting more and more complicated, and deals with a large amount of data, and thus requires high-performance computing. These problems can be solved by the collaboration of human and computing resources distributed in multiple facilities. A new computing infrastructure for brain scientists and clinicians in distant locations was therefore developed by the Grid technology, which provides virtual computing environments composed of geographically distributed computers and experimental devices. A prototype system connecting an MEG system at the AIST in Japan, a Grid environment composed of PC clusters at Osaka University in Japan and Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, and user terminals in Baltimore was developed. MEG data measured at the AIST were transferred in real-time through a 1-GB/s network to the PC clusters for processing by a wavelet cross-correlation method, and then monitored in Baltimore. The current system is the basic model for remote-access to MEG equipment and high-speed processing of MEG data.

  14. High-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kamishima, Yuko; Kondo, Megumi; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Danhara, Tohru; Aziz, Fachroel; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kumai, Hisao

    2011-12-06

    A detailed paleomagnetic study conducted in the Sangiran area, Java, has provided a reliable age constraint on hominid fossil-bearing formations. A reverse-to-normal polarity transition marks a 7-m thick section across the Upper Tuff in the Bapang Formation. The transition has three short reversal episodes and is overlain by a thick normal polarity magnetozone that was fission-track dated to the Brunhes chron. This pattern closely resembles another high-resolution Matuyama-Brunhes (MB) transition record in an Osaka Bay marine core. In the Sangiran sediments, four successive transitional polarity fields lie just below the presumed main MB boundary. Their virtual geomagnetic poles cluster in the western South Pacific, partly overlapping the transitional virtual geomagnetic poles from Hawaiian and Canary Islands' lavas, which have a mean (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 776 ± 2 ka. Thus, the polarity transition is unambiguously the MB boundary. A revised correlation of tuff layers in the Bapang Formation reveals that the hominid last occurrence and the tektite level in the Sangiran area are nearly coincident, just below the Upper Middle Tuff, which underlies the MB transition. The stratigraphic relationship of the tektite level to the MB transition in the Sangiran area is consistent with deep-sea core data that show that the meteorite impact preceded the MB reversal by about 12 ka. The MB boundary currently defines the uppermost horizon yielding Homo erectus fossils in the Sangiran area.

  15. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    PubMed

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  16. DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR URBAN AND ENERGY PLANNING TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hideto; Nakakubo, Toyohiko; Tokai, Akihiro

    In this study, we developed an integrated management model that supports local government to make a promising energy saving measure on a block-scale combined with urban planning. We applied the model to Osaka city and estimated CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial buildings to 2050. The urban renewal cases selected in this study included advanced multipole accumulation case, normal multipole accumulation case, and actual trend continuation case. The energy saving options introduced in each case included all-electric HP system, micro grid system, and we also set the option where the greater CO2 reduction one is selected in each block. The results showed that CO2 emission in 2050 would be reduced by 54.8-57.6% relative to the actual condition by introducing the new energy system in all cases. In addition, the amount of CO2 reduction in actual trend continuation case was highest. The major factor was that the effect of CO2 emission reductions by installing the solar power generation panel was higher than the effect by utilizing heated water mutually on the high-density blocks in terms of total urban buildings' energy consumption.

  17. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  18. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-03-05

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products.

  19. Power law and log law velocity distributions in the wall bounded turbulent flows on transitional rough walls: New approach to universal scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor

    2006-11-01

    An alternate two layers theory, based on four new scalings for transitional wall roughness variables, is presented for large appropriate roughness Reynolds numbers. For velocity profile the matching of inner and outer layers in the overlap region, by Izakson-Millikan-Kolmogorov hypothesis (Afzal, N. 2005 Proc. Royal Society A: PME 461, 1889-1910) leads to functional solutions that are universal log laws, as well as universal power laws, that explicitly independent of transitional wall roughness, having same constants as in smooth wall case. The universal log or power laws velocity profile and skin friction, if expressed in terms of traditional Reynolds numbers also yield log law and power laws that depend on surface roughness. The skin friction, in traditional variables, is predicted by a single relation for inflectional type of Nikuradse roughness for sand grain type roughness data and Colebrook commercial monotonic roughness. The extensive experimental data for various types of wall transitional roughness provide very good support to present theory of universal log laws as well as new predictions in traditional log laws . The experimental data from various sources (Osaka and Mochizuki, Kameda et al, Antonia and Krogstad, Smalley et al, Schultz and Flack and Leonardi et al for boundary layers and Nikuradse, Shockling and Bakken for pipes/Channels) provide strong support to the new scaling for log and power laws. Moody type diagram for inflectional roughness for boundary layer and pipe flows are presented.

  20. Development of a quasi-monoenergetic neutron field using the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction in the energy range from 250 to 390 MeV at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, S; Nakao, N; Nakamura, T; Yashima, H; Iwamoto, Y; Satoh, D; Nakane, Y; Nakashima, H; Itoga, T; Tamii, A; Hatanaka, K

    2007-01-01

    A quasi-monoenergetic neutron field using the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction has been developed at the ring cyclotron facility at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. Neutrons were generated from a 10-mm-thick Li target injected by 250, 350 and 392 MeV protons and neutrons produced at 0 degrees were extracted into the time-of-flight (TOF) room of 100-m length through the concrete collimator of 10 x 12 cm aperture and 150 cm thickness. The neutron energy spectra were measured by a 12.7-cm diam x 12.7-cm long NE213 organic liquid scintillator using the TOF method. The peak neutron fluence was 1.94 x 10(10), 1.07 x 10(10) and 1.50 x 10(10) n sr(-1) per muC of 250, 350 and 392 MeV protons, respectively. The neutron spectra generated from various thick (stopping length) targets of carbon, aluminium, iron and lead, bombarded by 250 and 350 MeV protons, were also measured with the TOF method. Although these measurements were performed to obtain thick target neutron yields, they are also used as a continuous energy neutron field. These neutron fields are very useful for characterising neutron detectors, measuring neutron cross sections, testing irradiation effects for various materials and performing neutron shielding experiments.

  1. Yield and gas exchange ability of sweetpotato plants cultured in a hydroponic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Saiful Islam, A. F. M.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food atmospheric O 2 and clean water produced by plants Therefore the space farming systems with scheduling of crop production obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate converting atmospheric CO 2 to O 2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space In this study three sweetpotato varieties were cultured in a newly developed hydroponic system and the yield the photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate were compared on the earth as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming systems The varieties were Elegant summer Koukei 14 and Beniazuma The hydroponic system mainly consisted of water channels and rockwool boards A growing space for roots was made between the rockwool board and nutrient solution in the water channel Storage roots were developed on the lower surface of the rockwool plates Fresh weights of the storage roots were 1 6 1 2 and 0 6 kg plant for Koukei 14 Elegant summer and Beniazuma respectively grown for five months from June to October under the sun light in Osaka Japan Koukei 14 and Elegant summer produced greater total phytomass than Beniazuma There were positive correlations among the total phytomass the net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate Young stems and leaves as well as storage roots of Elegant summer are edible Therefore Elegant-summer

  2. Taxonomic examination of longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, "dragon bone") and a related crude drug, longchi (Dens Draconis, "dragon tooth"), from Japanese and Chinese crude drug markets.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuki; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2017-02-20

    Longgu ("dragon bone," Ryu-kotsu, Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, or Os Draconis) is the only fossil crude drug listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All longgu in the current Japanese market is imported from China, where its resources are being depleted. Therefore, effective countermeasures are urgently needed to prevent resource depletion. One possible solution is the development of a substitute made from bones of contemporary animals that are closely related to the original animal source of the current longgu. However, no research has been conducted on the original animal source of longgu, except for a report on the longgu specimens present in the Shosoin Repository. Taxonomic examination was performed on the fossil specimens related to longgu which are owned by the Museum of Osaka University, Japan. In total, 20,939 fossil fragments were examined, of which 20,886 were mammalian fossils, and 246 of these fossils were classified into nine families. The longgu specimens from the Japanese market belonged to a relatively smaller variety of taxa than those from the Chinese market. Despite the variety of taxa in longgu, medical doctors using Kampo preparations with longgu have not reported any problems due to the presence of impurities in the original animal source. These results suggest that the effect of longgu is independent of its origin as long as it is closely related to the origin of the current longgu. Thus, despite the considerable effects of fossilization, our results could help in developing an optimal substitute for longgu.

  3. Various applications of Active Field Control (AFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system, which has been under development at Yamaha Corporation. In this paper, several types of various AFC applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application in Japan. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, e.g., Tokyo International Forum. This venue is a multipurpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves loudness and reverberance equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Optimization of acoustics for a variety of programs, e.g., Arkas Sasebo. AFC is used to create the optimum acoustics for each program, such as reverberance for classical concerts, acoustical support for opera singers, uniformity throughout the hall from the stage to under-balcony area, etc. (3) Control of room shape acoustical effect, e.g., Osaka Central Public Hall: In this renovation project, preservation of historically important architecture in the original form is required. AFC is installed to vary only the acoustical environment without architectural changes. (4) Assistance with crowd enthusiasm for sports entertainment, e.g., Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. In this venue, which is designed as a very absorptive space for speech intelligibility, AFC is installed to enhance the atmosphere of live sports entertainment.

  4. Two-photon upconversion affected by intermolecule correlations near metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaka, Yoshiki; Yokoshi, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    We investigate an efficient two-photon upconversion process in more than one molecule coupled to an optical antenna. In the previous paper [Y. Osaka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 133601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.133601], we considered the two-photon upconversion process in a single molecule within one-dimensional input-output theory and revealed that controlling the antenna-molecule coupling enables the efficient upconversion with radiative loss in the antenna suppressed. In this paper, aiming to propose a way to enhance the total probability of antenna-photon scattering, we extend the model to the case of multiple molecules. In general, the presence of more than one molecule decreases the upconversion probability because they equally share the energy of the two photons. However, it is shown that we can overcome the difficulty by controlling the intermolecule coupling. Our result implies that, without increasing the incident photon number (light power), we can enlarge the net probability of the two-photon upconversion.

  5. Identification of Legionella pneumophila serogroups and other Legionella species by mip gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Attiya; Koide, Michio; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2012-04-01

    The virulence factor known as the macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) is responsible for the intracellular survival of Legionella species. In this study, we investigated the potential of the mip gene sequence to differentiate isolates of different species of Legionella and different serogroups of Legionella pneumophila. We used 35 clinical L. pneumophila isolates and one clinical isolate each of Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella dumoffii (collected from hospitals all over Japan between 1980 and 2007). We used 19 environmental Legionella anisa isolates (collected in the Okinawa, Nara, Osaka, and Hyogo prefectures between 1987 and 2007) and two Legionella type strains. We extracted bacterial genomic DNA and amplified out the mip gene by PCR. PCR products were purified by agarose gel electrophoresis and the mip gene was then sequenced. The L. pneumophila isolates could be divided into two groups: one group was very similar to the type strain and was composed of serogroup (SG) 1 isolates only; the second group had more sequence variations and was composed of SG1 isolates as well as SG2, SG3, SG5, and SG10 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis displayed one cluster for L. anisa isolates, while other Legionella species were present at discrete levels. Our findings show that mip gene sequencing is an effective technique for differentiating L. pneumophila strains from other Legionella species.

  6. Detection of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in raccoons, raccoon dogs and wild boars in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshito; Sato, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Uni, Shigehiko; Shibasaki, Takahiro; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Kai, Kazushige; Maeda, Ken

    2009-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infects numerous animal species including humans, horses and pigs. In this study, antibodies against JEV in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor), wild boars (Sus scrofa) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan were examined. The results showed that 40.7% (22 out of 54), 64.5% (40 out of 62), 69.1% (47 out of 68) and 0% (0 out of 20) of raccoons in Hyogo, Osaka, Wakayama and Hokkaido, respectively, had virus-neutralizing antibodies against JEV. In addition, 83.3% (30 out of 36) of wild boars and 63.2% (12 out of 19) of raccoon dogs in Wakayama were seropositive for JEV. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of JEV between males and females or between adults and juveniles in these wild animals. JEV seroprevalence was compared between 37 raccoons and 30 wild boars captured in a limited period (November 2007 to February 2008), and we found that wild boars (86.7%) were significantly more seropositive for JEV antibody than raccoons (59.5%). In conclusion, JEV was prevalent in wild mammals, indicating that the possibility of JEV infection in humans may still be high in Japan. In addition, these wild animals may be good sentinels to estimate JEV infection risk in residents, as they live near humans and are not vaccinated.

  7. Trunk muscle endurance and low back pain in female dance students.

    PubMed

    Swain, Christopher; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is often cited as a common condition at all levels of dance. Evidence suggests that reduced endurance of the trunk muscles can predispose an individual to LBP. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in trunk muscle endurance in a sample of tertiary level dance students with and without LBP. Seventeen full-time female dance students were divided into two groups: dance students with LBP (N = 11), and without LBP (N = 6). All participants provided informed consent, and the study was approved by an institutional ethics review board. Participants performed four isometric tests that assess trunk muscle endurance: the right and left side plank, double straight leg raise (DSLR), and the Sorensen test. A modified version of the Osaka City University test was used to assess the presence of LBP. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups was observed for the right and left side plank, as well as the DSLR test, and students with LBP displayed lower levels of endurance compared to those without. No other significant differences were found. This study offers some evidence that reduced trunk muscle endurance is present among dancers with LBP and provides direction for future research into back health among dancers.

  8. Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health.

  9. Oikopleura dioica culturing made easy: a low-cost facility for an emerging animal model in EvoDevo.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Ferrández-Roldán, Alfonso; Godoy-Marín, Hector; Badia-Ramentol, Jordi; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Bouquet, Jean Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequencing and the development of RNAi knockdown technologies in the urochordate Oikopleura dioica are making this organism an attractive emergent model in the field of EvoDevo. To succeed as a new animal model, however, an organism needs to be easily and affordably cultured in the laboratory. Nowadays, there are only two facilities in the world capable to indefinitely maintain Oikopleura dioica, one in the SARS institute (Bergen, Norway) and the other in the Osaka University (Japan). Here, we describe the setup of a new facility in the University of Barcelona (Spain) in which we have modified previously published husbandry protocols to optimize the weekly production of thousands of embryos and hundreds of mature animals using the minimum amount of space, human resources, and technical equipment. This optimization includes novel protocols of cryopreservation and solid cultures for long-term maintenance of microalgal stocks-Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis sp., Rhinomonas reticulate, and Synechococcus sp.-needed for Oikopleura dioica feeding. Our culture system maintains partially inbred lines healthy with similar characteristics to wild animals, and it is easily expandable to satisfy on demand the needs of any laboratory that may wish to use Oikopleura dioica as a model organism.

  10. Molecular dynamics analysis of relaxation state control of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Narumasa; Masato Wakeda Team; Shigenobu Ogata Team

    2014-03-01

    Metallic glasses have excellent properties such as high fracture toughness and large elastic strain limit, high corrosion resistance, however they generally exhibit brittle fracture mode at ambient temperature. Since mechanical properties of metallic glasses depend on the degree of relaxation state, it can be tuned by controlling the degree of relaxation state. In this computational study, we focus on a method to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings. Using molecular dynamics, a metallic glass model was applied thermal loading composed of heating, annealing and quenching with external stress. Here, different annealing temperatures ranging from 0.5Tg to 1.5Tg [K] (Tg: the glass transition temperature), and external stresses ranging from 0 to 10 [GPa] were applied. We found that thermal loading below Tg leads the metallic glasses more relaxed state. On the other hand, the external stress brings metallic glasses less relaxed state, because external stress changes the shape of potential energy surface. These finding allow us to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses. Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Osaka Univ., Center for Elements Strategy Initiative for Structural Materials, Kyoto Univ.

  11. [Present status of Japanese neurologists from the questionnaire survey - to support women doctor's career advancement].

    PubMed

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2013-01-01

    Childcare issue and family care issue are critical factors for women doctors to make a career as a neurologist in Japan. To know the actual business conditions of Japanese neurologists an online questioner survey was conducted. Answers were obtained from 737 members of Japanese Society of Neurology and 21 neurological medical facilities. Most of the answers were form members at three major metropolitan areas such as Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya. Nobody from some prefectures was replied any answer. Almost sixty percent woman doctors had to change their working style from full time to part time at their child raising period and had difficulty with returning to full time job. Some neurologists have answered they used paid vacation to care their families and they felt they could not keep it for a longer period. At 70 percent of medical facilities sick child day care center were not operated. Opinions form members extremely varied from "In the first place woman doctors are unnecessary"to "With the help of the partner I have survived my child raising period".

  12. Associations between co-detected respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Amo, Kiyoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Ohyama, Minori; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age < 6 years) ARI specimens collected in Osaka City, Japan between January 2010 and December 2011. In total, 891 specimens (85.3%) were virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (<3 years) are highly susceptible to respiratory viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.

  13. Study of fast electron generation using multi beam of LFEX-class laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, M.; Sakagami, H.; Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nagatomo, H.

    2016-05-01

    Fast Ignition Realization Experiment project phase-I (FIREX-I) is being performed at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. In this project, the four-beam bundled high-energy Petawatt laser (LFEX) is being operated. LFEX laser provides great multi-beam irradiation flexibility, with the possibility of arrange the pulses in temporal sequence, spatially separate them in distinct spots of focus them in a single spot. In this paper, we study the two- beam interference effects on high-intensity picosecond laser-plasma interaction (LPI) by twodimensional relativistic Particle-In-Cell simulations. The interference causes surface perturbation, which enhances laser absorption and underdense plasma generation, increasing the accelerated electron number and their slope temperature. The laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency for two-beam interference case is suitable for Fast Ignition (FI) compared to the single beam case, but the increment of fast electron divergence leads to lower energy coupling. To optimize the target design for FI, these interference effects should be taken into consideration.

  14. Utilization of Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Fistula With Subcutaneous Cavity Following Septic Bursitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Satoshi; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Mori, Yudai; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy, various growth factors and cytokines released the α-granules contained in platelets after activation can potentially enhance wound healing by delivering. We report a patient in whom treatment with PRP, prepared using a syringe-centrifugation-system PRP kit (KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit), for a fistula following bursitis of the lateral malleolus, which could not be healed with conventional wound therapy, led to successful healing. A 58-year-old man was on dialysis for type II diabetes and chronic renal failure. In the left lateral malleolus, septic bursitis developed, leading to a refractory fistula with a subcutaneous cavity measuring 4 × 3 cm, which persisted for more than 2 months. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit (KYOCERA Medical Corporation, Osaka, Japan) and infused into the cavity twice to close it. After this procedure, the cavity size reduced, but the orifice and subcutaneous cavity were not closed. Therefore, additional PRP therapy was conducted after 10 weeks of the first PRP session. Complete closure was achieved 13 weeks after the first PRP therapy. In the present case, PRP was prepared using the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, and wound healing of a fistula with subcutaneous cavity following bursitis of the lateral malleolus was successfully cured. The KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit was useful, because PRP could be prepared simply and inexpensively using the syringe-centrifugation system.

  15. Development of a database system and image viewer to assist in the correlation of histopathologic features and digital image analysis with clinical and molecular genetic information.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yukako; Riedlinger, Gregory; Xu, Xun; Nakamura, Akira; Levy, Bruce; Iafrate, A John; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Klepeis, Veronica E

    2016-02-01

    Pathologists are required to integrate data from multiple sources when making a diagnosis. Furthermore, whole slide imaging (WSI) and next generation sequencing will escalate data size and complexity. Development of well-designed databases that can allow efficient navigation between multiple data types is necessary for both clinical and research purposes. We developed and evaluated an interactive, web-based database that integrates clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and genetic information to aid in pathologic diagnosis and interpretation with nine lung adenocarcinoma cases. To minimize sectioning artifacts, representative blocks were serially sectioned using automated tissue sectioning (Kurabo Industries, Osaka Japan) and selected slides were stained by multiple techniques, (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], immunohistochemistry [IHC] or fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]). Slides were digitized by WSI scanners. An interactive relational database was designed based on a list of proposed fields covering a variety of clinical, pathologic and molecular parameters. By focusing on the three main tasks of 1.) efficient management of textual information, 2.) effective viewing of all varieties of stained whole slide images (WSI), and 3.) assistance in evaluating WSI with computer-aided diagnosis, this database prototype shows great promise for multi-modality research and diagnosis.

  16. Is administrating branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutrition achieved symptom-free in malnourished cirrhotic patients?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Hideo; Sujishi, Tetsuya; Ohama, Hideko; Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Asai, Akira; Fukunisi, Shinya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been reported to improve liver function, quality of life (QOL). However, in some malnourished patients, serum albumin levels do not improve in response to BCAA granules. In this study, we examined the effects of BCAA-enriched enteral nutrition in patients unresponsive to BCAA granules. Thirty-two decompensated cirrhotic patients at Osaka Medical College were enrolled in this study. Since all patients showed no improvement in serum albumin levels despite 3 months of BCAA granule administration, they were administered 50 g of a flavored BCAA-enriched enteral nutrient twice daily, i.e., during the daytime and late evening. Serum albumin levels and major cirrhotic symptoms were examined 1, 3, and 5 months after treatment initiation. Serum albumin levels improved significantly 3 months after treatment initiation (3.14 ± 0.32 g/dl vs 3.5 ± 0.31 g/dl, p<0.01), and Child-Pugh scores decreased significantly (p<0.01). In the majority (53-80%) of patients, muscles cramps, fatigue, fatigability, edema, and sleep disturbance improved within 3 months after therapy initiation. Moreover, approximately 90% of the patients became symptom-free 5 months after treatment initiation. These results indicate that switching to BCAA-enriched nutrients improves QOL of cirrhotic patients unresponsive to BCAA granules.

  17. Nerve fibre tracing of branches to the coracobrachialis muscle in a Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, T; Yoshitomi, S; Sasaki, H

    2007-02-01

    A detailed anatomical analysis of the left brachial plexus, composed of the fourth cervical to first thoracic spinal nerve roots, was performed in an adult male orangutan obtained from the Osaka Museum of Natural History. Although the medial and posterior cords fused into a common trunk, a nerve fibre analysis revealed that the cords were not actually connected. A superficial branch (Rs) running ventral to the musculocutaneous nerve (MC) and a deep branch (Rp) running dorsal to the MC innervated the coracobrachialis muscle, which was also innervated by coracobrachialis branches (Rmc) from the MC. Koizumi (1989: Acta Anat. Nippon, 64, 18) reported that the Rmc and Rs innervated the superficial region of the coracobrachialis muscle corresponding to superficial coracobrachialis muscle in prosimians, whereas the Rp innervated the deep region. However, the detailed innervation of the coracobrachialis muscle in orangutans was not included in Koizumi and Sakai's (1995: J. Anat. 186, 395) report. Our observations in an orangutan did not seem to support generalisation, because the common trunk of the Rp and Rmc appeared to innervate both the superficial and deep regions of the coracobrachialis muscle. Therefore, a nerve fibre analysis of the common trunk was performed as a detailed examination. The analysis confirmed that the Rp in the orangutan only innervated the deep region of the coracobrachialis muscle, similar to the innervation pattern seen in other apes and humans.

  18. Performances of THz cameras with enhanced sensitivity in sub-terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Kurashina, Seiji; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Isoyama, Goro; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    Uncooled microbolometer-type 640x480 and 320x240 Terahertz (THz) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region are developed, and incorporated into 640x480 and 320x240 cameras, respectively. The pixel in the THz-FPA has such a structure that an area sensitive to electromagnetic wave is suspended above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). A thin metallic layer is formed on the top of the sensitive area, while a thick metallic layer is formed on the surface of ROIC. The structure composed of the thin metallic layer and the thick metallic layer behaves as an optical cavity. The THz-FPAs reported in this paper have a modified pixel structure which has several times longer optical-cavity length than NEC's previous pixel does, by forming a thick SiN layer on the ROIC. The extended optical-cavity structure is favorable for detecting electromagnetic wave with lower frequency. Consequently, the Minimum Detectable Power per pixel (MDP) is improved ten times in sub-THz region, especially 0.5-0.6 THz. This paper presents spectral frequency dependences of MDP values for THz-FPA with the modified pixel structure and THz-FPA with the previous pixel structure, using THz free electron laser (FEL) developed by Osaka University. The modification of pixel structure extends high sensitivity region to lower frequency region, such as sub-THz region, and the wider spectral coverage of THz camera surely expands its applicability

  19. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    PubMed

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  20. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  1. Further Characterization of 394-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GII with Additional PID Control System for 600-MHz DNP-SSNMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-09-01

    A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.

  2. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the antibiotic discharge outer membrane lipoprotein OprM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an exceptionally long unit cell and complex lattice structure

    SciTech Connect

    Akama, Hiroyuki; Kanemaki, Misa; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakae, Taiji

    2005-01-01

    The OprM subunit of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump in P. aeruginosa is an outer membrane-anchored lipoprotein. OprM crystals have been grown at 293 K in the presence of 2-methyl-2,4-propanediol and a combination of surfactants and diffracted to 2.56 Å resolution. Crystals of the drug-discharge outer membrane protein OprM (MW = 50.9 kDa) of the MexAB-OprM multidrug transporter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been grown at 293 K in the presence of 2-methyl-2,4-propanediol and a combination of surfactants. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.43, c = 1044.3 Å. Diffraction data for OprM were obtained using the undulator synchrotron-radiation beamline at SPring-8 (BL44XU, Osaka University), which allowed an extra-long specimen-to-detector distance with a wide detector area. The crystal diffracted to 2.56 Å resolution using 0.9 Å X-rays from the synchrotron-radiation source. A heavy-atom derivative for isomorphous replacement phasing was obtained using iridium chloride.

  3. Preface.

    PubMed

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2014-02-01

    This Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering contains ten selected papers presented at the Neural Coding 2012 workshop. Neuroscience is traditionally very close to mathematics which stems from the famous theoretical work of McCulloch--Pitts and Hodgkin--Huxley in the middle of the previous century. Great progress has been made since those times and through the decades this fruitful combination of disciplines continue. The workshop was held in the beautiful town of Prague in the Czech Republic, September 2-7, 2012. This was the 10th of a series of international workshops on this subject, the first one also held in Prague (1995), then in Versailles (1997), Osaka (1999), Plymouth (2001), Aulla (2003), Marburg (2005), Montevideo (2007), Tainan (2009), and in Limassol (2010). As in the previous workshops, this was a single track multidisciplinary event bringing together experimental and computational neuroscientists with ample time for informal discussions in a convivial atmosphere. The Neural Coding Workshops are traditionally biennial symposia each lasting 5 or 6 days. They are relatively small in size, interdisciplinary with major emphasis on the search for common principles in neural coding. The workshop was conceived to bring together scientists from different disciplines for an in-depth discussion of model-building and computational strategies.

  4. Electronic structure of lattice-mismatched superlattices: Si_n(SiO_x)m and (GaAs)_n(GaN)_1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuan; Wei, S.-H.; Zhang, S. B.

    2001-03-01

    Recent progress in optoelectronics requires materials by design: For example, a semiconductor lattice matched to Si with > 1.5-eV direct bandgap is ideal for optoelectronic integration. On the other hand, high efficiency multi junction III-V solar cell requires a material lattice matched to GaAs with 1-eV bandgap. We have carried out first-principles calculations to search for superlattices that satisfy these conditions. For Si_n(SiO_x)m (m = 1, 2) [1], our results suggest that oxygen atoms prefer the off-center sites between nearest-neighbor Si atoms. Depending on the O concentration, location, and Si layer thickness index n, the band gap can change to nearly zero or 1 eV larger than that of Si. For (GaAs)_n(GaN)_1, the GaN-layer causes the bandgap to decrease with decreasing n. For example, the equivalent bowing coefficient for n = 1 is 8.95, larger than the 50/50 bulk alloy (6.84) due to substrate constraint for lattice relaxation. This provides new opportunities for bandgap engineering by the growth of superlattice structures. [1] R. Tsu and J. C. Lofgren, ICPS-25 Abstract, p. 659 (Osaka, Japan, 2000).

  5. Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liner Dissociation from a Cement-less Modular Acetabular Shell: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Kitajima, Masaru; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Liner dissociation of polyethylene from a cementless acetabular socket following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a rare complication. Cross-linked polyethylene liner dissociation from AMS-HA shell (KYOCERA Med, Osaka, Japan) occurred in 2 out of the 4153 (0.04%) cases approximately 10 years after undergoing surgery at our institute. First case was an 80-year-old female who underwent right THA along with subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy due to complete dislocation hip, and second case was a 72-year-old male, who underwent right THA due to coxarthrosis. A 26 mm femoral head and CPE liner were used in both cases and the inclination degree of the acetabular socket was within 50°.There was no implant loosening in both cases. There was partial damage in the elevated rim on the alternative side and scratches on the back side in the both extracted CPE liner. It was surmised that liner dissociation was caused due to a problem in the liner fixing format of the push in type of the present model. PMID:28217197

  6. Association of IL-8-inducing strains of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli with sporadic diarrheal patients with less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hiromi; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2007-02-01

    The role of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) in diarrheal disease has been controversial. However, DAEC strains were recently implicated in diarrheal disease in developing countries. To clarify whether DAEC are prevalent among sporadic cases of diarrheal illness in Osaka City, Japan, E. coli strains isolated between July 1997 and March 2000 during diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) investigation were retrospectively examined. DAEC strains were recognized among 41 (4.4%) of 924 patients and formed the biggest subgroup of DEC. Previously, we reported that some DAEC strains caused epithelial cells to secrete as much IL-8 as enteroaggregative E. coli strains did. In this study, we attempted to evaluate epidemiologically whether the ability of DAEC to induce IL-8 was involved in the pathogenesis. Relationship among patient age, symptoms, Afa adhesins, season and IL-8 induction were examined. The subgroup of DAEC that possessed Afa genes and/or induced a high level of IL-8 was significantly prevalent among patients age 1 to 4 years; however total DAEC was not significantly high among the children compared to other age group. IL-8 inducing DAEC seems to play a role in causing sporadic diarrheal illnesses, particularly in pediatric fields. Investigations highlighting the relationship between IL-8 induction and enteropathogenicity are clearly necessary to confirm the role of DAEC in infectious enteritis.

  7. Relationship between social support, mental health and health care consciousness in developing the industrial health education of male employees.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daisuke; Kanaoka, Midori

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of the study is to elucidate the relationship between social support, health care consciousness and mental health in developing the industrial health education aimed at improving the health habits of male employees. A questionnaire survey concerning health practices, mental health based on the General Health Questionnaire, social support from social support networks, and health care consciousness based on the Health Locus of Control was conducted on male employees in three companies in Osaka Prefecture. A total of 1,634 questionnaires were collected. Analyses by age group showed that in all age groups, the higher the social support score, the more favorable the mental health became and the stronger the family care in health care consciousness became. The better the mental health, the greater the number of good health practices was and the lower the fortune dependence in health care consciousness tended to be. The results of the study reconfirm the previous findings that it is necessary to put the mental health of male employees in good condition before everything else in effectively developing health education aimed at improving their health habits. This study also indicates that the level of perception of social support and their internal control of self and family in health care consciousness are definitely related to the stability of subjects' mental health. It is therefore presumed that measures to raise the revel of perception of social support are important since they may improve the mental health of subjects.

  8. Separation of dissolved Kr from a water sample by means of a hollow fiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Momoshima, N.; Inoue, F.; Shimada, J.; Ikawa, R.; Taniguchi, M.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryWe investigated extraction of the krypton (Kr) radioisotope 85Kr from groundwater having an ultra-low concentration with a Kr extraction system using an external inflow type hollow fiber membrane. Our aim was to develop a system able to effectively extract Kr isotopes from a large volume of groundwater (10 4 L) in field studies for measurement of 85Kr radioactivity. Before testing our Kr extraction system in the field, we determined experimentally the conditions necessary for effective extraction of Kr isotopes from groundwater. We investigated the efficiency of Kr extraction from water by extracting trace amounts of Kr in the laboratory. With our system, we were able to extract 99% of Kr and O 2 dissolved in water at water temperatures ranging from 11 to 29 °C and with a flow rate of less than 24 L/min, confirming that the separation efficiency of the system was sufficient for extraction of Kr isotopes from groundwater. We then used our method to extract 85Kr from groundwater at sites at Kyoto University in Osaka and on the Kumamoto Plain in central Kyushu, Japan. We showed that this technique for extracting 85Kr from the groundwater can be an effective tool for investigating the residence time of young groundwater.

  9. Bilateral Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Haze, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kakurai, Keigo; Shoda, Hiromi; Takai, Nanae; Takeda, Sayako; Tada, Rei; Maruyama, Kouichi; Kida, Teruyo; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to report the case of a patient who underwent vitrectomy for bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis while undergoing steroid and immunosuppressant therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Case Report We report on a 29-year-old female who was undergoing steroids and immunosuppressants treatment for SLE at Osaka Medical College Hospital, Takatsuki City, Japan. Examination of the patient due to prolonged and worsening diarrhea revealed positive test results for C7-HRP, and she was diagnosed with CMV colitis. She was subsequently admitted to the hospital and started on intravenous ganciclovir for treatment. Approximately 1.5 months later, her primary complaint was deterioration of the upper visual field in her left eye, and she was then referred to the Department of Ophthalmology. Numerous granular exudative spots were found around the lower retinal area of her left eye with retinal breaks that had developed in an area of retinal necrosis that resulted in retinal detachment. After time was allowed for the patient's general condition to improve, a vitrectomy was performed on that eye. The patient subsequently developed a similar retinal detachment in her right eye, for which she underwent a vitrectomy. Although the patient required multiple surgeries on both eyes, her retinas currently remain reattached and the inflammation has subsided. Conclusion The findings of this study show that strict attention must be paid to SLE patients on immunosuppressive therapy due to the possible association of CMV retinitis. PMID:27462259

  10. Wearable Device-Based Gait Recognition Using Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Images and a Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping

    2017-01-01

    The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN’s input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns. PMID:28264503

  11. Women's health in Japan.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In Japan, the Women's Center in Osaka operates a women's health information hotline for 3 days/month. An analysis of 730 calls to the Centre during 1990-1992 shows that abortion and contraception are not major concerns. (Safe abortion is accessible. Oral contraceptives are banned. Condoms and the rhythm method are the most common family planning methods.) The bulk of the calls (22.6%) centered around menstruation, followed by reproductive diseases (21.5%), menopause (7%), and infertility (7%). Irregular menstruation, no menstruation, and painful periods made up most menstruation concerns. These cases tended not to be serious, which explains why physicians were not interested in them, resulting in client dissatisfaction. Physicians are usually concerned about menstruation only as it pertains to desire for pregnancy. Mothers who call the hotline with questions about their daughters' menstruation ask about menstruation as it relates to fertility. Clearly, woman's role is to bear children. Physicians prescribe medication to women with concerns about infertility but women have difficulty asking their physicians any questions about the medication. Women concerned about infertility do not consider other options such as alternative treatments, adoption, or not bearing children. Once fertility has diminished, physicians are no longer interested in women. Women with questions about menopause who do not get the information from their physician or respectful attention from their physician call the hotline. Most menopause- related complaints revolve around symptoms.

  12. Alectinib-Induced Erythema Multiforme and Successful Rechallenge with Alectinib in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Rearranged Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tatsuo; Sowa-Osako, Junko; Nakai, Toshiyuki; Ohyama, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Hirata, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    Background Alectinib is an oral drug developed for the treatment of patients with fusion gene encoding echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we present the case of a patient treated with alectinib who developed a hypersensitivity reaction with successful rechallenge treatment. Case Presentation A 39-year-old woman who was a passive smoker was referred to Osaka City University Hospital for the evaluation of a skin event caused by treatment for NSCLC with the fusion gene EML4-ALK. The skin reaction was observed on the anterior chest, upper arms, and ear auricles on day 11 of treatment with oral alectinib. The skin event presented as widely distributed erythematous macules that were confluent, indicating a severe and life-threatening form. The skin lesions started to resolve after the initiation of treatment with 40 mg prednisolone. After regrowth of the tumor, she received a rechallenge program for alectinib for 2 weeks; thereafter, alectinib treatment was successfully reinitiated. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case in which alectinib, which binds to the adenosine triphosphate site of EML4-ALK, induced erythema multiforme. Moreover, successful readministration of alectinib through our rechallenge program has not been reported so far. PMID:28101031

  13. Global update: Japan.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  14. Review of recent progress in lightning and thunderstorm detection techniques in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, Tomoo; Wu, Ting; Yoshida, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, lightning and thunderstorm detection techniques have been rapidly developed in many regions of Asia. As the most populous continent, hazards caused by lightning and related phenomena are being paid more and more attentions and lightning observations and detections are booming in many countries. In this paper, we will give a brief review on recent progress of lightning and thunderstorm detection techniques in Asia. First, we will introduce several widely used lightning location systems including VHF interferometers, VHF time-of-arrival systems and LF time-of-arrival systems. As an example, a newly-developed system called BOLT is described and recent observation results are introduced. Second, we will review studies of a special type of intracloud discharge called "narrow bipolar event" (NBE). NBE studies in Asia are flourishing in recent years and are making great contributions to the understanding of various properties of NBE. Finally, we will introduce a fast-scanning phased array radar (PAR) system installed in Osaka University. This radar system has a temporal resolution of 10-30 s, which is much faster than the traditional weather radar and is ideal for observations of fast-evolving storm structures and the analysis of their relationship with lightning activities. Preliminary observation results with PAR are described.

  15. Impact of specialization in gynecology and obstetrics departments on pregnant women's choice of maternity institutions.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshimi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Shen, Junyi; Ban, Kanami; Fukui, On; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Takako; Morishige, Kenichiro; Saijo, Tatuyoshi

    2013-12-23

    In April 2008, specialization in gynecology and obstetrics departments was introduced in the Sennan area of Osaka prefecture in Japan that aimed at solving the problems of regional provisions of obstetrics services (e.g., shortage of obstetricians, overworking of obstetricians, and provision of specialist maternity services for high-risk pregnancies). Under this specialization, the gynecology and obstetrics departments in two city hospitals were combined and reconstructed into two centers, i.e., the gynecological care center in Kaizuka City Hospital and the prenatal care center in Izumisano City Hospital. This paper investigates to what extent and how this specialization affected pregnant women's choices of the prenatal care center and other maternity institutions. We used birth certificate data of 15,927 newborns from the Sennan area between April 1, 2007 and March 30, 2010, for Before and After Analysis to examine changes in pregnant women's choices of maternity institutions before and after the specialization was instituted. Our results indicated that this specialization scheme was, to some extent, successful on the basis of providing maternity services for high-risk pregnancies at the prenatal care center (i.e., Izumisano City Hospital) and having created a positive effect by pregnant women to other facilities in the nearby area.

  16. Coulomb-gauge ghost and gluon propagators in SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Voigt, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Müller-Preussker, M.; Nakamura, A.; Saito, T.; Sternbeck, A.; Toki, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the momentum dependence of the ghost propagator and of the space and time components of the gluon propagator at equal time in pure SU(3) lattice Coulomb-gauge theory carrying out a joint analysis of data collected independently at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka and Humboldt University, Berlin. We focus on the scaling behavior of these propagators at β=5.8,…,6.2 and apply a matching technique to relate the data for the different lattice cutoffs. Thereby, lattice artifacts are found to be rather strong for both instantaneous gluon propagators at a large momentum. As a byproduct we obtain the respective lattice scale dependences a(β) for the transversal gluon and the ghost propagator which indeed run faster with β than two-loop running, but slightly slower than what is known from the Necco-Sommer analysis of the heavy quark potential. The abnormal a(β) dependence as determined from the instantaneous time-time gluon propagator, D44, remains a problem, though. The role of residual gauge-fixing influencing D44 is discussed.

  17. LigandBox: A database for 3D structures of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Takeshi; Sugihara, Yusuke; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    A database for the 3D structures of available compounds is essential for the virtual screening by molecular docking. We have developed the LigandBox database (http://ligandbox.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/ligandbox/) containing four million available compounds, collected from the catalogues of 37 commercial suppliers, and approved drugs and biochemical compounds taken from KEGG_DRUG, KEGG_COMPOUND and PDB databases. Each chemical compound in the database has several 3D conformers with hydrogen atoms and atomic charges, which are ready to be docked into receptors using docking programs. The 3D conformations were generated using our molecular simulation program package, myPresto. Various physical properties, such as aqueous solubility (LogS) and carcinogenicity have also been calculated to characterize the ADME-Tox properties of the compounds. The Web database provides two services for compound searches: a property/chemical ID search and a chemical structure search. The chemical structure search is performed by a descriptor search and a maximum common substructure (MCS) search combination, using our program kcombu. By specifying a query chemical structure, users can find similar compounds among the millions of compounds in the database within a few minutes. Our database is expected to assist a wide range of researchers, in the fields of medical science, chemical biology, and biochemistry, who are seeking to discover active chemical compounds by the virtual screening.

  18. Development of the Nonobese Diabetic Mouse and Contribution of Animal Models for Understanding Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 1974, the discovery of a mouse and a rat that spontaneously developed hyperglycemia led to the development of 2 autoimmune diabetes models: nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and Bio-Breeding rat. These models have contributed to our understanding of autoimmune diabetes, provided tools to dissect autoimmune islet damage, and facilitated development of early detection, prevention, and treatment of type 1 diabetes. The genetic characterization, monoclonal antibodies, and congenic strains have made NOD mice especially useful. Although the establishment of the inbred NOD mouse strain was documented by Makino et al (Jikken Dobutsu. 1980;29:1–13), this review will focus on the not-as-well-known history leading to the discovery of a glycosuric female mouse by Yoshihiro Tochino. This discovery was spearheaded by years of effort by Japanese scientists from different disciplines and dedicated animal care personnel and by the support of the Shionogi Pharmaceutical Company, Osaka, Japan. The history is based on the early literature, mostly written in Japanese, and personal communications especially with Dr Tochino, who was involved in diabetes animal model development and who contributed to the release of NOD mice to the international scientific community. This article also reviews the scientific contributions made by the Bio-Breeding rat to autoimmune diabetes. PMID:28291161

  19. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  20. Transport and emittance study for 18 GHz superconducting-ECR ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Kibayashi, M; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A

    2012-02-01

    As the upgrade program of the azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron is at the cyclotron facility of the RCNP, Osaka University for the improvement of the quality, stability, and intensity of accelerated beams, an 18 GHz superconducting (SC) ECR ion source has been installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions, especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by RCNP AVF cyclotron. The production development of several ions such as B, O, N, Ne, Ar, Ni, Kr, and Xe has been performed by Yorita et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311(2008); 81, 02A332 (2010)]. Further studies for the beam transport have been done in order to improve the beam current more for injection of cyclotron. The effect of field leakage of AVF main coil is not negligible and additional steering magnet has been installed and then beam transmission has been improved. The emittance monitor has also been developed for the purpose of investigating correlation between emittance of beam from ECR ion sources and injection efficiency. The monitor consists with BPM82 with rotating wire for fast measurement for efficient study.

  1. [A consideration on the import of Chinese crude drugs of general use in the 2nd half of Taisho era (7): especially on the change of import volume and price of rhubarb].

    PubMed

    Harima, S; Tanaka, Y

    1991-01-01

    Since most of the crude drug rhubarb was imported in the Taisho era, similarly to the Meiji era, it was possible to refer to the government statistic data by investigating and elucidating the import volume of the same in the treaty ports at that time. Upon examining the import status in the period from the late part of the Taisho era to the early part of Showa era (around 1920 to 1930), the following transitions were observed. 1) In 1923 (Taisho 12), the Kantoh earthquake happened and it attacked Yokohama where the function as main trade port was almost totally destroyed. ... 2) The earthquake happened just at the time when the tariff protectionism was increasingly promoted in every country. ... 3) Since the port of Yokohama, as trade port, was damaged by the earthquake at that time and the government import statistic data were limited to a partial summing-up, our investigation was referred to the statistic data at the ports of Osaka and Kobe. ...

  2. Gene cloning and characterization of a xylanase from a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain R5.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Amir; Rashid, Naeem; Rasool, Nouman; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2009-04-01

    A novel mesophilic strain, R5, was isolated from Osaka, Japan. The growth temperature of the strain ranged from 10 to 40 degrees C with optimal growth at 30 degrees C. Cells of strain R5 were highly motile small rods. The full-length 16S rRNA sequence was 99% homologous to that of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The optimum pH and NaCl concentration for growth of the strain were 7.0 and 3%, respectively. Based on the biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequences R5 was identified as a strain of B. subtilis. The strain R5 produced protease, cellulase, amylase, lipase/esterase, xylanase and a biosurfactant extracellularly. The gene encoding xylanase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a protein consisting of 213 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 23 kDa. The gene product was purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The recombinant enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperatures ranging from 40 to 50 degrees C and at pH 6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. The V(max) and K(m) values of the recombinant enzyme towards xylan from beech-wood were 5550 nkat/mg and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively.

  3. Tumor-induced inflammation in mammary adipose tissue stimulates a vicious cycle of autotaxin expression and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Tang, Xiaoyun; Dewald, Jay; Dong, Wei-Feng; Mackey, John R; Hemmings, Denise G; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

    2015-09-01

    Compared to normal tissues, many cancer cells overexpress autotaxin (ATX). This secreted enzyme produces extracellular lysophosphatidate, which signals through 6 GPCRs to drive cancer progression. Our previous work showed that ATX inhibition decreases 4T1 breast tumor growth in BALB/c mice by 60% for about 11 d. However, 4T1 cells do not produce significant ATX. Instead, the ATX is produced by adjacent mammary adipose tissue. We investigated the molecular basis of this interaction in human and mouse breast tumors. Inflammatory mediators secreted by breast cancer cells increased ATX production in adipose tissue. The increased lysophosphatidate signaling further increased inflammatory mediator production in adipose tissue and tumors. Blocking ATX activity in mice bearing 4T1 tumors with 10 mg/kg/d ONO-8430506 (a competitive ATX inhibitor, IC90 = 100 nM; Ono Pharma Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) broke this vicious inflammatory cycle by decreasing 20 inflammatory mediators by 1.5-8-fold in cancer-inflamed adipose tissue. There was no significant decrease in inflammatory mediator levels in fat pads that did not bear tumors. ONO-8430506 also decreased plasma TNF-α and G-CSF cytokine levels by >70% and leukocyte infiltration in breast tumors and adjacent adipose tissue by >50%. Hence, blocking tumor-driven inflammation by ATX inhibition is effective in decreasing tumor growth in breast cancers where the cancer cells express negligible ATX.

  4. An Ultracold Neutron Source using Superfluid Helium at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumiya, Ryohei; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Canada-Japan UCN Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    An Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) are an extremely slow neutrons with a kinetic energy in the order of 100 neV. As a consequence, UCNs are totally reflected at surface of certain materials and can be confined in a material bottle. Using this unique property, UCNs are used for various experiments such as neutron electric dipole moment searches, neutron lifetime measurements, gravity experiments, and other. A UCN source has been developed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), in Osaka Japan. The UCN source is composed of a combination of a spallation neutron source and a superfluid helium UCN converter. Spallation neutrons are thermalized first by warm and cold D2O moderators. After that they give their kinetic energy to a phonon (single- phonon excitation) or phonons (multi-phonon excitation) in superfluid helium to result in UCNs. The UCN source achieved 26 UCN/cm3 at 1 μA proton current at RCNP. Now, the source is adapted to a new, dedicated proton beam line at TRIUMF for use at higher proton beam currents up to 40 μA. The developments at RCNP and future prospects at TRIUMF will be discussed.

  5. Preface.

    PubMed

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2016-06-01

    This Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering contains 11 selected papers presented at the Neural Coding 2014 workshop. The workshop was held in the royal city of Versailles in France, October 6-10, 2014. This was the 11th of a series of international workshops on this subject, the first held in Prague (1995), then Versailles (1997), Osaka (1999), Plymouth (2001), Aulla (2003), Marburg (2005), Montevideo (2007), Tainan (2009), Limassol (2010), and again in Prague (2012). Also selected papers from Prague were published as a special issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering and in this way a tradition was started. Similarly to the previous workshops, this was a single track multidisciplinary event bringing together experimental and computational neuroscientists. The Neural Coding Workshops are traditionally biennial symposia. They are relatively small in size, interdisciplinary with major emphasis on the search for common principles in neural coding. The workshop was conceived to bring together scientists from different disciplines for an in-depth discussion of mathematical model-building and computational strategies. Further information on the meeting can be found at the NC2014 website at https://colloque6.inra.fr/neural_coding_2014. The meeting was supported by French National Institute for Agricultural Research, the world's leading institution in this field. This Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering contains 11 selected papers presented at the Neural Coding 2014 workshop. The workshop was held in the royal city of Versailles in France, October 6-10, 2014. This was the 11th of a series of international workshops on this subject, the first held in Prague (1995), then Versailles (1997), Osaka (1999), Plymouth (2001), Aulla (2003), Marburg (2005), Montevideo (2007), Tainan (2009), Limassol (2010), and again in Prague (2012). Also selected papers from Prague were published as a special issue of Mathematical Biosciences and

  6. Demonstration of NICT Space Weather Cloud --Integration of Supercomputer into Analysis and Visualization Environment--

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watari, S.; Morikawa, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Inoue, S.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fukazawa, K.; Kimura, E.; Tatebe, O.; Kato, H.; Shimojo, S.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    In the Solar-Terrestrial Physics (STP) field, spatio-temporal resolution of computer simulations is getting higher and higher because of tremendous advancement of supercomputers. A more advanced technology is Grid Computing that integrates distributed computational resources to provide scalable computing resources. In the simulation research, it is effective that a researcher oneself designs his physical model, performs calculations with a supercomputer, and analyzes and visualizes for consideration by a familiar method. A supercomputer is far from an analysis and visualization environment. In general, a researcher analyzes and visualizes in the workstation (WS) managed at hand because the installation and the operation of software in the WS are easy. Therefore, it is necessary to copy the data from the supercomputer to WS manually. Time necessary for the data transfer through long delay network disturbs high-accuracy simulations actually. In terms of usefulness, integrating a supercomputer and an analysis and visualization environment seamlessly with a researcher's familiar method is important. NICT has been developing a cloud computing environment (NICT Space Weather Cloud). In the NICT Space Weather Cloud, disk servers are located near its supercomputer and WSs for data analysis and visualization. They are connected to JGN2plus that is high-speed network for research and development. Distributed virtual high-capacity storage is also constructed by Grid Datafarm (Gfarm v2). Huge-size data output from the supercomputer is transferred to the virtual storage through JGN2plus. A researcher can concentrate on the research by a familiar method without regard to distance between a supercomputer and an analysis and visualization environment. Now, total 16 disk servers are setup in NICT headquarters (at Koganei, Tokyo), JGN2plus NOC (at Otemachi, Tokyo), Okinawa Subtropical Environment Remote-Sensing Center, and Cybermedia Center, Osaka University. They are connected on

  7. PREFACE: NC-AFM 2006: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomitori, Masahiko; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    The advent of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the 1980s has significantly promoted nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), one of the SPM family, has unique capabilities with high spatial resolution for nanoscale measurements in vacuum, air and liquids. In the last decade we have witnessed the rapid progress of NC-AFM with improved performance and increasing applications. A series of NC-AFM international conferences have greatly contributed to this field. Initiated in Osaka in 1998, the NC-AFM meeting has been followed by annual conferences at Pontresina, Hamburg, Kyoto, Montreal, Dingle, Seattle and Bad Essen. The 9th conference was held in Kobe, Japan, 16-20 July 2006. This special issue of Nanotechnology contains the outstanding contributions of the conference. During the meeting delegates learnt about a number of significant advances. Topics covered atomic resolution imaging of metals, semiconductors, insulators, ionic crystals, oxides, molecular systems, imaging of biological materials in various environments and novel instrumentation. Work also included the characterization of electronic and magnetic properties, tip and cantilever fabrication and characterization, atomic distinction based on analysis of tip-sample interaction, atomic scale manipulation, fabrication of nanostructures using NC-AFM, and related theories and simulations. We are greatly impressed by the increasing number of applications, and convinced that NC-AFM and related techniques are building a bridge to a future nano world, where quantum phenomena will dominate and nano devices will be realized. In addition, a special session on SPM road maps was held as a first trial in the field, where the future prospects of SPM were discussed enthusiastically. The overall success of the NC-AFM 2006 conference was due to the efforts of many individuals and groups with respect to scientific and technological progress, as well as the international

  8. Climate change for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Subsurface temperatures are an archive of temperature changes occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface temperature histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface temperatures in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many temperature-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various temperature profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface temperature which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface temperature and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface temperatures were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate change can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial changes. Artificial change, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface temperature during the last 150 years. Natural change, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time

  9. Potential impact of atmospheric N deposition on soil N2O emission varies with different soil N regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Yi, M.; Koike, T.

    2011-12-01

    Future increases in nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to change belowground nutrient dynamics, especially N cycle, and thereby can alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) which is one of the major greenhouse gases. Moreover, we considered that their effect on soil N2O emission varies with different soil N levels because N2O is a by-product of the biological nitrification process in aerobic soil environments and of the biological denitrification process in anaerobic soil environments. To understand the changes in soil N2O flux under different soil N, we carried out simulated N addition experiment in three-year-old hybrid larch F1 (F1: Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) plantation during two growing seasons 2008 - 2009. The hybrid larch F1 was developed to make up for several problems of larch species, e.g. a high susceptibility to disease or grazing damage by insects and fungi, and a large number of this seedlings are planted recently in northern Japan. Based on soil analysis, we selected two sites which have different soil N concentration, i.e. low-N and high-N concentrations. Nitrogen input was initiated at the onset of our experiment, and included four treatments with four replications: Low-N soil + Zero-N control, Low-N soil + 50 kg-N addition, High-N soil + Zero-N control and High-N soil + 50 kg-N addition. The N was added as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) solution distributed in four occasions during each growing season. Gas and soil samples were taken from each plot on ten occasions at a time during each growing season. Collected N2O concentrations were determined by a gas chromatograph (GC-14B; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with an electron capture detector, while total-N and inorganic-N concentrations were obtained by a NC analyzer (Sumigraph NC-1000; Sumica Chemical Analysis Service Ltd., Osaka, Japan) and an auto analyzer (AACS-4; BL-TEC Inc., Osaka, Japan), respectively. Before the N addition, initial total-N in High

  10. Measurement of sound velocities of laser-shocked iron at pressures up to 800 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaiya, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kondo, T.; Shigemori, K.; Kadono, T.; Hironaka, Y.; Osaki, N.; Irifune, T.

    2011-12-01

    When we consider the structure of the Earth's interior, the sound velocity is one of the important physical properties of the interior materials because it can be directly compared with the seismological data which can yield the physical properties of the Earth's interior. Although it needs to measure the sound velocity of the interior material under high pressure and temperature, the sound velocity measurement of the materials on the condition over 200 GPa and 4000 K, such as the Earth's core condition, is technically difficult in static compression technique (e.g. diamond anvil cell: DAC) [1-3]. Therefore, in such higher pressure and temperature, dynamic compression technique, such as gas gun, is used. Although some works about the sound velocity of pure iron have been done by gas gun [4-6], it is not enough to discuss about the Earth's core which consists mainly of iron. We performed laser-shock experiments of iron at GEKKO-XII Laser System HIPER irradiation facility in Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University (ILE) [7]. The laser-shock compression can generate pressures over 1TPa, which are much higher pressures than previous works by gas gun. The sound velocities of iron were measured by side-on radiography [6]. The laser-irradiated target (Fe) is backlit with an x ray emitted from a high-Z foil (Ti) that is located along the side of the target and that is irradiated by a separate laser. The intensity distribution of the x ray transmitted through the target is imaged onto an x-ray streak camera. When the motion of the front surface and rear surface of the target is obtained from the radiograph, we can obtain the velocity of the shock and rarefaction wave. The rarefaction wave propagates the target with the sound velocity. The pressure generated by the laser-shock compression is obtained from the shock velocity and particle velocity of the target. The particle velocity is obtained from the time revolution of the front surface in the radiograph. In this

  11. Broadband VHF observations for lightning impulses from a small satellite SOHLA-1 (Maido 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.; Hidekazu, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. The feature of broadband DITF is its ultrawide bandwidth (from 25MHz to 100MHz) and implicit redundancy for estimating VHF source location. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system and joins the SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate) satellite project. The SOHLA satellite project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. According to the agreement, JAXA provides SOHLA its technical information on small satellites and other technical assistance for the development of the small satellites, SOHLA-1. The prime objective of the SOHLA-1 program is to realize low-cost and short term development of a microsatellite which utilizes the components and bus technologies of JAXA’s MicroLabSat. SOHLA-1 is a spin-stabilized microsatellite of MicroLabSat heritage (about 50 kg). The spin axis is fixed to inertial reference frame. The spin axis (z-axis) lies in the plane containing the solar direction and the normal to the orbital plane. LRG-OU takes responsibility for a science mission of SOHLA-1. To examine the feasibility of the DITF receiving VHF lightning impulses in space, LRG-OU proposes the BMW (Broadband Measurement of Waveform for VHF Lightning Impulses). BMW consists of a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter, an amplifier, and an

  12. Gradual approach to realize lightning monitoring from space by means of VHF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. DITF is an equipment to locate sources of impulsive VHF radiation based on the digital interferometric technique. In other words, DITF is a system to visualize lightning channel by VHF radio observations. The feature of DITF is its ultra-wide bandwidth (from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) and implicit redundancy for the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system because its fairly high resolutions and the compactness of the system are great advantages to be the space-borne one. To realize space-borne DITF, LRG-OU intends to have gradual approach for the development. As their first step, a VHF sensor on Maido-1 satellite is proposed to examine the feasibility of receiving VHF lightning impulses in space. Maido-1 is a small satellite manufactured by factory members of SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate). The SOHLA project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to the society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. Maido-1 is in sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 660 kilometers. The VHF sensor comprises a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter with a pass band of 30-100MHz, an amplifier with a gain of 45dB and an analog-to-digital converter with a sampling rate of 200MS/s and 8-bit resolution to record broadband VHF signals. The 100 waveforms

  13. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-07

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P<0.0001) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; n=16, P<0.01), whereas only 1 strain belonged to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA

  14. Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; González-José, Rolando; García, Pilar Peral

    2016-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points. PMID:27818731

  15. On the temporal window of auditory-brain system in connection with subjective responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Kiminori

    2003-08-01

    The human auditory-brain system processes information extracted from autocorrelation function (ACF) of the source signal and interaural cross correlation function (IACF) of binaural sound signals which are associated with the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the desirable temporal window (2T: integration interval) for ACF and IACF mechanisms. For the ACF mechanism, the visual change of Φ(0), i.e., the power of ACF, was associated with the change of loudness, and it is shown that the recommended temporal window is given as about 30(τe)min [s]. The value of (τe)min is the minimum value of effective duration of the running ACF of the source signal. It is worth noticing from the experiment of EEG that the most preferred delay time of the first reflection sound is determined by the piece indicating (τe)min in the source signal. For the IACF mechanism, the temporal window is determined as below: The measured range of τIACC corresponding to subjective angle for the moving image sound depends on the temporal window. Here, the moving image was simulated by the use of two loudspeakers located at +/-20° in the horizontal plane, reproducing amplitude modulated band-limited noise alternatively. It is found that the temporal window has a wide range of values from 0.03 to 1 [s] for the modulation frequency below 0.2 Hz. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Kiminori Mouri, 5-3-3-1110 Harayama-dai, Sakai city, Osaka 590-0132, Japan. E-mail address: km529756@aol.com

  16. Preliminary data on ASP2215: tolerability and efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Thom, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Claire Thom speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Claire Thom joined Astellas in 2013 as the Therapeutic Area Head for Oncology in Global Development. In that role, she also serves as the STAR leader for Oncology for Astellas. Prior to Astellas, she spent 12 years with Takeda. Her last position was Senior Vice President, Portfolio Management, Drug Development Management and Medical Informatics and Strategic Operations within the Medical Division (the Division within Millennium responsible for oncology clinical drug development within Takeda). During her 4 years at Millennium, at various times, she had responsibility within the Medical Division for leading portfolio management, business operations (medical finance, annual and mid-range financial planning, space planning and operations, headcount resourcing, development goals process), clinical development operations (clinical operations, programming, data management, statistics, medical writing, clinical outsourcing), drug development management (project management), medical informatics (technology support for the division) and the strategic project management office for the division. Prior to joining Millennium, Claire Thom spent 18 months working in Osaka, Japan, during which she was responsible for developing the oncology strategy for Takeda that culminated in the acquisition of Millennium. Before going to Japan, she held positions of varying responsibility within the Takeda US development organization including the management of regulatory affairs, safety, biometrics and data management, clinical research and quality assurance. Claire Thom has particular expertise in organizational design and efficiency; she has successfully worked through integrations across multiple functions and redesigned business processes. She has a PharmD from University of Illinois (IL, USA) and over 20 years of pharmaceutical experience including positions in medical affairs and new product planning (over 11 years at Searle

  17. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus associated with gastroenteritis and emergence of norovirus GII.4 variant 2012 in Japanese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprachum, Aksara; Chan-it, Wisoot; Khamrin, Pattara; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Okitsu, Shoko; Takanashi, Sayaka; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In late 2012, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to norovirus variant Sydney_2012 occurred and have been reported from many counties. In this study, we described surveillance study of the incidence of norovirus infections among Japanese pediatric patients in association with gastroenteritis and investigated the antigenic change of the new variant Sydney_2012 circulated in Japanese populations. A total of 2381 fecal specimens collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga from 2009 to 2013 were examined for norovirus and further analyzed molecularly. A high proportion (39.3%) of norovirus positive samples and several genotypes were detected. Norovirus GII.4 dominated over other genotypes (71.4%). The Den_Haag_2006b (43.2%) was detected as the predominant variant and co-circulated with New_Orleans_2009 (17.8%) until March 2012. Subsequently, they were displaced by Sydney_2012. The Sydney_2012 variant has been responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in 2012-2013 (85.7%). Although Sydney_2012 variant has a common ancestor with New_Orleans_2009 variant, analysis of P2 sub-domain showed a high level of diversity in comparison with other variants in four amino acid changes at the antigenic sites. The change in particular residue 393 of new variant may affect HBGA recognition. Analysis of noroviruses circulating in the past 4years revealed a change of predominant variant of norovirus GII.4 in each epidemic season. The change of amino acid in putative epitopes may have led the virus escape from the existing herd immunity and explain the increase of new variant outbreaks.

  18. Deaths from heat-stroke in Japan: 1968-1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, S.; Itoh, T.; Morimoto, T.

    Global warming is increasingly recognized as a threat to the survival of human beings, because it could cause a serious increase in the occurrence of diseases due to environmental heat during intermittent hot weather. To assess the direct impact of extremely hot weather on human health, we investigated heat-related deaths in Japan from 1968 through 1994, analyzing the data to determine the distribution of the deaths by age and their correlation to the incidence of hot days in summer. Vital Statistics of Japan, published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, was the source of the heat-related mortality data employed in this study. Meteorological data were obtained from the District Meteorological Observatories in Tokyo and Osaka, the two largest cities in Japan. Heat-related deaths were most prone to occur on days with a peak daily temperature above 38°C, and the incidence of these deaths showed an exponential dependence on the number of hot days. Thus, even a small rise in atmospheric temperature may lead to a considerable increase in heat-related mortality, indicating the importance of combating global warming. Furthermore, half (50.1%) of the above-noted deaths occurred in children (4 years and under) and the elderly (70 years and over) irrespective of gender, indicating the vulnerability of these specific age groups to heat. Since a warmer climate is predicted in the future, the incidence of heat waves will increase, and more comprehensive measures, both medical and social, should be adopted for children of 4 years and younger the elderly to prevent heat-related deaths in these age groups.

  19. Temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan as revealed by mussel watch and specimen bank

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Yoshinaga, J.; Horiguchi, T.; Uehiro, T.; Morita, M.

    1995-12-31

    Mussel watch program coupled with a pilot specimen bank at NIES was conducted from 1983 to 1987, and also from 1993 to 1994, and their results were compared to reveal temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan. Special emphasis was paid to reveal the change of ``background`` level of pollutants by collecting bivalves in remote islands. Several species of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis, M. coruscus, Septifer virgatus, Pema viridis), oysters (Saxostrea mordax, Crassostrea gigas) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum, Tridacna crocea) were collected to cover subfrigid to subtropical zones along Japan islands. The level of TBT decreased considerably between the above two intervals, i.e., from 0.12--0.01 {micro}g/g in mid 80`s to 0.03-n.d. (less than 0.01) {micro}g/g in 1993. This decrease may reflect the start of the regulation in 1990. The clam samples collected at Tokyo bay and stored in specimen bank were found to contain considerable levels (near 0.3 {micro}g/g) of TBT and TPT in 1980, and their levels were almost constant through mid and late 1980`s. Several heavy metals, including Cd, showed interesting spatial distribution patterns; their concentrations tend to be higher in less populated remote islands in western part of Japan than in densely populated areas. Cd concentrations, however, also show apparent correlation with Zn status of each organism (especially evident in Septifer sp.), and the interpretation of the results is not straightforward at this stage. Interestingly, a tropical green mussel, P. viridis, was found to be spreading in some densely populated area including Tokyo and Osaka bays.

  20. Long-term insecticidal activity and physical integrity of Olyset nets in Tafea Province, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Shurajit N; Amon, James; Iata, Harry; Cooper, Robert D; Russell, Tanya L

    2014-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) depends on both the physical condition of the net and the residual activity of the insecticide. This study focused on monitoring these parameters in Olyset nets (Sumitomo Chemical Co., Osaka, Japan) (n = 101) that had been used for 1-3 yr in Tafea Province, Vanuatu. Net usage and frequency of washing was ascertained by questionnaire; the nets were assessed with regards to cleanliness and damage owing to holes. Insecticide efficacy was determined with cone bioassays using Anophelesfarauti Laveran. Net usage was high and 86.1% (87 of 101) of villages stated that they used the net every night. Washing of nets was low (11.9%, 12 of 101), and most nets (79.2%, 80 of 101) were considered dirty. Most nets were damaged (73.4% had holes), and 22.8% (23 of 101) had large holes (>200 cm2). The 24-h mortality of An. farauti exposed to nets aged 1-2 yr was 79.4%, while the mortality for nets 3 yr of age was significantly lower at 73.7%. There was no difference in the insecticidal activity of clean compared with dirty nets (mean 24-h mortality: Clean = 76.7%, Dirty = 77.1%). Although the majority of nets had holes, the physical condition of 8.9-22.8% of nets was altered so severely to potentially affect efficacy. Although the 3-yr-old nets would still be providing significant levels of insecticidal and personal protection, consideration should be given to replacing nets >3 yr old.

  1. Creatinine clearance as a substitute for the glomerular filtration rate in the assessment of glomerular hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Okada, N; Imanishi, M; Yoshioka, K; Konishi, Y; Okumura, M; Tanaka, S; Fujii, S

    1999-11-01

    A method for the clinical assessment of glomerular hemodynamics has been published previously. We here examined whether, when using this method, renal creatinine clearance (Ccr) can be substituted for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study subjects comprised 57 inpatients from Osaka City General Hospital: 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 27 with chronic glomerulonephritis. During the 2-wk study, patients received a high-salt diet for 1 wk and a low-salt diet for 1 wk. Urinary sodium excretion and systemic blood pressure were measured daily. The renal plasma flow, Ccr, and plasma total protein concentration were also evaluated simultaneously on the last day of the high-salt diet. The GFR was also calculated from the fractional renal accumulation of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Glomerular hemodynamics, represented by the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and the resistance of afferent and efferent arterioles, were calculated using the renal clearance, the plasma total protein concentration, and the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Values for renal hemodynamics with the Ccr-derived GFR were compared with those from the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR. Ccr values of 53 to 169 ml/min correlated with the 99mTc-DTPA-derived clearance of 39 to 179 ml/min (n=57, r=.71, p<.001). Values for the glomerular pressure and the resistances of afferent and efferent arterioles calculated using the Ccr-derived GFR correlated significantly with those calculated using the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR (r=.99, p<.001 and r=.99, p<.001, respectively). These results indicate that the Ccr is an accurate representation of the GFR for use in glomerular hemodynamic analysis of the pressure-natriuresis relationship.

  2. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging.

  3. PREFACE: Symposium 13: Ceramics for Medicine, Biotechnology and Biomimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2011-10-01

    Preface to Symposium 13 (Ceramics for Medicine, Biotechnology and Biomimetics) of the International Congress on Ceramics III, 14-18 November 2010, Osaka, Japan Ceramic materials are now widely used in biomedical fields, such as applications of artificial bones, joints and teeth. The high potential of ceramics to exhibit biological functionality is expected to produce novel materials supporting biotechnology. These applications are governed by the interactions of materials and biological molecules. So far, 'bioceramics' is a type of biomaterial used for repairing damaged tissues. The orthopaedic application of bioceramics has advanced rapidly since the invention of Bioglass® that was found to encourage direct bonding with living bone. Hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate ceramics are now popular bioceramics for use in artificial bones. While the bone-bonding behavior of materials was understood phenomenologically, very little has been known about the mechanism of either hard or soft tissue attachment or tissue growth on ceramic-based materials, such as glasses, glass-ceramics, ceramic composites and organic-inorganic hybrids. This symposium discussed the scientific understanding of the interface between biomedical materials and soft/hard tissues, and the design and construction of nanoscopic interfaces. It also involved establishment of biomimetic structures, characterization of natural life-related hard and soft tissues, and their formation mechanisms for a wide range of applications in biotechnology through 45 oral presentations including 5 invited lectures and 45 posters. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the organizers of this symposium in the ICC3 conference. I am also grateful to the invited speakers, all the participants and organizing committee of the ICC3. It is my great pleasure that this proceedings could be published as the fruit of this symposium's achievement, which includes the contributions in all aspect of scientific understanding and

  4. Registry of the Japanese society of lung and heart-lung transplantation: the official Japanese lung transplantation report 2012.

    PubMed

    Oto, Takahiro; Okada, Yoshinori; Bando, Toru; Minami, Masato; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Date, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Japanese Organ Transplant Law was amended, and the revised law took effect in July 2010 to overcome extreme donor shortage and to increase the availability of donor organs from brain-dead donors. It is now possible to procure organs from children. The year 2011 was the first year that it was possible to examine the results of this first extensive revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law, which took effect in 1997. Currently, seven transplant centers, including Tohoku, Dokkyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Okayama, Fukuoka and Nagasaki Universities, are authorized to perform lung transplantation in Japan, and by the end of 2011, a total of 239 lung transplants had been performed. The number of transplants per year and the ratio of brain-dead donor transplants increased dramatically after the revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law. The survival rates for lung transplant recipients registered with the Japanese Society for Lung and Heart-lung Transplantation were 93.3 % at 1 month, 91.5 % at 3 months, 86.3 % at 1 year, 79.0 % at 3 years, and 73.1 % at 5 years. The survival curves for brain-dead donor and living-donor lung transplantation were similar. The survival outcomes for both brain-dead and living-donor lung transplants were better than those reported by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. However, donor shortage remains a limitation of lung transplantation in Japan. The lung transplant centers in Japan should continue to make a special effort to save critically ill patients waiting for lung transplantation.

  5. Electrochemical characteristics of layered LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 and with different synthesis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Wang, Haoran; Qi, Lu; Osaka, Tetsuya

    LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 had been successfully prepared from spherical composite carbonate via a simple uniform-phase precipitation method [P. He, H. Wang, L. Qi, T. Osaka, J. Power Sources, in press] at normal pressure, using nickel, cobalt and manganese sulfate and ammonia bicarbonate as reactants. The preparation of spherical composite carbonate was significantly dependant on synthetic condition, such as the reaction temperature, feed rate, molar ratio of these reactants, etc. The optimized condition resulted in spherical composite carbonate of which the particle size distribution was uniform, as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Calcination of the uniform composite carbonate with lithium carbonate at high temperature led to a well-ordered layer structured LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), without obvious change in shape. Due to the homogeneity of the composite carbonate, the final product, LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2, was also significantly uniform, i.e., the average particle size was of about 10 μm in diameter and the distribution was relatively narrow. As a result, the corresponding tap density was also high, approximately 2.32 g cm -3, of which the value is very near to that of commercialized LiCoO 2. In the voltage range of 2.8-4.2, 2.8-4.35 and 2.8-4.5 V, the discharge capacities of LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 electrode were 159, 168 and 179 mAh g -1, respectively, with good cyclability.

  6. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  7. Journey of a molecular biologist.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masayasu

    2011-01-01

    My journey into a research career began in fermentation biochemistry in an applied science department during the difficult post-World War II time in Japan. Subsequently, my desire to do research in basic science developed. I was fortunate to be a postdoctoral fellow in the United States during the early days of molecular biology. From 1957 to 1960, I worked with three pioneers of molecular biology, Sol Spiegelman, James Watson, and Seymour Benzer. These experiences helped me develop into a basic research scientist. My initial research projects at Osaka University, and subsequently at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, were on the mode of action of colicins as well as on mRNA and ribosomes. Following success in the reconstitution of ribosomal subunits, my efforts focused more on ribosomes, initially on the aspects of structure, function, and in vitro assembly, such as the construction of the 30S subunit assembly map. After this, my laboratory studied the regulation of the synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal components in Escherichia coli. Our achievements included the discovery of translational feedback regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis and the identification of several repressor ribosomal proteins used in this regulation. In 1984, I moved to the University of California, Irvine, and initiated research on rRNA transcription by RNA polymerase I in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of yeast genetics combined with biochemistry allowed us to identify genes uniquely involved in rRNA synthesis and to elucidate the mechanism of initiation of transcription. This essay is a reflection on my life as a research scientist.

  8. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 13, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At the outset, the Journal published one issue in 1994. The first number comprised the Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain in October 1993. The Proceedings of the previous 14 Annual Meetings appeared as supplements to The Physiologist from 1979 to 1993. Each year, one issue of the Journal is devoted to the Annual Meeting Proceedings, and up to four more issues are comprised of full-length research papers. Additionally, Supplement Issues are considered by the Editorial Board as they are submitted. The Journal is published for the International Society for Gravitational Physiology by the Galileo Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation. This issue, the first number of 2006, comprises the Proceedings of the joint meeting of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology s 27th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Osaka, Japan 23- 28 April, 2006. The Journal of Gravitational Physiology invites the submission of original experimental or observational papers on subjects in the field of gravitational physiology. Review articles, theoretical papers and historical or biographical articles will also be solicited by the Editor for publication. The wide scientific span of the Journal rests on physiology as its keystone. Gravitational physiology is considered to include the effects of changes in the magnitude and directions of the gravitational force environment on cells and physiological systems and behavior of humans, animals and plants. The effects of weightlessness during space flight, high sustained G forces and chronic acceleration, vibration, impact and the various forms of simulated weightlessness are also included, as well as is consideration of the evolutionary consequences of gravity and the role of gravity in the manifestation of scale effects in animals and plants.

  9. Applicability of the two-angle differential method to response measurement of neutron-sensitive devices at the RCNP high-energy neutron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Satoh, Daiki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Jun; Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Harano, Hideki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields induced by 7Li(p,n) reactions are used for the response evaluation of neutron-sensitive devices. The quasi-monoenergetic high-energy field consists of high-energy monoenergetic peak neutrons and unwanted continuum neutrons down to the low-energy region. A two-angle differential method has been developed to compensate for the effect of the continuum neutrons in the response measurements. In this study, the two-angle differential method was demonstrated for Bonner sphere detectors, which are typical examples of moderator-based neutron-sensitive detectors, to investigate the method's applicability and its dependence on detector characteristics. Experiments were performed under 96-387 MeV quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The measurement results for large high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sphere detectors agreed well with Monte Carlo calculations, which verified the adequacy of the two-angle differential method. By contrast, discrepancies were observed in the results for small HDPE sphere detectors and metal-induced sphere detectors. The former indicated that detectors that are particularly sensitive to low-energy neutrons may be affected by penetrating neutrons owing to the geometrical features of the RCNP facility. The latter discrepancy could be consistently explained by a problem in the evaluated cross-section data for the metals used in the calculation. Through those discussions, the adequacy of the two-angle differential method was experimentally verified, and practical suggestions were made pertaining to this method.

  10. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  11. Modified metaphyseal-loading anterolaterally flared anatomic femoral stem: five- to nine-year prospective follow-up evaluation and results of three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yasuo; Uchida, Kenzo; Oki, Hisashi; Negoro, Kohei; Nagamune, Kouki; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takeno, Kenichi; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have designed a proximal-fitting, anterolaterally flared, arc-deposit hydroxyapatite-coated anatomical femoral stem (FMS-anatomic stem; KYOCERA Medical, Osaka, Japan) for cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) for Japanese patients with dysplastic hip osteoarthritis, using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis simulating loading conditions. The Anatomic Fit stem was modified in the region of the arc-sprayed surface, to allow more proximal appearance of spot welds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent THA using this stem. We reviewed 73 consecutive patients (79 hips; 13 men 16 hips; 60 women 63 hips; age at surgery, 57.6 years, range, 35-78) who underwent cementless THA using the Anatomic Fit stem, at a follow-up period of 7.1 years (range, 5.1-9.4). Harris Hip score improved from 40.7 ± 17.1 before surgery to 91.0 ± 5.2 points at follow-up. The 7.1-year stem survival rate was 100%. Radiographs at follow-up confirmed the stability of the femoral stems within the femoral canal in all cases, with sufficient bone ingrowth. None of the patients had subsidence of the stem exceeding 2.0 mm within the femoral canal or changes in varus or valgus position of more than 2.0°. The Anatomic Fit stem provided excellent results. The nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis demonstrated that the stem-bone relative motion was 10 µm at the proximal end of the stem and proximal load transfer. Our analysis confirmed reduced radiolucency around the stem, minimal subsidence, appropriate stress shielding, and promising medium-term stability within the femoral canal.

  12. Ground validation of Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) on GPM by rapid scan Phased Array weahter Radar (PAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Y.; Mega, T.; Shimamura, S.; Wu, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Chandra, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    The core observatory satellite of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on February 27th 2014. The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the GPM core observatory is the succession of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The DPR consists of a Ku-band precipitation radar and a Ka-band precipitation radar. The DPR is expected to be more sensitive than the PR especially in the measurement of light rainfall and snowfall in high latitude regions. Because of the difference of spatial and temporal resolutions, Space Radar (SR) and conventional type of Ground Radar (GR) are hard to compare.The SR observes each point of earth in short time, for example one footprint is an observation in some microseconds. Rain-gauge measurements have accurate rainfall rate, but rain-gage observes small area and accumulated rainfall in some minutes. The conventional GR can cover a wide area, however, a volume scan requires several minutes. The Phased Array weather Radar (PAR) is developed by Osaka University, Toshiba, and NICT. The PAR is a weather-radar on X-band within 100m range sampling. High spatial and temporal resolution is achieved by the PAR with pulse compression and the digital beam-forming technique. The PAR transmits a wide beam and receives narrow beams by using digital beam forming. Then, the PAR observes many elevation angles from a single pulse. The time of each volume scan is 10-30 seconds in operation, typically 30 seconds. The study shows comparisons between the DPR and the PAR by more similar spatial and temporal resolution. The rainfall region of DPR is similar to the one of PAR. Correlation coefficient of both radar reflectivity suggests more than 0.8 in the 20km range of PAR. As a result, it is considered that DPR can observe with high accuracy. We present the case study which DPR overpassed the PAR observation region in detail.

  13. 25 mg versus 50 mg dose of rectal diclofenac for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis in Japanese patients: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Takeo; Horimoto, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Osugi, Naoto; Ikezoe, Tatsuro; Kotani, Kaori; Sanada, Toru; Higashi, Churi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Ota, Makiyo; Mizuno, Tatsunori; Gotoh, Yasukazu; Okuda, Yorihide; Suzuki, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriate administration dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Importantly, the 100 mg dose of diclofenac recommended in Western countries has not been permitted in Japan. Design A retrospective study. Settings A single centre in Japan. Participants This study enrolled patients who underwent ERCP at the Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Saiseikai Senri Hospital, from April 2011 through June 2013, and who received either a 25 or a 50 mg dose of rectal diclofenac after ERCP. Primary outcome measure The occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). A multivariate regression model was used to assess the effect of the 50 mg dose (the 50 mg group) of rectal diclofenac and to compare it to the occurrence of PEP referring to the 25 mg group. Results A total of 155 eligible patients received either 25 mg (84 patients) or 50 mg (71 patients) doses of rectal diclofenac after ERCP to prevent PEP. The proportion of PEP was significantly lower in the 50 mg group than in the 25 mg group (15.5% (11/71) vs 33.3% (28/84), p=0.018). In a multivariate analysis, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower in the 50 mg group than in the 25 mg group even after adjusting potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70). Conclusions From this observation, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower among ERCP patients with the 50 mg dose of rectal diclofenac than among those with the 25 mg dose. PMID:25795692

  14. Effects of varying fixed lingual apex positions on tongue pressure during straw drinking.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas.

  15. Impact of Rotation Correction after Brace Treatment on Prognosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Arataki, Shinya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Level 4 retrospective review. Purpose Brace treatment is the standard nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Rotation correction is also important, because AIS involves a rotation deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of rotation correction after Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment on clinical outcomes in AIS. Overview of Literature Brace treatment has a significant effect on the progression of AIS. However, few reports have examined rotation correction after brace treatment. Methods A total of 46 patients who wore the OMC brace were retrospectively reviewed. The curve magnitude was determined according to the Cobb method, and the rotation angle of the apical vertebrae was measured by the modified Nash-Moe method. Based on the difference in the rotation angle before and after the initial brace treatment, patients were divided into two groups. Group A (n=33) was defined as no change or improvement of the rotation angle; group B (n=13) was defined as deterioration of the rotation angle. If the patients had curve or rotation progression of 5° or more at skeletal maturity, or had undergone surgery, the treatment was considered a failure. Results Differences of rotation angle between before and after the initial brace treatment were 2°±2° in group A and –3°±2° in group B (p<0.001). The rates of treatment failure were 42% in group A and 77% in group B (p<0.05). This study included 25 patients with Lenke type 1 (54%). Group A (24%) with Lenke type 1 also had a significantly better success rate of brace treatment than group B (75%) (p<0.05). Conclusions Insufficient rotation correction increased brace treatment failure. Better rotation correction resulted in a higher success rate of brace treatment in patients with Lenke type 1. PMID:27790317

  16. Detection and characterization of a human G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kaida, Atsushi; Ono, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    In a surveillance system in Osaka City, Japan, 48 sporadic rotavirus A (RVA) infections were detected during 2008/2009-2011/2012 seasons. The G/P-genotypes of detected RVAs were G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8]. Although G9P[4] is a rare genotype that had not been reported in Japan, it was the second most prevalent genotype, following G1P[8], and accounted for 35.3% of RVA cases in the 2011/2012 season. Further genotyping revealed that the G9P[4] strain had genotype 2 internal protein genes except for NSP3: G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E2-H2. Among detected RVA strains, G9P[4] and some G9P[8] strains shared high nucleotide identity in VP7 and NSP3 genes. Phylogenetic and BLAST search analyses showed that the G9P[4] strain in Japan shared high nucleotide identity in genotype 2 genes with common G2P[4] strains circulating globally, but was distinct from other G9P[4] strains circulating worldwide. These results suggest that the G9P[4] strain in Japan may have emerged through an independent reassortment between G9P[8] and G2P[4]. Finally, the role of NSP3 protein in the circulating RVA from an amino acid comparison between T1- and T2-type NSP3 is discussed. These findings provide an important insight into less problematic combinations of circulating RVA genes derived from different genotypes.

  17. Estimating the Ratio of Patients with a Certain Disease Between Hospitals for the Allocation of Patients to Clinical Trials Using Health Insurance Claims Data in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Mihara, Naoki; Murata, Taizo; Shimai, Yoshie; Okada, Katsuki; Manabe, Shiro; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, investigating the ratio of patients with each disease who are treated in a hospital is important for determining the number of patients who are allocated to hospitals. The Japanese health insurance claims data includes standardized disease and medicine data. However, the disease data has some problems in terms of reliability, because the healed diseases are sometimes not deleted or because a disease that a patient does not actually have is registered to claim the cost of the examination. On the other hand, therapeutic medicines are administered to target particular diseases. In this study, we developed a system for estimating the number of patients with each disease using the disease data and the therapeutic medicine data. We converted the ICD-10 code to a 4-grade classification code so that we could predict the diseases in the shallow layer (e.g. gastrointestinal disease) when it was difficult to predict the precise diseases in the deep layer (e.g. gastric ulcers). A table showing the disease code and the corresponding therapeutic medicine code was provided by the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (JAPIC). We calculated the disease probability score from the diseases and therapeutic medicines and recorded the predicted disease. For the system evaluation, we used the health insurance claims data from Osaka University Hospital for January 2015. A total of 58,526 diseases were predicted from the health insurance claims data of 18,393 patients. One hundred twenty patients were randomly extracted for use in a chart review that was performed by an expert physician. Two hundred twenty-four of 329 predicted diseases, were correctly predicted; 56 were reasonably predicted, and 49 were incorrectly predicted. The main disease was correctly predicted in 71 patients. In conclusion, we could estimate the number of patients with each disease using the health insurance claims data with a certain degree of accuracy.

  18. ({sup 3}He,t) reaction on the double {beta} decay nucleus {sup 48}Ca and the importance of nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grewe, E.-W.; Frekers, D.; Rakers, S.; Baeumer, C.; Dohmann, H.; Thies, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Botha, N. T.; Fujita, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Negret, A.; Popescu, L.; Neveling, R.

    2007-11-15

    High-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) measurements on the double {beta}-decay ({beta}{beta}) nucleus {sup 48}Ca have been performed at RCNP (Osaka, Japan) to determine Gamow-Teller (GT{sup -}) transitions to the nucleus {sup 48}Sc, which represents the intermediate nucleus in the second-order perturbative description of the {beta}{beta} decay. At a bombarding energy of E{sub {sup 3}He}=420 MeV an excitation energy resolution of 40 keV was achieved. The measurements were performed at two angle positions of the Grand Raiden Spectrometer (GRS): 0 deg. and 2.5 deg. The results of both settings were combined to achieve angular distributions, by which the character of single transitions could be determined. To characterize the different multipoles, theoretical angular distributions for states with J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},2{sup +},2{sup -}, and 3{sup +} were calculated using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) Code DW81. The GT{sup -} strength was extracted up to E{sub x}=7 MeV and combined with corresponding GT{sup +} strength deduced from the {sup 48}Ti(d,{sup 2}He){sup 48}Sc data to calculate the low-energy part of the {beta}{beta}-decay matrix element for the {sup 48}Ca 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay. We show that after applying trivial momentum corrections to the ({sup 3}He,t) spectrum, the two reaction probes (p,n) and ({sup 3}He,t) reveal a spectral response to an impressively high degree of similarity in the region of low momentum transfer.

  19. Coffee and green tea as a large source of antioxidant polyphenols in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Ohie, Takashi; Yonekawa, Yasuhiko; Yonemoto, Kohei; Aizawa, Hiroki; Mori, Yoko; Watanabe, Makoto; Takeuchi, Masato; Hasegawa, Maiko; Taguchi, Chie; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-02-25

    Food and beverages rich in polyphenols with antioxidant activity are highlighted as a potential factor for risk reduction of lifestyle related diseases. This study was conducted to elucidate total polyphenol consumption from beverages in Japanese people. Total polyphenol (TP) contents in beverages were measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method removing the interference of reduced sugars by using reverse-phase column chromatography. A beverage consumption survey was conducted in the Tokyo and Osaka areas in 2004. Randomly selected male and female subjects (10-59 years old, n = 8768) recorded the amounts and types of all nonalcoholic beverages consumed in a week. Concentration of TP in coffee, green tea, black tea, Oolong tea, barley tea, fruit juice, tomato/vegetable juice, and cocoa drinks were at 200, 115, 96, 39, 9, 34, 69, and 62 mg/100 mL, respectively. Total consumption of beverages in a Japanese population was 1.11 +/- 0.51 L/day, and TP contents from beverages was 853 +/- 512 mg/day. Coffee and green tea shared 50% and 34% of TP consumption in beverages, respectively, and contribution of each of the other beverages was less than 10%. TP contents in 20 major vegetables and 5 fruits were 0-49 mg and 2-55 mg/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant activities, Cu reducing power, and scavenging activities for DPPH and superoxide, of those samples correlated to the TP contents (p < 0.001). Beverages, especially coffee, contributed to a large share of the consumption of polyphenols, as antioxidants, in the Japanese diet.

  20. Carbon-Ion Beam Irradiation Effectively Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Teshima, Teruki Kihara, Ayaka; Kodera-Suzumoto, Yuko; Inaoka, Miho; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Control of cancer metastasis is one of the most important issues in cancer treatment. We previously demonstrated that carbon particle irradiation suppresses the metastatic potential of cancer cells, and many studies have reported that photon irradiation promotes it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carbon beam on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell aggressiveness and gene expression. Methods and Materials: A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) and EBC-1 (lung squamous cell carcinoma) cells were treated with 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba or with 4-MV X-ray at Osaka University. We tested proliferative, migratory, and invasive activities by cell proliferation assay, Boyden chamber assay, and Matrigel chemoinvasion assay, respectively. cDNA microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were also performed to assess mRNA expression alteration. Results: X-irradiation increased cell proliferation of A549 cells at 0.5 Gy, whereas high-dose X-ray reduced migration and invasion of A549 cells. By contrast, carbon beam irradiation did not enhance proliferation, and it reduced the migration and invasion capabilities of both A549 and EBC-1 cells more effectively than did X-irradiation. Carbon beam irradiation induced alteration of various gene expression profiles differently from X-ray irradiation. mRNA expression of ANLN, a homologue of anillin, was suppressed to 60% levels of basal expression in carbon beam-irradiated A549 cells after 12 h. Conclusion: Carbon beam effectively suppresses the metastatic potential of A549 and EBC-1 cells. Carbon beam also has different effects on gene expressions, and downregulation of ANLN was induced only by carbon beam irradiation.

  1. In vitro study to estimate particle release from a centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki

    2006-05-01

    Centrifugal pumps have been increasingly used in clinical settings. Like roller pumps, centrifugal pumps can cause debris release due to mechanical stress. The objectives of this study were to evaluate in vitro the particle release from a centrifugal pump, Gyro Pump (Japan Medical Materials Co., Osaka, Japan), which is a pivot-bearing supported pump clinically used in Japan, and to identify the released particles. In the clean room Class 10,000, the pump was operated for 24 h at 4000 rpm and 6 L/min in a mock loop filled with lactated Ringer's solution. After 24 h, the sample fluid and a blank were filtered with a 0.45-microm membrane filter for microscopic counting, followed by observation with a scanning electron microscope and element analysis with an X-ray spectrometer. Microscopic countings were 128 +/- 42 in the test samples (n = 10) of the Gyro Pump and 98 +/- 42 in the blank samples (n = 10) (P = 0.12). The oxygen/carbon atomic ratio of the particles in the test samples was 0.32 +/- 0.06, which was similar to the ratio of the particles in the blank sample (0.34 +/- 0.06). The profiles of elements with an X-ray spectrometer showed that the released particles from the Gyro Pump were not derived from the pump materials. In conclusion, an in vitro test system has been established for estimation of particle release from a centrifugal pump. Based upon the results with the system, the Gyro Pump with a pivot-bearing system has little risk to release debris particles even in a severe condition.

  2. An interview with Kazuo Tanne

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Professor Kazuo Tanne has a degree in Dentistry by the University of Osaka where he also received the title of PhD in Orthodontics. From the 1st of July, 1993 to the 31st of March, 2013 he was the head of the Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Development Biology at the University of Hiroshima, in Japan. Professor Tanne has been the head of the Japanese Association of Cleft Lip/Palate, and nowadays is the head of the Asian Orthodontic Society which comprises 18 orthodontic societies in the Asia/Pacific area. He has published more than 700 articles and more than 60 books and/or chapters about many different topics. Professor Tanne has conducted interesting researches that focus on temporomandibular disorders, tooth cryopreservation, cleft lip/palate, molecular/cell biology and genetic engineering for bone repair. I am honored to say that I was advised by Professor Tanne during my Doctorate in Orthodontics between 2006 and 2010. During that period, I had the opportunity to fulfill my expectations towards the excellence of education provided by the University of Hiroshima as well as by Professor Tanne who also proved to be a great human being with a noble heart. We have become great friends and fortunately I had the chance to learn much more than Orthodontics. Tanne Sensei, as he is known in Japan, has a deep admiration for Brazil and the Brazilian culture. He has been in Brazil in three occasions, when he made friends in many different locations. Emanuel Braga Rêgo PMID:24847547

  3. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka, Japan. Participants A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25–38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Main outcome measure Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. Results The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed ‘Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities’, ‘Relationships with coworkers or family’ and ‘Athletic performance in training or competition’ more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of ‘Overeating or food cravings’, ‘Physical symptoms’ and ‘Performance in training or competition’ in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, ‘Physical symptoms’ was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). Conclusions The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. PMID:27798029

  4. Externally triggered imaging technique for microbolometer-type terahertz imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Sudou, Takayuki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Okubo, Syuichi; Isoyama, Goro; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou

    2016-04-01

    The authors developed terahertz (THz) imager which incorporates 320x240 focal plane array (FPA) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region (ca. 0.5 THz). The imager includes functions such as external-trigger imaging, lock-in imaging, beam profiling and so on. The function of the external-trigger imaging is mainly described in this paper, which was verified in combination of the THz imager with the pulsed THz free electron laser (THz-FEL) developed by Osaka University. The THz-FEL emits THz radiation in a wavelength range of 25 - 150 μm at repetition rates of 2.5, 3.3, 5.0 and 10 pulses per second. The external trigger pulse for the THz imager was generated with a pulse generator, using brightening pulse for THz-FEL. A series of pulses emitted by the THz-FEL at 86 μm were introduced to the THz imager and Joule meter via beam splitter, so that the output signal of THz imager was normalized with the output of the Joule meter and the stability of the THz radiation from FEL was also monitored. The normalized output signals of THz imager (digits/μJ) obtained at the repetition rates mentioned above were found consistent with one another. The timing-relation of the external trigger pulse to the brightening pulse was varied and the influence of the timing-relation on beam pattern is presented. These experimental results verify that the external trigger imaging function operates correctly.

  5. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  6. Marine Photochemistry of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    A systematical study of hydrogen peroxide in seawater, rainwater, and marine air in the Northwest Pacific Ocean was conducted during a transect from Osaka, Japan, to Hawaii, USA, in May and June of 2002. During the transect, surface seawater samples were analyzed continuously for peroxide which showed the effects of photochemical production, wet deposition, and terrestrial impact. In the surface waters, hydrogen peroxide decreased with latitude from a little over 25 nM in the north (50°N) to more than 150 nM in the south (22°N). This latitudinal variation of hydrogen peroxide followed a trend similar to shipboard measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Diel variations of surface hydrogen peroxide were observed at several locations, with surface water concentrations increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The concentration of surface water peroxide increased to over 200 nM following rain events. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>150 nM) were also observed near Asia. The profiles of hydrogen peroxide were obtained at 10 stations that exhibited surface maxima of 24 to 120 nM. The rate constant of dark decay varied from 0.08 d-1 to 0.22 d-1. Rate of photo-production decreased from 10 nM hr-1 at noon to 0 at night. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide varied from 16 μM to 526 μM in rainwater. The data set permits a systematical analysis and modeling of factors regulating the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in marine environment.

  7. Spider-like lightning observation using VHF broadband digital interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Murata, K.; Morimoto, T.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing the VHF broadband digital interferometer since 1995. This is a two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) VHF source mapping system for electromagnetic (EM) waves emitted by lightning discharge progression based on a unique technique of the broadband digital interferometry. LRG-OU carried out field observation campaigns with the VHF broadband digital interferometers during monsoon seasons in Darwin, Australia. Through these campaigns a lot of lightning channels were visualized. The bi-directional leader progression, possible charge distribution related to the leader initiation, and the speed of the leader propagation are studied by the 3D imaging. At 0943:13 UT on 13 December, 2006, a spider-like cloud-to-cloud (CC) flash is recorded. In this flash, 4 groups of leaders are clearly visualized simultaneously. All leaders initiate from similar location, but develop to 4 different directions. One of these goes up to over 9km height, while the others progress horizontally between 2 and 5 km high. According to the weather radar observations by BOM, the bright band is noticeable at about 5 km high. It means the lower leaders progress under "melting snow" layer and positive charges exist in this region. It is considered that the lower leaders develop as long as 8 km horizontally neutralizing freckled positive charge. The leaders resembling dart leaders that propagate through the exact same channel as previous leader are also seen in this flash. The precedent leader proceeds with a speed of about 104 m/s, and then subsequent leaders proceed at a speed of about 106 m/s. In the presentation, we would like to discuss about the details of this spider-like CC flash.

  8. Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; González-José, Rolando; García, Pilar Peral

    2016-10-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points.

  9. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B.; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed. PMID:28075384

  10. Application of the MAFFT sequence alignment program to large data—reexamination of the usefulness of chained guide trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Tomii, Kentaro; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large multiple sequence alignments (MSAs), consisting of thousands of sequences, are becoming more and more common, due to advances in sequencing technologies. The MAFFT MSA program has several options for building large MSAs, but their performances have not been sufficiently assessed yet, because realistic benchmarking of large MSAs has been difficult. Recently, such assessments have been made possible through the HomFam and ContTest benchmark protein datasets. Along with the development of these datasets, an interesting theory was proposed: chained guide trees increase the accuracy of MSAs of structurally conserved regions. This theory challenges the basis of progressive alignment methods and needs to be examined by being compared with other known methods including computationally intensive ones. Results: We used HomFam, ContTest and OXFam (an extended version of OXBench) to evaluate several methods enabled in MAFFT: (1) a progressive method with approximate guide trees, (2) a progressive method with chained guide trees, (3) a combination of an iterative refinement method and a progressive method and (4) a less approximate progressive method that uses a rigorous guide tree and consistency score. Other programs, Clustal Omega and UPP, available for large MSAs, were also included into the comparison. The effect of method 2 (chained guide trees) was positive in ContTest but negative in HomFam and OXFam. Methods 3 and 4 increased the benchmark scores more consistently than method 2 for the three datasets, suggesting that they are safer to use. Availability and Implementation: http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/software/ Contact: katoh@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27378296

  11. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  12. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  13. A novel spontaneous mutation of BCAR3 results in extrusion cataracts in CF#1 mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Nakamori, Taketo; Nagai, Hiroaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken-Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2016-10-01

    A substrain of mice originating from the CF#1 strain (an outbred colony) reared at Osaka Prefecture University (CF#1/lr mice) develops cataracts beginning at 4 weeks of age. Affected mice were fully viable and fertile and developed cataracts by 14 weeks of age. Histologically, CF#1/lr mice showed vacuolation of the lens cortex, swollen lens fibers, lens rupture and nuclear extrusion. To elucidate the mode of inheritance, we analyzed heterozygous mutant hybrids generated from CF#1/lr mice and wild-type BALB/c mice. None of the heterozygous mutants were affected, and the ratio of affected to unaffected mice was 1:3 among the offspring of the heterozygous mutants. For the initial genome-wide screening and further mapping, we used affected progeny of CF#1/lr × (CF#1/lr × BALB/c) mice. We concluded that the cataracts in CF#1/lr mice are inherited through an autosomal recessive mutation and that the mutant gene is located on mouse chromosome 3 between D3Mit79 and D3Mit216. In this region, we identified 8 genes associated with ocular disease. All 8 genes were sequenced and a novel point mutation (1 bp insertion of cytosine) in exon 7 of the Bcar3 gene was identified. This mutation produced a premature stop codon and a truncated protein. In conclusion, we have identified the first spontaneous mutation in the Bcar3 gene associated with lens extrusion cataracts. This novel cataract model may provide further knowledge of the molecular biology of cataractogenesis and the function of the BCAR3 protein.

  14. Two-year clinical performance of Clearfil SE and Clearfil S3 in restoration of unabraded non-carious class V lesions.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Martha Goël; Dib, Alejandro; Franco, Guillermo; Estrada, Blanca E; Brackett, William W

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the two-year clinical performance of a self-etching primer and a self-etching adhesive, both of which employ the same acidic monomer. Forty pairs of restorations of AP-X hybrid resin composite (Kuraray Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) were placed in caries-free cervical erosion/abfraction lesions. Based on insensitivity to air, the dentin in 62% of these lesions was considered to be sclerotic. The restorations were placed with no abrasion of tooth surfaces, except for cleaning with plain pumice and no use of phosphoric acid etching, which is counter to the manufacturer's instructions that call for etching of unprepared enamel. One restoration from each pair was placed using Clearfil SE Bond, an adhesive employing a self-etching primer, and the other was placed using Clearfil S3 Bond, a self-etching adhesive. To emulate the results likely to occur in a private practice, the restorations were placed by well-educated, experienced clinicians who had no particular expertise in adhesive dentistry research and who placed the restorations according only to their interpretation of the manufacturer's instructions. The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months, using modified Ryge/USPHS criteria. For both products, retention of 81%-84% of the restorations was observed over two years, which is lower than has been previously observed with these products and is likely due to limitations in the manufacturer's instructions compounded by inexperience of the operators in adhesive dentistry research. One restoration placed with each adhesive demonstrated secondary caries, which was probably attributable to the study being conducted in a non-fluoridated area and which reduced the percentages of clinically successful restorations to 78%-81%. No statistically significant difference (p = 0.50) between the two adhesives was observed in overall performance.

  15. Hereditary and histologic characteristics of the CF1/b cac mouse cataract model.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroaki; Kawashima, Takamune; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Koyabu, Nozomu; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken-Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    A substrain of mice originating from the CF1 strain (an outbred colony) reared at Osaka Prefecture University (CF1/b cac mice) develops cataracts beginning at 14 d old. Affected mice were fully viable and fertile and had developed cataracts by 22 d of age. The incidence of cataracts did not differ between male and female mice. Histologically, 14-wk-old CF1/b cac mice showed vacuolated lens epithelial cells, swollen lens fibers, many pyknotic nuclei, and vacuolation of the lens cortex. To elucidate the mode of inheritance, we analyzed heterozygous mutants hybrids generated from CF1/b cac and wildtype BALB/c mice and the offspring of the backcrossed heterozygous mutants. None of the heterozygous mutants was affected, but the ratio of affected to unaffected mice was 1:3 among the offspring of the heterozygous mutants. The initial genomewide screen of 20 affected backcrossed offspring (CF1/b cac × [CF1/b cac × BALB/c]) indicated that the mutant gene resides on chromosome 16. For further mapping, we used affected progeny of CF1/b cac × (CF1/b cac × MSM/Ms) mice. We concluded that the cataracts in CF1/b cac mice are inherited through an autosomal recessive mutation and that the mutant gene is located on mouse chromosome 16 between D16Mit5 and D16Mit92 and between D16Mit92 and D16Mit201. The mapping of the mutant gene of the CF1/b cac mice to mouse chromosome 16 provides the positional information necessary to identify the candidate gene responsible for the CF1/b cac phenotype.

  16. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Workplace Social Capital: Opposing Effects of Gender on Overweight among Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies have sought to examine the health associations of workplace social capital; however, evidence of associations with overweight is sparse. We examined the association between individual perceptions of workplace social capital and overweight among Japanese male and female employees. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey among full-time employees at a company in Osaka prefecture in February 2012. We used an 8-item measure to assess overall and sub-dimensions of workplace social capital, divided into tertiles. Of 1050 employees, 849 responded, and 750 (624 men and 126 women) could be linked to annual health check-up data in the analysis. Binomial logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overweight (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m2, calculated from measured weight and height) separately for men and women. The prevalence of overweight was 24.5% among men and 14.3% among women. Among men, low levels of bonding and linking social capital in the workplace were associated with a nearly 2-fold risk of overweight compared to high corresponding dimensions of social capital when adjusted for age, sleep hours, physiological distress, and lifestyle. In contrast, among women we found lower overall and linking social capital to be associated with lower odds for overweight even after covariate adjustment. Subsequently, we used multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships between a 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in mean social capital and odds of underweight/overweight relative to normal weight. Among men, a 1-SD decrease in overall, bonding, and linking social capital was significantly associated with higher odds of overweight, but not with underweight. Among women, no significant associations were found for either overweight or underweight. Conclusions/Significance We found opposite gender relationships between perceived low linking

  17. [How to solve hospital operating problems based on the experience of the Hanshin earthquake?].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, J

    1995-06-01

    Immediately after the Hanshin (Kobe-Osaka) earthquake, electricity, water and gas supplies were discontinued at Kobe General Hospital, causing difficulties with many important hospital functions including the water cooled independent electric power plant, respirators, and sterilizers. A large water storage facility is needed to keep the water cooled type independent power plant operating. Alternative plans including the introduction of an air cooled independent power plant and a sea water to fresh water exchange system should be considered. Portable compressors are needed to retain the function of respirators in the absence of a water supply. The emergency use of propane gas should also be considered for sterilization and cooking facilities. There were very great problems in communication after the earthquake. The only method was the use of public phones, which have priority over private lines. Therefore, each hospital should have phones with similar priority. In addition, the use of personal computers and/or computer network methods should be considered to preserve a high level of communication after an earthquake. Otherwise, a hospital should be equipped with wireless phones. Immediately after the earthquake, the care of critically ill patients could not be achieved. Therefore, 20 cardiac patients requiring intensive care had to be transferred to other heart centers. The best method for the transfer is by helicopter. Kobe City suffered a transport crisis which occurred immediately after the earthquake and continued up to the end of March. A big helicopter or a special bus guided by a police car should be considered for hospital staff transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Integrated computer simulation on FIR FEL dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, H.; Kuruma, S.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated computer simulation code has been developed to analyze the RF-Linac FEL dynamics. First, the simulation code on the electron beam acceleration and transport processes in RF-Linac: (LUNA) has been developed to analyze the characteristics of the electron beam in RF-Linac and to optimize the parameters of RF-Linac. Second, a space-time dependent 3D FEL simulation code (Shipout) has been developed. The RF-Linac FEL total simulations have been performed by using the electron beam data from LUNA in Shipout. The number of particles using in a RF-Linac FEL total simulation is approximately 1000. The CPU time for the simulation of 1 round trip is about 1.5 minutes. At ILT/ILE, Osaka, a 8.5MeV RF-Linac with a photo-cathode RF-gun is used for FEL oscillation experiments. By using 2 cm wiggler, the FEL oscillation in the wavelength approximately 46 {mu}m are investigated. By the simulations using LUNA with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the pulse shape and the energy spectra of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac has sharp rise-up and it slowly decays as a function of time. By the RF-linac FEL total simulations with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the dependencies of the start up of the FEL oscillations on the pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The coherent spontaneous emission effects and the quick start up of FEL oscillations have been observed by the RF-Linac FEL total simulations.

  19. A new spinner magnetometer using high sensitivity magneto-impedance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive spinner magnetometer was developed using a pair of high-resolution Magneto-Impedance sensors. The MI sensor generally utilizes the MI effect of amorphous wire whose impedance changes by the application of a small magnetic field. Various kinds of MI sensors are currently used in many electric devices, for example, a magnetic compass chip built-in smart phones and car navigations. The MI sensor employed in this study is a pico-Tesla MI sensor, an especially sensitive MI sensor originally manufactured for industrial use to detect contamination of small magnetic particles in industrial materials such as fabrics. To detect weak magnetic signals from natural samples and avoid DC drift, a gradiometer system was employed that consists of a pair of the MI sensors and the electronics with analog filter and pre-amplification circuit. This MI gradiometer system was equipped to a commercial spinner magnetometer (SMD-88, Natsuhara Giken, Osaka) with the spinning rate of 5 Hz. It is demonstrated that this new spinner magnetometer is capable of measuring weak magnetic samples of 10-6 mAm2, with the highest resolution being 10-8 mAm2, approximately two orders of magnitude better than the previous one using a ring-core flux-gate sensor. One of the advantages of the MI spinner magnetometer is that it can be easily modified to accommodate samples of any shape and size. Moreover the slow-rotating speed (5 Hz) allows to measure samples for archeomagnetic studies that are usually irregular and fragile. Because the irregularity of shape increases errors in measuring the dipole component of the total magnetization, it is necessary to increase the distance between the sample and sensor, resulting in poorer sensitivity. The high-sensitivity MI sensor enables to measure the NRM of such irregular-shaped samples from an appropriate distance to the sample, with no significant loss of sensitivity.

  20. Decreased β-Cell Function Is Associated with Reduced Skeletal Muscle Mass in Japanese Subjects without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Keiji; Imbe, Ayumi; Inaba, Yuiko; Shishikura, Kanako; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Terasaki, Jungo; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased insulin secretion has a great impact on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese subjects. It is not clear whether β-cell function is related to muscle mass in subjects without diabetes. We investigated the relationship between β-cell function and skeletal muscle mass in Japanese subjects without diabetes. Methods The study included 1098 subjects (538 men and 560 women) aged 40 to 79 years, without diabetes (fasting glucose lower than 126 mg/dL and glycosylated hemoglobin lower than 6.5%), who consulted Osaka Medical College Health Science Clinic for a medical examination. Appendicular muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Appendicular muscle mass index was calculated as appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (kg/m2). The homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function was used to assess β-cell function. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The association between appendicular muscle mass index and clinical parameters of β-cell function and insulin resistance was examined. Results Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance showed a normal distribution. In both men and women, there was a significant positive correlation between appendicular muscle mass index and clinical parameters of β-cell function and insulin resistance. Tertile analysis, following stratification according to appendicular muscle mass index, found that low appendicular muscle mass index was significantly associated with the Log homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusion This study shows that decreased β cell function is associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in Japanese subjects without diabetes. PMID:27612202

  1. Noninvasive computed tomography-guided marking technique for peripheral pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Ichinose, Junji; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of the exact location of small peripheral pulmonary nodules during thoracoscopic wedge resection (TWR) is crucial. We describe a new method of computed tomography (CT)-guided marking without puncturing the visceral pleura (VP) for minimally palpable pulmonary nodules. Methods Preoperative CT scans were performed 1 day before TWR with the patient in the lateral decubitus position. Under CT guidance, we marked the skin over the pulmonary nodule. During TS, an indwelling catheter was inserted perpendicular to the marked skin surface and put a mark with gentian violet (Pyoktanin blue®, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) onto the VP. We palpated the nodules near the mark(s) and performed TWR. Results Between October 2012 and April 2016, we performed CT-guided marking in 54 patients (24 males and 30 females, median age 65 years). Cases included 39 primary lung cancers, 10 metastatic lung tumors, and 5 benign tumors. The mean diameter of the nodules was 10 mm (range, 3–26 mm), and the mean distance of the nodule from the VP was 4 mm (range, 0–17 mm). The mean time of intraoperative marking was 3.5 min (range, 1–4.5 min). The mean distance from the nodule to the marking point was 7.0 mm (range, 0–30 mm). We were able to identify the location of the nodule using this procedure in 53 patients (98%). Hematoma of the chest wall after marking was observed in one patient. There were no other complications. Conclusions This marking technique is a simple, economic, and effective procedure to locate small peripheral pulmonary nodules during TWR. PMID:28066668

  2. Genetic characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum isolates from botulism cases in Japan between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki; Komiya, Takako; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Motohide; Kuroda, Makoto; Shibayama, Keigo

    2014-11-01

    Genetic characterization was performed for 10 group I Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from botulism cases in Japan between 2006 and 2011. Of these, 1 was type A, 2 were type B, and 7 were type A(B) {carrying a silent bont/B [bont/(B)] gene} serotype strains, based on botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) production. The type A strain harbored the subtype A1 BoNT gene (bont/A1), which is associated with the ha gene cluster. The type B strains carried bont/B5 or bont/B6 subtype genes. The type A(B) strains carried bont/A1 identical to that of type A(B) strain NCTC2916. However, bont/(B) genes in these strains showed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among strains. SNPs at 2 nucleotide positions of bont/(B) enabled classification of the type A(B) strains into 3 groups. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) also provided consistent separation results. In addition, the type A(B) strains were separated into 2 lineages based on their plasmid profiles. One lineage carried a small plasmid (5.9 kb), and another harbored 21-kb plasmids. To obtain more detailed genetic information about the 10 strains, we sequenced their genomes and compared them with 13 group I C. botulinum genomes in a database using whole-genome SNP analysis. This analysis provided high-resolution strain discrimination and enabled us to generate a refined phylogenetic tree that provides effective traceability of botulism cases, as well as bioterrorism materials. In the phylogenetic tree, the subtype B6 strains, Okayama2011 and Osaka05, were distantly separated from the other strains, indicating genomic divergence of subtype B6 strains among group I strains.

  3. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized. PMID:25825936

  4. Effect of Surface Treatment with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser on Bond Strength between Cement Resin and Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Atefat, Mohammad; Beheshti, Maryam; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mojtahedi, Maryam; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Since it is not possible to form an adequate micromechanical bond between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using common surface treatment techniques, laser pretreatment has been suggested for zirconia ceramic surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Methods: In this in vitro study thirty discs of zirconia with a diameter of 6 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into two groups of 15. In the test group the zirconia disc surfaces were irradiated by CO2 laser with an output power of 3 W and energy density of 265.39 j/cm2. Composite resin discs were fabricated by plastic molds, measuring 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness and were cemented on zirconia disk surfaces with Panavia F2.0 resin cement (Kuraray Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Shear bond strength was measured by a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fracture type was assessed under a stereomicroscope at ×40. Surface morphologies of two specimens of the test group were evaluated under SEM before and after laser pretreatment. Data was analyzed by paired t-test (p value < 0.05). Results: The mean SBS values of the laser and control groups were 12.12 ± 3.02 and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Surface treatment with CO2 laser significantly increased SBS between resin cement and zirconia ceramic (p value = 0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, surface treatment with CO2 laser increased the SBS between resin cement and the zirconia ceramic. PMID:25653809

  5. Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the family needs survey.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kimiko; Bailey, Donald B; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kajikawa, Kuniko; Nishigami, Yuko; Narisawa, Sachiko; Nishiwaki, Misako; Shibata, Mariko; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Matsushita, Akihiro; Fujie, Nodoka; Kodama, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Early intervention and disability services in Japan historically have focused on supporting the individual with a disability, with only secondary attention to family needs and priorities. Since the Basic Law for Persons with Disabilities was codified in 2011, the Japanese government has been responsible for supporting families with members who have disabilities. To assess the needs of these families, we evaluated the reliability and validity of the Family Needs Survey (FNS), initially developed in 1988 (Bailey & Simeonsson), to determine its usefulness for programs providing services for Japanese families who have a child with a disability. The FNS is a practical tool to assess family needs and is already used across many different cultures and populations. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the FNS, we conducted an anonymous survey with a self-administered questionnaire at 6 treatment and education institutions, 3 medical institutions mainly for children with disabilities, and 39 special needs schools in the Osaka area. We analyzed 1171 parents' survey responses: 452 fathers and 719 mothers of children with disabilities aged 0-15 years old who answered all items on the Japanese version of the FNS. Another survey was administered to 130 specialists who work with children with disabilities to assess the content validity of the Japanese version of the FNS. We verified the factor structure, content validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FNS as an assessment tool with 34 items among four factors that were based on the same items in the original FNS. The assessment could be used for families with school-age children as well as younger children, in contrast to the original version, which is not appropriate for school-age children. We also confirmed that it could be used without regard to type or degree of disability.

  6. Mesio-distal tooth angulation in elderly with many remaining teeth observed by 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Asuka; Motegi, Etsuko; Fukagawa, Hiroko; Nomura, Mayumi; Kano, Masataka; Sueishi, Kenji; Okano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the morphologic characteristics of teeth, dental arches and occlusion in elderly persons with many remaining teeth. The purpose of this study was to establish a method of measurement using 3-D imaging to investigate tooth angulation in the elderly from the orthodontic point of view. The dental casts of 20 elderly persons with many remaining teeth were digitized with a 3-D laser scanner (VMS-100F, UNISN INC., Osaka, Japan) to construct 3-D images. The mesio-distal angulation of each tooth was then measured with analytical software (SURFLACER, UNISN INC. and IMAGEWARE 12, UGS PLM Solutions, MO, USA). The occlusal plane formed by the incisal edge of the central incisor and distal buccal cusp tip of the first molar on either side was used as a reference plane for measurements. Mesio-distal tooth angulation (indicated in degrees) of maxillary teeth in this subjects averaged 1.26 for central incisors, 5.46 for lateral incisors, 7.84 for canines, 6.59 for first premolars, 5.78 for second premolars, 1.64 for first molars and -4.17 for second molars. Average values for mandibular teeth were 0.91 for central incisors, 2.35 for lateral incisors, 7.04 for canines, 8.76 for first premolars, 10.44 for second premolars, 7.33 for first molars and 12.67 for second molars. There was no statistical difference between the data in man and women except maxillary second molar (p<0.05). Mesial angulation in the mandibular arch showed a progressive increase from the anterior to the posterior. However, this tendency was not observed in the maxillary arch.

  7. Tooth inclination in elderly with many remaining teeth observed by 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Hiroko; Motegi, Etsuko; Fuma, Asuka; Nomura, Mayumi; Kano, Masataka; Sueishi, Kenji; Okano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Tooth inclination has been discussed many times in terms of esthetics and functionality, but reports related to aging are extremely rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tooth inclination in the elderly from the orthodontic point of view. The dental casts of twenty elderly persons with many remaining teeth were digitized with a 3-D laser scanner (VMS-100F,UNISN INC., Osaka, Japan) for reconstruction into 3-D images. Inclination of each tooth was then measured with an analytical software (SURFLACER, UNISN INC. and IMAGEWARE 12, UGS PLM Solutions, MO, USA). The occlusal plane formed by the incisal edge of the central incisor and distal buccal cusp tip of the first molar on either side was used as a reference plane to measure tooth inclination, and the complementary angle as tooth inclination was measured. The average tooth inclinations (degrees) of the maxillary teeth were 8.08 for central incisors, 8.10 for lateral incisors, 4.85 for canines, -6.68 for first premolars, -5.58 for second premolars, -5.15 for first molars, and -5.41 for second molars. The corresponding values for the mandibular teeth were 6.78 for central incisors, 4.87 for lateral incisors, -5.73 for canines, -13.74 for first premolars, -19.21 for second premolars, -23.76 for first molars, and -28.63 for second molars. There was no statistical difference between men and women, except for in the maxillary lateral incisors (p<0.05). Tooth inclination showed a progressive decrease from anterior to posterior. The decrease in the mandibular teeth was more regular than that of the maxillary teeth.

  8. A relationship between slide quality and image quality in whole slide imaging (WSI).

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yukako; Gilbertson, John R

    2008-07-15

    This study examined the effect of tissue section thickness and consistency--parameters outside the direct control of the imaging devices themselves--on WSI capture speed and image quality. Preliminary data indicates that thinner, more consistent tissue sectioning (such as those produced by automated tissue sectioning robots) results in significantly faster WSI capture times and better image quality. A variety of tissue types (including human breast, mouse embryo, mouse brain, etc.) were sectioned using an (AS-200) Automated Tissue Sectioning System (Kurabo Industries, Osaka Japan) at thicknesses from 2 - 9 microm (at one microm intervals) and stained with H&E by a standard method. The resulting slides were imaged with 5 different WSI devices (ScanScope CS, Aperio, CA; iScan, BioImagene, CA; DX40, DMetrix, AZ; NanoZoomer, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Japan; Mirax Scan, Carl Zeiss Inc., Germany) with sampling periods of 0.43 - 0.69 microm/pixel. Slides with different tissue thicknesses were compared for image quality, appropriate number of focus points, and overall scanning speed. Thinner sections (i.e. 3 microm sections versus 7 microm) required significantly fewer focus points and had significantly lower (10-15%) capture times. Improvement was seen with all devices and tissues tested. Furthermore, a panel of experienced pathologist judged image quality to be significantly better (for example, with better apparent resolution of nucleoli) with the thinner sections. Automated tissue sectioning is a very new technology; however, the AS-200 seems to be able to produce thinner, more consistent, flatter sections than manual methods at reasonably high throughput. The resulting tissue sections seem to be easier for a WSI system's focusing systems to deal with (compared to manually cut slides). Teaming an automated tissue-sectioning device with a WSI device shows promise in producing faster WSI throughput with better image quality.

  9. [The airborne 1,3-butadiene concentrations in rubber and plastic processing plants].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki; Tainaka, Hidetsugu; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Goto, Sumio

    2002-03-01

    Environment pollution by 1,3-butadiene had considerably increased in Japan. The main cause of the pollution is the automotive exhaust gas, and leaks from factories, smoking, and burning of rubber and plastic products are considered to be minor sources. The object of this study was to determine the contamination levels of airborne 1,3-butadiene in factories processing rubber and plastics containing 1,3-butadiene. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene were measured in 21 plants (10 rubber processing plants and 11 plastics processing plants) in Osaka. 1,3-Butadiene in air was collected for 10 minutes with a charcoal tube and a portable small pump adjusted to a 250 ml/min flow rate. In each plant, indoor air samples at five points and an outdoor air sample at one point outside the plant were collected. The samples were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after thermal desorption from the charcoal. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene in the rubber processing plants and the plastics processing plants were 0.14-2.20 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.48 microgram/m3) and 0.23-4.51 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.80 microgram/m3), respectively. In all plants examined, indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were higher than the outdoor concentrations around the plants. Therefore, 1,3-butadiene was considered to arise from the processing of rubber or plastics, but the indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were much lower than the PEL-TWA (1 ppm = 2.21 mg/m3) of OSHA and the TLV-TWA (2 ppm) of ACGIH. The concentrations in the plants with closed room conditions without ventilation were higher than the concentrations in the other plants. It was suggested that ventilation affected the 1,3-butadiene concentration in the plants.

  10. Performance of a new Electron-Tracking Compton Camera under intense radiations from a water target irradiated with a proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Iwaki, S.; Sawano, T.; Komura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Oda, M.; Takemura, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Sonoda, S.; Tomono, D.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kurosawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for use in next-generation MeV gamma ray telescopes. An ETCC consists of a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC) and pixel scintillator arrays (PSAs). Since the TPC measures the three dimensional tracks of Compton-recoil electrons, the ETCC can completely reconstruct the incident gamma rays. Moreover, the ETCC demonstrates efficient background rejection power in Compton-kinematics tests, identifies particle from the energy deposit rate (dE/dX) registered in the TPC, and provides high quality imaging by completely reconstructing the Compton scattering process. We are planning the ``Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment'' (SMILE) for our proposed all-sky survey satellite. Performance tests of a mid-sized (30 cm)3 ETCC, constructed for observing the Crab nebula, are ongoing. However, observations at balloon altitudes or satellite orbits are obstructed by radiation background from the atmosphere and the detector itself [1]. The background rejection power was checked using proton accelerator experiments conducted at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. To create the intense radiation fields encountered in space, which comprise gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other energetic entities, we irradiated a water target with a 140 MeV proton beam and placed a SMILE-II ETCC near the target. In this situation, the counting rate was five times than that expected at the balloon altitude. Nonetheless, the ETCC stably operated and identified particles sufficiently to obtain a clear gamma ray image of the checking source. Here, we report the performance of our detector and demonstrate its effective background rejection based in electron tracking experiments.

  11. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  12. Development of a precise controller for an electrohydraulic total artificial heart. Improvement of the motor's dynamic response.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J M; Masuzawa, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Ohno, T; Choi, W W; Toda, K; Miyazaki, K; Baba, Y; Nakatani, T; Takano, H; Min, B G

    1996-01-01

    In an electrohydraulic total artificial heart developed at the National Cardiovascular Center (Osaka, Japan), two blood pumps are pushed alternatively by means of the bidirectional motion of a brushless DC motor for pump systole and diastole. Improvement in the dynamic response of the motor is very important to obtain better pump performance; this was accomplished by using power electronic simulation. For the motor to have the desired dynamic response, it must be commutated properly and the damping ratio (zeta), which represents transient characteristics of the motor, must lie between 0.4 and 0.8. Consequently, all satisfactory specifications with respect to power consumption must be obtained. Based on the simulated results, the design criteria were determined and the precise controller designed to reduce torque ripple and motor vibration, and determine motor stop time at every direction change. In in vitro tests, evaluation of the controller and dynamic response of the motor was justified in terms of zeta, power consumption, and motor stop time. The results indicated that the power consumption of the controller and the input power of the motor were decreased by 1.2 and 2.5 W at zeta = 0.6, respectively, compared to the previous system. An acceptable dynamic response of the motor, necessary for the reduction of torque ripple and motor vibration, was obtained between zeta = 0.5 and zeta = 0.7, with an increase in system efficiency from 10% to 12%. The motor stop time required for stable motor reoperation was determined to be over 10 msec, for a savings in power consumption of approximately 1.5 W. Therefore, the improved dynamic response of the motor can contribute to the stability and reliability of the pump.

  13. Experience with live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) in healthy Japanese subjects; 10-year survey at pediatric clinic.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, T; Nishimura, N; Kajita, Y

    2000-05-08

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain, Biken Institute, Osaka, Japan) was administered to 973 healthy individuals over a 10-year period (1987-1997) at the pediatric clinic of Showa Hospital in Japan. We evaluated the relevant serological and clinical data, which were collected by questionnaire. Seroconversion by the immune adherence hemagglutination method was documented in 94% (805/860) of the initially seronegative subjects. Of the initially seropositive subjects, 56% (63/113) showed enhancement of antibody after vaccination. Reactions to the vaccine were generally insignificant, except for a rash at the injection site, seen in the first 3 days post-administration in 17% (41/241) of the recently vaccinated subjects. In March 1998, we conducted a survey of 559 of the initially seronegative subjects who had received the vaccine 0.6-10. 8 (mean 5.4) years earlier. Of these subjects, 21% (119/559) contracted breakthrough varicella. However, their symptoms were milder than those caused by natural varicella seen in unvaccinated children. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 92% (109/119) of these cases. The incidence of breakthrough disease decreased with a rise in postvaccination antibody titer to >==32. Four of the subjects (0.7% of 559) developed herpes zoster following vaccination, two of whom had earlier exhibited breakthrough varicella. Lesions in one case of zoster, without breakthrough varicella, appeared on the cervical dermatome at the injection site. The vaccine was safe and effective. However, there was a relatively high incidence of rash at the injection site with certain lot numbers used in recent years which warrants investigation.

  14. PREFACE: Third International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumori, Atsuo

    2009-09-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Third Symposium (ISAT-3) was held on 5-6 March 2009 at the Tokyo International Exchange Center, Tokyo, Japan jointed with the Third Polyscale Technology Workshop (PTW-3). The ISAT-3 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies, which was successively held after ISAT-1 at Tsukuba and ISAT-2 at Awaji in 2007. The symposium was attended by 136 participants. There were 12 invited and 4 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 101. From all the contributions, 32 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The 'Atomic Technology Project' and the 'Polyscale Technology Project' were started in 2006 as the joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing atomic and polyscale technologies. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of these projects is to contribute to the development of atomic and polyscale science and technologies. In this symposium, four research fields were focused on: Biomedical Applications, Fabrication for Advanced Materials and Devices, Magnetic Applications, and Quantum and Molecular Engineering for Advanced Technologies. Atsuo Yasumori Conference Chair Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.

  15. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  16. Shipboard measurements and modeling of the distribution of CH4 and 13CH4 in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, T.; Allan, W.; Martin, R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Lowe, D. C.; Struthers, H.; Moss, R.

    2012-02-01

    We present observations of methane (CH4) mixing ratio and 13C/12C isotopic ratios in CH4 (δ13C) data from a collaborative shipboard project using bulk carrier ships sailing between Nelson, New Zealand, and Osaka, Japan, in the western Pacific Ocean. Measurements of the CH4 mixing ratio and δ13C in CH4were obtained from large clean-air samples collected in each 2.5° to 5° of latitude between 30°S and 30°N on eight voyages from 2004 to 2007. The data show large variations in CH4 mixing ratio in the tropical western Pacific, and data analysis suggests that these large variations are related to the positions and strengths of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the Intertropical Convergence Zone, with variability in the sources playing a much smaller role. These measurements are compared with results from a modified version of the Unified Model (UMeth) general circulation model along two transects, one similar to the ship transects and another 18.75° to the east. Although UMeth was run to a steady state with the same sources and sinks each year, the gradient structures varied considerably from year to year, supporting our conclusion that variability in transport is a major driver for the observed variations in CH4. Simulations forced with an idealized representation of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) suggest that a large component of the observed variability in latitudinal gradients of CH4 and its δ13C arises from intrinsic variability in the climate system that does not occur on ENSO time scales.

  17. Measurements of the response functions of a large size NE213 organic liquid scintillator for neutrons up to 800 MeV.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, S; Moriya, T; Takada, M; Hatanaka, K; Wakasa, T; Saito, T

    2005-01-01

    The response functions of 25.4 cm (length) x 25.4 cm (diameter) NE213 organic liquid scintillator have been measured for neutrons in the energy range from 20 to 800 MeV at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University. At HIMAC, white (continuous) energy spectrum neutrons were produced by the 400 MeV per nucleon carbon ion bombardment on a thick graphite target, whose energy spectrum has already been measured by Kurosawa et al., [Nucl. Sci. Eng. 132, 30 (1999)] and the response functions of the time-of-flight-gated monoenergetic neutrons in a wide energy range from 20 to 800 MeV were simultaneously measured. At RCNP, the quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were produced via 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by 250 MeV proton beam bombardment on a thin 7Li target, and the TOF-gated 245 MeV peak neutrons were measured. The absolute peak neutron yield was obtained by the measurement of 478 keV gamma rays from the 7Be nuclei produced in a Li target. The measured results show that the response functions for monoenergetic neutrons < 250 MeV have a recoil proton plateau and an edge around the maximum light output, which increases with increasing incident neutron energy, on the other hand > 250 MeV, the plateau and the edge become unclear because the proton range becomes longer than the detector size and the escaping protons increase. It can be found that the efficiency of the 24.5 cm (diameter) x 25.4 cm (length) NE213 for the 250 MeV neutrons is -10 times larger than the 12.7 cm (length) x 12.7 cm (diameter) NE213, which is widely used as a neutron spectrometer.

  18. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  19. Remote counseling using HyperMirror quasi space-sharing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Morikawa, Osamu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Maesako, Takanori

    2008-08-01

    In the modern information society, networks are getting faster, costs are getting lower, and displays are getting clearer. Today, just about anyone can easily use precise, dynamic, image distribution systems in their everyday life. Now, the question is how to give the benefits of network systems to the local community, as well as to each individual.This study was designed to use communication with realistic sensations to examine the effectiveness of remote individual counseling intervention in reducing depression, anxiety and stress in child-rearing mothers. Three child-rearing mothers residing in the city of Osaka each received one session of remote counseling intervention. The results showed an alleviation of stress related to child-rearing, i.e., the reduction in state anxiety, depression and subjective stress related to child-rearing. Moreover, an experimental demonstration employed a HyperMirror system capable of presenting visual and auditory images similar to reality, in order to provide the counselees with realistic sensations. While the voice communication environment was poor, the remote counseling allowed for the communication of sensory information, i.e., skinship that communicated information related to assurance/peace of mind, and auditory information, i.e., a whispering voices in which signals of affection were transmitted; the realistic sensation contributed to a reduction in stress levels. The positive effects of the intervention were confirmed through a pre and post intervention study. The results suggested the need to conduct future studies to confirm the mid- and long-term improvements caused by the intervention, as well as the need to improve the voice transmission environment.

  20. Nuclear spin imaging with hyperpolarized nuclei created by brute force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kunimatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kohri, Hideki; Ohta, Takeshi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Yosoi, Masaru; Ono, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kohji; Takamatsu, Kunihiko; Ueda, Kunihiro; Didelez, Jean-P.; Prossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette

    2011-05-01

    We have been developing a polarized HD target for particle physics at the SPring-8 under the leadership of the RCNP, Osaka University for the past 5 years. Nuclear polarizaton is created by means of the brute force method which uses a high magnetic field (~17 T) and a low temperature (~ 10 mK). As one of the promising applications of the brute force method to life sciences we started a new project, "NSI" (Nuclear Spin Imaging), where hyperpolarized nuclei are used for the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The candidate nuclei with spin ½hslash are 3He, 13C, 15N, 19F, 29Si, and 31P, which are important elements for the composition of the biomolecules. Since the NMR signals from these isotopes are enhanced by orders of magnitudes, the spacial resolution in the imaging would be much more improved compared to the practical MRI used so far. Another advantage of hyperpolarized MRI is that the MRI is basically free from the radiation, while the problems of radiation exposure caused by the X-ray CT or PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cannot be neglected. In fact, the risk of cancer for Japanese due to the radiation exposure through these diagnoses is exceptionally high among the advanced countries. As the first step of the NSI project, we are developing a system to produce hyperpolarized 3He gas for the diagnosis of serious lung diseases, for example, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The system employs the same 3He/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting solenoidal coil as those used for the polarized HD target with some modification allowing the 3He Pomeranchuk cooling and the following rapid melting of the polarized solid 3He to avoid the depolarization. In this report, the present and future steps of our project will be outlined with some latest experimental results.

  1. Flavobacterium compostarboris sp. nov., isolated from leaf-and-branch compost, and emended descriptions of Flavobacterium hercynium, Flavobacterium resistens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Jae; Kanaya, Eiko; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Dunfield, Peter F; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2012-08-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-spore-forming rod, designated 15C3(T), was isolated from aerobic leaf-and-branch compost at EXPO Park in Osaka, Japan. Growth was observed at 9-33 °C (optimum 25 °C) and pH 5.6-7.9 (optimum pH 6.1-7.0). No growth occurred with >2% (w/v) NaCl. Strain 15C3(T) reduced nitrate to nitrogen and showed catalase activity but not oxidase activity. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH). The isolate contained phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid and menaquinone-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 15C3(T) was 33.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 15C3(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium hercynium WB 4.2-33(T) (96.9% sequence similarity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 15C3(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium compostarboris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 15C3(T) ( = KACC 14224(T)  = JCM 16527(T)). Emended descriptions of F. hercynium, Flavobacterium resistens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are also given.

  2. High-resolution analysis of Holocene sequence using borehole database and the relationship between depositional environment and groundwater hydrology: a case study at the Tsurumi river lowland in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuka; Aichi, Masaatsu; Tokunaga, Tomochika

    2014-05-01

    Creating detailed geological database involved in geological structure, geological model based on it, are required in earthquake disaster prevention, urban development, and environment preservation. Many borehole log data have been collected by each local government as geological information data base in Japan. On the other hand, handling of many databases is inconvenient when analyzing the geological subsurface extensively across the city because the data format is different in each local government. In this study, we constructed borehole database to integrate the borehole data of Yokohama City and Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture by using the AIST "borehole data processing system". Some geological cross-sections were created and analyzed in detail by applying the method of "Shazam stratigraphy" (Masuda et al, 2013) to the Holocene sequence using this database. Study area is the Tsurumi river lowland formed by Tama River and Tsurumi River at Yokohama City and Kawasaki City. In results of this study, the Holocene geological cross-sections indicating transgression and regression cycle was showed in more high resolution than previous studies. In the Holocene sequence of the Tsurumi river lowland, buried valleys eroded the formation of the Middle Pleistocene Sagami group are filled by basal gravel bed (LST) and the alternation of sand and silt (TST). Marine clay (TST) containing shell fragments and sand (HST) is deposited in the upper and uppermost layer of the Holocene sequence. Massive sands are distributed in the marine clay layer at the altitude -30m to -10m. Silt sediments containing shell fragments and organic matter dominate behind of the sand deposits. These are interpreted as barrier deposits formed during the transgression from previous studies (Matsubara, 2011). The Holocene geological cross-section in the Tsurumi river lowland could be corresponded to the cross-section in the Osaka Plain. The result of this study will be used to groundwater model as

  3. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized.

  4. Photodynamic therapy using a diode laser with mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Kinya; Katsumi, Tohichiro; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Okunaka, Tetsuya; Kuroiwa, Yukari; Yoshiteru, II; Kaneda, Akira; Saito, Kouichi; Konaka, Chimori; Aizawa, Katsuo; Kato, Harubumi

    1996-04-01

    The authors developed a new high-power red laser diode system (Matsushita Industrial Equipment Co., Ltd., Osaka) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, Meiji Seika Kaisha LTD.). The laser wavelength was adjusted to 664 nm and the power output could be varied in the range of 50-500 mW at the fiber tip in a continuous wave (cw) mode. The delivered energy could be adjusted from 50 - 1000 J. The system has a size of 49 by 20 by 40 cm, weighs 20 kg, and is readily portable. It runs on 100 V current. The laser power is easily controlled and the wavelength is stable (less than plus or minus 0.2 nm). The output beam is delivered via a quartz fiber. Furthermore, the full width at half-maximum power is less than 2 nm, which enables uniform, high-density photoirradiation. The power density distribution of the laser, analyzed by a CCD camera, was uniform throughout the photoirradiated field. In an animal study, tumor-bearing Balb/c mice were treated with the diode laser 5 hours after intravenous administration of NPe6 at a dose of 1.25 to 12.5 mg/kg i.v.. Total photoirradiation ranged from 3.13 to 250 J/cm2 which the energy density was adjusted to 100 mW/cm2. Percentages of cures were determined histopathologically from numbers of mice apparently disease-free 1 week after treatment. The results show that a laser energy of more than 12.5 J/cm2 was necessary to obtain 90% tumor cure rate at a maximum dose of NPe6 (12.5 mg/kg) and NPe6 dose of more than 2.5 mg/kg was necessary to obtain 90% cure rate at high laser energy of 200 J/cm2.

  5. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  6. X-ray backlight measurement of preformed plasma by kJ-class petawatt LFEX laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Shinji; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nagatomo, Hideo; Matsuo, Satoshi; Morio, Noboru; Kawanaka, Jyunji; Nakata, Yoshiki; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Sunahara, Atsushi; Johzaki, Tomoyuki

    2012-09-15

    Foot and pedestal pulses that precede the main pulse from a high-intensity laser greatly affect laser-plasma interactions. Especially in fast ignition schemes, preceding pulses generate a plasma prior to irradiation by the main pulse. This results in a too energetic and divergent electron beam being generated in the preformed plasma, which reduces the energy coupling efficiency from the heating laser to the dense fuel core. A preformed plasma with a density scale length of 40-60 {mu}m was observed by a time- and space-resolved x-ray backlight technique using the LFEX laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. Preceding pulses (i.e., the foot and pedestal) of the LFEX were characterized by comparing observations with calculations results obtained using a two-dimension (2D) radiation-hydrodynamic simulation code. In a separate experiment, the 2D code was benchmarked with the experimentally observed hydrodynamic behavior of a gold plasma produced by a nanosecond laser pulse that mimicked foot and pedestal pulses (intensity: 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2}). The preceding pulses were estimated to have an intensity of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, a duration of 2.0 ns, and a spot diameter at the target of 200-600 {mu}m by comparing the measured hydrodynamics of the preformed plasma with that calculated by the 2D hydrodynamic simulation code.

  7. Deaths from heat-stroke in Japan: 1968-1994.

    PubMed

    Nakai, S; Itoh, T; Morimoto, T

    1999-11-01

    Global warming is increasingly recognized as a threat to the survival of human beings, because it could cause a serious increase in the occurrence of diseases due to environmental heat during intermittent hot weather. To assess the direct impact of extremely hot weather on human health, we investigated heat-related deaths in Japan from 1968 through 1994, analyzing the data to determine the distribution of the deaths by age and their correlation to the incidence of hot days in summer. Vital Statistics of Japan, published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, was the source of the heat-related mortality data employed in this study. Meteorological data were obtained from the District Meteorological Observatories in Tokyo and Osaka, the two largest cities in Japan. Heat-related deaths were most prone to occur on days with a peak daily temperature above 38 degrees C, and the incidence of these deaths showed an exponential dependence on the number of hot days. Thus, even a small rise in atmospheric temperature may lead to a considerable increase in heat-related mortality, indicating the importance of combating global warming. Furthermore, half (50.1%) of the above-noted deaths occurred in children (4 years and under) and the elderly (70 years and over) irrespective of gender, indicating the vulnerability of these specific age groups to heat. Since a warmer climate is predicted in the future, the incidence of heat waves will increase, and more comprehensive measures, both medical and social, should be adopted for children of 4 years and younger the elderly to prevent heat-related deaths in these age groups.

  8. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2011-01-01

    23 countries, with about 40 percent of participants attending from overseas (see figure). The program involved 4 plenary talks (45 minutes each), 37 invited talks (30 minutes), 85 contributed talks (15 minutes), and 352 posters. Pie chart Organizing Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chairman K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Program Committee H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, Chair of the Publication Committee M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Treasury Committee M TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan, General Secretary H AkinagaAIST, Japan H FukunagaNagasaki Univ., Japan K HonoNIMS, Japan S IshioAkita Univ., Japan S IwataNagoya Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., Japan S NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan T OnoKyoto Univ., Japan Y SuzukiOsaka Univ., Japan M TanakaEhime Univ., Japan T Tanaka Univ. of Tokyo, Japan Program Committee of ISAMMA 2010 K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS MizukamiTohoku Univ., Japan M MizuguchiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH NaganumaTohoku Univ., Japan M DoiTohoku Univ., JapanS NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan A FujitaTohoku Univ., JapanK NakamuraTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanK OnoKEK, Japan T KatoNagoya Univ., JapanT OnoKyoto Univ., Japan T KawagoeOsaka Pref. Univ.of Edu., JapanF SatoTohoku Univ., Japan O KitakamiTohoku Univ., JapanM ShiraiTohoku Univ., Japan Y KitamotoTokyo Inst. of Tech., JapanS SugimotoTohoku Univ., Japan F MatsukuraTohoku Univ., JapanM YamaguchiTohoku Univ., Japan C MitsumataHitachi Metals, Japan Publication Committee of ISAMMA 2010 H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, ChairS MitaniNIMS, Japan S YoshimuraAkita Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH MuraokaTohoku, Japan Y AndoTohoku Univ., JapanM NakanoNagasaki Univ., Japan J AriakeAIT, JapanR NakataniOsaka Univ., Japan H AsanoNagoya Univ., JapanK O'GradyUniv. of York, UK M FutamotoChuo Univ., JapanA SakumaTohoku Univ., Japan J HayakawaHitachi, ARL, JapanT SatoKeio Univ., Japan T HondaKyushu Inst. of Tech., JapanT SatoShinshu Univ., Japan M

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. The conference owes its success to the large number of devoted workers for the cause, which includes the organising and programme committees and a considerable number of workers on the ground who contributed to the smooth running of the meeting. The conference received major sponsorship from CamCool Research Limited, the International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, from the European Science Foundation through the program INTELBIOMAT, and the Cambridge Central Asia Forum. On behalf of Conference Chairs: P B Littlewood and G G Lonzarich Secretary: S Saxena Treasurer: M Sutherland Local Organising Committee Chair: S E Sebastian Programme Committee Chairs: E Artacho, F M Grosche, Z Hadzibabic (The PDF file also contains photographs from the conference.) Programme Committee E. Artacho, Cambridge (chair)D. Cox, DavisM. Norman, Argonne M. Grosche, Cambridge (chair)H. Ding, IOP, ChinaY. Onuki, Osaka Z. Hadzibabic, Cambridge (chair)M. Ellerby, LondonC. Panagopoulos, Singapore H. Alloul, Paris Z. Fisk, IrvineS. Ramakrishnan, Mumbai E. Baggio-Saitovich, Rio Di JaneiroJ. Flouquet, GrenobleA. Ramirez, Santa Cruz E. Bauer, ViennaA. Galatanu, RomaniaF. Rivadulla, Compostela N. Berloff, CambridgeP. Gegenwart, GottingenS. E. Sebastian, Cambridge D. Bonn, VancouverL. Greene, UrbanaV. Sechovsky, Prague J. van den Brink, DresdenH. Hwang, TokyoS. Simon, Oxford R. Budhani, DelhiA. P. Mackenzie, St.AndrewsD. Snoke

  10. Helium Isotopic Ratios of Core Samples from IODP Exp. 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Matsuda, J.; Wiersberg, T.; Shimo, Y.; Tamura, H.; Kumagai, H.; Suzuki, K.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D.; Takahashi, K.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Exp.319 of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Drilling Program Stage 2 started at May 2009. Various advanced technologies including first riser-based scientific ocean drilling were carried out at this cruise. The Hole C0009A (Site C0009/ Hole A) recovered cutting and partly core samples from 703.9-1604 mbsf by riser-drilling. The core samples were collected between the depth of 1510.5 and 1593.9 mbsf. Here we report preliminary helium isotopic ratios of these cores. We collected three types of samples for our study: (1) gas of cores, (2) whole round cores (100 cc) and (3) small whole round cores (10 cc). The gas samples were taken immediately after the core recovery. The gas samples were collected from each core section by using a syringe, and it was transferred to the glass bottle using the water displacement method. The glass bottle was made by Pyrex glass with vacuum valve at each end. We collected two sizes of whole round core samples (100 cc and 10 cc) The 100 cc cores were collected from the bottom and top sections of coring. The 10 cc cores were taken from the other sections. The outer parts of these samples were carefully removed to avoid contaminations from drilling fluid. After the removal of contamination, we immediately stored the 100 cc samples into vacuum container and 10 cc samples into plastic bag under a dry condition, respectively. The gas samples were measured for helium isotopic ratios. The noble gas measurement was carried out at Osaka University by using VG5400 mass spectrometer. We measured helium isotopic ratio and 4He/20Ne ratio. The latter is useful for making correction of the air contamination. The obtained result of helium isotopic ratios shows that the radiogenic helium is prominent in all samples. In addition, the helium isotope ratios show a trend that the ratio at shallower part is slightly higher than that at deeper part. It is conceivable that this trend is due to the larger radiogenic ingrowths at the deeper part. However, the

  11. FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter Brewer; Dr. James Barry

    2002-09-30

    We have continued to carry out creative small-scale experiments in the deep ocean to investigate the science underlying questions of possible future large-scale deep-ocean CO{sub 2} sequestration as a means of ameliorating greenhouse gas growth rates in the atmosphere. This project is closely linked to additional research funded by the DoE Office of Science, and to support from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The listing of project achievements here over the past year reflects these combined resources. Within the last project year we have: (1) Published a significant workshop report (58 pages) entitled ''Direct Ocean Sequestration Expert's Workshop'', based upon a meeting held at MBARI in 2001. The report is available both in hard copy, and on the NETL web site. (2) Carried out three major, deep ocean, (3600m) cruises to examine the physical chemistry, and biological consequences, of several liter quantities released on the ocean floor. (3) Carried out two successful short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Izuo Aya and colleagues (NMRI, Osaka, Japan) to examine the fate of cold (-55 C) CO{sub 2} released at relatively shallow ocean depth. (4) Carried out two short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Costas Tsouris, ORNL, to field test an injection nozzle designed to transform liquid CO{sub 2} into a hydrate slurry at {approx}1000m depth. (5) In collaboration with Prof. Jill Pasteris (Washington University) we have successfully accomplished the first field test of a deep ocean laser Raman spectrometer for probing in situ the physical chemistry of the CO{sub 2} system. (6) Submitted the first major paper on biological impacts as determined from our field studies. (7) Submitted a paper on our measurements of the fate of a rising stream of liquid CO{sub 2} droplets to Environmental Science & Technology. (8) Have had accepted for publication in Eos the first brief account of the laser Raman spectrometer success. (9) Have had two papers submitted for the

  12. The effect of the cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 on trabecular and cortical bone in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the OCEAN study.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Klaus; Nagase, Shinichi; Fuerst, Thomas; Small, Maria; Kuwayama, Tomohiro; Deacon, Stephen; Eastell, Richard; Genant, Harry K

    2014-03-01

    ONO-5334 (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) inhibits cathepsin K and has been shown to increase areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) allows the study of the cortical and trabecular bone separately and provides structural information such as cortical thickness. We investigated the impact of 2 years of cathepsin K inhibition on these different bone compartments with ONO-5334. The clinical study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo, and active controlled parallel group study conducted in 13 centers in six European countries. The original study period of 12 months was extended by another 12 months. A total of 147 subjects (age 55-75 years) of the QCT substudy who participated in the extension period were included. Subjects had been randomized into one of five treatment arms: placebo; ONO-5334 50 mg twice per day (BID); ONO-5334 100 mg once daily (QD); ONO-5334 300 mg QD; or alendronate 70 mg once weekly (QW). QCT was obtained to evaluate bone structure at the lumbar spine and proximal femur. After 24 months ONO-5334 showed statistically significant increases versus placebo for integral, trabecular, and cortical BMD at the spine and the hip (for ONO-5334 300 mg QD, BMD increases were 10.5%, 7.1%, and 13.4% for integral, cortical, and trabecular BMD at the spine, respectively, and 6.2%, 3.4%, and 14.6% for integral, cortical, and trabecular total femur BMD, respectively). Changes in cortical and trabecular BMD in the spine and hip were similar for alendronate as for ONO-5334. Integral volume did not demonstrate statistically significant changes under ONO-5334 treatment, thus there was no evidence of periosteal apposition, neither at the spine nor at the femur. Cortical thickness changes were not statistically significant for ONO-5334 in the spine and hip, with exception of a 2.1% increase after month 24 in the intertrochanter for ONO-5334 300 mg QD. Over 2

  13. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  14. Irradiation damage in multicomponent equimolar alloys and high entropy alloys (HEAs).

    PubMed

    Nagase, Takeshi; Rack, Philip D; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To maintain sustainable energy supply and improve the safety and efficiency of nuclear reactors, development of new and advanced nuclear materials with superior resistance to irradiation damage is necessary. Recently, a new generation of structural materials, termed as multicomponent equimolar alloys and/or high entropy alloys (HEAs), are being developed. These alloys consist of multicomponent elements for maximizing the compositional entropy, which stabilizes the solid solution phase. In this paper, preliminary studies on the irradiation damage in equimolar alloys and HEAs by High Voltage Electron Microscopy (HVEM) are reported [1-4]. (1) ZrHfNb equimolar alloys [1, 2]A multicomponent ZrHfNb alloy was prepared by a co-sputtering process using elemental Zr, Hf, and Nb targets using an AJA International ATC 2000-V system. A single-phase bcc solid solution was obtained in the ZrHfNb alloy with an approximately equiatomic ratio of its constituent elements. The irradiation-induced structural change in the ZrHfNb equimolar alloys with the bcc solid solution structure was investigated by HVEM using the Hitachi H-3000 installed at Osaka University. The polycrystalline bcc phase shows high phase stability against irradiation damage at 298 K; the bcc solid solution phase, whose grain size was about 20 nm, remained as a main constituent phase even after the severe irradiation damage that reached 10 dpa. (2) CoCrCuFeNi HEAs [3]A single-phase fcc solid solution was obtained in a CoCrCuFeNi alloy. The microstructure of the alloy depended on the preparation technique: a nanocrystalline CoCrCuFeNi alloy with an approximately equiatomic ratio of its constituent elements was obtained by a co-sputtering process with multi-targets, while polycrystalline structures were formed when the arc-melting method was used. Both nanocrystalline and polycrystalline structures showed high phase stability against fast electron irradiation at temperatures ranging from 298 K to 973 K; a fcc

  15. Oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives.

  16. Use of Color Doppler Ultrasonography to Measure Thyroid Blood Flow and Differentiate Graves' Disease from Painless Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Tsujimoto, Naoyuki; Tanimoto, Keiji; Terasaki, Jungo; Amino, Nobuyuki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) has not yet been established as a method to investigate the pathogenesis of thyrotoxicosis. Objectives Our first objective was to determine whether the measurement of peak systolic blood-flow velocity in the superior thyroid artery (STV) and thyroid tissue blood flow (TBF) using CDU could differentiate Graves' disease (GD) from painless thyroiditis (PT). The second objective was to examine the factors mediating increased blood flow to the thyroid gland in GD. Methods Recruited patients had untreated GD or PT and visited the Department of Internal Medicine (I), Osaka Medical College, between April 1, 2006 and May 31, 2010. Age, gender, blood pressure, pulse rate, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine, TSH receptor antibody and thyroid volume were evaluated in patients. In addition, bilateral measurements of STV, TBF and peak systolic velocity in the common carotid artery (CCV) were also performed. TBF was quantified by calculating the ratio of blood-flow pixels to total pixels in the region of interest using sagittal section images of the thyroid gland. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the ability of STV and TBF measurements to differentiate GD from PT. Results For the average of STV measured on both sides, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.956. For the average of TBF measured on both sides, the AUC was 0.920. At an average STV cut-off value of 43 cm/s, the sensitivity to discriminate GD from PT was 0.87 and the specificity was 1.00. At an average TBF cut-off value of 3.8%, the sensitivity was 0.71 and the specificity was 1.00. In the GD group, neither blood pressure nor pulse rate correlated with the average STV or TBF. Moreover, there was no correlation between STV and CCV or between TBF and CCV on either side. However, STV was correlated with TBF (right side: R = 0.47; left side: R = 0.52). Conclusions The

  17. New 3D seismicity maps using chromo-stereoscopy with two alternative freewares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Y.

    2011-12-01

    structures rather than the sub-ducting plate boundaries, the amazing effect is somewhat spoiled. Now, we try to render a transparent sphere model to improve it. The future task is to evaluate the three dimensional effect quantitatively. Present version of our maps has some back draws, but their simple and easier-making process is quite suitable for study in class rooms and outreach purpose, not only for geosciences study itself but also for optics study at the secondary levels. The maps described here are now available in our website (http://www.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp/ yossi/).

  18. Mechanical Characteristics of Composite Knitted Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, Takanori Shomura, Yuzo; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Satoshi

    2009-09-15

    We used metal wires and fibers to fabricate a composite knitted stent and then compare the mechanical characteristics of this stent with those of a pure metallic stent of the same construction in order to develop a stent that offers a comparable degree of expandability as metallic stents but can be used for highly curved lesions that cannot be treated using metallic stents. We fabricated two types of composite knitted stent (N-Z stents), using nitinol wire with a diameter of 0.12 mm and polypara-phenylene-benzobisoxazole (PBO) multifilament fiber (Zyron AS; Toyobo, Osaka, Japan). Stents were knitted into a cylindrical shape using the same textile pattern as a Strecker stent. Two loop lengths (L) of nitinol wire were used in the N-Z stents: L = 1.84 mm (N-Z stent L = 1.84) and L = 2.08 mm (N-Z stent L = 2.08). For the sake of comparison, we fabricated a metallic stent of nitinol using the same textile pattern (N-N stent L = 1.92). We applied a radial compression force diametrically to each stent and applied a bending force diametrically at the free end of a stent with one end fixed in order to evaluate the relationship between stent elasticity and load values. In addition, we macroscopically evaluated the generation of kinks when the stent was bent 180{sup o}. The radial compressive force when the stent diameter was reduced by 53% was 6.44 N in the case of N-Z stent L = 1.84, 6.14 N in the case of N-Z stent L = 2.08, and 4.96 N in the case of N-N stent L = 1.92 mm. The composite stent had a radial compressive force higher than that of a metallic stent. The restoring force to longitudinal direction at a 90{sup o} bending angle was 0.005 N for N-Z stent L = 1.84, 0.003 N for N-Z stent L = 2.08, and 0.034 N for N-N stent L = 1.92. The restoring force of the composite stent was significantly lower. Finally, the composite stent generated no definitive kinks at a bending angle of 180{sup o}, regardless of loop length. However, the N-N stent clearly produced kinks, causing

  19. High-energy photoemission studies of oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessen, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures can host novel quantum phases not existing in the bulk of the constituents, with the high-mobility 2D electron system (2DES) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) representing a prominent example. Despite extensive research the origin of the 2DES and its unusual properties - including the supposed coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism - are still a matter of intense debate. Photoelectron spectroscopy, recently extended into the soft (SX-ARPES) and hard (HAXPES) X-ray regime, is a powerful method to provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of these heterostructures and, in particular, of the buried interface. This includes the identification of the orbital character of the 2DES as well as the determination of vital band structure information, such as band alignment, band bending, and even k-resolved band dispersions and Fermi surface topology. Moreover, resonant photoemission at the Ti L-edge reveals the existence of two different species of Ti 3d states, localized and itinerant, which can be distinguished and identified by their different resonance behavior. The role of oxygen vacancies is studied by controlled in-situ oxidation, which allows us to vary the composition from fully stoichiometric to strongly O-deficient. By comparison to free STO surfaces we can thus demonstrate that the metallicity of the heteointerfaces is intrinsic, i . e . it persists even in the absence of O defects. I will discuss our photoemission results on LAO/STO heterostructures in both (100) and (111) orientation as well as on the related system γ-Al2O3/STO(100), which also hosts a 2DES with an even higher mobility. Work in collaboration with J. Mannhart (MPI-FKF, Stuttgart), N. Pryds (TU Denmark), G. Rijnders (U Twente), S. Suga (U Osaka), M. Giorgoi (BESSY, HZB), W. Drube (DESY Photon Science), V.N. Strocov (Swiss Light Source), J. Denlinger (Advanced Light Source, LBNL), and T.-L. Lee (Diamond Light Source). Support by

  20. [Clinical cases of acquired coagulation inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Hino, M; Ota, K; Akahori, M; Hirai, M; Inoue, T; Mugitani, A; Tatsumi, N

    2000-12-01

    The acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are classified into alloantibodies, which appear in association with supplementary treatment for congenital coagulation factor deficiency, and autoantibodies, which are spontaneously produced. We report here 2 cases of acquired factor VIII inhibitor and 1 case of factor V inhibitor. Case 1: A 52-year-old woman noted swelling of the right parotid region in March 1988. Though contrast examination was scheduled, she was admitted for detailed examination due to a markedly prolonged coagulation time. An APTT correction test suggested that decreased factor VIII activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. Since antinuclear antibody and SS-A antibody were positive and infiltration by lymphocytes in the salivary gland acini in a lip biopsy specimen was detected, Sjögren's syndrome was diagnosed. Case 2: A 33-year-old woman had normal delivery of her second child in February 1998. In June 1998, she suffered slight contusion in the left lower limb. The affected site became swollen and painful, making walking difficult. Since both upper limbs became markedly swollen after 1 week, she visited our hospital. Prolonged APTT and a marked decrease in factor VIII activity were observed. Factor VIII inhibitor titer was high at 19 Bethesda units. Case 3: A 64-year-old man had had asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria since the beginning of August 1998 but was placed under observation since no abnormal findings were observed on various imaging tests. However, he was admitted to Osaka City General Medical Center because of vesicular tamponade. Factor V activity was markedly decreased to 1.0%. PT correction test suggested that decreased factor V activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. The underlying disease could not be determined in this case. In patients with acquired coagulation inhibitors, bleeding symptoms are reported to be mild in many cases, and severe bleeding is rare. However, cases of death without severe bleeding or

  1. Report on the 10th International Conference of the Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS 2012).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeul Hong; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Jung Shin; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lim, Ho Yeong; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Kyong Hwa; Cho, Kyung Sam

    2013-04-01

    The 10th International Conference of the Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS 2012) in conjunction with the 38th Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association, was held on June 13 to 15 (3 days) 2012 at COEX Convention and Exhibition Center in Seoul, Korea. ACOS has a 20-year history starting from the first conference in Osaka, Japan, which was chaired by Prof. Tetsuo Taguchi and the ACOS conferences have since been conducted in Asian countries every 2 years. Under the theme of "Work Together to Make a Difference for Cancer Therapy in Asia", the 10th ACOS was prepared to discuss various subjects through a high-quality academic program, exhibition, and social events. The ACOS 2012 Committee was composed of the ACOS Organizing Committee, Honorary Advisors, Local Advisors, and ACOS 2012 Organizing Committee. The comprehensive academic program had a total of 92 sessions (3 Plenary Lectures, 1 Award Lectures, 1 Memorial Lectures, 9 Special Lectures, 15 Symposia, 1 Debate & Summary Sessions, 1 Case Conferences, 19 Educational Lectures, 1 Research & Development Session, 18 Satellite Symposia, 9 Meet the Professors, 14 Oral Presentations) and a total 292 presentations were delivered throughout the entire program. Amongst Free Papers, 462 research papers (110 oral presentations and 352 poster presentations) were selected to be presented. This conference was the largest of all ACOS conferences in its scale with around 1,500 participants from 30 countries. Furthermore, despite strict new financial policies and requirements governing fundraising alongside global economic stagnation, a total of 14 companies participated as sponsors and an additional 35 companies purchased 76 exhibition booths. Lastly, the conference social events provided attendees with a variety of opportunities to experience and enjoy Korea's rich culture and traditions during the Opening Ceremony, Welcome Reception, Invitee Dinner, Banquet, and Closing Ceremony. Overall, ACOS 2012 reinforced and promoted

  2. Long-term commitment of Japanese gas utilities to PAFCs and SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyokazu; Kasahara, Komei

    Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas have been committed to addressing the energy- and environment-related issues of Japan through promotion of natural gas, an energy friendly to the environment. Being aware of the diversifying market needs (e.g. efficient energy utilization, rising demand for electricity, etc.), active efforts have been made in marketing gas-fired air-conditioning and co-generation systems. In this process, a high priority has also been placed on fuel cells, particularly for realizing their market introduction. Since their participation in the TARGET Program in USA in 1972, the two companies have been involved with the field testing and operation of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), whose total capacity has amounted to 12.4 MW. The two companies have played a vital role in promoting and accelerating fuel cell development through the following means: (1) giving incentives to manufacturers through purchase of units and testing, (2) giving feedback on required specifications and technical problems in operation, and (3) verifying and realizing long-term operation utilizing their maintenance techniques. It has been expected that the primary goal of the cumulative operation time of 40 000 h shall be achieved in the near future. Work has also been in progress to develop SOFC. In the joint R&D of a 25-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Westinghouse, the record operation time of 13 000 h has been achieved. Though still twice as much as the average price of competing equipment, the commercialization of PAFCs is close at hand. By utilizing government spending and subsidies for field testing, work will be continued to verify reliability and durability of PAFCs installed at users' sites. These activities have been expected to contribute to realizing economically viable systems and enhance market introduction. The superlative advantages of fuel cells, particularly their environment-friendly qualities, should be best taken advantage of at an appropriate time. In

  3. Development of charge structure in a short live convective cell observed by a 3D lightning mapper and a phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Wu, T.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    Thunderstorm observation has been conducted in Osaka, Japan, with a use of a 3D lightning mapper, called Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm (BOLT), and an X-band phased array radar (PAR). BOLT is a LF sensor network that receives LF emission associated with lightning discharges and locates LF radiation sources in 3D. PAR employs mechanical and electrical scans, respectively, in azimuthal and elevation direction, succeeding in quite high volume scan rate. In this presentation, we focus on lightning activity and charge structure in convective cells that lasted only short time (15 minutes or so). Thunderstorms that consisted of several convective cells developed near the radar site. Precipitation structure of a convective cell in the thunderstorm was clearly observed by PAR. A reflectivity core of the convective cell appeared at an altitude of 6 km at 2245 (JST). After that the core descended and reached the ground at 2256 (JST), resulting in heavy precipitation on surface. The echo top height (30dBZ) increased intermittently between 2245 (JST) and 2253 (JST) and it reached at the altitude of 12 km. The convective cell dissipated at 2300. Many intra-cloud (IC) flashes were initiated within the convective cell. Most IC flashes that were initiated in the convective cell occurred during the time when the echo top height increased, while a few IC flashes were initiated in the convective cell after the cease of the echo top vertical development. These facts indicate that strong updraft at upper levels (about 8 km or higher) plays an important role on thunderstorm electrification for IC flashes. Moreover, initiation altitudes of the IC flashes and the positive charge regions removed by the IC flashes increased, as the echo top height increased. This fact implies that the strong updraft at the upper levels blew up positively-charged ice pellets and negatively-charged graupel, and lifted IC flash initiation altitudes and positive charge regions

  4. Teleradiology mobile internet system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an external storage system by using secret sharing scheme and tokenization for regional medical cooperation, PHR service and information preservation. The use of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets will be accelerated for a PHR service, and the confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of damage and intercept. We verified the transfer rate of the sending and receiving of data to and from the external storage system that connected it with PACS by the Internet this time. External storage systems are the data centers that exist in Okinawa, in Osaka, in Sapporo and in Tokyo by using secret sharing scheme. PACS continuously transmitted 382 CT images to the external data centers. Total capacity of the CT images is about 200MB. The total time that had been required to transmit was about 250 seconds. Because the preservation method to use secret sharing scheme is applied, security is strong. But, it also takes the information transfer time of this system too much. Therefore, DICOM data is masked to the header information part because it is made to anonymity in our method. The DICOM data made anonymous is preserved in the data base in the hospital. Header information including individual information is divided into two or more tallies by secret sharing scheme, and preserved at two or more external data centers. The token to relate the DICOM data anonymity made to header information preserved outside is strictly preserved in the token server. The capacity of header information that contains patient's individual information is only about 2% of the entire DICOM data. This total time that had been required to transmit was about 5 seconds. Other, common solutions that can protect computer communication networks from attacks are classified as cryptographic techniques or authentication techniques. Individual number IC card is connected with electronic certification authority of web medical image conference system. Individual number IC

  5. Analysis of monitoring data of ground-level ozone in Japan for long-term trend during 1990-2010: Causes of temporal and spatial variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Mori, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Kansuke; Nakanishi, Hiroto; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Itano, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    The puzzling increase of annual average mixing ratio of ozone (oxidant) in spite of the decrease of those of the ambient NOx and NMHC was analyzed using the twenty-one years monitoring data during 1990-2010 focusing on four high O3 areas in Japan, Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA), Nagoya Area (NA), Osaka/Kyoto Area (OKA) and Fukuoka Area (FA). During the period, the NOx and NMHC mixing ratios have decreased by 40-50 % and 51-54 %, respectively, in these areas. Nevertheless, the annual averaged increasing trends of O3 by linear regressions during the whole period are all positive, 1.23 ± 0.09, 0.85 ± 0.17, 1.41 ± 0.12 and 1.42 ± 0.17(1σ)% yr-1 for TMA, NA, OKA and FA, respectively. Three causes of long-term trends of O3 have been discussed: (1) the decrease of NO titration effect, (2) the increase of transboundary transport, and (3) the decrease of in situ photochemical production. The total ozone (TO) was defined by [TO] = [O3] + [NO2] - 0.1[NOx] as an index to indicate the net O3 removing the perturbation by in situ NO titration. TO shows statistically significant annual increasing trends, 0.20 ± 0.04 and 0.56 ± 0.08% yr-1 only in OKA and FA, and the increase of TO is not discernible in TMA and NA. In springtime (March-May), TO shows larger increasing rates of 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.59 ± 0.09 and 0.96 ± 0.18% yr-1 for TMA, OKA, and FA. The statistically significant increase of TO at higher rates in spring and western part of Japan suggests the increase of transboundary transport during the period. The reduction of domestic emissions of precursors was found to result the decreasing trend of the high mixing ratio range of 98-percentile most clearly in TMA, but is not enough yet to result in the decrease of annual mean mixing ratio of O3, which is compensated by the increase of transboundary transport and the decrease of the NO titration effect. The similar situation has been reported in Taiwan (Chou et al., 2006), and would apply more or less to other outflow region

  6. PREFACE: Mathematical Aspects of Generalized Entropies and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyari, Hiroki; Ohara, Atsumi; Wada, Tatsuaki

    2010-01-01

    thanks to all the invited speakers, the contributors and the participants at the workshop. We are also grateful to RIMS (Research Institute for Mathematical Science) in Kyoto University and the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 18300003, 2009 for their support. Organizing Committee Editors of the Proceedings Hiroki Suyari (Chiba University, Japan) Atsumi Ohara (Osaka University, Japan) Tatsuaki Wada (Ibaraki University, Japan) Conference photograph

  7. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany František POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Rudolf SCHILLING Technische Universität München Germany Minguan YANG Jiangsu University China Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Kazuhiro TANAKA Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Xuelin TANG Tsinghua University China Yoshinobu TSUJIMOTO Osaka University Japan Fujun WANG China Agriculture University China Guoyu WANG Beijing University of Sci & Tech China Wenwu SONG NULL China Zhengwei WANG Tsinghua University China Hongyuan XU Tsinghua University China Lefu XIAO NULL China Fan YANG Tsinghua University China Yuan ZHENG Hehai University China Zhigang ZUO Tsinghua University China Hongwu ZHU China Petroleum University China Lixiang ZHANG Yunnan University of Sci & Tech China Shengchang ZHANG Zhejiang University of Tech China

  8. PREFACE: Correlated Electrons (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Kazumasa

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of strongly correlated electron systems under multiple-environment. The physics of strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) has attracted much attention since the discovery of superconductivity in CeCu_2 Si_2 by Steglich and his co-workers a quater-century ago. Its interest has been intensified by the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in a series of cuprates with layered perovskite structure which are still under active debate. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter present some aspects of SCES physics on the basis of activities of a late project "Centre-Of-Excellence" supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, Culture and Technology of the Japanese Government). This project has been performed by a condensed matter physics group in the faculties of science and engineering science of Osaka University. Although this project also covers correlated phenomena in optics and nano-scale systems, we focus here on the issues of SCES related to superconductivity, mainly unconventional. The present issue covers the discussions on a new mechanism of superconductivity with electronic origin (critical valence fluctuation mechanism), interplay and unification of magnetism and superconductivity in SCES based on a systematic study of NQR under pressure, varieties of Fermi surface of Ce- and U-based SCES probed by the de Haas-van Alphen effect, electronic states probed by a bulk sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with soft X-ray, pressure induced superconductivity of heavy electron materials, pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature based on a first-principle calculation, and new superconductors under very high-pressure. Some papers offer readers' reviews of the relevant fields and/or include new developments of this intriguing research field of SCES. Altogether, the papers within this issue outline some aspects of electronic states

  9. γ strength function and level density of 208Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassauer, S.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.

    2016-11-01

    Background: γ strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. Purpose: The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 database for the case of 208Pb. The upward GSF and LD in 208Pb are compared to γ decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. Methods: The E 1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. The total LD in 208Pb is derived from the 1- LD extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. Results: The E 1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 database showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known spin-flip M 1 resonance call for a substantial revision of the model suggested in RIPL-3. The total GSF derived from the present data is larger in the PDR energy region than the Oslo data but the strong fluctuations due to the low LD resulting from the double shell closure of 208Pb prevent a conclusion on a possible violation of the BA hypothesis. Using the parameters suggested by RIPL-3 for a description of the LD in 208Pb with the back-shifted Fermi gas model, remarkable agreement between the two experiments spanning a wide excitation energy range is obtained. Conclusions: Systematic parametrizations of the E 1 and M 1 GSF parts need to be reconsidered at low excitation energies. The good agreement of the LD provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    (Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University), CNS (Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo), JICFuS (Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science), and RIKEN (Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). This workshop was supported by Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau and Kanto Gakuin University. It remains to be announced that the next, the fourth in this series of SOTANCP workshops, SOTANCP4, will be held in Galveston, Texas, USA, in 2018.

  11. Effect of cavity preparation techniques and different preheating procedures on microleakage of class V resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Usumez, Aslihan; Ozturk, Bora; Cebe, Mehmet Ata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the extent of microleakage of a single type of composite resin (Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Kuraray, Osaka, Japan) following different preheating procedures in Class V cavities prepared with a diamond bur or Er:YAG (erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. Methods: The study randomly divided 72 permanent molar teeth divided into eight groups (n = 9): G1: Diamond bur–unheated composite resin (room temperature-24 ºC); G2: Diamond bur–composite preheated to 37 ºC; G3: Diamond bur–composite preheated to 54 ºC; G4: Diamond bur–composite preheated to 68 ºC; G5: Er:YAG laser–unheated composite resin (room temperature-24 ºC); G6: Er:YAG laser–composite preheated to 37 ºC; G7: Er:YAG laser–composite preheated to 54 ºC; and G8: Er:YAG laser–composite preheated to 68 ºC. The specimens were subjected to a thermal cycling regimen of 5000 cycles between 5 and 55 ºC; then they were immersed in a solution of 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours. The dyed specimens were sectioned in the buccolingual direction and dye penetration was scored in a blinded manner using a five-point qualitative scale. Microleakage scores were analyzed with the Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the microleakages of composite applied to cavities prepared by either the Er:YAG laser or diamond bur (P>.05). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the enamel and dentin in all restorations (P<.001). However, there were no significant differences among the preheated groups (P>.05). Conclusions: For all groups, microleakage values were higher at gingival margins than at occlusal margins. The use of the Er:YAG laser at different preheating procedures did not influence the marginal sealing in Class V composite resin restorations. PMID:22229012

  12. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  13. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R(2 )= 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R(2 )= 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  14. Experiments on the formation carbonate "cyclic steps" as a model of travertine step-pool morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanishi, Tatsuya; Yokokawa, Miwa; Kim, Wonsuck; Izumi, Norihiro; Parker, Gary

    2014-05-01

    A train of steps similar to those observed on the river bed and the ocean floor are sometimes observed on the limestone surface as well. Those cyclic steps are not formed by the interaction between sediment and flow, but formed by boundary instability between flowing water and a limestone substrate associated with precipitation and solution of limestone due to chemical and biological processes. It is suggested that they correspond to "cyclic steps" or "step-pool" morphology observed at the interface between fluid flow and the transportational and/or erosional substrates, such as sand and gravels and/or bedrock repectively, formed by deposition and erosion at the upper-flow regime in the Froude sense. Although field observations of the limestone step configuration are widely known, there have been very few theoretical and experimental study for the formative condition and mechanism of these carbonate steps with flowing fluid. Here we operated flume experiments on the formation of carbonate steps by the precipitation from the flowing fluid. We used a 1.8 m long, 5 cm deep and 2 cm wide flume made of acrylic boards at Osaka Institute of Technology. To give some roughness at the bottom of the flume we pasted the mixture of the acrylic adhesive and sand, 0.2 mm in diameter. To make the "source water" of the experiments, we immerse limestone pebbles into the distilled water, and add the Carbon dioxide by letting dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide) melt in it aiming to dissolve the limestone. In addition, we add the powder of Calcium hydroxide to the source water. The source water was input from the upstream end of the flume and recircurated into the tank of the source water. The values of pH and electric conductivity and the temperature of the source water were monitored, and dry ice, the powder of the calcium hydroxide and the distilled water were added arbitrary to keep the quality of the source water constant. The running time for each day was about 6-7 hours. From about

  15. Two grave issues concerning the expected Tokai Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, K.

    2004-08-01

    The possibility of a great shallow earthquake (M 8) in the Tokai region, central Honshu, in the near future was pointed out by Mogi in 1969 and by the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction (CCEP), Japan (1970). In 1978, the government enacted the Large-Scale Earthquake Countermeasures Law and began to set up intensified observations in this region for short-term prediction of the expected Tokai earthquake. In this paper, two serious issues are pointed out, which may contribute to catastrophic effects in connection with the Tokai earthquake: 1. The danger of black-and-white predictions: According to the scenario based on the Large-Scale Earthquake Countermeasures Law, if abnormal crustal changes are observed, the Earthquake Assessment Committee (EAC) will determine whether or not there is an imminent danger. The findings are reported to the Prime Minister who decides whether to issue an official warning statement. Administrative policy clearly stipulates the measures to be taken in response to such a warning, and because the law presupposes the ability to predict a large earthquake accurately, there are drastic measures appropriate to the situation. The Tokai region is a densely populated region with high social and economic activity, and it is traversed by several vital transportation arteries. When a warning statement is issued, all transportation is to be halted. The Tokyo capital region would be cut off from the Nagoya and Osaka regions, and there would be a great impact on all of Japan. I (the former chairman of EAC) maintained that in view of the variety and complexity of precursory phenomena, it was inadvisable to attempt a black-and-white judgment as the basis for a "warning statement". I urged that the government adopt a "soft warning" system that acknowledges the uncertainty factor and that countermeasures be designed with that uncertainty in mind. 2. The danger of nuclear power plants in the focal region: Although the possibility of the

  16. Rare Kaon Decays, KEK experiment E391 and E14 at the Japan Physics and Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau Wai

    2012-12-06

    The goal of the J-PARC neutral kaon experiment (E14/KOTO) is to discover and measure the rate of the kaon rare decay to pi-zero and two neutrinos. This flavor changing neutral current decay proceeds through second-order weak interactions. Other, as yet undiscovered particles, which can mediate the decay could provide an enhancement (or depletion) to the branching ratio which in the Standard Model is accurately predicted within a few percent to be 2.8x10-11. The experiment is designed to observe more than 100 events at the Standard Model branching. It is a follow-up of the KEK E391a experiment and has stage-2 approval by J-PARC PAC in 2007. E14/KOTO has collaborators from Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Yamagata, Saga), US (Arizona State, Chicago, Michigan Ann Arbor), Taiwan (National Taiwan), Korea, and Russia (Dubna). The experiment exploits the 300kW 30-50 GeV proton delivery of the J-PARC accelerator with a hermetic high acceptance detector with a fine grained Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystal calorimeter, and state of the art electronic front end and data acquisition system. With the recovery of the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011, E14 is scheduled to start collecting data in December 2012. During the detector construction phase, Chicago focuses on the front end electronics readout of the entire detector system, particularly the CsI calorimeter. The CsI crystals together with its photomultipliers were previously used at the Fermilab KTeV experiment (E832/E799), and were loaned to E14 via this Chicago DOE support. The new readout electronics includes an innovative 10-pole pulse-shaping technique coupled with high speed digitization (14-bit 125MHz and 12-bit 500MHz). This new instrument enables us to measure both energy and timing, particularly with timing resolution better than 100 psec. Besides the cost saving by elimination of the standard time to digital converters, it is now possible to measure the momenta of the final state photons for additional background suppression

  17. CANDLES for the study of ^48Ca double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Izumi

    2009-10-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay (DBD) of ^48Ca by using CaF2 scintillators. The Q-value of ^48Ca, which is the highest (4.27 MeV) among potential DBD nuclei, is far above energies of γ-rays from natural radioactivities (maximum 2.615 MeV from ^208Tl decay), therefore we can naturally expect small backgrounds in the energy region we are interested in. We gave the best lower limit on the half-life of neutrino-less double beta decay of ^48Ca by using CaF2(Eu) detector system, ELEGANT VI though further development is highly desirable to reach the mass region of current interest. We have constructed the prototype detector, CANDLES III in our laboratory (Osaka U.) at sea level and studied the basic performance of the system, including the light collection, position reconstruction and background rejection. We are now moving the detector system to new experimental room (room D) at Kamioka underground laboratory (2700 m.w.e.) to avoid large background originated from cosmic rays. At the same time, we are increasing the total mass of the ^48Ca compared to the one in the prototype detector. 96 (instead of 60 in prototype) CaF2 modules which contains 350 g of ^48Ca are immersed in a liquid scintillator (LS) which acts as an active veto (veto phase). The conversion phase contains wavelength shifter (Bis-MSB) which converts the emission light of CaF2(pure) which has a peak in the UV region to the visible one where the quantum efficiency of the PMTs is high enough (maximum at ˜400 nm) and materials at the optical path have good transparencies. Scintillation lights from both the CaF2 modules and the liquid scintillator in veto phase are viewed by large PMTs (48 x13'' and 14 x17'' tubes). All the detector system described above are contained in a water tank which is 3 m in diameter and 4 m in height. The water tank and a purification system of the LS together with LS storage tanks were installed at room D. The purification system of the LS removes the

  18. Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Wei, X.; Islam, A. F. M. S.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in long-duration space missions for other planets will be highly dependent on amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the space farming system with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and cultivars and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. In this study, we developed a new hydroponic method for producing tuberous roots and fresh edible leaves and stems of sweetpotato. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of water contents in the rooting substrate on growth and tuberous root development of sweetpotato. The rooting substrates made with rockwool slabs were inclined in a culture container and absorbed nutrient solution from the lower end of the slabs by capillary action. Tuberous roots developed on the lower surface of the rockwool slabs. The tuberous roots showed better growth and development at locations farther from the water surface on the rockwool slabs, which had lower water content. In the second experiment, three sweetpotato cultivars were cultured in a hydroponic system for five months from June to November under the sun light in Osaka, Japan as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming system. The cultivars employed were ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’. The hydroponic system mainly consisted of culture containers and rockwool slabs. Dry weights of tuberous roots developed in the aerial space between the rockwool slab and the nutrient solution filled at the bottom of the culture container were 0.34, 0.45 and 0.23 kg/plant and dry weights of the top portion (leaves, petioles and stems) were 0.42, 0.29 and 0.61 kg/plant for ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’, respectively. Young stems and leaves as well as

  19. Application of data assimilation in portable operational forecasting systems—the DATools assimilation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Serafy, Ghada Y.; Gerritsen, Herman; Hummel, Stef; Weerts, Albrecht H.; Mynett, Arthur E.; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2007-10-01

    The first part of the paper describes a portable and flexible data assimilation environment (DATools) for easy application of data assimilation and calibration techniques to models that are used in smaller-scale engineering applications, for example to guide temporary offshore construction works, marine surveying and salvage operations. These applications are characterized by the need for detailed forecasts of often strongly non-linear marine behaviour in shallow-shelf seas under constraints of limited field measurements and absence of large-scale computing facilities. The applications are often prepared, and their results are interpreted by end-user engineers in field offices, not well acquainted with the data assimilation theory. The DATools data assimilation environment has been designed to facilitate such applications. It presently features an ensemble Kalman filter and two particle filters. These can be coupled to any process model in a standardized way through the so-called Published Interface that is used in an increasing number of flood-forecasting applications across Europe. The design of the system and its main modules are discussed, looking at the system from a non-specialist user perspective and focusing on modularity, transparency, user guidance, intuitive and flexible uncertainty prescription. The second part of the paper describes a typical example application of data assimilation in an engineering environment for which the modelling environment has been developed: the daily forecast of current and salinity profiles to guide construction works in Osaka Bay. An ensemble Kalman filter-based steady-state Kalman filter is developed for assimilation of salinity and horizontal currents into an existing three-dimensional flow model for the highly non-linear stratified shallow bay. Calibration results are summarised for both hindcast mode and forecast mode. After assessment of the results, a second, improved model setup is described, including now

  20. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic