Bignold, Wendy; Su, Feng
This paper explores narratives as an effective means of capturing multiple identities of research participants in complex social environments in education research. In doing so, it explores the role of the narrator in two case studies in two modes of narrative inquiry. Both studies present narratives of young people, focusing on multiple…
Facioli, Adriano Machado; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar
This case study is an example of applying narrative medicine as a useful tool for health professionals to manage an existential and complex scenario such as the suicide of a sibling. Some suicides are like baobab trees—these large and resilient trees grow deep roots for many years, only spreading their limbs above ground once they are firmly established. Like the baobab, when suicide or a suicide attempt occurs, suicidal ideations are well cultivated and have often already been repeatedly planted. Consequently, suicide is often difficult to prevent: once the death seed is planted, it is difficult to recreate life. Every year, more than 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide (1.4% of all deaths), which is approximately 1 person every 40 seconds. These unexpected deaths, predominantly occuring among young and middle-aged adults, have a continuing ripple effect and result in a huge economic, social, and psychological burden for individuals, families, communities, and countries. The complexity of suffering and pain experienced by suicidal individuals and their families, regardless of the success or failure of the suicidal act, is intensified by strong stigmas attached to traditional concepts of sin and eternal damnation. This unfortunate reality emerges in the narrative as a tragic family drama, which is permeated by deep feelings of helplessness. But suicide is preventable. Prevention requires 3 important factors: knowledge, public support, and creation of strategies to enact social change. Now is the time to act and make suicide prevention an imperative goal. PMID:26176576
Facioli, Adriano Machado; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; De Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar
This case study is an example of applying narrative medicine as a useful tool for health professionals to manage an existential and complex scenario such as the suicide of a sibling. Some suicides are like baobab trees—these large and resilient trees grow deep roots for many years, only spreading their limbs above ground once they are firmly established. Like the baobab, when suicide or a suicide attempt occurs, suicidal ideations are well cultivated and have often already been repeatedly planted. Consequently, suicide is often difficult to prevent: once the death seed is planted, it is difficult to recreate life. Every year, more than 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide (1.4% of all deaths), which is approximately 1 person every 40 seconds. These unexpected deaths, predominantly occuring among young and middle-aged adults, have a continuing ripple effect and result in a huge economic, social, and psychological burden for individuals, families, communities, and countries. The complexity of suffering and pain experienced by suicidal individuals and their families, regardless of the success or failure of the suicidal act, is intensified by strong stigmas attached to traditional concepts of sin and eternal damnation. This unfortunate reality emerges in the narrative as a tragic family drama, which is permeated by deep feelings of helplessness. But suicide is preventable. Prevention requires 3 important factors: knowledge, public support, and creation of strategies to enact social change. Now is the time to act and make suicide prevention an imperative goal.
GROSSOEHME, DANIEL H.
The response of a clinical chaplain to a case study of chaplaincy with an elderly African-American male with Parkinson’s disease is presented. The case study offers two novel aspects: first, it explicitly describes interventions by the chaplain, and second, the chaplain’s clinical approach was guided throughout by an underlying theory (narrative theory). The case study seeks to shift the paradigm from chaplains as “agenda-less” companions to clinicians with a repertoire of interventions which they should claim. The chaplain’s use of narrative theory is examined. Future case studies may draw on narrative theory in chaplaincy with older males with different chronic disease, with women who have Parkinson’s, and may seek to develop a theory of chaplaincy from within the profession. PMID:23844843
Elliott, Sherman Lee
The purpose of this action research was to examine how a narrative case study in an online asynchronous world religions course affected learners' understandings, appreciation, and respect for the beliefs and values of others. The world religions course examined a variety of religions including Islam. Ten participants received information about the…
Ribeiro, António P; Bento, Tiago; Salgado, João; Stiles, William B; Gonçalves, Miguel M
This study aims to further the understanding of how innovative moments (IMs), which are exceptions to a client's problematic self-narrative in the therapy dialogue, progress to the construction of a new self-narrative, leading to successful psychotherapy. The authors' research strategy involved tracking IMs, and the themes expressed therein (or protonarratives), and analysing the dynamic relation between IMs and protonarratives within and across sessions using state space grids in a good-outcome case of constructivist psychotherapy. The concept of protonarrative helped explain how IMs transform a problematic self-narrative into a new, more flexible, self-narrative. The increased flexibility of the new self-narrative was manifested as an increase in the diversity of IM types and of protonarratives. Results suggest that new self-narratives may develop through the elaboration of protonarratives present in IMs, yielding an organizing framework that is more flexible than the problematic self-narrative.
As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.
Peri, Tuvia; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Garber, Sharon; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Boelen, Paul A.
Background Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR), originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed. Highlights of the article Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) affects approximately ten percent of bereaved people. Narrative Reconstruction (NR), an integrative therapy module originally used for PTSD patients, was adapted for PGD. NR consists
Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.
We present a narrative case study of an urban American Indian male college student who integrated Indigenous and professional therapies during an acute period of stress, loss, and depression. The first published case of an American Indian in an urban context, this article expands on previous clinical cases by focusing on the perspective of the client relative to his own conceptions of help-seeking behaviors. Based on qualitative analysis of five audio-recorded interviews, this case utilizes an innovative methodology to portray four approaches to healing (medication, counseling, bonding, and spirituality), which contribute to holistic well-being. Implications for counseling psychologists include being aware of how some American Indian clients may (a) view professional treatment dynamics through a Native cultural lens (e.g., seeing ideal communication as a “rhythm”); (b) utilize an expanded range of therapeutic agents; (c) resist medication for cultural and spiritual reasons; and (d) refrain from discussing spiritual matters with professionals. PMID:27594708
Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.
Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…
Darhower, Mark Anthony
In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…
Background The development of Herceptin® is welcomed as a major advance in breast cancer treatment, while Myriad's development of BRACAnalysis® is a widely used diagnostic. However useful and successful this product is, its presence in the public eye is tainted by predominantly negative press about gene patenting and business practices. Discussion While retrospection invites a sharp contrast between Genentech's triumphal narrative of scientific achievement and Myriad's public image as a controversial monopolist, a comparative history of these companies' products reveals two striking consistencies: patents and public discontent. Despite these similarities, time has reduced the narrative to that of hero versus villain: Genentech is lauded - at least for the final outcome of the Herceptin® story - as a corporate good citizen, Myriad as a ruthless mercenary. Since patents undergird both products yet the narratives are so different, the stories raise the question: why have patents taken the fall as the scapegoat in current biotechnology policy debate? Summary A widely publicized lawsuit and accompanying bad press have cast Myriad as a villain in the evolving narrative of biotechnology. While the lawsuit suggests that this villainy is attributable to Myriad's intellectual property, we suggest through a comparative case study that, at least in the Myriad case, it is not simply about the patents but also other business strategies the company chose to pursue. Patents were a necessary but not sufficient cause of controversy. PMID:23369278
Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; de Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros
This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother’s and newborn’s perspective. The student’s introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient’s value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student’s interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271
Kenderes, Amanda M.
In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…
Harding, David J.; Dobson, Cheyney C.; Wyse, Jessica J. B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities. Particularly for marginalized groups, the potential incompatibility of personal narratives with daily experiences raises questions about the capacity of narratives to influence behavior and decision-making. In this study we draw on prospective longitudinal data on the reentry narratives and narrative identities of former prisoners to understand how narratives do and not change when confronted with contradictory experiences and structural constraints. We identify and describe the processes generating narrative change and stability among our subjects. These findings inform a framework for studying narrative change and stability based on four factors: the content of the narrative itself, the structural circumstances experienced by the individual, the institutional contexts in which the individual is embedded, and the social networks in which the individual is embedded. PMID:28316785
Harding, David J; Dobson, Cheyney C; Wyse, Jessica J B; Morenoff, Jeffrey D
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities. Particularly for marginalized groups, the potential incompatibility of personal narratives with daily experiences raises questions about the capacity of narratives to influence behavior and decision-making. In this study we draw on prospective longitudinal data on the reentry narratives and narrative identities of former prisoners to understand how narratives do and not change when confronted with contradictory experiences and structural constraints. We identify and describe the processes generating narrative change and stability among our subjects. These findings inform a framework for studying narrative change and stability based on four factors: the content of the narrative itself, the structural circumstances experienced by the individual, the institutional contexts in which the individual is embedded, and the social networks in which the individual is embedded.
A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.
Bizzocchi, Jim; Tanenbaum, Joshua
Digital games have matured substantially as a narrative medium in the last decade. However, there is still much work to be done to more fully understand the poetics of story-based-games. Game narrative remains an important issue with significant cultural, economic and scholarly implications. In this article, we undertake a critical analysis of the…
This paper investigates how the narratives Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators (SENCOs) tell can be framed as social, discursive practices and performances of identity by analysing accounts offered in focus groups and life history interviews. I explore how the narratives deployed demonstrate an engagement with a rhetoric about who works in…
Graves, Janessa M.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Hagel, Brent E.; Rivara, Frederick P.
Introduction Free-text fields in injury surveillance databases can provide detailed information beyond routinely coded data. Additional data, such as exposures and covariates can be identified from narrative text and used to conduct case-control studies. Methods To illustrate this, we developed a text-search algorithm to identify helmet status (worn, not worn, use unknown) in the U.S. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) narratives for bicycling and other sports injuries from 2005 to 2011. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for head injury associated with helmet use, with non-head injuries representing controls. For bicycling, we validated ORs against published estimates. ORs were calculated for other sports and we examined factors associated with helmet reporting. Results Of 105,614 bicycling injury narratives reviewed, 14.1% contained sufficient helmet information for use in the case-control study. The adjusted ORs for head injuries associated with helmet-wearing were smaller than, but directionally consistent, with previously published estimates (e.g., 1999 Cochrane Review). ORs illustrated a protective effect of helmets for other sports as well (less than 1). Conclusions This exploratory analysis illustrates the potential utility of relatively simple text-search algorithms to identify additional variables in surveillance data. Limitations of this study include possible selection bias and the inability to identify individuals with multiple injuries. A similar approach can be applied to study other injuries, conditions, risks, or protective factors. This approach may serve as an efficient method to extend the utility of injury surveillance data to conduct epidemiological research. PMID:25498331
Lehrner, Amy; Allen, Nicole E
Social movement theorists have emphasized the important role of meaning-making for social change movements (e.g., D. A. Snow and R. D. Benford, 1992, In: A. D. Morris & C. M. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 133-155; C. M. Mueller, 1992, In: A. D. Morris & C. M. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 3-26). Using the domestic violence movement as a case study, this study undertakes a close analysis of advocates' narratives about the phenomenon of domestic violence. This analysis sheds light on the current status of the movement as a social change movement attempting to promote alternative understandings of domestic violence as a social, rather than individual, problem. Study findings provide some evidence that the domestic violence movement has become increasingly de-politicized by documenting a range of narratives that convey an apolitical, degendered, individual-level analysis of domestic violence.
Although there are many alternative schools that strive for the successful education of their students, negative images of alternative schools persist. While some alternative schools are viewed as "idealistic havens", many are viewed as "dumping grounds" or "juvenile detention centers". Employing narrative inquiry,…
Rashid, Md. M.; Rahaman, H.
This study embarked upon a premise that considers architecture of building as a dynamic phenomenon. A building from its conception is susceptible to change due to various reasons. An historical building that is several hundred years old must have undergone through changes due to political, social, religious and most importantly functional reasons. Hence capturing building and its dynamic evolution is necessary to appreciate its architecture as well as its heritage value. Whereas the conventional method of fact based historiography only captures the building in particular moment. It makes architectural historians to become perplexed over to which particular moment to be documented. It is a great challenge for the architectural historians to bring back these dynamic characters of the building that are mostly inconspicuous in nature from this point of time. In this situation the historical discourse also remains elusive and blurred. The idea of 4d capturing comes in front in this scenario. Current research would venture into this emerging idea to record the architecture of the early period. This paper highlights the need for a flexible tool to capture this dynamic character of the building. By citing the case study of the 7th century Buddhist Monastery in Bengal, this paper thus argues for the need of capturing the narrative of a historical building than the facts to get a complete picture of its architecture. This study aims at capturing the narrative of Sompur Mahavihara, the UNESCO World Heritage site in Bangladesh, which is currently in ruinous condition. However, it's few hundred years life suggests that as architecture it was subject to change due to different reasons, mainly political, religious and rituals. Being a monument that belongs to the flourishing phase of a society, traditionally this monastery architecture certainly played a role as a stage for religious and political pageantry as well as different religious performances. As architecture it works as
Laver, Shaorn; Croxon, Lyn
Engaging nursing students in the complexities of care across community, acute, rehabilitation and residential aged care settings is challenging. Equally challenging is conceptualising and promoting diverse and comprehensive health assessments across care settings that reflect clinical reality, inform clinical decision making, traverse theory and practice, and transform clinical practice knowledge. This article describes the use of narrative and evolving case study as a teaching-learning tool utilised by the authors in a third year undergraduate gerontic nursing subject in a pre-service nursing degree at a rural university. Principles of transformative learning and strengths based nursing were drawn upon in the development of the case study. The aim of the approach was to draw on embedded knowledge and the experiences of students and academics from assorted practice settings to facilitate understanding of the lived experiences of an older community dwelling couple. Using social learning strategies students were encouraged to analyse and think critically and creatively about the situations they were presented with. They identified possible solutions that would be acceptable to the couple. Building on the older couple's strengths, achievements and personal social capital, the aim was to develop a positive paradigm for health and the way older people are viewed by nursing students.
Schwartz, Michael A
Michael Schwartz, a lawyer deaf since birth, describes his journey as a professional for the last 32 years since his graduation from NYU School of Law in 1981. He offers a case study of his experiences with accommodations on the job as required by federal and state law. The study includes specific examples of what worked and what did not work for a deaf lawyer like him working at his craft. Schwartz wraps up with the lessons he learned over the last three decades as we moved from the model of non-compliance to that of compliance, even beyond compliance, with the mandates of law in the employment context.
Madsen, William C
Across North America, community agencies and state/provincial jurisdictions are embracing family-centered approaches to service delivery that are grounded in strength-based, culturally responsive, accountable partnerships with families. This article details a collaborative consultation process to initiate and sustain organizational change toward this effort. It draws on innovative ideas from narrative theory, organizational development, and implementation science to highlight a three component approach. This approach includes the use of appreciative inquiry focus groups to elicit existing best practices, the provision of clinical training, and ongoing coaching with practice leaders to build on those better moments and develop concrete practice frameworks, and leadership coaching and organizational consultation to develop organizational structures that institutionalize family-centered practice. While the article uses a principle-based practice framework, Collaborative Helping, to illustrate this process, the approach is applicable with a variety of clinical frameworks grounded in family-centered values and principles.
The philosophical background of the subject history in secondary education has been mainly addressed through research based on "obvious" source types (curricula, discussions in committees or journals, ...). This article proposes a narrative method of analysing history textbooks in order to study the underlining historical philosophy of…
Anderson, Carly-Ann Marie
This thesis uses McFadden, Wyoming, and the Rock Creek Valley to discuss Wyoming's changing energy landscapes and argues that a cultural landscape approach to documenting our historic and cultural resources can contribute to properly siting energy developments. Though Wyoming stands to gain from the construction of wind farms, they should be carefully sited in order to balance environmental and cultural resource preservation with energy needs. Wyoming has a long history as an energy hinterland and provides a significant portion of energy to the U.S. However, the nation's demand for energy should not take precedence over preserving the cultural resources and vast open landscapes that represent Wyoming's heritage. A history of the Rock Creek Valley as a home to Native Americans, a transportation corridor, oil field, and wind farm site is presented along with a discussion of energy consumption and Wyoming's role in the energy market. The thesis also considers the importance of education, public discourse, and narrative as tools for planning a sustainable future with regard to energy, the environment, and cultural resources.
Jackson, Debra; Peters, Kath; Murphy, Gillian
A narrative case study approach was used to collect a storied account from Joseph about his recollections and experience of the completed suicide of a family member with whom he lived with at 13 years of age. Data are presented longitudinally to capture Joseph's perceptions and recollections of events leading up to, surrounding and following the suicide. Findings reveal that, as a child Joseph felt strong responsibility to keep his uncle safe and maintain his uncle's life; and perceived a lack of support for himself and his family throughout the events. Today as a young man, Joseph remains profoundly affected by this suicide and the events surrounding it, and experiences flashbacks and intrusive thoughts, though his distress remains largely invisible to others. It is important that the acute and longer term needs of children affected by suicidality and suicide are recognised. We argue that increased awareness on the part of health professionals about the ongoing grief and distress surrounding suicide survivorship can create opportunities for opportunistic assessment and review of child survivor welfare.
Becker, Karin L.; Renger, Ralph
Reflective case narratives are a practical mechanism for conveying lessons learned for practice improvement. Their ability to transform experience into knowledge in a colloquial, narrative style positions reflective case narratives as a powerful learning tool with pedagogical benefits for the evaluation community. However, one criticism of…
Cole, Courtney E
Narrative approaches to health communication research have often been characterized by assumptions of the therapeutic and ameliorative effect of narratives. In this article, I call these assumptions into question by critically engaging extant research in narrative health communication research in light of testimony by a participant in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Drawing on his personal narrative, numerous retellings of his story in public and academic discourse, and his responses to his story's appropriation, I demonstrate the importance of conducting narrative research and theorizing with an appreciation of its therapeutic potential, as well as its ability to harm.
Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett
Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.
Asad, Areej Nimer; Hand, Linda; Fairgray, Liz; Purdy, Suzanne Carolyn
The primary objectives of this research were to establish whether dynamic assessment could be implemented in children with hearing loss with a range of language abilities and to obtain pilot data to support the use of dynamic assessment for determining narrative language learning difficulties in children with hearing loss. Participants were three…
Kingston, Helen Chen
Research indicates that oral narrative is the discourse form that functions as a bridge between conversational oral language and language skills that contribute to the acquisition of literacy in children (Westby, 1991). Learning to tell stories, therefore, is important to children's literacy development. Mastering extended discourse tasks such as…
Arias, Carlos Augusto
The adoption of the English language paradigm and the subsequent implementation of bilingual policies worldwide are generating new linguistic hierarchies. These have an effect on the linguistic diversity at the sub-national level and on individuals' linguistic human rights. This article reports the results of a case study on an individual's…
Taura, Hideyuki; Taura, Amanda
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…
Powell, Natalie Lynne
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the attitudes of parents of young children with autism towards the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Program's (TEACCH) conceptual model, known as the Culture of Autism. One primary research question guided the study: What are the attitudes of…
Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca
There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes.
Purpose This case study explores the lived experiences of an elite female Paralympic powerlifting athlete. The focus is on restrictions and coping responses employed to manage the daily hassles within the cultural and ethnic requirements for achieving athletic excellence. Methods With an unstructured interview, the narrative was acquired which ranged to a total of 75 minutes (approx) and 20 single spaced pages. The data was analyzed using Foucauldian discourse analysis in conjuncture to feminist poststructuralist theory. Results The results highlight the issues relating to femininity, culture and ethnicity with regard to athletic career. The analysis elicits extracts from the narrative to describe the coping functions reflecting proactive coping, anticipatory coping, and preventative coping. Conclusions The narrative draws attention to the socio-cultural restrictions and coping functions that the athlete adopted to overcome the barriers of femininity, culture, ethnicity requirements and athleticism. PMID:22943000
Osatuke, Katerine; Reid, Mary; Stiles, William B; Kasckow, John W; Zisook, Sidney; Mohamed, Somaia
This case study applied the assimilation model to examine the changing narrative of an outpatient with schizophrenia and symptoms of depression across a successful pharmacotherapy. The assimilation model describes how clients assimilate painful, problematic experiences. Therapeutic progress is understood to reflect increasing assimilation, measured by the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES). The authors used a 15-min semistructured interview (Problematic Experiences Questionnaire) to elicit narrative descriptions of the patient's problems and coping across five interviews throughout his 12-week treatment. They describe how the patient's narrative and APES ratings of his main problems by two clinicians changed in concert through treatment, explain these developments using assimilation concepts, and interpret the results in relation to assimilation and insight in schizophrenia.
Riley, Therese; Hawe, Penelope
Research interest in the analysis of stories has increased as researchers in many disciplines endeavor to see the world through the eyes of others. We make the methodological case for narrative inquiry as a unique means to get inside the world of health promotion practice. We demonstrate how this form of inquiry may reveal what practitioners value most in and through their practice, and the indigenous theory or the cause-and-consequence thinking that governs their actions. Our examples draw on a unique data set, i.e. 2 two years' of diaries being kept by community development officers in eight communities engaged in a primary care and community development intervention to reduce postnatal depression and promote the physical health of recent mothers. Narrative inquiry examines the way a story is told by considering the positioning of the actor/storyteller, the endpoints, the supporting cast, the sequencing and the tension created by the revelation of some events, in preference to others. Narrative methods may provide special insights into the complexity of community intervention implementation over and above more familiar research methods.
Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura
The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…
Eick, Charles J.
A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.
Arellano, Elvira L.; Barcenal, Tessie L.; Bilbao, Purita P.; Castellano, Merilin A.; Nichols, Sharon E.; Tippins, Deborah J.
This study features use of case-based pedagogy as a context for exploring science teacher education reform. A central premise of the study is that science teacher education reform is a complex process characterised by the individual and collective narrative histories of teachers. The study was conducted at West Visayas State University in the Philippines as a collaborative research endeavour involving two US and four Filipino science teacher educators. The centrepiece of this study was a case experience prompted by reflection on prospective and practicing elementary teachers' written cases. Results of the study are presented here as a layered narrative. An initial layer explores how a case, written by a prospective teacher, was interwoven with her past and future life history. A second layer looks at sociocultural and professional tensions that mediated the participants' case experience. A third layer represents how the case experience provided a community that supported critical reflection among the research team members. Implications from the study emphasise that case-based pedagogy can serve as a basis for critical reflection to inform community-based approaches to science teacher education pedagogical and research reform.
Séroussi, Brigitte; Falcoff, Hector; Ertel-Pau, Valérie; Raimond, Véronique; Bouaud, Jacques
Recently, National agencies in charge of the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have started to improve the usual narrative CPGs to provide guidance for different clinical pathways. In France, in conjunction with the development of the type 2 diabetes National CPGs, we have developed the system RecosDoc-Diabète which allows to interactively build a patient-centred pathway and get the appropriate recommendations. National narrative CPGs and RecosDoc-Diabète were published and made available online at the same time (February 2013). A questionnaire was provided to collect visitors' judgement about the system. Between February 12th and December 31st, 2013, 55,203 visitors accessed the narrative CPGs whereas 10,565 accessed the system. Among them, 186 (2%) responded to the questionnaire. One third of the comments were criticisms towards the CPG content. The system was globally positively evaluated although assessments were mixed illustrating that users' needs may be contradictory.
Angus, Lynne E; Kagan, Fern
Personality researchers use the term self-narrative to refer to the development of an overall life story that places life events in a temporal sequence and organizes them in accordance to overarching themes. In turn, it is often the case that clients seek out psychotherapy when they can no longer make sense of their life experiences, as a coherent story. Angus and Greenberg (L. Angus and L. Greenberg, 2011, Working with narrative in emotion-focused therapy: Changing stories, healing lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press) view the articulation and consolidation of an emotionally integrated self-narrative account as an important part of the therapeutic change process that is essential for sustained change in emotion-focused therapy of depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate client experiences of change, and self-narrative reconstruction, in the context of one good outcome emotion-focused therapy dyad drawn from the York II Depression Study. Using the Narrative Assessment Interview (NAI) method, client view of self and experiences of change were assessed at three points in time--after session one, at therapy termination, and at 6 months follow-up. Findings emerging from an intensive narrative theme analyses of the NAI transcripts--and 1 key therapy session identified by the client--are reported and evidence for the contributions of narrative and emotion processes to self-narrative change in emotion-focused therapy of depression are discussed. Finally, the implications of assessing clients' experiences of self-narrative change for psychotherapy research and practice are addressed.
Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula
Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779
Andrews, Jennifer; Clark, David
Using a case example, provides an overview of postmodern therapies in family counseling. Focuses on solution-focused therapy and narrative therapy; presents an example of a solution-focused interview and a narrative interview. Emphasizes that different views lead to different therapeutic goals and practices. (RJM)
Mitchell, Rebecca; Finch, Caroline; Boufous, Soufiane; Browne, Gary
Narrative text can be a useful means of identifying injury in routine data collections. An analysis of data from a near real-time emergency department surveillance system (NREDSS) in New South Wales (NSW, Australia) was conducted to determine if sports injuries can be identified from routine narrative text recorded in emergency departments. Around one-third of all emergency department (ED) presentations during 1 September 2003 to 15 February 2007 were identified as injury-related. Narrative text searching of triage nursing assessments using keywords identified between 282 (i.e. football) and 26,944 (i.e. play) potential sports injury presentations depending on the selected sports-related keyword used. Routine narrative text descriptions from triage nurse assessments show promise for the identification of sports injury presentations to EDs. Further work is required regarding in-depth assessment of case detection capabilities and the likelihood of improving the quality of narrative text recorded.
The present paper argues the use of "narratives" as the most appropriate evaluation method in cases of atypical language production. Narrative as a genre has an ecological validity that other genres used in language research and evaluation do not have. Narratives develop naturally from very early, they are independent of education and academic…
Craig, Cheryl J.; Zou, Yali; Poimbeauf, Rita
This article maps how narrative inquiry--the use of story to study human experience--has been employed as both method and form to capture cross-cultural learning associated with Western doctoral students' travel study to eastern destinations. While others were the first to employ this method in the travel study domain, we are the first to…
McCullough, Elaine; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi
This paper offers research case studies of four severely maltreated children who had received a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder. A range of measures were employed to explore the children's psychological and emotional functioning, including Theory of Mind assessment (Sally-Anne Test), attachment measures (Story Stems Assessment Profile and Relationship Problems Questionnaire), along with measures to assess general psychological and emotional well-being. Contrary to the diagnosis, the children did not reveal a theory of mind deficit. However, they did indicate a profile of difficulties in mentalisation on the Story Stems. The findings are discussed in terms of the extent to which mentalisation and theory of mind are influenced by situational factors, especially the anxiety evoked by the Story Stem attachment scenarios. Clinical implications regarding mentalisation as a state vs. trait phenomenon are discussed.
The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of a positive and negative science teaching case narrative. These case narratives can be used to evaluate the level of acceptance of scientific inquiry teaching in preservice elementary teachers.
Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action.
This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…
Gregory, George Ann
A study examined what a third grader might understand about composing a common genre like the narrative, given the degree of variance among approaches and experience. Data were collected from different school sites over a period of several years. These sites shared common geographical areas: three schools were located in the Sonoran desert shared…
Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth
Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…
Diamond, Myrna Elyse
This descriptive case study investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…
Rutten, Nico; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Haverkamp-Hermans, Gerdi G. N.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kretschmer, Thomas; Stracke, Christian M.; Lameras, Petros; Chioccariello, Augusto; Doran, Rosa; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Kastrinogiannis, Timotheos; Maravic, Jasminka; Crotty, Yvonne; Kelly, Claire; Markaki, Vassiliki; Lazoudis, Angelos; Koivula, Jani; Polymatidis, Dimitris
In this study we used a narrative approach to investigate the function that digital, interactive tools can fulfill in inquiry teaching and learning. Such a narrative can be conceived of as "talking through" a lesson in which a teacher supports inquiry with technology. By subsequently coding these narratives, we studied the functions that…
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina
This article argues for the adoption of a new language in critical educational studies through the "narrative turn", a turn that politicizes knowledge by drawing attention to questions concerning the meaning, construction and authorship of narratives. In the authors' interpretation going back to the poetics of early narrative forms they…
Nafziger, Jacinta; DeKruyf, Lorraine
This article introduces narrative counseling concepts and techniques for professional school counselors. The authors provide a case study of narrative school counseling with an elementary student struggling with selective mutism. Examples also demonstrate how a narrative approach could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels within…
This paper considers how the school science curriculum can be conceptualised in order to address the contingent and complex nature of environmental and sustainability-related knowledge and understanding. A special concern lies in the development of research perspectives and tools for investigating ways, in which teachers are faced with complex and various situations in the sense-making of science-related issues, and subsequent pedagogic issues. Based on an empirical examination of Korean teachers' sense-making of their curricular practice, the paper develops a narrative approach to teachers' perspectives and knowledge by considering the value of stories as sense-making tools for reflective questioning of what is worth teaching, how and why. By employing the idea of 'repertoire', the study regards teachers' stories about their environment-related personal and teaching experiences as offering angles with which to understand teachers' motivation and reflection in curricular development and implementation. Furthermore, three empirical cases present ways in which the nature of knowledge and understanding is recognised and potentially integrated into pedagogies through teachers' narratives. Finally, the paper argues for the need to reconsider the role of the science teacher in addressing environmental and sustainability-related issues, in ways that facilitate teachers' reflexive interpretation of meanings in cultural texts and the construction of pedagogic text.
Problem: Leaders today need a new set of knowledge and skills to be effective in collaborative environments. The focus of this study was to investigate how collaborative environments can contribute to leadership development. The purpose of this study was to describe how the collaborative environment of summer camp helped shape emerging adults as…
Tilsen, Julie; Nylund, David
Therapists recognize that popular media culture is an influential force that shapes identities and relationships in contemporary society. Indeed, people have serious relationships with the commodities and practices that emerge from pop culture. However, they often lack the conceptual and conversational resources to engage meaningfully with clients about pop culture's influence in their lives. Cultural studies is introduced as an interdisciplinary approach that provides frameworks for both theory and practice that position therapists and clients to critically examine the role of pop culture in their lives. Cultural studies and narrative therapy are discussed as praxis allies that share a populist political intention and counter-hegemonic discursive practices. The integration of cultural studies methodologies into narrative therapy practice with a parent and her teenage daughter is illustrated through a case vignette.
Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…
Mathur, Sarup R.; Corley, Kathleen M.
This article argues for the need to discuss the topic of ethics in the classroom and presents five frameworks of ethics that have been applied to education. A case analysis used in workshops with educators in the field of Special Education is described, and the benefits of sharing narratives are discussed. The authors offer suggestions, grounded…
Adler, Jonathan M
Narrative identity is the internalized, evolving story of the self that each person crafts to provide his or her life with a sense of purpose and unity. A proliferation of empirical research studies focused on narrative identity have explored its relationship with psychological well-being. The present study is the first prospective, multiwave longitudinal investigation to examine short-term personality change via an emphasis on narrative identity as it relates to mental health. Forty-seven adults wrote rich personal narratives prior to beginning psychotherapy and after every session over 12 assessment points while concurrently completing a measure of mental health. Narratives were coded for the themes of agency and coherence, which capture the dual aims of narrative identity: purpose and unity. By applying in-depth thematic coding to the stories of participants, the present study produced 47 case studies of intraindividual personality development and mental health. By employing multilevel modeling with the entire set of nearly 600 narratives, the present study also identified robust trends of individual differences in narrative changes as they related to improvements in mental health. Results indicated that, across participants, the theme of agency, but not coherence, increased over the course of time. In addition, increases in agency were related to improvements in participants' mental health. Finally, lagged growth curve models revealed that changes in the theme of agency occurred prior to the associated improvements in mental health. This finding remained consistent across a variety of individual-difference variables including demographics, personality traits, and ego development.
Levine, Rachel B; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M
Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of 2002. Interns wrote narratives every 8 weeks. At study completion, interns wrote a final narrative describing the affect that being in the study had on them. Responses were reviewed and organized into domains. Writing throughout the year resulted in reflection and encouraged interns to reconsider their core values and priorities. Some found that the exercise promoted greater self-awareness and provided an emotional outlet. Writing about difficult experiences coupled with reflection motivated some interns to want to improve. Prompted narrative writing led to reflection among interns and promoted self-awareness. Educators may consider incorporating narrative writing into residency education.
Despite the fact that both men and women carry the human papillomavirus (HPV) and jointly contribute to its status as an epidemic, the promotion of Gardasil, a vaccine that blocks infection from four strains of HPV, has largely been designated as a women's-only health issue. The following case study contributes to ongoing efforts in the field of health communication to identify problematic assumptions informing contemporary health policy and practices. Specifically, I analyze how Merck Pharmaceuticals, the creator of Gardasil, strategically imbues direct-to-consumer advertisements with contradiction to preserve traditional notions of both women and medicine. I found that three gendered dialectics characterize Merck's efforts to invoke complacency among female consumers: public/secret, education/ignorance, and structured/individualist. In the case of the HPV vaccination, the implications of these dialectics are the perpetuation of complacency among female audiences that threatens both the success of this particular technology and the overall status of women and health. In line with conclusions offered by Thompson (2010a), this study extends a call for health and communication scholars to continue to deconstruct dominant medical discourses and presents possibilities for re-storying narratives that mediate women's experiences with health.
Fioretti, Chiara; Mazzocco, Ketti; Oliveri, Serena; Masiero, Marianna; Pravettoni, Gabriella
Objective Since its birth about 30 years ago, Narrative Medicine approach has increased in popularity in the medical context as well as in other disciplines. This paper aims to review Narrative Medicine research studies on patients' and their caregivers' illness experience. Setting and participants MEDLINE, Psycinfo, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioural Science, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases were searched to identify all the research studies which focused on the Narrative Medicine approach reported in the title, in the abstract and in the keywords the words ‘Narrative Medicine’ or ‘Narrative-based Medicine’. Primary and secondary outcome measures: number of participants, type of disease, race and age of participants, type of study, dependent variables, intervention methods, assessment. Results Of the 325 titles screened, we identified 10 research articles fitting the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review showed that research on Narrative Medicine has no common specific methodology: narrative in Medicine is used as an intervention protocol as well as an assessment tool. Patients' characteristics, types of disease and data analysis procedures differ among the screened studies. Conclusions Narrative Medicine research in medical practice needs to find clear and specific protocols to deepen the impact of narrative on medical practice and on patients' lives. PMID:27417197
Healey, Frances; Neale, Graham; Thomson, Richard; Black, Nick; Vincent, Charles
Objective To determine if applying change analysis to the narrative reports made by reviewers of hospital deaths increases the utility of this information in the systematic analysis of patient harm. Design Qualitative analysis of causes and contributory factors underlying patient harm in 52 case narratives linked to preventable deaths derived from a retrospective case record review of 1000 deaths in acute National Health Service Trusts in 2009. Participants 52 preventable hospital deaths. Setting England. Main outcome measures The nature of problems in care and contributory factors underlying avoidable deaths in hospital. Results The change analysis approach enabled explicit characterisation of multiple problems in care, both across the admission and also at the boundary between primary and secondary care, and illuminated how these problems accumulate to cause harm. It demonstrated links between problems and underlying contributory factors and highlighted other threats to quality of care such as standards of end of life management. The method was straightforward to apply to multiple records and achieved good inter-rater reliability. Conclusion Analysis of case narratives using change analysis provided a richer picture of healthcare-related harm than the traditional approach, unpacking the nature of the problems, particularly by delineating omissions from acts of commission, thus facilitating more tailored responses to patient harm. PMID:24781159
Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.
Online courses are increasingly using asynchronous video communication. However, little is known about how asynchronous video communication influences students' communication patterns. This study presents four narratives of students with varying characteristics who engaged in asynchronous video communication. The extrovert valued the efficiency of…
Writing is often a massive challenge for the learners who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Many EFL practitioners are searching for solutions to help learners improve the level of their writing. In this auto-ethnographic study, two narratives are discussed. In the first narrative, the primary challenges of EFL writing encountered by a…
This study explores how intertextuality influences the narrative practices of young deaf children in two classrooms. Specifically, the study examines how variations in what texts are made available to juxtapose and variations in how texts are juxtaposed influence the narratives young deaf children produce. A major premise underlying these two…
Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.
Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…
Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219
Drawing upon narrative data generated in a semi-structured interview with an 82-year-old female patient in geriatric physical rehabilitation, this clinical case study provides a detailed example of recognizing, assessing, and addressing spiritual distress as a symptom of physical pain. Data analysis focused on narrative content as well as on the interactive and performative aspects of narrating spiritual health issues in a close reading of two "attachment narratives." Results support the "narrative turn" in healthcare, including the therapeutic benefits of empathic listening as "narrative care" in geriatric rehabilitation and in healthcare in general.
Rentel, Victor M.; King, Martha L.
To understand and describe a developmental learning progression of choices students make in forming chains of relationships in their narrative texts, a study used the Cohesive Harmony Index to measure cohesion in children's written narratives. Data were obtained from 36 grade school children at intervals of four months over the students' first…
Green, Laura B.; Klecan-Aker, Joni S.
This pilot study investigated the impact of an oral narrative intervention program implemented with 24 children who attended a College of Education on campus laboratory school for children with specific language learning difficulties. Oral narratives were elicited before and after treatment and underwent T-unit and story grammar component…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian
This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.
Baranowski, Tom; Hong, S Lee; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza Razak; Chen, Tzu-An
Background Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children’s AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influence behaviors. Objective The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a narrative would motivate increased AVG play, though a feasibility study that investigated the motivational effect of adding a previously developed narrative cutscene to an originally nonnarrative AVG, Nintendo Wii Sports Resort: Swordplay Showdown. Methods A total of 40 overweight and obese 8- to 11-year-olds equally divided by sex played the AVG. Half (n=20) were randomly assigned to a narrative group that watched the narrative cutscene before game play. The other half played the game without watching it. Results Children in the narrative group had significantly (P<.05) more steps per 10-second period (mean 3.2, SD 0.7) and overall (mean 523, SD 203) during game play compared with the nonnarrative group (10-second period: mean 2.7, SD 0.7; overall: mean 366, SD 172). Conclusions The AVG with narrative induced increased physical activity. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which narrative increases physical activity during AVG game play. PMID:27742605
Bourgeois, Isabelle; Hart, Rebecca E; Townsend, Shannon H; Gagné, Marc
The ongoing need for public sector organizations to enhance their internal evaluation capacity is increasingly resulting in the use of hybrid evaluation project models, where internal evaluators work with external contracted evaluators to complete evaluative work. This paper first seeks to identify what is currently known about internal evaluation through a synthesis of the literature in this area. It then presents a case narrative illustrating how internal and external evaluation approaches may be used together to strengthen an evaluation project and to develop the evaluation capacity of the organization. Lessons learned include the need to integrate internal and external resources throughout the evaluation and to clarify expectations at the outset of the project.
This report describes a case of fibromyalgia developing following a workplace injury, but in which the issues of compensation and work disability were not relevant. A previously healthy 37-year-old woman developed back and groin pain after lifting a heavy box. Over the next months, pain and allodynia gradually spread over her body, and headaches, sleep disturbance, paresthesias, and bowel symptoms developed for the first time. The pain was constant and severe, invading and interfering with every area of daily function. Surprisingly, no previous case reports or definition of post-traumatic fibromyalgia could be found. This case report, narrated by the patient, suggests that there is such an entity as post-traumatic fibromyalgia, and that central nervous system plasticity plays a central role.
Graves, C. John
A case study is an excellent way to help students think like scientists as they work to solve a dilemma. This article describes a case study of elk in Yellowstone National Park. Students read short narratives, based on scientific research data, about the puzzling question of why some elk live substantially longer than others in certain areas of…
Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...
Narratives encompass ways of thinking historically and several skills of the historian, and Tom Holt believes it is imperative that educators teach--and their students learn--how to construct historical narratives. Understanding and constructing history as narratives opens up the historical project for students. Moreover, demonstrating how…
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.
Greenhalgh, T; Russell, J; Swinglehurst, D
This paper reviews and critiques the different approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research. The defining characteristics of narrative are chronology (unfolding over time); emplotment (the literary juxtaposing of actions and events in an implicitly causal sequence); trouble (that is, harm or the risk of harm); and embeddedness (the personal story nests within a particular social, historical and organisational context). Stories are about purposeful action unfolding in the face of trouble and, as such, have much to offer quality improvement researchers. But the quality improvement report (a story about efforts to implement change), which is common, must be distinguished carefully from narrative based quality improvement research (focused systematic enquiry that uses narrative methods to generate new knowledge), which is currently none. We distinguish four approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research—narrative interview; naturalistic story gathering; organisational case study; and collective sense-making—and offer a rationale, describe how data can be collected and analysed, and discuss the strengths and limitations of each using examples from the quality improvement literature. Narrative research raises epistemological questions about the nature of narrative truth (characterised by sense-making and emotional impact rather than scientific objectivity), which has implications for how rigour should be defined (and how it might be achieved) in this type of research. We offer some provisional guidance for distinguishing high quality narrative research in a quality improvement setting from other forms of narrative account such as report, anecdote, and journalism. PMID:16326792
García-Marco, Enrique; Beltrán, David; León, Inmaculada; de Vega, Manuel
This ERP study explores how the reader's brain is sensitive to the protagonist's perspective in the fictitious environment of narratives. Participants initially received narratives describing a protagonist living in a given geographical place. Later on they were given short paragraphs describing another character as "coming" or "going" to a place either close to or distant from the protagonist. Paragraphs referring to distant places elicited larger negative waves than those with places close to the protagonist. Moreover, narratives with the verb to come incoherent with the protagonist's perspective (e.g., "she came to the distant place") elicited larger negative-going waves in the 320-400ms time window than coherent paragraphs (e.g., "she came to the close place"). These results indicate that readers of narratives were able to take the protagonist's geographical perspective, showing discourse-level coherence effects when they read motion sentences with the marked deictic verb to come.
Aoyagi, Chiharu; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Shikama, Kumiko; Sakou, Keiko
Objectives To offer an empirical lens-based on the account of a yogo teacher employed at a temporary school in the community where she was relocated after experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake alongside her students-into the subjective experience of health support activities carried out during the year immediately following the disaster.Method An interview was conducted with one yogo teacher who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, employed at a public junior high school in the region to where she was evacuated. Analysis involved a narrative approach whereby the yogo teacher's story was rewritten as a story in chronological order.Results The immediate course of events following the disaster was divided into three periods and examined. Period 1: The yogo teacher first experienced the earthquake and was forced to evacuate alongside her students, during which time she felt strong [sense of loss] and [sense of despair]. Period 2: At the reopening of the school in temporary classrooms, she believed her top priority was doing what she could as a yogo teacher and contributing to reopening the school, while working with other teaching staff to make the most of their surroundings. The school's reopening brought a significant sense of security and joy to students. This led her to [finding hope], and she recovered her positive attitude. Subsequently, problems manifested such as bullying and violence. She believed that [being there for the children] was the most important thing she could do as a yogo teacher and continued to provide [emotional care]. Period 3: At the time of completion of a temporary school building, she was [confused and explored] the delay of the children's recovery from emotional problems. She coordinated with a university professor of psychology to conduct classes to alleviate students' tension and stress using strategies such as relaxation techniques. She realized the importance of initiatives that involve [a keen sense of connection
Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne
Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) are natural human languages that share all of the core properties of spoken human languages but differ in the modality through which they are communicated. Neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested similar left hemisphere (LH)-dominant patterns of brain organization for signed and spoken languages, suggesting that the linguistic nature of the information, rather than modality, drives brain organization for language. However, the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in sign language has been less explored. In spoken languages, the RH supports the processing of numerous types of narrative-level information, including prosody, affect, facial expression, and discourse structure. In the present fMRI study, we contrasted the processing of ASL sentences that contained these types of narrative information with similar sentences without marked narrative cues. For all sentences, Deaf native signers showed robust bilateral activation of perisylvian language cortices as well as the basal ganglia, medial frontal, and medial temporal regions. However, RH activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus was greater for sentences containing narrative devices, including areas involved in processing narrative content in spoken languages. These results provide additional support for the claim that all natural human languages rely on a core set of LH brain regions, and extend our knowledge to show that narrative linguistic functions typically associated with the RH in spoken languages are similarly organized in signed languages.
Anderson, Jeffrey A.; McIntyre, Janet S.; Somers, John W.
This paper explores the experiences of three young people with emotional and behavioral challenges and their families as they entered, participated in, and completed a community-based system of care. Using a case narrative approach, the characteristics and experiences of the children and families who successfully completed the Dawn Project system…
Rees, Charlotte E; Cleland, Jennifer A; Dennis, Ashley; Kelly, Narcie; Mattick, Karen; Monrouxe, Lynn V
Objectives To explore Foundation trainees’ and trainers’ understandings and experiences of supervised learning events (SLEs), compared with workplace-based assessments (WPBAs), and their suggestions for developing SLEs. Design A narrative interview study based on 55 individual and 19 group interviews. Setting UK-wide study across three sites in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Using maximum-variation sampling, 70 Foundation trainees and 40 trainers were recruited, shared their understandings and experiences of SLEs/WPBAs and made recommendations for future practice. Methods Data were analysed using thematic and discourse analysis and narrative analysis of one exemplar personal incident narrative. Results While participants volunteered understandings of SLEs as learning and assessment, they typically volunteered understandings of WPBAs as assessment. Trainers seemed more likely to describe SLEs as assessment and a ‘safety net’ to protect patients than trainees. We identified 333 personal incident narratives in our data (221 SLEs; 72 WPBAs). There was perceived variability in the conduct of SLEs/WPBAs in terms of their initiation, tools used, feedback and finalisation. Numerous factors at individual, interpersonal, cultural and technological levels were thought to facilitate/hinder learning. SLE narratives were more likely to be evaluated positively than WPBA narratives overall and by trainees specifically. Participants made sense of their experiences, emotions, identities and relationships through their narratives. They provided numerous suggestions for improving SLEs at individual, interpersonal, cultural and technological levels. Conclusions Our findings provide tentative support for the shift to formative learning with the introduction of SLEs, albeit raising concerns around trainees’ and trainers’ understandings about SLEs. We identify five key educational recommendations from our study. Additional research is now needed to explore further
Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia
Background: The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. Aims: The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was…
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)
This paper is concerned with the relationship of self-study to a non-self-study methodology used in a teacher study. The study was intended to involve 18 kindergarten to Grade 12 teachers in "bringing memory forward" through looking back on their narratives, producing an autobiography and discussing familiar texts in relation to unfamiliar ones.…
Selland, Makenzie K.
This paper examines the interplay of daily storytelling and societal narratives of teaching in one student teacher's experience. Drawing on narrative and post-structural theories, I conducted a case study using narrative inquiry and ethnographic methods to examine the moment-to-moment storytelling of one student teacher across a range of teaching…
The purpose of this teacher research study was to examine narrative inquiry as a method for student engagement with course material and the local community. This study sought to understand how students perceived themselves within Mexican American history. While a number of studies have used oral history and narrative effectively, these studies…
Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension…
Valenti, Michael Pickren; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis
Background: Some psychiatric patients are presented as hopeless, burned out, and devoid of social graces. Staff of mental health centers and hospitals are not encouraged to view these people differently. A narrative perspective allows anyone to emerge as a richly complex human being. Method: A course presented students with the opportunity to create narrative descriptions of patients presented by medical staff as hopeless. Results: One student's narrative of “Murphy the Motor Mouth” is presented; it shows the validity and usefulness of the narrative approach in reconstructing a person to be avoided as an interesting, valuable, and richly complex human being. Conclusion: Murphy in story emerges as more interesting and worthy of knowing than the clinical Murphy constructed by medical staff. Narrative approaches offer a richness and intimacy that fosters a more therapeutic and effective relationship between patients and staff. PMID:20740118
Köber, Christin; Schmiedek, Florian; Habermas, Tilmann
The ability to narrate stories and a synchronic self-concept develop in the pre- and primary school years. Life story theory proposes that both developments extend to an even later developmental stage, that is, to adolescents' acquisition of a coherent life story. Cross-sectional evidence supports the emergence of a life story in adolescence, but is mixed in terms of later life span development. The present study examines longitudinally the development of global coherence in life narratives across almost the entire life span. Starting in 2003, a total of 172 participants narrated their lives over the course of 8 years (aged 16, 20, 24, 28, 44, and 69 when last tested) resulting in up to 4 life narratives per person. Three aspects of global life narrative coherence--temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence--were measured with global ratings and predicted by their respective textual indicators. Children lacked most aspects of global coherence. Almost all indicators of temporal and causal-motivational coherence increased substantially across adolescence up to early adulthood, as did thematic coherence, which continued to develop throughout middle adulthood.
ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN
This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036
This article reports on a narrative study of university EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers' research practices and their identity construction as researchers in China. Drawing upon data from narrative frames among 104 teachers and in-depth interviews with four teachers, the study reveals that teachers' increased research engagement, as…
Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Guidetti, Michele; Colletta, Jean-Marc
The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two…
Milner, H. Richard
Narrative inquiry and self-study are used as analytic and conceptual lenses to examine the author's teacher education course where he attempted to introduce the relevance and centrality of race and racism in society and thus education. Implications of the study point to the important role of personal experiences in curriculum development and…
Wallace, Jerry L.
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the lived experiences of African American male community college instructors using interviews, classroom observations, and personal testimonies conducted at a Southeast Texas community college. Brown (2009) previously conducted a study on African American male…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Method: Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each…
Madden, Lauren; Wiebe, Eric
This narrative case study examined the relationship between teacher identity and elementary science teaching. Teacher identity was described using a modification of Gee's framework incorporating three perspectives: the teachers' self-described identity, the researchers' view of teacher identity, and the students' views of teacher identity. Over…
Gorman, Brenda K.; Fiestas, Christine E.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Clark, Maya Reynolds
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of culture on the creative and stylistic features children employ when producing narratives based on wordless picture books. Method: Participants included 60 first- and second-grade African American, Latino American, and Caucasian children. A subset of narratives based on wordless…
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Buck, Catherine; Dorrmann, Dana
Narrative comprehension is a linguistic ability that is foundational for future reading ability. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural circuitry of children with reading difficulties (RD) compared to typical readers during a narrative-comprehension task. We hypothesized that due to deficient executive functions, which support…
This is a case-study based on a micro-ethnography analyzing a doctor-patient interaction in an emergency room (ER) in New York City. Drawing on the framework of narrative medicine (Charon, 2006), the study examines how a phenomenological approach to listening to the patient facilitated the patient's narrative orientation not only to relevant…
Hua, Huang; Vong, Sou Kuan
This study investigates experienced teachers' resistance in an era of neoliberalism in Macau. The narratives of three experienced teachers are examined under a post-structuralist framework. The findings indicate that the traditional Chinese Confucian ideology of education guides the experienced teachers' professional practice and offers them an…
Eckerdal, Johanna Rivano
Introduction: This paper presents a way to design and conduct interviews, within a sociocultural perspective, for studying information literacy practices in everyday life. Methods: A framework was developed combining a socio-cultural perspective with a narrative interview was developed. Interviewees were invited to participate by talking and using…
Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.
For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…
Stein, Kirsten L.
The purpose of this qualitative narrative phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of parents of gifted student children who live in the United States, who have gone through the process of locating and selecting an online class, and who have worked with the online educational environment offering the class. Parents often select online…
Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel
This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…
Arya, Diana J.; Maul, Andrew
In an experimental study (N = 209), the authors compared the effects of exposure to typical middle-school written science content when presented in the context of the scientific discovery narrative and when presented in a more traditional nonnarrative format on 7th and 8th grade students in the United States. The development of texts was…
Dahlvig, Jolyn E.
This article is based on a 3-year narrative study that tells the stories of five women leading within the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). Women leaders are under-represented within this sector of higher education compared to other religious and/or private higher education institutions even though women comprise…
Fast-food giant McDonald's announced in 2010 that they would start hosting wedding ceremonies and receptions for couples who would like to get married in their restaurants in Hong Kong. This paper conducts a study comparing the differing representations of McDonald's wedding services through a narrative analytical approach. Specifically, this…
Megawati, Fika; Anugerahwati, Mirjam
Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research…
Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette
This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.
Kunene Nicolas, Ramona; Guidetti, Michèle; Colletta, Jean-Marc
The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two oral narratives produced by L1 Zulu and French adults and primary school children aged between five and ten years old. The data were all collected using a narrative retelling task. The results revealed a strong effect of age on discourse performance, confirming that narrative abilities improve with age, irrespective of language. However, the results also showed cross-linguistic differences. Zulu oral narratives were longer, more detailed, and accompanied by more co-speech gestures than the French narratives. The parallel effect of age and language on gestural behaviour is discussed and highlights the importance of studying oral narratives from a multimodal perspective within a cross-linguistic framework.
Dillard, Amanda J; Hisler, Garrett
First-person narratives are becoming a popular means to communicate health risk information. Although studies show they can increase risk perception and motivate health behaviours compared to statistical messages, more research on the conditions in which they are particularly likely to have effects is needed. In this study, we tested a moderator related to how information is processed. Specifically, we hypothesised that thinking in terms of emotions and personal experiences - known as experiential information processing - would increase people's responsiveness to a narrative. Female college students (N = 138) who reported indoor tanning were randomly assigned to read a first-person narrative message or a statistical message about the risks of skin cancer. Prior to reading the message, the women received instructions that would activate either experiential or rational information processing. Participants then reported their risk perceptions of skin cancer, worry about skin cancer and behaviour intentions related to skin cancer. Analyses showed that message type and information processing interacted to influence risk perceptions and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants reported the highest risk perception and worry when they used an experiential information system prior to reading the narrative message. There were no effects on behaviour intentions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Lanovaz, Marc J; Argumedes, Malena; Roy, Dona; Duquette, Julie R; Watkins, Nicholas
Many professionals report using ABC narrative recording to identify the function of problem behavior in children with developmental disabilities, but research has not established whether their analyses yield valid results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the function identified by expert reviewers using ABC narrative recordings would match the one identified by a functional analysis (FA) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale in four children with developmental disabilities. The functions identified by all twelve experts using the ABC narrative recordings matched at least one of the functions identified by the FA for three of four participants. The experts' analyses also agreed with the informant-based assessment at a statistically significant level for two of three participants with a conclusive QABF. Altogether, the results suggest that ABC narrative recording may be useful to generate hypotheses to identify the function of problem behavior, but that more research is needed before recommending its use as a standalone functional behavior assessment.
Ruini, Chiara; Ottolini, Fedra
Even though cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often the recommended treatment for mental health problems, it may present limitations when dealing with existential or moral issues. The aim of this case report is to describe the introduction of narrative techniques based on traditional fairytales in the process of CBT, in order to overcome treatment resistances and to help the patient in dealing with major life crises. In the case presented, the joint use of these two techniques helped the patient to achieve the right self-distance from her problems, allowing her to reach a new, wider perspective and a subjective self-maturation.
Adlof, Suzanne M.; McLeod, Angela N.; Leftwich, Brianne
Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, “structured narrative retell instruction” (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted. PMID:24847295
Swenson, M M; Sims, S L
This paper discusses various alternative and nontraditional teaching strategies currently used in nurse practitioner curricula. These instructional strategies include case-study analysis (Ryan-Wenger & Lee, 1997) and problem-based learning/practice-based learning (Barrows, 1994). We suggest a further evolution, using principles and practices of a narrative pedagogy (Diekelmann, 1995) to allow convergence of these several narratively-focused inductive and interpretive approaches. This combination of ways of learning has led us toward a narrative-centered curriculum for family nurse practitioners (FNPs). Specific ways to use narrative in the FNP curriculum are presented to demonstrate how to take the curriculum beyond traditional ways of teaching and learning.
Segel, Edward; Heer, Jeffrey
Data visualization is regularly promoted for its ability to reveal stories within data, yet these “data stories” differ in important ways from traditional forms of storytelling. Storytellers, especially online journalists, have increasingly been integrating visualizations into their narratives, in some cases allowing the visualization to function in place of a written story. In this paper, we systematically review the design space of this emerging class of visualizations. Drawing on case studies from news media to visualization research, we identify distinct genres of narrative visualization. We characterize these design differences, together with interactivity and messaging, in terms of the balance between the narrative flow intended by the author (imposed by graphical elements and the interface) and story discovery on the part of the reader (often through interactive exploration). Our framework suggests design strategies for narrative visualization, including promising under-explored approaches to journalistic storytelling and educational media.
Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.
State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012
The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through…
May, Steven K.
Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…
Juutinen, Jaana; Viljamaa, Elina
This research explored how values are communicated in everyday life at preschool. This narrative inquiry focused on how values are conveyed through the use of a material artefact, a chart with traffic lights, as a communication and pedagogical tool. Twenty children aged 3-4 years in one Finnish preschool were involved in the initial data…
Ayalon, Ariel; Sagy, Shifra
The relationship between acculturation attitudes and attitudes toward collective narratives is explored in the context of Palestinian adolescents, citizens of the State of Israel. Employing Berry's acculturation framework, we expected that approaching the hegemonic Israeli Jewish culture would be related to higher acceptance of its collective…
Johnsson, A; Fornander, T; Rutqvist, L E; Olsson, M
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors contributing to a successful return to the labour market after treatment for breast cancer from the women's own perspective. The study is based on 16 narratives - open-ended, in-depth interviews - about women's experiences and thoughts from the period after breast cancer surgery when they focused on their return to work. The women were recruited from participants of a multicentre trial, which allowed comparisons across a range of adjuvant therapies. The narratives of women who worked full time at a cut-off point of 1 year after surgery are analysed separately from the narratives of women still sick-listed at that point of time. The findings show that while all the women strove to belong to the labour market, the study also reveals changes in women's perceptions of the value of employment. The quality of social support received from employers and coworkers differed between women who returned to work and those still sick-listed 1 year after breast cancer treatment. A need to design interventions focusing on the work arena of women treated for breast cancer is pointed out.
Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed.
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.
The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...
Daniel, Sarah I F
Different types of client attachment insecurity may affect the psychotherapeutic process in distinct ways. This exploratory study compared the in-session discourse of clients with dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind on Adult Attachment Interviews conducted prior to therapy in the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. In a subsample of six sessions from each of eight therapy dyads, preoccupied clients were found to talk more and have longer speaking turns than dismissing clients, who in turn generated more pauses. Using the Narrative Processes Coding System, preoccupied clients were found to show more narrative initiative; whereas, differences in terms of narrative process modes were not as clearly interpretable. Contrary to expectations, the two insecure states of mind were equally different in the relationship-focused psychoanalytic therapy and in the symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. Suggestions for further investigations of the in-session discourse of clients with different attachment states of mind are given.
Smith, Lance C; Shin, Richard Q
The purpose of this article is to introduce and explore the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding. Utilizing psycho-discursive qualitative methodology, the authors will draw from a case study to demonstrate how some beneficent, well-intended persons who identify as heterosexual adopt the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding as they negotiate the discourse of heteronormativity. We will map this narrative strategy, compare and contrast it to racial colorblindness, and unpack the accompanying intra-psychic conflict and defense mechanisms that are utilized by the participant in the case study. We will also demonstrate how this discursive strategy positions participants within systemic heterosexism.
De Haene, Lucia; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine
In this article, we question narrative inquiry's predominant ethics of benefit when engaging in narrative research on trauma and social suffering. Through a particular focus on the use of a narrative methodology in a refugee health study, we explore the potential risk and protective function of narrative trauma research with vulnerable respondents. A review of ethical questions emerging during the course of a multiple-case study with refugee families documents how narrative methods' characteristics clearly revisit the impact of traumatization on autonomy, narrativity, and relationship building in participants and, thus, evoke the replay of traumatic experience within the research relationship itself. Blurring a straightforward ethics of benefit, this reactivation of trauma accounts for the research relationship's balancing movement between reiterating and transforming traumatic distress, and urges for the need to contain coexisting aspects of both harm and benefit in developing narrative research with traumatized participants.
Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge,…
The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…
Kempson, Diane; Murdock, Vicki
Drawing on literature relevant to the impact of sibling death, the authors examined the invisible loss of siblings never known. This article presents findings of a phenomenological study of 15 adult siblings who "storied" the psychological presence and power of a deceased infant sibling never known but who acted as memory keepers for…
Barker, Bruce O.
The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…
Narrative is a term used in everyday life. While it refers to a spoken or written account or story, it is also an increasingly popular research method. This article explores the role of narrative in nursing research and practice, and evaluates the use of narrative as a research method. Narrative is the study of how humans experience the world and how they interpret this experience. It can be an excellent research method to expand understanding of healthcare provision and individual patient experience.
Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth
This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…
Raises issues involved in the study and teaching of narrative, with reference to both literature and film. Considers the function of realism in narrative fiction and the teaching of theory and practice of those writers and filmmakers who have challenged the realist text by alternative strategies. (JMF)
Zeakes, Samuel J.
A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)
database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.
Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela
Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…
The relationship between specific narrative skills and social class was studied in a culturally and racially homogeneous sample (51 4-year olds), focusing on narratives of economically disadvantaged children. Children from disorganized, chaotic and disadvantaged households were most likely to produce minimal narratives that were poorly planned.…
Popova, Yanna B.
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286
Lövgren, G; Engström, B; Norberg, A
Narratives from patients (n = 80) and patients' relatives (n = 12) were collected to illuminate experiences of good and bad caring episodes and to obtain descriptions of good caring. Narratives describing good caring included such task aspects as swift and correct assessment and access to information. Aspects less frequently mentioned were, for example, being given time, receiving pain relief and good food. Relationship aspects mentioned; having an interest shown in the care, being taken seriously and being cared about. There are parallels regarding relationship aspects between the narratives concerning good and bad caring episodes; for example what was praised in the good caring narratives was criticized in those describing bad caring. Such parallels were being/not being trusted, being/not being believed and being/not being respected. The narrations concerning bad caring were more specific and more vivid than those about good caring. The authors' interpretation was that the bad episodes were unexpected and very painful and therefore remained imprinted in the patients' memories. The descriptions of good caring included relationship aspects in only 34 cases, task aspects in only five cases and a combination of both in 50 cases. The ultimate purpose of the study was to obtain a basis for the development of a policy for good caring founded on patients' experiences. It is desirable that further studies be undertaken within various clinical specialties which would also take into consideration medical, social and cultural perspectives.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Kamel, Marina Salah; Khosa, Amardeep; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Leichter, Jonathan
The aim of this narrative review was to critically evaluate in vitro studies assessing the efficacy of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces. The MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases were used to search for articles relating to the use of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium specimen surfaces using predetermined search statements. Clinical studies, case reports, case series, review articles and animal models were excluded. Study selection was carried out independently and then cross-checked by two authors through abstract viewing. Eighteen articles were selected for full-text analysis. Erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers had a wide range of powers capable of inducing bacterial decontamination. While carbon dioxide and gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode lasers demonstrated the ability to produce bacterial decontamination, the bacterial sensitivity to each varied depending on the species involved. There is no concensus on the laser type or settings that are optimal for bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces as studies employ various test specimens, contamination methodologies, irradiation settings and protocols, and outcome measures resulting in limited study comparability. More investigations are required to provide guidelines for the use of laser therapy in the decontamination of implant surfaces.
Ioannou, Maria; Canter, David; Youngs, Donna
A neglected area of research within criminality has been that of the experience of the offence for the offender. The present study investigates the emotions and narrative roles that are experienced by an offender while committing a broad range of crimes and proposes a model of criminal narrative experience (CNE). Hypotheses were derived from the circumplex of emotions, Frye, narrative theory, and its link with investigative psychology. The analysis was based on 120 cases. Convicted for a variety of crimes, incarcerated criminals were interviewed and the data were subjected to smallest space analysis (SSA). Four themes of CNE were identified: Elated Hero, Calm Professional, Distressed Revenger, and Depressed Victim in line with the recent theoretical framework posited for narrative offence roles. The theoretical implications for understanding crime on the basis of the CNE as well as practical implications are discussed.
methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study
The purpose of this report is to provide case studies of site cleanup projects utilizing bioremediation. This volume contains reports on nine projects that include bioventing and land treatment technologies, as well as a unique, large-scale slurry-phase project. In these projects, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants of concern. Two land treatment projects in this volume represent completed cleanups at creosote sites.
Blakesley, Christopher C.
This study explored how designers "perceived" and "used" narrative during the creation of an educational video game. A qualitative, ethnographic, single case study approach was used to collect and analyze data pertaining to the narrative design trajectory of the game design team as well as Citizen Science, the game artifact…
Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.
This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…
This study examines the indexicality of discourse markers (DMs) in Chinese conversational narrative. Drawing upon theoretical and methodological principles related to narrative dimensions (Ochs & Capps, 2001), narrative desires (Ochs, 1997, 2004), and narrative positioning (Bamberg, 1997), this work proposes an integrated analytical framework for…
Willemsen, Jochem; Della Rosa, Elena; Kegerreis, Sue
This manuscript provides a review of the clinical case study within the field of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatment. The method has been contested for methodological reasons and because it would contribute to theoretical pluralism in the field. We summarize how the case study method is being applied in different schools of psychoanalysis, and we clarify the unique strengths of this method and areas for improvement. Finally, based on the literature and on our own experience with case study research, we come to formulate nine guidelines for future case study authors: (1) basic information to include, (2) clarification of the motivation to select a particular patient, (3) information about informed consent and disguise, (4) patient background and context of referral or self-referral, (5) patient's narrative, therapist's observations and interpretations, (6) interpretative heuristics, (7) reflexivity and counter-transference, (8) leaving room for interpretation, and (9) answering the research question, and comparison with other cases. PMID:28210235
Willemsen, Jochem; Della Rosa, Elena; Kegerreis, Sue
This manuscript provides a review of the clinical case study within the field of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatment. The method has been contested for methodological reasons and because it would contribute to theoretical pluralism in the field. We summarize how the case study method is being applied in different schools of psychoanalysis, and we clarify the unique strengths of this method and areas for improvement. Finally, based on the literature and on our own experience with case study research, we come to formulate nine guidelines for future case study authors: (1) basic information to include, (2) clarification of the motivation to select a particular patient, (3) information about informed consent and disguise, (4) patient background and context of referral or self-referral, (5) patient's narrative, therapist's observations and interpretations, (6) interpretative heuristics, (7) reflexivity and counter-transference, (8) leaving room for interpretation, and (9) answering the research question, and comparison with other cases.
Underwood, Jimmy M.
NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken four case studies for prospective expansion of manned space activities beyond earth orbit. The subjects of these studies are (1) an expedition to the Martian moon Phobos; (2) a three-mission expedition to Mars; (3) the construction of a man-tended lunar observatory; and (4) the construction of a lunar outpost to serve as the basis for construction of a Martian outpost. The fourth alternative would follow the recommendation of the National Commission on Space for the creation of a 'bridge between worlds' in which explorers would develop ways in which to 'live off the land' in a space environment.
In recent decades studies based on questionnaires and interviews have concluded that when doctors become ill they face significant barriers to seeking help. Several reasons have been proposed, primarily the notion that doctors' work environment predisposes them to an inappropriate help-seeking behaviour. In this article, the idea of the ill physician as a paradox in a medical drama is examined. Through a text-interpretive and comparative approach to historical illness narratives written by doctors suffering from one specific diagnosis, namely opioid addiction, the complex set of considerations guiding their behaviour as patients are to some extent revealed. The article concludes that, in the identity transition necessary to become a patient, doctors are held back by their professional status and that every step to assist them needs to take shape based on an awareness of the underlying principles of the medical drama. Written illness narratives by doctors, such as those highlighted in this article, might serve as a tool to increase such awareness.
Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Plante, Elena
The ability to comprehend narratives constitutes an important component of human development and experience. The neural correlates of auditory narrative comprehension in children were investigated in a large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving 313 subjects ages 5–18. Using group Independent Component Analysis (ICA), bilateral task-related components were found comprising the primary auditory cortex, the mid-superior temporal gyrus, the hippocampus, the angular gyrus and medial aspect of the parietal lobule (precuneus/posterior cingulate). In addition, a right-lateralized component was found involving the most posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, and a left-lateralized component was found comprising the inferior frontal gyrus (including Broca’s area), the inferior parietal lobule, and the medial temporal gyrus. Using a novel data-driven analysis technique, increased task-related activity related to age was found in the components comprising the mid-superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke’s area) and the posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, while decreased activity related to age was found in the component comprising the angular gyrus. The results are discussed in light of recent hypotheses involving the functional segregation of Wernicke’s area and the specific role of the mid-superior temporal gyrus in speech comprehension. PMID:16109491
Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn
This study examined the transportation effects of alcohol consequence narratives varying in source (written by the narrative protagonist vs. protagonist's partner) and type of heath consequence (physical or emotional). Additionally, this study examined the role of narrative transportation and cognitive and discrete affective responses in the persuasion process. In this study, 501 students of a large northern university in the United Kingdom participated and were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions of narratives about alcohol use. Transportation was operationalized as general and self-reflective transportation. Results demonstrated that for narratives written by protagonist, the emotional effect narrative resulted in greater general transportation than the physical effect narrative. However, for narratives written by the protagonist's partner, the physical effect narrative resulted in greater general transportation than the emotional effect narrative. These findings were not substantiated for self-reflective transportation. Finally, results suggest that transportation experienced by anti-alcohol narratives can influence both favourable cognitive response and guilt, which are significant mediators in alcohol-related expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.
Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Gianpaolo; Azzara, Cristina; Catania, Dario; Semerari, Antonio; Hermans, Hubert J M
Individuals are guided in their actions in the world by a set of narratives portraying them in their relations with others. The narratives contain representations of self, of the world, of the various characters with which individuals interact and of the forms of relationship that they foresee establishing. Within the narratives the various characters, each from the position of an independent author, negotiate the meaning of events. A narrative can be altered either as regards its contents or its form. In this article, we describe impoverished narratives. These are lacking in various elements-descriptions of a narrator's inner state, of others' points of view, of the action scenario and of what goes on between the characters-and concentrate repetitively on only one or a few themes. With such features, individuals are hampered in their actions in the world. A therapist listening to a patient relating impoverished narratives finds it difficult to grasp what the problems are and what steps need to be taken. As a result, it takes longer or is not possible for each to become attuned with the other and to put together an agreed treatment programme. We illustrate this narrative deficit with a psychotherapy case study and hypothesize about the way a therapist ought to operate in order to tackle the deficit.
Nordenram, G; Norberg, A
Dementia alters the patient's ability to accept conventional dental treatment and conflict situations arise involving moral dilemmans in judgements and actions. The aim of the study is to disclose how the dentists think, feel and act in such conflict situations and their ethical reasoning. Qualitative methods are used in interpretation of 21 tape-recorded narratives from hospital dentists. In all narratives, the problem emerged from uncertainty about what comprise an appropriate treatment. The ethical dilemma could either be narrated as internal, within the dentist or external between the dentist's opinion and opinions to the contrary from co-actors in the story. In a climate of restraints in public spending in health care a discourse from the perspectives of ethics is essential to ensure respect for human integrity in society, fundamental for all caring, including dental care of patient with dementia.
Adkins, Florence E.
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…
Winslade, John M.; Monk, Gerald D.
Narrative counseling is based on the premise that stories, rather than hard-nosed realities, shape our lives. By changing the stories that negatively label and define students, they are helped to open up new avenues and opportunities. In this second edition of their best-selling book, the authors present even more case studies, guidance, and…
Cascardi, Michele; Jouriles, Ernest N
Research linking child maltreatment and dating violence in adolescence and emerging adulthood has proliferated in the past two decades; however, the precise mechanisms by which these experiences are related remain elusive. A trauma-informed perspective suggests four particularly promising mediators: maladaptive attachment, emotion regulation difficulties, emotional distress, and hostility. The current article characterizes the status of the empirical literature examining these four mediators using a study space analysis and a narrative review of existing research. An extensive literature search identified 42 papers (44 studies) that met the following criteria: (1) at least one measure of child maltreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence); (2) a measure of one of the four mediator variables; (3) a measure of dating violence perpetration or victimization; and (4) a sample of adolescents or young adults. The study space analysis suggested several important observations about the research on this topic, including a dearth of studies examining hostility as a mediator and little research using prospective designs or clinical samples. There are also limitations with the conceptualization and measurement of dating violence, child maltreatment, and some of the mediator variables. In addition, few studies examined more than one mediator variable in the same study. The narrative review suggested that maladaptive attachment (specifically insecure attachment styles), emotion regulation difficulties (specifically regulation of the emotion of anger), and emotional distress construed broadly represent promising mediators of the association between child maltreatment and dating violence, but conclusions about mediation must remain tentative given the state of the literature. The discussion offers recommendations for improved theoretical and empirical rigor to advance future research on mechanisms linking child maltreatment and dating
Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi
Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…
Pittman, Chavella T.
What role does race play in the lives of fourteen African American (7 women, 7 men) faculty on a predominantly White campus? This case study focuses on their narratives which revealed that racial microaggressions were a common and negative facet of their lives on campus. Specifically, their narratives suggest interactions of microinvalidations…
Osanloo, Azadeh F.; Hand, Tim W.
This narrative study examines hegemonic discourse in an online multicultural leadership course by translating e-narrative analysis findings into implications for social justice and recommendations for andragogical strategies. These strategies specifically address hegemonic discourse within an online educational environment. The setting for this…
Hylton, Dahlia Gabrielle
This narrative study explored the personal and professional experiences of eight African American women vice presidents for student affairs (VPSA) employed at predominately White institutions (PWIs) and the persistence strategies they used while working at a PWI. Through the use of narrative inquiry methods, I utilized a purposeful sample of eight…
Terry Boyenga, Jennifer
The transfer student phenomenon in higher education is as increasingly complex as the transfer students causing the phenomenon. The collection of narratives in this study reflected transfer experiences of theatre students who were navigating the educational pipeline from community colleges to four-year institutions to major in the theatre…
Green, Wendy; Myatt, Paula
As the transnational movement of academics continues to increase, some are arguing it is time to look more closely at the challenges faced by new international academic staff. This article reports on a narrative research study exploring the experiences and perceptions of eight international academic staff at a large, research-intensive university…
Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie
This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…
Tobin, Jennifer A.; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that used narrative analysis to explore the role of embodied learning in the writing processes of creative writers. From a theoretical framework that draws on Merleau-Ponty's philosophy of the body, Gendlin's concepts of felt sense and focusing, and Jordi's analysis of reflection for…
The heritage of calligraphy reflects the culture and history of a race and a nation. It hence has very great educational value. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy in general and specifically the connection of its aesthetic to spirituality. The methodologies of narrative approach and textual analysis were…
Previous research investigating the use of Mindfulness as an intervention has generally taken a quantitative approach, focusing on outcomes rather than processes. The purpose of this research was to develop an understanding of how and why Mindfulness training might influence young people. The study explored the changes in narratives that occur in…
This report is a first person narration of the entire process of a qualitative study exploring the impact of ESL students' native cultural and rhetorical conventions, as well as classroom cultures on their academic English writing in American universities. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. A coding system was constructed to…
Walker-Floyd, La-Kicia K.
This narrative study will allow my reader a glimpse into real situations I have faced as an asynchronous online instructor in hopes to help me and my audience better understand how I, as a self-directed online practitioner, utilized action research recorded in a journal as a method to build capacity for continuous professional development to…
DiFulvio, Gloria T; Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah E; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth Marie
Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. The process of individuals telling their own stories has not been well assessed as a mechanism of health behavior change. This study looks at outcomes associated with engaging in the DST process for vulnerable youth. The project focused on the experiences of Puerto Rican Latinas between the ages of 15 to 21. A total of 30 participants enrolled in a 4-day DST workshops, with 29 completing a 1 to 3-minute digital story. Self-reported data on several scales (self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors) were collected and analyzed. Participants showed an increase in positive social interactions from baseline to 3-month post workshop. Participants also demonstrated increases in optimism and control over the future immediately after the workshop, but this change was not sustained at 3 months. Analysis of qualitative results and implications are discussed.
Sakellariou, Dikaios; Boniface, Gail; Brown, Paul
Researchers are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of using joint interviews in research on illness experiences. However, there is limited discussion of joint interviews as a data collection method and of the factors that influence the choice to conduct individual or joint interviews. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages of both methods, the reasons that underpin the choice to use joint interviews are often not discussed in detail in the literature. Drawing from a narrative-based study on the experiences of living with motor neuron disease, we present joint interviews as a method sensitive both to the shared experience of illness and to the multiple perspectives around illness. Using interview excerpts, we discuss how through the use of joint interviews researchers can explore the intersubjective and heteroglossic nature of illness experiences. We argue that using joint interviews can offer valuable information about how couples coconstruct meaning and share experiences.
Eldred, Janet Carey; Mortensen, Peter
Maintains that literacy studies can contribute to the general field of literary criticism. Uses George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion" as an introduction to the concept of literacy narratives, raising many questions about the process and politics of language acquisition. (SR)
Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.
Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.
Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette
Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…
Abma, Tineke A
In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethical dilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual.
Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.
Amon, Mary J.
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people’s perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants
Amon, Mary J
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people's perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find
Klucka, Jozef; Stourac, Petr; Stoudek, Roman; Toukalkova, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinova, Martina; Stouracova, Alena; Mrlian, Andrej; Suk, Petr; Malaska, Jan
Stroke is a rare condition in childhood with an estimated incidence of between 1.3-13/100.000 patients. Clinical manifestation and risk factors for paediatric stroke are different from those of adults. The uncommon incidence, age-associated difference and plethora of clinical symptoms make the diagnosis of such strokes extremely difficult and often delayed. The history and clinical examination should point to diseases or predisposing factors. Neuroimaging (DWI MR) is the golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric stroke and other investigations can be considered according to the clinical condition. Despite advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, questions remain unanswered regarding acute treatment, secondary prevention and rehabilitation. The treatment recommendations are mainly extrapolated from studies on adult populations. In the review authors summarized the clinical characteristics and diagnostic steps for stroke in children/adolescents based on the most recent international guidelines and practical directions for recognising and managing the child/adolescent with stroke in paediatric emergency. In the two case reports, we describe the clinical course in both stroke patients.
Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita
Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390
The distinctive features of narratives told by Asians, particularly Japanese, who are non-native speakers of English and residing in the United States are analyzed. Focus is on the narrative structure produced and the communication problems occurring due to cultural traits, particularly as they differ from North American norms. Educational and…
Driscoll, Mary C.
The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.
Hobbs, Linda; Davis, Rob
Despite years of research, there remains serious concern regarding the engagement of students in science, mathematics and technology education. In this paper, the authors explore how narrative pedagogies are used in science, mathematics and technology in order to make the subjects meaningful. The paper focuses specifically on the role and aesthetic nature of narrative as a pedagogical approach in these school subjects and between school sectors. Case study methodology was used to compare the findings of two independent studies investigating the role of narrative-based pedagogies in mathematics and science (first author) and technology (second author). Based on this comparison, this paper proposes two perspectives on narrative-based pedagogies that deal with the connection of students with the subject: inward-looking that situated the learner within the story generated around artefact creation, and outward-looking that situated the stories of the content into students' lifeworlds. The use of this comparative lens enabled a higher level of analysis that could not have been achieved by each research programme, generating a broader narrative that provided deeper insight into the teaching and learning experience.
Lundeberg, Mary A.; Yadav, Aman
One effective method to improve the learning of science is through case study teaching. Teachers use realistic or true narratives to provide opportunities for students to integrate multiple sources of information in an authentic context, and may engage students with ethical and societal problems related to their discipline. However, little…
Mann, Jessica; Casebeer, Daniel
This study uses social cartography to map student perceptions of a co-curricular service-learning project in an impoverished rural community. As a complement to narrative discourse, mapping provides an opportunity to visualize not only the spatial nature of the educational experience but also, in this case, the benefits of civic engagement. The…
The case study method of teaching uses real-world narratives to teach concepts and content. This method of teaching encourages active learning, which has been shown to have a positive effect on student performance in many disciplines including science. Although more females than males pursue a postsecondary degree, more males than females pursue…
Park, Caroline; Kier, Cheryl; Jugdev, Kam
This reflective case study was based on our independent use of the debate as an online instructional approach and our shared interest in teaching strategies. In an interdisciplinary manner, using narrative inquiry and action research, we melded our data sources and analyzed the findings, including our individual experiences with the technique. Our…
Simpson, Joanne Denise
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore gifted alumni perceptions of how participating in an Enrichment Seminar course met their socioemotional needs as they related to identity formation, and whether or not their academic achievement was influenced. The researcher used interviews, narrative questions, and surveys to gather data.…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…
Youngs, Donna; Canter, David V
The study of narrative processes as part of the immediate factors that shape criminal action is limited by the lack of a methodology for differentiating the narrative themes that characterise specific crime events. The current study explores how the roles offenders see themselves as playing during an offence encapsulate their underlying crime narratives and thus provide the basis for a quantitative methodology. To test this possibility, a 33-item Narrative Roles Questionnaire (NRQ) was developed from intensive interviews with offenders about their experience of committing a recent offence. A multidimensional analysis of the NRQ completed by 71 convicted offenders revealed life narrative themes similar to those identified in fiction by Frye and with noncriminals by McAdams, labelled The Professional, Victim, Hero, and Revenger offence roles. The NRQ thus is a first step in opening up the possibility of empirical studies of the narrative aetiological perspective in criminology.
Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Palombini, Analice de Lima; Leal, Erotildes; de Serpa, Octavio Domont; Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Ferrer, Ana Luiza; Diaz, Alberto Giovanello; Xavier, Maria Angélica Zamora
Narratives are ever more frequent in qualitative studies seeking to interpret experiences and the different viewpoints of individuals in a given context. Starting from this concept, the tradition that addresses narrative is reexamined, including the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, the historical perspective of Walter Benjamin and the field of medical anthropology grounded in phenomenology. In Ricoeur, with hermeneutics as a variation derived from phenomenology, narrative is linked to temporality. In Benjamin, narrative comprised of bits and pieces, always inconclusive, emerges in spite of the official stories. If Ricoeur retrieves tradition from Gadamer as a fundamental component for the construction of the world of a text that makes imitation of life possible, Benjamin, faced with the collapse of tradition, suggests the invention of narrative forms outside the traditional canons, making it possible to hark to the past in order to change the present. Assumptions of medical anthropology are also presented, as they consider narrative a dimension of life and not its abstraction, namely an embodied and situated narrative. Lastly, three distinct research projects in mental health that use narrative linked to the theoretical concepts cited with their differences and similarities are presented.
The pedagogical power of narrative has been much underestimated. Master cases using narrative or electronic narrative significantly enhance learning. The modern "bite"-oriented casebook does not make effective use of narrative materials or meet neurological needs. A useful approach might combine master cases, electronic narrative, high-quality…
My discussion embraces the subjective qualities of the psychoanalytic clinical case study as a method for writing narratives of pedagogy dedicated to interpreting the latency of communication: what has been held back, forgotten, acted out and unconsciously repeated. At the heart of the case study is the literary dilemma of putting to words the…
Matos, Marlene; Santos, Anita; Gonçalves, Miguel; Martins, Carla
Narrative therapy suggests that change happens by paying close attention in therapy to "unique outcomes," which are narrative details outside the main story (White & Epston, 1990). In this exploratory study, unique outcomes were analyzed in five good-outcome and five poor-outcome psychotherapy cases using the Innovative Moments Coding System (Gonçalves, Matos, & Santos, 2008). Across 127 sessions, innovative moments were coded in terms of salience and type. In accordance with the theory, results suggest that innovative moments are important to therapeutic change. Poor- and good-outcome groups have a global difference in the salience of the innovative moments. In addition, results suggest that two particular types of innovative moments are needed in narrative therapy for therapeutic change to take place: re-conceptualization and new experiences. Implications for future research using this model of analysis are discussed.
Hennelly, Marie Oliva; Sly, Jamilia R; Villagra, Cristina; Jandorf, Lina
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a preventable yet leading cause of cancer mortality among Latinos in the USA. Cultural targeting and narrative messaging are two strategies to increase the low screening colonoscopy rates among Latinos. This study identifies key messages for educational interventions aiming to increase screening colonoscopy used among Latinos and proposes a model to understand the relationship between factors involved in colonoscopy decision-making. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 Latino participants primarily of Puerto Rican descent on the topics of CRC knowledge, barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy use, and the use of narrative in colorectal health messaging. Knowledge about colorectal anatomy and the anesthesia component of colonoscopy procedure is low. Fear of procedure-related pain and fear of treatment-related burden following a cancer diagnosis are significant barriers to colonoscopy. Fear of disease-related suffering and death following a cancer diagnosis and fear of regret are strong facilitators and can be augmented by cancer narratives. Storytelling is commonly used in Latino culture and is an acceptable method to educate the Latino community about CRC screening via colonoscopy. Machismo is a unique barrier to colonoscopy for Latino men via homophobia and reluctance to seek healthcare. A preliminary model to understand factors in colonoscopy decision-making among Latinos is presented. Counseling practices and educational interventions that use culturally targeted narrative health messaging to mediate fears and increase colonoscopy knowledge may increase screening colonoscopy use among Latinos.
Fuchs, Hans U.
Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science-such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of natural and technical scenes is formulated. The term narrative framing is used in a double sense, to represent (1) the enlisting of narrative intelligence in the perception of phenomena and (2) the telling of stories that contain conceptual elements used in the creation of scientific models of these phenomena. The concrete case for narrative framing is made by conceptual analyses of simple stories of natural phenomena and of products related to modern continuum thermodynamics that reveal particular figurative structures. Importantly, there is evidence for a medium-scale perceptual gestalt called force of nature that is structured metaphorically and narratively. The resulting figurative conceptual structure gives rise to the notion of natural agents acting and suffering in storyworlds. In order to show that formal scientific models are deeply related to these storyworlds, a link between using (i.e. simulating) models and storytelling is employed. This link has recently been postulated in studies of narrative in computational science and economics.
Lawler, Robert W.
Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…
Examines the paradox of case studies' abilities to understand the complexity in particular contexts while not being generalizable. Argues that the pressure for quantification and multisite case study design in policy research has weakened the original utility of the case study method for understanding complex educational phenomena. (DSK)
Friedberg, Ahron L
In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.
Bond, G G
The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...
Leger, Joni; Letourneau, Nicole
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal mental health issue that negatively impacts new mothers and their infants. Various interventions have been studied and one that has shown promise is social support delivered by peers. Understanding what previous studies on peer support interventions have found will contribute to the development and implementation of future peer support interventions for women with PPD. To this end, a systematic search and narrative review of studies that investigated peer support interventions for PPD was conducted. Relevant studies were identified using CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library published between 2000 and 2010. Six studies matching inclusion criteria were reviewed. Each of the studies had specific selection criteria and some used screening tools for recruitment. There were differences regarding the criteria for volunteers. All volunteers participated in some form of training and had support from a co-ordinator. Interventions varied in terms of length and nature of support offered, frequency and mode of delivery. Volunteers reported positively on their experience, although there were some challenges in providing support. Overall findings suggest that interventions should be targeted and take into consideration the age of the mother, any cultural and linguistic differences, the mother's circumstances and her needs. All volunteers should receive training before providing support and be screened for their ability to commit their time. Although the results were mixed, they provide insights into how peer support volunteers can be an innovative part of a team approach to PPD intervention.
Illustrates ways the theories and methods of linguistics can be used to analyze discourse. Uses reports from American print media discussing facets of the O.J. Simpson case, its verdict, and subsequent events. Suggests that this discourse, viewed as a composite whole, represents a culture's creation, disillusion, and reestablishment of its sense…
De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann
Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity.
Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)
Wood, A M; Wood, C M; Bakker-Dyos, J
We present the case of a 26 year old Indian base worker who attended the Role 2 enhanced hospital in Iraq with a case of leprosy. The patient presented four times over a 12 month period with non-specific pain in the right hand and forearm combined with a large lesion of dry skin and reduced sensation in the forearm. A clinical diagnosis of leprosy was made, which was subsequently confirmed as paucibacillary leprosy by skin smears sent to the UK. It was not possible to treat the patient locally and a recommendation made to the patient's employer that the patient return to India to commence treatment.
Tan, Lawrence; Hu, Wendy; Brooker, Ron
Background Camera phones have become ubiquitous in the digital age. Patients are beginning to bring images recorded on their mobile phones to share with their GP during medical consultations. Aim To explore GP perceptions about the effect of patient-initiated camera phone images on the consultation. Design and setting An interview study of GPs based in rural and urban locations in Australia. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with nine GPs about their experiences with patient-initiated camera phone images. Results GPs described how patient-initiated camera phone photos and videos contributed to the diagnostic process, management and continuity of care. These images gave GPs in the study additional insight into the patient’s world. Potential harm resulting from inappropriate use of camera phones by patients was also identified. Conclusion Patient-initiated camera phone images can empower patients by illustrating their narratives, thus contributing to improved communication in general practice. Potential harm could result from inappropriate use of these images. GPs shown images on patients’ camera phones should make the most of this opportunity for improved understanding of the patient’s world. There are however, potential medicolegal implications such as informed consent, protection of patient and doctor privacy, and the risk of misdiagnosis. PMID:24771843
It is hoped that, once implemented, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will engage students more deeply in science learning and build science knowledge sequentially beginning in Kindergarten (NRC, 2013). Early instruction is encouraged but must be delivered by qualified elementary teachers who have both the science content knowledge and the necessary instructional skills to teach science effectively to young children (Ejiwale, 2012, Spencer, Vogel, 2009, Walker, 2011). The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction. This research suggests that infusion of constructivist teaching in the elementary classroom is beneficial to the teacher's instruction of science concepts to elementary students. Constructivism is theory that learning is centered on the learner constructing new ideas or concepts built upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner, 1966). Based on this theory, it is recommended that the instructor should try to encourage students to discover principles independently; essentially the instructor presents the problem and lets students go (Good & Brophy, 2004). Discovery learning, hands-on, experimental, collaborative, and project-based learning are all approaches that use constructivist principles. The NGSS are based on constructivist principles. This narrative study provides insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction considered through the lens of Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1960).
Narrative art inquiry is a new qualitative research methodology. It is different from the narrative approaches used by some nurse investigators because the study's findings are presented in the form of creative writing. In this article the author describes narrative art inquiry using material from research that used this approach to study anorexia nervosa. The author believes that narrative art inquiry has a wider application and could be used to study other types of psychological illness and physiological distress.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric
Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…
Berman, Helene; Girón, Estella Rosa Irías; Marroquín, Antonia Ponce
Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world's refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman's place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens--the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…
This qualitative case study illustrates and compares the metacognitive strategies that a grade-3 female student used while reading narrative and informational texts. Data were collected from interviews, observations, and videotaping of the participant's narrative and informational text oral reading sessions and examined using thematic analysis.…
This article explores the ramifications of the 1992 "X Case" in which an Irish High Court rescinded the constitutional right to travel of a 14-year-old rape victim who intended to obtain an abortion in England. The article opens by noting that this decision made the subordinate role of women in Ireland painfully visible, thus allowing Irish feminists to win a degree of national and international support. The article examines newspaper coverage of the injunction to consider how this abortion issue reconstituted discourses of women's status, sexuality, and national identity in Ireland. The article provides background information on women's role in Ireland, relegated by the Constitution to the domestic sphere, and reviews the origins of the 1983 "pro-life" Constitutional amendment. Next the article considers how the discourse surrounding the child's rape and resulting pregnancy submerged the autonomy of the child in the victimhood of her family. The article continues by looking at the internal and international denouncement of the Irish state for its action and the responding Irish construct of a civilized "us" versus a barbaric "other." This was countered by appeals to "the people's" will and reinterpretations of the 1983 amendment to justify a more pragmatic approach to public policy about rape that would de-emphasize the moral status of the fetus. After showing how feminist protest extended the questions raised to embrace the issue of national identity and women's citizenship rights, the article concludes that the battle for female reproductive and sexual hegemony in Ireland continues.
The work of Carol Berkenkotter and others who have expanded the realm of personal narrative studies over the past several decades would not have been possible without the pioneering efforts of those who first brought the study of narrative to nonliterary discourses. By revisiting what personal narratives were to these pioneers-working outward from…
This study reviews theories supporting the construction of student knowledge and found they rely upon theoretical operations with few pragmatic applications. A new paradigm of learning needs to emerge which focuses on how students actually construct their own knowledge, based on reconstructing current/past knowledge or experience, and their…
Brannan, Steve; Fullerton, Ann
Case studies in the National Camp Evaluation Project and National Inclusive Camp Practices project used interviews with counselors and parents about camper's growth to yield qualitative data for camp program evaluation. The importance, methods, and benefits of case studies are described. Sidebars give examples of comments on perceived camper…
Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly
These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…
Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda
This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…
Case study learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Case studies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…
National Endowment for the Arts, 2009
The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…
Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter
This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.
Sperry, Linda L.; Sperry, Douglas E.
Describes an ethnographic study of African American toddlers and families that focused on children's productive competence in naturally occurring narrativelike conversation. Examines emergence of narrative competence; posits definition incorporating minimal requirements for child participation within the fundamental essence of narrative structure.…
In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…
Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn
We evaluated the narrative and expository writing samples of 12 adolescents with language-learning disabilities (LLD) in Grades 6 to 12 for elements of microstructure (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity) and macrostructure (genre-specific text structure elements) using an experimental measure. Writing samples were elicited with…
Stokrocki, Mary L.; Flatt, Barbara; York, Emily
Using participant observation, we describe/interpret the results of teaching a constructivist unit that empowered students in narrative writing and illustration. Participant observation methods included daily note taking, pre-post questioning, and photographing artworks. We analyzed students' stories and illustrations with borrowed and emerging…
Heppner, Denise H.
The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…
Denniston, Dorothy L.
This paper examines the scope and historical significance of biographies and autobiographies of ex-slaves. The document focuses primarily on accounts of black women published from 1820-1860, but also discusses several narratives from colonial times. Exploits of famous women slaves including Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth are analyzed along…
Köber, Christin; Schmiedek, Florian; Habermas, Tilmann
The ability to narrate stories and a synchronic self-concept develop in the pre- and primary school years. Life story theory proposes that both developments extend to an even later developmental stage, that is, to adolescents' acquisition of a coherent life story. Cross-sectional evidence supports the emergence of a life story in adolescence, but…
Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Jansonius, Kino; Cuperus, Juliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems. Since narrative competence is an important…
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Pasupathi, Monisha; Billitteri, Jacob; Mansfield, Cade D.; Wainryb, Cecilia; Hanley, Grace E.; Taheri, Kiana
This study examined how narration of harm experiences can regulate self and emotions in ways relevant to well-being. Participants (n = 88, 65% female) were asked to provide 6 narratives about instances when they were victims of harm and 6 narratives about instances when they were perpetrators of harm. Narratives were coded for extent of exploration, growth, damage conclusions and resolution. Participants drew damage conclusions more frequently in victim narratives and growth conclusions more frequently in perpetrator narratives. Both the type of experience (victim or perpetrator) and the way the experience was narrated (references to damage conclusions and resolution) predicted emotion and identity implications, which were, in turn, related to well-being. Implications for narrative approaches to self-regulation are discussed. PMID:26392641
Robertson, Jane M
This paper presents a case study exploring an older woman's perspective on the quality of her life with dementia. The case study establishes the importance of coherence across the life course in understanding how she evaluates her changed situation in the present compared to the past. The metaphoric description of moving from 'up there' to 'down here' represents the perceived struggle to maintain a sense of worth despite a marginalised social position. Being able to define self and social identity in ways that preserve a sense of social status is important to find meaning in everyday life. Finding meaning involves looking backwards to sustain continuity with the past and looking forwards to maintain momentum and keep going. A narrative framework is valuable in showing that quality of life is a dimension of meaning associated with maintaining a sense of social worth.
Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators
Mano, Yoko; Harada, Tokiko; Sugiura, Motoaki; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro
During narrative comprehension, readers understand the emotions of the protagonist by taking the perspective of the character, which is an essential component of empathy. Spatial perspective-taking is crucial to understanding the standpoints and perceptions of others, and gives clues as to what the protagonist knows. As a default, a "here and now" point-of-view is adopted to make sense of the narrative. If the protagonist is in a different location while an event takes place ("there and now"), in order to comprehend the narrative the reader must take an allocentric perspective, which places greater demands on spatial perspective-taking. Utilizing this phenomenon, we evaluated the neural substrates of perspective-taking in emotional narrative comprehension using functional MRI in 18 normal adults. The subjects read short stories followed by a target sentence, which described an event that might evoke an emotional response in the protagonist if the character were present. The stories involved a scenario in which the character was either present at the same location ("here and now") or at a distant location ("there and now") during the event. The "there and now" scenario activated the posterior cingulate cortex and the right temporo-parietal junction more prominently than the "here and now" condition. In contrast to the control tasks, both scenarios activated the well-known mentalizing network including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole, posterior cingulate cortex and temporo-parietal junction. Along with the mentalizing network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right temporo-parietal junction are involved in spatial perspective-taking during emotional narrative comprehension.
Shepherd, Alyce; Hoban, Garry; Dixon, Roselyn
This study explored the potential of using a new but simplified form of stop-motion animation called slowmation to support 4 primary school students with mild intellectual disabilities in co-constructing an animated social narrative about their own social skills. The research used a multiple case study design incorporating a range of qualitative…
Cochrane, Leslie Elizabeth
This study examines the construction of disability identities in personal and vicarious narratives. Sociolinguistic research on narrative focuses largely on personal narrative (Schiffrin 1996); some studies claim that vicarious narratives lack coherence and evaluation (Labov and Waletzky 1967; Chafe 1994) and have no natural relation to the…
Matheron, G.; Armstrong, M.
The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes.
Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Nauer, K A; Kramer, L; Lockard, K L
Presentation of a case study involving a female patient, in her 20s, undergoing routine surgery for removal of atrial myxoma leading to a heart transplant. This case study will show the progression from postcardiotomy failure, the emergent use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device, the insertion of the HeartMate device, and the final return to the operating room for a heart transplant. The case study will examine the physiologic demands on the patient, as well as the psychological effects from the various life-saving devices.
Singer, Jefferson A; Blagov, Pavel; Berry, Meredith; Oost, Kathryn M
An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long-term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life-story memories, which in turn become self-defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self-defining memories that share repetitive emotion-outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive-affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning-making to achieve insight and well-being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research.
Salinas, Cinthia S.; Fránquiz, María E.; Rodríguez, Noreen Naseem
This qualitative case study examines the experiences of Latina prospective teachers enrolled in a bilingual social studies methods course that focused attention upon critical historical inquiry. The students built historical narratives that deliberately addressed oft-ignored histories of Communities of Color. The analysis argues however that…
Teachers actively engaged in responding to their students' written narratives should be mindful of the many influences on their students' writing, including the abuses of the language by government bureaucracies and the media. Examples of these abuses are (1) the lack of density and direction or purpose in bureaucratic writing, (2) the disjointed,…
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
Slater, Timothy F.
Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.
A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma
The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
Swiercz, Paul Michael; Ross, Kathleen T.
Using a framework of organizational arenas (rational, human, political, symbolic), narrative analysis of the content of 36 Harvard Business School case studies revealed an overwhelming emphasis on the rational to the virtual exclusion of other domains. Four perceptual hazards (metathemes) that characterize rationality bias were elaborated:…
Hart, Edward J.
College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)
Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.
This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…
Madden, Lauren; Wiebe, Eric
This narrative case study examined the relationship between teacher identity and elementary science teaching. Teacher identity was described using a modification of Gee's framework incorporating three perspectives: the teachers' self-described identity, the researchers' view of teacher identity, and the students' views of teacher identity. Over the course of one school year, we studied one class of second-grade students receiving science instruction from three different teachers. We found that each teacher had unique identity characteristics. Further, the three perspectives of teacher identity were sometimes in conflict with one another within individual teachers, emphasizing the importance of incorporating multiple perspectives in order to give a complete description of teacher identity. This study has meaningful implications for understanding the ways in which students' perspectives can enrich our understanding of teacher identity.
Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D
Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.
This essay investigates how various perspectives differ and converge in the span of an afternoon, thus illustrating how divergent narratives, through their very difference, enhance one's understanding of the past. The case study of the 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress points to the process of narrativizing experience and underscores how meaning is…
A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…
Teggatz, Jennifer L.
How people come to conceptualize and understand science topics has implications for how they learn, communicate about, and relate to science. This dissertation conceptualizes and examines "cultural narratives" as cognitive tools used by individuals and shared through culture. Using nanotechnology as a case study I argue that people may…
The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the case study of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks--or narratives--for understanding household…
Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Marchetti, C; Wynn, V
Patterns of cognitive deficit in single neuropsychological cases are common sources of evidence for theories of normal cognition. In particular, the working memory model has benefited from data obtained from a number of contrasting patients, in some cases resulting in modifications of the working memory model. In this paper, patterns of data from short-term memory patients and anarthric patients are compared with patterns of data from normal subjects. The patterns of patient data that were unlike those patterns typically found for groups of normal subjects, could be incorporated within a modified version of the articulatory loop component of the working memory model. However a small number of individual normal subjects also did not show the pattern that is reported on the basis of average performance of groups of normal subjects. This causes some difficulty in interpreting those data from such 'aberrant normal' patterns, and those data from single patients with functional cognitive deficits. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of neuropsychological data are discussed in the context of the working memory model, but with the intention of making a general point pertaining to the development of functional models of cognition. It is argued that single case studies should continue to provide a useful source of evidence, providing that care is exercised in considering the implications of such data for models of normal cognition.
Teaching the science and policy of climate change is necessary but insufficient for helping students to develop a robust climate literacy. Climate change educators must also teach students how to evaluate historical trends, to unpack the assumptions in shared cultural narratives, to grapple with ethical dilemmas, and more generally to traverse the turbulence of feeling that is a hallmark of living in a time of global climate chaos. In short, climate literacy must include the skills and strategies of the humanities, and specifically literary and cultural studies. After providing an overview of how literary and cultural studies scholars from around the world are developing innovative pedagogical methods for addressing climate change (drawing on the presenter's experience editing the forthcoming volume Teaching Climate Change in the Humanities), the presentation will then report on a specific Literary Genres course taught at the University of Oregon. The course, offered to undergraduate non-majors who entered the class with little or no knowledge of climate change, constituted a case study of action research into the transdisciplinary teaching of climate change. The presentation will thus draw on quantitative course assessments, student coursework, and the instructor's own experiences in arguing that three key narratives underpin the work we do as multidisciplinary climate change educators: narratives of observation, narratives of speculation, and narratives of conversion. That is, we guide students through the processes of witnessing climate change, imagining more just and sustainable futures, and by so doing, transforming themselves and their communities. In the particular Literary Genres course under consideration, students used the tools of literary and cultural studies first to analyze existing versions of these narratives and then to compose their own versions of these narratives based on their local communities and ecologies. In the context of multidisciplinary
Although qualitative researches (QR) are invaluable in understanding complex healthcare situations, the quantitative systematic reviews could not treat them. To improve quality of healthcare services, results of QR should be considered in healthcare decision-making processes. Several methods and theories for synthesizing evidences of QR have been developed. In order to activate the narrative reviews and mixed methods reviews in Korean healthcare academies, I arranged the related nomenclatures and suggested some issues to conduct them.
Miller, Peggy J.; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan
Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to…
Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties with social communication and functioning, and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While substantial heterogeneity exists in symptom expression, impairments in language discourse skills, including narrative, are universally observed (Tager-Flusberg, Paul, & Lord, 2005). This study applied a computational linguistic tool, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to objectively characterize narrative performance in ASD across two narrative contexts differing in interpersonal and cognitive demands. Results indicated that individuals with ASD produced narratives comparable in semantic content to those from controls when narrating from a picture book, but produced narratives diminished in semantic quality in a more demanding narrative recall task. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of LSA as a quantitative, objective, and efficient measure of narrative ability. PMID:24915929
Miller, Peggy J; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan
Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to narrative takes root and burgeons as young children step into whichever narrative practices are at hand, practices that are culturally differentiated from the beginning. As children narrate their experiences, they orient themselves in time and establish the interpretive grounds for intelligibility. This process is highly dynamic. Stories recur, stories are repeated, stories are revamped, and stories disappear. These dynamics constitute, for many children, an intense narrative initiation that defines early childhood as a developmental context. By the end of early childhood, they are well versed in making and remaking narratives and show an incipient ability to open a wider temporal window on their own experience.
Griesel, Dorothee; Yuille, John C
A total of 119 sex trade workers were interviewed about sexually violent experiences. Up to three narratives were elicited: a remarkable, positive (control) event (POS), a well-remembered sexual assault (WELL), and a poorly recalled sexual assault (POOR). The results demonstrated that WELL narratives contained more details than POS narratives despite the fact that the respective experiences were older. WELL narratives were also associated with higher intoxication and more rehearsal than POS narratives. POOR narratives were as detailed as POS narratives. WELL narratives were associated with more PTSD symptoms than POOR narratives. No weapon focus effect and no differences in peritraumatic dissociation were observed to explain this difference. This study was the first to demonstrate great within-participants variability of narrative details in accounts of sexual violence. The findings challenge common opinions in the eyewitness literature. Implications for expert testimony and credibility assessment are discussed.
Buchanan, Lisa Brown
This article describes how elementary preservice teachers used four documentary films to think historically about the United States Civil Rights Movement. The author situates the descriptive case study within research about historical thinking and documentary film, identifying the need for using documentary film to think historically in the…
Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy
A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…
Smith, Peter A. C.
Proposes that the objectives of strategic planning may be attained more effectively if implemented via a learning paradigm. In support of this claim, describes a case study detailing implementation of such an initiative plus post-implementation interviews. (Contains 5 figures.)
Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.
As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.
This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)
Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.
Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…
Coleman, Howard W.
This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…
Teboul, J. C. Bruno
Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.
This collection of nine case studies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…
Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail
This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…
Martinsen, Randi; Kirkevold, Marit; Sveen, Unni
The psychosocial consequences following a stroke are known to be challenging, influencing the stroke survivors' ability to participate in and carry out the taken-for-granted roles and activities in family life. This study explored how living with the consequences of stroke impacted on family life in the late recovery phase, that is, six months or more after stroke onset. Twenty-two stroke survivors aged 20–61 years were interviewed in-depth six months to nine years after stroke onset. The interviews were analyzed applying a narrative, hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The findings revealed challenges that varied with time, from an initial struggle to suffice in and balance the relationships and roles within the family early after the stroke, towards a more resigned attitude later on in the stroke trajectory. The struggles are summarized in two main themes: “struggling to reenter the family” and “screaming for acceptance.” Nonestablished people living with stroke and stroke survivors in parental roles seem to be particularly vulnerable. Being provided with opportunities to narrate their experiences to interested and qualified persons outside the home context might be helpful to prevent psychosocial problems. PMID:23304485
in control of ever-increasing experience- bases. A model by Brom et al implemented forgetting according to emotional weight of memories ; other...analysis to locate scenes and story-units [7, 8]. 1.2 Narrative and Meta-Narrative Our formal definition of meta-narrative is designed to be independent...and (in our case) robots in such a scenario. R would include constraints that these narratives include the afore-mentioned roles (scouts, com officers
Tange, H J
This article presents an overview of a research project concerning the consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record (EMR). It describes an analysis of user needs, the design and implementation of a prototype EMR system, and the evaluation of the ease of consultation of medical narratives when using this system. In a questionnaire survey, 85 hospital physicians judged the quality of their paper-based medical record with respect to data entry, information retrieval and some other aspects. Participants were more positive about the paper medical record than the literature suggests. They wished to maintain the flexibility of data entry but indicated the need to improve the retrieval of information. A prototype EMR system was developed to facilitate the consultation of medical narratives. These parts were divided into labeled segments that could be arranged source-oriented and problem-oriented. This system was used to evaluate the ease of information retrieval of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital when using free-text medical narratives divided at different levels of detail. They solved, without time pressure, some predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. The participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. The division of medical narratives affected speed, but not completeness of information retrieval. Progress notes divided into problem-related segments could be consulted 22% faster than when undivided. Medical history and physical examination divided into segments at organ-system level could be consulted 13% faster than when divided into separate questions and observations. These differences were statistically significant. The fastest divisions were also appreciated as the best combination of easy searching and best insight in the patient case. The results of our evaluation study suggest a trade-off between searching and reading: too much
Chrzastowski, Szymon K
This article presents how genograms, a classic family therapy technique, can be used in the context of narrative therapy. Genograms create a unique opportunity to explore and re-tell family stories thus enabling their re-authoring. An important aspect of this process is that of tracking down family resources and wisdom. The graphic form of a genogram can be very helpful in distancing a person from the dominant narrations in her/his family. Additionally, genogram analysis is an excellent opportunity to conduct re-membering conversation and introducing the "club of life" metaphor. Finally, the creative approach to drawing genograms can be an invitation for family members to "play" with their family stories and, as a consequence, re-position their roles in these stories. The article completes the presentation of the family therapy case study which was inspired by narrative ideas and genogram analysis.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected.
Hamm, Jay A; Leonhardt, Bethany L
The recovery movement has not only challenged traditional pessimism regarding schizophrenia but also presented opportunities for the possibilities for psychotherapy for people with the disorder. Though in the past psychotherapy models were often pitted against one another, recently there have been emergent reports of a range of integrative models sharing an emphasis on recovery and a number of conceptual elements. These shared elements include attention to the importance of interpersonal processes, personal narrative, and metacognition, with interest in their role in not only the disorder but also the processes by which people pursue recovery. This article explores one application of this framework in the psychotherapy of a woman with prolonged experience of schizophrenia and significant functional impairments.
Conlan, Owen; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Hampson, Cormac; Lawless, Séamus; O'keeffe, Ian
This article describes the narrative approach to personalisation. This novel approach to the generation of personalised adaptive hypermedia experiences employs runtime reconciliation between a personalisation strategy and a number of contextual models (e.g. user and domain). The approach also advocates the late binding of suitable content and services to the generated personalised pathway resulting in an interactive composition that comprises services as well as content. This article provides a detailed definition of the narrative approach to personalisation and showcases the approach through the examination of two use-cases: the personalised digital educational games developed by the ELEKTRA and 80Days projects; and the personalised learning activities realised as part of the AMAS project. These use-cases highlight the general applicability of the narrative approach and how it has been applied to create a diverse range of real-world systems.
Olsen, Nikki S
This paper reviews the current literature on incident coding system reliability and discusses the methods applied in the conduct and measurement of reliability. The search strategy targeted three electronic databases using a list of search terms and the results were examined for relevance, including any additional relevant articles from the bibliographies. Twenty five papers met the relevance criteria and their methods are discussed. Disagreements in the selection of methods between reliability researchers are highlighted as are the effects of method selection on the outcome of the trials. The review provides evidence that the meaningfulness of and confidence in results is directly affected by the methodologies employed by the researcher during the preparation, conduct and analysis of the reliability study. Furthermore, the review highlights the heterogeneity of methodologies employed by researchers measuring reliability of incident coding techniques, reducing the ability to critically compare and appraise techniques being considered for the adoption of report coding and trend analysis by client organisations. It is recommended that future research focuses on the standardisation of reliability research and measurement within the incident coding domain.
McCormick, Bryan P.
Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…
Owens, Justin; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J
Background Previous research has examined the impact of patient narratives on treatment choices, but to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of narratives on information search. Further, no research has considered the relative impact of their format (text vs video) on health care decisions in a single study. Objective Our goal was to examine the impact of video and text-based narratives on information search in a Web-based patient decision aid for early stage breast cancer. Methods Fifty-six women were asked to imagine that they had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and needed to choose between two surgical treatments (lumpectomy with radiation or mastectomy). Participants were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a Web decision aid. Two versions of the decision aid included videos of interviews with patients and physicians or videos of interviews with physicians only. To distinguish between the effect of narratives and the effect of videos, we created two text versions of the Web decision aid by replacing the patient and physician interviews with text transcripts of the videos. Participants could freely browse the Web decision aid until they developed a treatment preference. We recorded participants’ eye movements using the Tobii 1750 eye-tracking system equipped with Tobii Studio software. A priori, we defined 24 areas of interest (AOIs) in the Web decision aid. These AOIs were either separate pages of the Web decision aid or sections within a single page covering different content. Results We used multilevel modeling to examine the effect of narrative presence, narrative format, and their interaction on information search. There was a significant main effect of condition, P=.02; participants viewing decision aids with patient narratives spent more time searching for information than participants viewing the decision aids without narratives. The main effect of format was not significant, P=.10. However, there was a
North, Carol S; Wohlford, Sarah E; Dean, Denis J; Black, Melissa; Balfour, Margaret E; Petrovich, James C; Downs, Dana L; Pollio, David E
Tracking the movements of homeless populations presents methodological difficulties, but understanding their movements in space and time is needed to inform optimal placement of services. This pilot study developed, tested, and refined methods to apply global positioning systems (GPS) technology paired with individual narratives to chronicle the movements of homeless populations. Detail of methods development and difficulties encountered and addressed, and geospatial findings are provided. A pilot sample of 29 adults was recruited from a low-demand homeless shelter in the downtown area of Fort Worth, Texas. Pre- and post-deployment interviews provided participant characteristics and planned and retrospectively-reported travels. Only one of the first eight deployments returned with sufficient usable data. Ultimately 19 participants returned the GPS device with >20 h of usable data. Protocol adjustments addressing methodological difficulties achieved 81 % of subsequent participants returning with sufficient usable data. This study established methods and demonstrated feasibility for tracking homeless population travels.
Baumer, Allan; Magerko, Brian
We have investigated the experience of improvisers as they perform to better understand how narrative is constructed by group performance in improvisational theatre. Our study was conducted with improvisers who would perform improv "games" with each iteration video recorded. Each individual participant was shown the video in a retrospective protocol collection, before reviewing it again in a group interview. This process is meant to elicit information about how the cognition involved develops narrative during an improvisation performance. This paper presents our initial findings related to narrative development in improvisational theatre with an ambition to use these and future analyses in creating improvisational intelligent agents. These findings have demonstrated that the construction of narrative is crafted through the making and accepting of scene-advancing offers, which expert improvisers are more readily capable of performing.
Oi, Misato; Saito, Hirofumi; Li, Zongfeng; Zhao, Wenjun
To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2),…
Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.
Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…
Fuchs, Hans U.
Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science--such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of…
Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim
Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and "freedom" in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.
Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim
Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets. PMID:27914194
Dowling, Fiona, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hayley, Ed.; Flintoff, Anne, Ed.
Issues of equity remain an essential theme throughout the study and practice of physical education (PE), youth sport and health. This important new book confronts and illuminates issues of equity and difference through the innovative use of narrative method, telling stories of difference that enable students, academics and professionals alike to…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Friesen, Lisa Dinner
This study investigated the effect of a small-group storybook-based intervention on kindergarten students' vocabulary and narrative development, which is important to later reading achievement. Twenty-eight kindergarten children from a high-poverty urban school, all significantly behind their peers on standardized measures of language development…
Mahoney, Kerrigan R.; Khwaja, Tehmina
Students graduating from K-12 education need media literacy skills to engage, participate, and learn in a world in which literacy must keep pace with rapidly changing technologies. Given the significant roles school administrators play in providing leadership and vision to their schools, this narrative study addresses the research question: What…
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena
Out of the complex influences of event, narrative and listener characteristics on narrative emotions, this paper focuses on event severity, narrative perspectives, mood, and dispositions for emotion regulation and empathy. Event severity and perspective representation were systematically varied in sad autobiographical narratives to study their influence on quantity and quality of readers' emotional response. Each of three stories were manipulated to contain elaborated perspectives, only the past protagonists' perspective (dramatic narration), and very little perspectives at all (impersonal narration). We predicted that event severity influences the quantity of emotional response, while degree of perspective representation influences plausibility and whether emotional responses are sympathetic or interactional, that is, directed against the narrator. Hypotheses were confirmed except for plausibility, and perspective representation had an effect only on anger against and dislike of the narrator. In a second study, impersonal narration evoked anger at and negative evaluations of the narrator which were related to blaming the narrator for showing too little emotional involvement. The generalizability of findings across emotions and implications for sharing of emotions in everyday and clinical settings are discussed.
Bedwell, J S; Gallagher, S; Whitten, S N; Fiore, S M
The current study collected orally-delivered autobiographical narratives from a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to produce both deceptive and non-deceptive versions of their narrative to two specific autobiographical question prompts while standing in front of a video camera. Narratives were then analyzed with Coh-Metrix software on 33 indices of linguistic cohesion. Following a Bonferroni correction for the large number of linguistic variables (p<.002), results indicated that the deceptive narratives contained more explicit action verbs, less linguistic complexity, and less referential coherence (sentences being cohesive with each other). The results support a theory that, in deceptive narratives, there is greater narrative distance between the self that narrates and the self that is narrated about. This suggests that narrative selves are constituted not as autonomous selves, but are subject to processes (e.g., psychological, linguistic, social) that are likely operating on a subconscious level.
Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological reaction after large-scale natural disasters. Given the number of people involved and shortage of resources in any major disaster, brief, pragmatic and easily trainable interventions are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for PTSD using Chinese earthquake survivors. Methods A randomized waiting-list control pilot study was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010, at the site of the Sichuan earthquake in Beichuan County, China. Adult participants with newly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were randomly allocated to Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) or a Waiting-List (WL) condition. The latter received NET treatment after a two-week waiting period. To compare the effectiveness of NET in traumatised earthquake survivors, both groups were assessed on PTSD symptoms, general mental health, anxiety and depression, social support, coping style and posttraumatic change before and after treatment and two months post treatment. Results Adult participants (n=22) were randomly allocated to receive NET (n=11) or WL (n=11). Twenty two participants (11 in NET group, 11 in WL) were included in the analysis of primary outcomes. Compared with WL, NET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression, general mental stress and increased posttraumatic growth. The WL group later showed similar improvements after treatment. These changes remained stable for a two-month follow-up. Measures of social support and coping showed no stable effects. Conclusions NET is effective in treating post-earthquake traumatic symptoms in adult Chinese earthquake survivors. The findings help advance current knowledge in the management of PTSD after natural disasters and inform future research. Larger sample sizes are needed to extend the present findings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry
This article is a theoretical study which aims to articulate the notion of narrative identity in the process of aging. This theory makes it possible to present the modalities of figuration of the subject, its broken meanings or refigurations and their elaborated narratives or configurations. The identity narrative explores the mechanisms by which a person develops stories using temporal references, relatives to past and future, and meaningful contexts, to acquire meanings in situations or life stages of disruption and disagreement on whether figuration.
Dembo, Justine S
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex condition with biological, genetic, and psychosocial causes. Traditional evidence-based treatments include cognitive-behavioural therapy, either alone or in combination with serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), other serotonergic agents, or atypical antipsychotics. These treatments, however, often do not lead to remission, and therefore, it is crucial to explore other less conventional therapeutic approaches. This paper describes a case study in which psychodynamic, narrative, existential, and metaphor therapy in combination with more conventional treatments led to a dramatic remission of severe OCD in a 12 year old hospitalized on a psychiatric inpatient unit. The paper, which is written partly in the form of a story to demonstrate on a meta-level the power of narrative, is also intended to illustrate the challenges of countertransference in the treatment of patients with severe OCD, and the ways in which a reparative therapeutic alliance can lead to unexpected and vital change.
AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in
Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…
Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by serious difficulties with the social use of language, along with impaired social functioning and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2013). While substantial heterogeneity exists in symptom expression, impairments in language discourse skills, including narrative (or storytelling), are universally observed in autism (Tager-Flusberg et al. in Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 335-364, 2005). This study applied a computational linguistic tool, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to objectively characterize narrative performance in high-functioning individuals with autism and typically-developing controls, across two different narrative contexts that differ in the interpersonal and cognitive demands placed on the narrator. Results indicated that high-functioning individuals with autism produced narratives comparable in semantic content to those produced by controls when narrating from a picture book, but produced narratives diminished in semantic quality in a more demanding narrative recall task. This pattern is similar to that detected from analyses of hand-coded picture book narratives in prior research, and extends findings to an additional narrative context that proves particularly challenging for individuals with autism. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of LSA as a quantitative, objective, and efficient measure of narrative ability.
Narrative case research has been widely utilized in educational inquiry to investigate different and changing positions and perspectives on questions of identity, curriculum and classroom practice. Despite the fact that case-study research of this kind is well suited to the investigation of changing technologies and their interpretation in…
Kurby, Christopher A; Asiala, Lillian K E; Mills, Steven R
The perception of event structure in continuous activity is important for everyday comprehension. Although the segmentation of experience into events is a normal concomitant of perceptual processing, previous research has shown age differences in the ability to perceive structure in naturalistic activity, such as a movie of someone washing a car. However, past research has also shown that older adults have a preserved ability to comprehend events in narrative text, which suggests that narrative may improve the event processing of older adults. This study tested whether there are age differences in event segmentation at the intersection of continuous activity and narrative: narrative film. Younger and older adults watched and segmented a narrative film, The Red Balloon, into coarse and fine events. Changes in situational features, such as changes in characters, goals, and objects predicted segmentation. Analyses revealed little age-difference in segmentation behavior. This suggests the possibility that narrative structure supports event understanding for older adults.
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on `what meaning is being made' rather than `what is happening here' (quadrant 2 rather than quadrant 1). It is suggested that in using the integral theory model, a qualitative research project focuses primarily on one quadrant and is enhanced by approaches suggested in the other quadrants.
Kelly, Ryan P; Cooley, Sarah R; Klinger, Terrie
Even when environmental data quantify the risks and benefits of delayed responses to rapid anthropogenic change, institutions rarely respond promptly. We propose that narratives complementing environmental datasets can motivate responsive environmental policy. To explore this idea, we relate a case study in which a narrative of economic loss due to regionally rapid ocean acidification-an anthropogenic change-helped connect knowledge with action. We pose three hypotheses to explain why narratives might be particularly effective in linking science to environmental policy, drawing from the literature of economics, environmental policy, and cognitive psychology. It seems that yet-untold narratives may hold similar potential for strengthening the feedback between environmental data and policy and motivating regional responses to other environmental problems.
Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia
This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups.
Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia
Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.
Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas
Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology.
Winterbottom, Anna; Bekker, Hilary L; Conner, Mark; Mooney, Andrew
Including narratives in health-care interventions is increasingly popular. However, narrative information may bias individual's decision making, resulting in patients making poorer decisions. This systematic review synthesises the evidence about the persuasiveness of narrative information on individuals' decision making. Seventeen studies met the review criteria; 41% of studies employed first person narration, 59% third person. Narrative information influenced decision making more than the provision of no additional information and/or statistically based information in approximately a third of the studies (5/17); studies employing first person narratives were twice as likely to find an effect. There was some evidence that narrative information encouraged the use of heuristic rather than systematic processing. However, there was little consistency in the methods employed and the narratives' content to provide evidence on why narratives affect the decision process and outcome, whether narratives facilitate or bias decision making, and/or whether narratives affect the quality of the decision being made. Until evidence is provided on why and how narratives influence decision making, the use of narratives in interventions to facilitate medical decision making should be treated cautiously.
Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia
Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283
Kennedy, Mary M.
Although single case studies might be useful to evaluators for a variety of purposes, there are no generally accepted ways for drawing inferences about the generality of findings from a case study. Single case studies are defined in this paper as either studies of single events, or disaggregated studies of multiple events. The data may be…
Connelly, F. Michael; Clandinin, D. Jean
Surveys forms of narrative inquiry in educational studies. Outlines certain criteria, methods, and writing forms. Describes them in terms of beginning the story, living the story, and selecting stories to construct and reconstruct narrative plots. Describes two-part research agenda for curriculum and studies flowing from stories of experience and…
DeCandido, GraceAnne A., Ed.
This book presents 22 personal narratives in which library directors, program administrators, teachers, tutors, librarians, and adult learners explain firsthand how literacy programs at libraries across the United States have changed people's lives. The following narratives are included: "Gloria's Story: 'She Wanted Me to Be Somebody'";…
A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…
Dirckx, J H
This article further explores patterns and traditions in classical accounts of pestilence. Recurring themes and expressions show that classical authors often copied earlier narratives, although literary analysis reveals that they sometimes embellished or distorted facts for their own purposes.
Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.
The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.
Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia
Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.
Soto, Gloria; Yu, Betty; Kelso, Jennifer
Children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) have been found to experience difficulties in the elicited generation of both personal and fictional narratives. The purpose of this single case study was to evaluate the effects of a multifaceted intervention program designed to support the development of autonomous narrative skills in children who used AAC. The relationship between exposure to the intervention program and increases in the narrative skills of the focus child was investigated using a single case, multiple probe baseline design. Results indicate that the narratives of the focus child improved in both linguistic and story complexity following intervention. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the specific needs of this population of users of AAC.
Duckworth, Vicky; Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.
The study draws on life history, literacy studies, and ethnographic approaches to exploring social practices as a frame to explore the narratives of two UK adult literacy learners who provide a description of their engagement with a transformative curriculum and pedagogical approach. One of the learners reveals his frustration at the lack of…
Researchers across disciplines have recognized considerable individual variation among caregivers in their response to the experiences of caregiving. One explanation for individual variation is that caregivers make different meanings from caregiving even under externally similar circumstances. This paper describes findings from a study that combined two qualitative strategies, across-case, thematic analysis and within-case, narrative analysis, to investigate meaning in accounts of family caregiving. Themes identified in the across-case analysis were interpreted in the context of patterns identified in the narrative analysis, as well as in the overall framework of caregivers' process of making meaning. Caregivers in this study told four types of stories: stories of ideal lives, stories of ordinary lives, stories of compromised lives, and ambiguous stories. Characteristics of each story type are described, and an example of an ambiguous story is also included as an illustration of the method. Findings suggest a new approach to understanding family caregiving that incorporates the diverse meanings caregivers make of their often similar experiences.
Bennett, David E.; Thompson, Paula
A case study demonstrating how an online narrative featuring the adventures of a cuddly toy penguin, Pablo Penguin (@uoppenguin on Twitter) has been introduced at the University of Portsmouth Library to build trust and engagement between university students and library services and facilities. Evidence for the benefits of anthropomorphic brand…
Reyes, Reynaldo, III; Valles, Estella; Salinas, Cinthia
This paper is a case study of a Chicana former migrant in her first year of college through CAMP (College Assistance Migrant Program), and how she negotiated the challenges of family, romance, and the desire to reach her goals. Through narrative analysis, the authors examine the thoughts, words, and experiences of Luz's life to provide insight to…
Salvini, Alessandro; Faccio, Elena; Mininni, Giuseppe; Romaioli, Diego; Cipolletta, Sabrina; Castelnuovo, Gianluca
Starting from the critical review of various motivational frameworks of change that have been applied to the study of eating disorders, the present paper provides an alternative conceptualization of the change in psychotherapy presenting a single-case study. We analyzed six psychotherapeutic conversations with a bulimic patient and found out narratives “for” and “against” change. We read them in terms of tension between dominance and exchange in I-positions, as described by Hermans. These results indicate that the dialogical analysis of clinical discourse may be a useful method to investigate change from the beginning to the end of therapy. PMID:23233845
practical knowledge greatly influences their well-being. In those cases in which the nurses describe how they have protected the patients from error, this practical knowledge can mean the difference between life and death. The study highlights the need to manage practical knowledge and undertake further research. The study is useful in keeping clinical practice up-to-date. PMID:25132455
Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Zampieri, Elisa; Vorano, Lorenza; Zettin, Marina; Carlomagno, Sergio
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…
Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer
In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…
Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin
This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…
Wiebe, Sean; MacDonald, Craig
Reflecting on a previous study of teachers' narratives, this epistolary conversation follows ideas of intensification and complexity that emerged in the authors' return to the narrative accounts. Their conversation highlights representations of teaching as a struggle for recognition, personal happiness, and security-all within a system of…
Kellogg, Ronald T.; And Others
A study investigated whether the narrative writing task is more compatible with the structure of conscious thought than are other writing tasks. If so, composing a narrative text should demand less cognitive effort, occur more fluently, and yield a more coherent document than composing persuasive or descriptive texts. Sixteen college students were…
Gregory, Robert J.; Mustata, Georgian T.
Adolescents sometimes cut themselves to relieve distress; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have linked self-injury to deficits in processing emotions symbolically through language. To investigate expressive language of adolescent cutters, the authors analyzed 100 narratives posted on the Internet. Most narratives (n = 66)…
Miner, Eric F.
Narrative transportation occurs when people become emotionally immersed in stories, such that they feel imaginatively conveyed into story worlds. This study investigated the lived experiences of students who encountered narrative transportation in a college classroom. It is of interest to psychologists and educational practitioners because…
Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Pearce, Neil
The purpose of this article is to present in elementary mathematical and statistical terms a simple way to quickly and effectively teach and understand case-control studies, as they are commonly done in dynamic populations-without using the rare disease assumption. Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently.
scientists propose that narrative is central to models of explanation and inference. Jerome Brumer described the characteristics of narrative that...Management Language Study Group. Proc. of the Fall Simulations Interoperability Workshop, Orlando, FL Sep. 2005. Bruner , J. The Narrative Construction
Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; So, Wing Chee
This study developed a spoken narrative (i.e., storytelling) assessment as a supplementary measure of children's creativity. Both spoken and gestural contents of children's spoken narratives were coded to assess their verbal and nonverbal creativity. The psychometric properties of the coding system for the spoken narrative assessment were…
Cohn, Neil Thomas
Narrative has been formally studied for at least two millennia, dating back to the writings of Aristotle. While most theories began by describing the construction of plotlines in theatre, most contemporary research on the structure and comprehension of narratives has examined the discourse of spoken language. However, visual narratives in the form…
Informed by the narrative inquiry approach (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990), this qualitative study examined preservice teachers' narratives to investigate what they think, know, and believe in teaching English learners. Beyond just telling stories, narrative structures and meanings were examined with the goal of gaining insight of the preservice…
Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Nockerts, Ann; Andriacchi, Karen Digney
A study was conducted to examine the issues of accuracy and reliability for transcription and analysis of oral narratives from Spanish-English bilingual children. Findings reveal that oral narrative data from ELL children can be accurately transcribed and the narrative measures are stable over time.
Arfe, Barbara; Boscolo, Pietro
This study investigates the causal coherence of deaf students' written narratives and the relation between students' use of causal structures in narrative writing and their linguistic skills. The written narratives of 17 deaf high school students were compared with those of 2 groups of hearing writers: 17 high school students and 16 second…
Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed
This qualitative study analyzes the career path narratives of active principals. Structural narrative analysis was supplemented with sociolinguistic theory and thematic narrative analysis to discern the similarities and differences, as well as the patterns in the language used by participating principals. Thematic analysis found four major themes…
Elson, David K.
This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…
Langellier, Kristin M.
In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…
Designed to assess the quality of children's narrative compositions, the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale (GNCS) consists of eighteen scales outlined under plot, theme, setting, characterization, and style. Each scale is scored 1, 2, or 3, depending on how much of the scale element is present in the narrative, with the highest possible score…
Hendry, Petra Munro
The author suggests that all research is narrative. Resituating all research as narrative, as opposed to characterizing narrative as one particular form of inquiry, provides a critical space for rethinking "research" beyond current dualisms and bifurcations that create boundaries that limit the capacity for dialogue across diverse epistemologies.…
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Delta Pi Epsilon, Minneapolis, Minn. Phi Chapter.
This publication contains 58 case studies for classroom use in teaching various business and consumer education subjects at the high school level. A supplement to a previous Phi Chapter publication, "Office Education Case Studies" (1973), the case studies are intended to create class discussions and help students acquire the ability to analyze…
Yin, Robert K.
In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…
Myrvold, Wayne C.
As has been noted by several authors, in a relativistic context, there is an interesting difference between classical and quantum state evolution. For a classical system, a state history of a quantum system given along one foliation uniquely determines, without any consideration of the system's dynamics, a state history along any other foliation. This is not true for quantum state evolution; there are cases in which a state history along one foliation is compatible with multiple distinct state histories along some other, a phenomenon that David Albert has dubbed "non-narratability." In this article, we address the question of whether non-narratability is restricted to the sorts of special states that so far have been used to illustrate it. The results of the investigation suggest that there has been a misplaced emphasis on underdetermination of state histories; though this is generic for the special cases that have up until now been considered, involving bipartite systems in pure entangled states, it fails generically in cases in which more component systems are taken into account, and for bipartite systems that have some entanglement with their environment. For such cases, if we impose relativistic causality constraints on the evolution, then, except for very special states, a state history along one foliation uniquely determines a state history along any other. But this in itself is a marked difference between classical and quantum state evolution, because, in a classical setting, no considerations of dynamics at all are needed to go from a state history along one foliation to a state history along another.
The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35 yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35 yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools.
Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza
This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status.
The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35 yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud’s phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35 yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools. PMID:26460379
Sesko, S C
The author has been investigating the affective and intellectual views that gifted children have about computers. These studies have used various methodological approaches in order to develop a broad perspective on the issues involved in this topic. The author has used survey instruments (Sesko, 1998) and interview techniques (Sesko, 1999) to capture both statistical and narrative data. The objective of this study is to explore in depth the interactions that one student has with the machine and its applications. The driver for this and the previous studies was the paucity of research in the area of gifted and talented children and their involvement with what has become the primary intellectual tool of the century (Turkel, 1984). The second reason is that it has been posited that the intellectual characteristics of gifted children should enable those who are interested in computers to achieve a high level of proficiency with either computer applications or programming. Further, the ability to learn things at a young age should allow gifted children who use computers to develop a large variety of computer-based activities. The author has shown evidence to support these ideas in previous work. Finally, as Hausman (1985) claims, facilities with computers should allow these children to create new activities for using computers. The author found no published research to demonstrate whether they do; but still believes the results of this case study strongly support Hausman's contentions.
Herbst, Alida; Drenth, Cornelia
This qualitative study involved action research to explore one woman’s narrative of awareness, emotions and thoughts during treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). The overarching aim is to increase insight into the thoughts, feelings and bio-psychosocial needs of the patient receiving treatment in ICU. Data was collected by means of narrative discourse analysis. Literature on the psychosocial and spiritual implications of ICU treatment is limited, and often patients have no recall of their treatment in an ICU at all. Documenting the illness narrative of this individual case is valuable as the participant could recall a certain amount of awareness, thoughts and emotions. These experiences included delirium, anxiety, helplessness, frustration and uncertainty. Once sedation was decreased, the patient’s consciousness increased and she was confronted with thoughts and emotions that were unrealistic and frightening. It was found in this study that the opportunity to share a narrative on the emotions and awareness during treatment in an ICU had cathartic value and the participant suffered little symptoms of post traumatic stress syndrome, often associated with long term treatment in an ICU. Further research on this topic is necessary to improve ICU treatment, not only on a physical level, but with emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual needs of the patient. PMID:22980374
Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor
Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives.
Pereles, Laurie; Jackson, Roberta; Rosenal, Tom; Nixon, Lara
Abstract Objective To determine the value of adding a patient narrative to the clinical assessment of falls in the elderly. Design Qualitative study of interviews. Setting A fall prevention clinic in Calgary, Alta. Participants Fifteen older adults on a wait list for assessment by the fall clinic and the physiotherapists who assessed them. Methods Participants’ stories were audiorecorded and later transcribed and summarized. Stories were collected using open-ended questions, first inviting participants to tell the interviewer about themselves, and then the circumstances of their falls and their reflections on them. In a subsequent visit, transcriptions or summaries were returned to patients for member checking. Narratives were read and analyzed by all 4 investigators using a narrative approach and a close-reading technique. With the patients’ additional consent, stories were shared with the fall prevention team for their insights and reactions. Interviews with physiotherapists were audiorecorded and transcribed. Main findings The narrative analysis provided new insights into the attitudes about and perceptions of the causes of falls, their effects, and rehabilitation. Close reading exposed presentation of self, locus of control, and underlying social and emotional issues. Conclusion The addition of patient narratives to clinical assessments offers clinicians an understanding of patients’ perspectives, which can be used to better engage patients in rehabilitation. PMID:28115459
Shaghaghi, Mohammadreza; Parvaneh, Nima; Ostad-Rahimi, Pouya; Fathi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar
Neurologic abnormalities compatible with vaccine-related poliovirus infection (VAPP) may be a first presentation of some primary immunodeficient patients. The risk of VAPP rises from 1 case per 750 000 in normal population to 1 per 7000 times higher, particularly for persons with agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, there is no appropriate estimation for VAPP occurrence in patients with cellular immunity defects. Herein we report a case of combined immunodeficiency with paralytic complication due to oral polio vaccine and we present a literature review on this topic.
Tack, E; De Cuypere, G; Jannes, C; Remouchamps, A
A case is presented of a young woman with a serious addiction to levodopa who over the years developed an extrapyramidal syndrome and chronic paranoid psychotic behaviour. The possible pathophysiological mechanism is discussed.
Holder, K. C.; Downey, Jayne A.
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare student learning documented using written field experience summary narratives and occurring in community-based or school-based locations. Utilizing a hybrid portraiture--instrumental case study design, two researchers selected participants from undergraduate educational psychology courses using…
Kwong Caputo, Jolina Jade
This study sought to explore the lived experiences of five female, first-generation, low-income students who attend a metropolitan commuter university, and investigate how a structured undergraduate research experience exerts influence on the women's academic and social involvement. A qualitative case study with a narrative and grounded…
Mischler, James J., III
This article presents a case study of phonological types of internal evaluation in the personal oral narrative of one non-native speaker of English. The purpose was twofold: (1) to study whether laughter and exhaled breath can serve the functions of expressive phonology; i.e., phonological features which provide commentary and point of view for…
Mota, Graça; Araújo, Maria Jose
A three-year-case study funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education was designed to study a 30-year project of music and drama in primary schools in Madeira. This article reports on the narratives of the three main figures in the project as they elaborate on its…
Kantar, Lina D.
Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…
Savy, Pauline; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
This paper highlights the problem of "place" for an Iraqi refugee who, for years, had been tortured and imprisoned in his home country. Specifically, the paper presents a case study of a clinical encounter with this refugee, who had come to the attention of an Australian Crisis Assessment and Treatment Team. Drawing from narrative theory, the paper describes the chaotic nature of the encounter to show how the diverse motives, claims and actions of those present expose the struggle involved in the emplotment of an emerging narrative. The case study is constructed and analysed to illustrate the interpretive machinery of "clinical reasoning" and, in particular, the tension and play between "paradigmatic thinking" and "narrative thinking." More generally, this analysis follows the work of social scientists who seek to expand methodologies for writing about human suffering.
Leach, Melissa; Tadros, Mariz
This article explores the politics of knowledge involved in understanding and responding to epidemics in an era of global health governance and biosecurity. It develops and applies an approach focused on how multiple, competing narratives about epidemics are constructed, mobilized and interact, and selectively justify pathways of intervention and response. A detailed ethnographic case study of national and local responses to H1N1 influenza, so-called swine flu, in Egypt reveals how global narratives were reworked by powerful actors in a particular political context, suppressing and delegitimizing the alternative narratives of the Zabaleen (Coptic Christian) people whose lives and livelihoods centered on raising pigs and working with them to control urban waste. The case study illustrates important ways in which geographies and politics of blame around epidemics emerge and are justified, their political contexts and consequences, and how they may feed back to shape the dynamics of disease itself.
Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of…
Pruden, Manning; Kerkhoff, Shea N.; Spires, Hiller A.; Lester, James
The aim of this study was to explore how "Narrative Theatre," a narrative-centered digital learning environment, supported the writing processes of 3 struggling adolescent male writers. We utilized a multicase study approach to capture 3 sixth-grade participants' experiences with the digital learning environment before, during, and after…
This book is designed as a resource for educators who teach business content in a variety of instructional settings. It contains case studies representing all functional areas of business, including corporate training, for grades 7 through graduate education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the case study method. The history of the case method,…
Jordens, C F; Little, M; Paul, K; Sayers, E J
This paper draws on social linguistics to inquire into the meaning and function of complexity in illness narratives. According to social linguists, five different story-type genres occur in spoken English. These are illustrated and differentiated using examples drawn from 10 interviews with people who have undergone colectomy for colorectal cancer. In order to test a hypothesis that complexity in illness narratives is related to life disruption, the 10 accounts were ranked in terms of their generic complexity. Measures of life disruption were based on rankings furnished independently by two readers from different disciplines who were blind to the hypothesis being tested. These two rankings showed a high level of agreement (r(s) = 0.85, p<0.01). When the two life disruption rankings and the generic complexity ranking were compared, a high degree of concordance between the three rankings was observed (W = 0.91, p<0.01). No evidence was found of associations between generic complexity and gender, interviewer, surgical outcome in terms of stoma (p>0.05), age (p>0.7) nor time since diagnosis (p>0.1). We conclude that in this study, generic complexity was strongly and significantly related to life disruption. To explain the function of complexity in interaction, we characterise the illness narrative as a genre in its own right, and argue that illness narratives need to be considered both in terms of the work they do both on the listener and for the narrator. In the former case, complexity opens up a discursive space for the dynamic positioning of the interlocutor. In the latter case, we propose that complexity reflects the degree to which the process of re-ordering life by assigning meaning is occurring as the interaction unfolds. In both cases, complex narratives can thus be understood as "hard working" narratives.
Oi, Misato; Saito, Hirofumi; Li, Zongfeng; Zhao, Wenjun
To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2), respectively. The participants showed significantly more gestures in L2 than in L1. The number of gestures lowered at the ending part of the narration in L1, but not in L2. Analyses of concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin revealed that activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) significantly increased during gesture production, while activation of the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) significantly decreased in line with an increase in the left IFG. These brain activation patterns suggest that the left IFG is involved in the gesture production, and the left pSTS is modulated by the speech load.
Valera, Pamela; Kratz, Molly
Summary Former inmates encounter a variety of challenges when returning to their community, including poor health status and limited access to healthcare services. This qualitative study examined how former male inmates with chronic conditions perceived, understood, managed, and coped with their illnesses. Findings: The participants were Black and Puerto Rican, with a mean age of 47 years, who were interviewed within three years of their release. Participants reported at least one chronic condition, with 21 HIV-negative men using chaos narratives to depict their approach to disease management. Nine HIV-positive men used quest narratives to present their illnesses and were immediately linked to supportive services, enabling them to overcome the barriers to community reintegration. Applications: Health interventions in the area of forensic social work ought to focus on conducting Medicaid outreach and enrollment efforts prior to correctional facility discharge. PMID:25419175
Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey
This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…
Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.
This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…
This paper is based on a multidimensional study employing a heuristic methodology termed "creative narrative" that combines arts-based methods with narrative inquiry. Six female teachers' narratives of identity are explored through artistic, visual images to illuminate if and how they story "unconscious". The creative narratives, illuminated…
Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal
In this study, the author investigated narrative performances of 10 high-functioning young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) across personal and storybook narratives. Narratives were elicited with genre-specific procedures and then transcribed and scored using the narrative scoring scheme (NSS). One-tailed paired-sample t tests were…
Wagner, Fred; Roberts, Dave; Francfort, Jim; White, Sera
Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs
Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara
This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).
Rathmann, Christian; Mann, Wolfgang; Morgan, Gary
Researchers, the Deaf community, teachers of deaf children and speech and language therapists all share a concern about how to improve deaf children's written language skills. One part of literacy is story writing or narrative. A finding from a small number of studies is that children exposed to sign language from early childhood onwards achieve…
Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.
Mogadime, Dolana; Mentz, P. J.; Armstrong, Denise E.; Holtam, Beryl
The present article draws from the biographical narratives of three South African high school female principals which are part of a larger research study in which 26 aspiring and practicing women school leaders were interviewed. Narratives were constructed from in-depth interviews with each participant and analyzed for themes that provided…
Thapar, R B; Jha, V U; Mehta, R U; Shah, G R
The urachus, or median umbilical ligament, is a midline tubular structure that extends upward from the anterior dome of the bladder toward, the umbilicus and represents the vestigial remnant of at least two embryonic structures, the cloaca and the allantois. The tubular urachus normally involutes before birth, remaining as a fibrous band, however its persistence can give rise to various clinical problems, not only in infants and children but also in adults. We report two cases of pyourachus at our institute with a review of the clinical presentation, imaging findings and surgical management. Both our patients were young males, with haematuria being the presenting feature in one case which has not been previously described in literature.
Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chen, Gina Masullo; Chock, T Makana; Wang, Yi; Ni, Liqiang; Schweisberger, Valarie
This study used self-reports and physiological measures-heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)-to examine the effects of novelty appeals, sexual appeals, narrative versus statistical evidence, and viewer's sex on cognitive and emotional processing of HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) among heterosexually active single college students. Novelty or sexual appeals differently affected self-reported attention and cognitive effort as measured by HR. High- rather than low-novelty HIV/AIDS PSAs, perceived as more attention-eliciting, did not lead to more cognitive effort. High- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs, not perceived as more attention-eliciting, led to more cognitive effort as reflected by greater HR deceleration. Novelty or sexual appeals also affected self-reported emotional arousal and SCL differently. HIV/AIDS PSAs with high rather than low levels of novelty or sexual appeals led to greater self-reported arousal, but not greater SCL. Message evidence interacted with message appeals to affect cognitive effort. Participants exerted greater cognitive effort during high- rather than low-novelty narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs, and during low- rather than high-novelty statistical ones. The advantage of high over low sexual appeals was more obvious in statistical than in narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs. Males reported greater emotional arousal than females during high- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs.
Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei
Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…
McLean, Gary N.
Eight case studies appropriate for use in a course in management development were prepared and are provided in this document. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision. Questions for…
Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O
We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.
Clarke, Robert Garth Hipkins; Thomas, Sharon
A growing number of university teachers advocate the benefits of multimedia and digital technologies in their classrooms. Such technologies are promoted: as a means to ensure the relevance of subject disciplines; and, as tools of engagement to assist students to meet their learning outcomes. Digital storytelling or narration is one example of how…
Fojkar, Mateja Dagarin; Skela, Janez; Kovac, Pija
The article reports the findings of a survey, conducted among primary school English language teachers in Slovenia, aimed at revealing their attitudes towards the use of narratives in teaching English as a foreign language to children aged from eight to nine years (3rd and 4th grades respectively). The research results show that most teachers use…
Plante, Elena; Ramage, Amy E.; Magloire, Joel
How verbal information is processed and recalled appears to be influenced by the structure of the information presented (e.g., unrelated sentences vs. narratives) and the processes the listener uses to encode the information (e.g., verbatim encoding vs. gist extraction). Twenty adults, half with a history of learning disabilities (HLD) and half…
Berry, Lois Elaine
Background Many nurse researchers have embraced narrative methods because of the power of the stories they produce. Narrative enquiry relies on stories for data. Stories are the tools with which people build a sense of their experience of the world and the vehicle by which they share that sense with others. In narrative research, it is essential to follow themes beyond individual stories through to analysis at the social level. The researcher must understand the significance of the narrative for others and for society. Narrative lends itself particularly well to studies of changes in a society and societal groups. Aim To define and describe approaches to narrative enquiry, address their uses and usefulness, and identify potential issues. Discussion Narrative methods require the development of trust. Researchers and participants must understand their roles as well as the processes and intent of the research. While narrative approaches provide powerful stories through which issues can be understood, they must be approached with careful consideration of the power imbalance in the relationship, the vulnerability of the participant and the potential misuse of empathy in influencing outcomes. Conclusion Narrative enquiry provides powerful data to answer important research questions meaningfully. Researchers using narrative enquiry must be mindful of the power of the bond formed in the sharing of stories and not encourage participants to share more than they intend. Implications for practice Nurse researchers need to understand their role as researcher in their relationships with participants and view the powerful stories they are told as a way of answering research questions, not as a call to engage therapeutically to solve problems.
Johnson, Tara Star
This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…
O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Gonzalez, Norma E.; Valdez-Gardea, Gloria Ciria
In this article, we attempt to map out the "in-between" space between global and cultural narratives that mediates women's educational trajectories. Case studies of women living on the U.S.-Mexico border make visible these spaces, sites of "practices of emergence": the practices that emerge from incommensurable economic demands…
Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.
One of the central challenges globalization and immigration present to education is how to construct school language policies, procedures, and curricula to support academic success of immigrant youth. This case-study compares and contrasts language experience narratives along Elena's developmental trajectory of becoming an urban science teacher.…
Curwood, Jen Scott
This year-long ethnographic case study examined high school teachers' participation in technology-focused professional development. By pairing a dialogical perspective on teacher identity with a micro-level analysis of narratives, findings indicate that teachers use language and other semiotic resources to express their own identity as well as to…
EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred
Fogarty, Melissa S.; Davis, John L.; Anderson, Leah L.; Myint, Ahmarlay
This exploratory study investigated the effects of modifying eighth grade students' purposes for reading through a prompt designed to increase engagement with the text. The current study was conducted using a randomized between-subjects design, with a relevance prompt as the between-subjects factor and reader proficiency as a covariate. A sample…
Al Zuraigat, Asma M.; Zeidanin, Hussein Hasan
This study aims at identifying the poetic devices overlapping with the genre of fiction in Laila Al Atrash's novel "The Sons of the Wind". The devices the study explores are the poetics of the title, poetics of the prologue and poetics of the language upon which the writer relies to support her point of view about the topics and issues…
I focus on three critical autobiographies in the field of composition studies: Mike Rose's "Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared," Keith Gilyard's "Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence," and Victor Villanueva, Jr.'s "Bootstraps: From an American Academic of…
Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H
This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness.
Winchester, Jules; Williams, Simon
This paper aims to provide Business English and EAP practitioners with a rationale for including the analysis of narrative elements in business addresses in their language teaching in order to encourage critical thinking in learners. By studying these elements, and the rhetorical function of the narrative in particular, students can become more…
This essay highlights three graduate student papers in an effort to explore the use of a relatively new methodology in the social sciences known as narratives of self. The seminar, in which the student papers were written, was formulated on the tenets of critical pedagogy and cultural studies. This paper positions the use of narratives of self…
Stanley, Christine A.
The author shares her experiences with the editorial-review process while publishing a qualitative research study on the teaching experiences of African American faculty members at two predominantly White research universities. She likens the experiences of African American faculty members to counter narratives, troubles master narratives in the…
The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse.
Soler Pardo, Betlem
The use of technology to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been greatly expanded in recent decades, and has also been construed by educators as a fresh alternative to traditional pedagogy. Digital Storytelling can offer this alternative as, without neglecting the target of improving teaching quality, it has been proved to be a…
von Braun, Therese; Larsson, Sam; Sjöblom, Yvonne
The article focuses on narratives of clients' experiences of using/misusing alcohol and drugs and includes comments on their therapeutic process during treatment for dependency on psychoactive drugs. It discusses the role of narratives that focus on clients' experiences of understanding the use/misuse of psychoactive drugs, emphasizing the importance of the narratives. Narrative therapy for substance-use-related dependency is discussed. Insight into the treatment processes of dependency, based on narrative case illustrations, is also provided.
Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon
My dissertation research explored the experiences of mathematics anxieties in women elementary preservice teachers while learning mathematics as K-12 students and while learning to teach mathematics. Previous studies conducted in mathematics teacher education have emphasized the importance of preservice teachers' mathematical knowledge for…
Hesketh, Anne; Serratrice, Ludovica; Ashworth, Rachel
This study investigated the long-term effect of classroom-based input manipulation on children's use of subordination in a story re-telling task; it also explored the role of receptive vocabulary skills and expressive grammatical abilities in predicting the likelihood of priming. During a two-week priming phase, 47 monolingual English-speaking…
Valtierra, Kristina M.
Teacher burn out contributes to the epidemic of early career exit. At least half of all new K-12 teachers leave the profession by the time they reach their fifth year of teaching. Conversely, there are urban teachers who survive burn out and thrive as career-long educators. This qualitative study is an in-depth look into one 40-year veteran…
Adegbola, David O.
Test anxiety (TA) has been recognized as a significant and challenging problem in all cultures and at all academic levels. Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to investigate the problem in order to identify the causes, conduct assessments, and develop intervention strategies, but little research has been done to investigate how family…
The purpose of this study was to examine the entrepreneurial orientation reflected in the experiences of seasoned entrepreneurial educators as they reflect on the development of their innovative practices. The researcher used the Entrepreneurial Orientation of Lumpkin and Dess (1996) as a theoretical lens to accompany interpretive research…
Persistence by minority students is recognized as critical in increasing the number of college graduates. Little research has been conducted on the select, but not elite, universities where the majority of students matriculate. This study provided the voices of 25 urban low SES African American college students who have successfully persisted at a…
Grays, Shaefny D.
Over the past few decades, higher education has attempted to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in STEM undergraduate degree programs. Living-learning communities represent one strategy to help address low persistence for women in undergraduate STEM majors. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of undergraduate…
Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima
Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…
Chaika, Elaine; Alexander, Paul
Indicates that the psychotic and normal populations showed definable differences in encoding strategies when presented with an adaption of the Pear Stories study. Supports theories claiming that faulty filtering mechanisms, vulnerability to distraction, and attentional deficits account for psychotic subjects' reactions. (JD)
Despite their significant contribution to Australian school life, there has been little research into migrant teachers in Australia. The few studies which are available report difficulties with cultural adaptation for migrant teachers in areas related to pedagogy, language, and classroom management. However, research in Australia has mainly…
Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill
Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…
Sudzina, Mary R.
This paper examines the decisions, benefits, and difficulties in teaching educational psychology through a constructivist case study approach. Recent interest in and inquiry into constructivism, pedagogical content knowledge, and case study methodology are influencing the content and goals of educational psychology in teacher preparation. The…
This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…
Hofstein, Avi; Nae, Nehemia
Describes a unit designed to illustrate the "science-society-technology connection," in which three case studies of the chemical industry in Israel are presented to high school chemistry students. Chosen for the unit are case studies on copper production in Timna, on plastics, and on life from the Dead Sea. (CS)
Sudzina, Mary R.
Problem-based learning and teaching with case studies are instructional approaches that are increasingly being applied in a variety of disciplines, such as business, law, medicine, and education. Instructors who have experienced traditional, teacher-centered instruction are often looking for ways to successfully integrate case studies, a…
Macnamara, Gael R.
This easy-to-use book of case studies helps you recognize the signs of dyslexia and prescribe effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. It includes a Case Study Analysis Sheet so you can work through important aspects of a student's personal, academic, and social life. You can then compare what you've compiled to the author's…
Leigh, Rachel A.
The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…
Buffington, James R.; Harper, Jeffrey S.
Many of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools require undergraduate Management Information Systems (MIS) majors to take a course in the management of information technology. Over half of these schools utilize case studies in the teaching of this course. The authors emphasize that case studies are an…
White, Lori S.
This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…
Trela, Thaddeus M., Comp.; Becker, George J., Comp.
Descriptions of individual diagnosis and remediation of reading problems experienced by students at all levels are included in this annotated bibliography. Included are books, texts having case study sections, and journal reports which together comprise useful sources of case studies of reading disabilities. An opening section lists nine "first…
Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.
On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…
Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.
This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…
Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.
Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…
Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy
Many preservice primary teachers have inadequate science knowledge, which often limits their confidence in implementing the subject. This paper proposes a new way for preservice teachers to learn science by designing and making a narrated stop-motion animation as an instructional resource to explain a science concept. In this paper, a simplified way for preservice teachers to design and make an animation called 'slowmation' (abbreviated from 'slow animation') is exemplified. A case study of three preservice primary teachers creating one from start to finish over 2 h was conducted to address the following research question: How do the preservice primary teachers create a slowmation and how does this process influence their science learning? The method of inquiry used a case study design involving pre- and post-individual interviews in conjunction with a discourse analysis of video and audio data recorded as they created a slowmation. The data illustrate how the preservice teachers' science learning was related to their prior knowledge and how they iteratively revisited the content through the construction of five representations as a cumulative semiotic progression: (i) research notes; (ii) storyboard; (iii) models; (iv) digital photographs; culminating in (v) the narrated animation. This progression enabled the preservice teachers to revisit the content in each representation and make decisions about which modes to use and promoted social interaction. Creating a slowmation facilitated the preservice teachers' learning about the life cycle of a ladybird beetle and revised their alternative conceptions.
Prentice, Andrew M
Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.
is war worth it? Whereas feasibility is examined by answering the questions: who is the enemy, and how is war going to solve the problem? This...by answering the questions: who is the enemy, and how is war going to solve the problem? This methodology is applied to studies of: the American...war going to solve the problem? This will also be viewed from the perspective of the political elites and speaks to the extent to which the rationale
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G.; MacDonald, M.
The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.
Langholz, Bryan; Richardson, David
It has been recently asserted that the nested case-control study design, in which case-control sets are sampled from cohort risk sets, can introduce bias (“study design bias”) when there are lagged exposures. The bases for this claim include a theoretic and an “empirical evaluation” argument. Both of these arguments are examined and found to be incorrect. Appropriate methods to explore the performance of nested case-control study designs, analysis methods, and compute power and sample size from an existing cohort are described. This empirical evaluation approach relies on simulating case-control outcomes from risk sets in the cohort from which the case-control study is to be performed. Because it is based on the underlying cohort structure, the empirical evaluation can provide an assessment that is tailored to the specific characteristics of the study under consideration. The methods are illustrated using samples from the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort. PMID:19289963
Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725
Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.
Caro Gabalda, Isabel; Stiles, William B
This article introduces a Special Section of case studies that focus on therapeutic collaboration and setbacks in the process of assimilation with the aim of contributing to the evolution of the assimilation model of therapeutic change. The first study examined setbacks in two depression cases (a good vs. a poor outcome) treated with emotion-focused therapy. The second article traced how therapist activities and positions toward internal voices were associated with setbacks in a case treated with linguistic therapy of evaluation. The third article studied contributions of therapeutic collaboration for both advances and setbacks in assimilation in two contrasting cases treated with emotion-focused therapy. The fourth and final article analyzed the therapeutic collaboration in episodes of ambivalence in two cases of narrative therapy (one good outcome, one poor outcome) reflecting on the implications for the assimilation model's perspective on the therapeutic relationship. This Introduction concludes by offering some suggestions for theory-building within the assimilation model.
Vaccine hesitancy is often understood and explored on the level of individual decision-making. However, questions surrounding the risk and efficacy of vaccination are evident in wider public discourse; social narratives of vaccination inform and impact on the individual level. This paper takes a narrative analysis approach from the sociology of health to examine data drawn from a wider study on global public health responses to the H1N1 pandemic. The paper concentrates upon criticisms to mass vaccination as recounted within the Council of Europe's debate of the handling of H1N1. It shows that three narratives were particularly dominant: problematizing the use of vaccination as a public health response; criticising the efficacy of the vaccines; and, questioning the safety of the strategy. This debate presents an important case study in understanding the way in which vaccines are problematized within the public discourse.
McConkey, Joan; And Others
Describes a six-year effort to complete a salary equity review for librarians at the University of Colorado (Boulder) in the context of general salary equity for women and minority faculty. Recounts the difficulties before a male counterpart study was chosen to complete the process, and advises others seeking salary equity to be realistic,…
Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…
Ismail, Farah; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Catherine
Dating violence is a significant public health problem in the lives of young women. Their age, in conjunction with perceived pressures to engage in intimate relationships, makes these women particularly vulnerable to dating violence. The pressures to be in relationships can be intense and therefore may add to young women's willingness to overlook, forgive, or excuse the violence that is occurring. The authors' purposes in this feminist study were to examine the experience of dating violence from young women's perspectives; investigate how contextual factors shape their experiences; examine how health is shaped by these experiences; and explore ways that dating violence is perpetuated and normalized in young women's lives. Findings revealed that family environment and gender are critical in shaping young women's experiences. The participants described a range of physical and emotional health problems and perceived few sources of support. Their efforts to obtain support were often met with skeptical and dismissive attitudes on the part of health care providers and other trusted adults. Recommendations for health care practice, education, and research are presented.
Sontheimer, Anna; Vassal, François; Jean, Betty; Feschet, Fabien; Lubrano, Vincent; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques
Detection of awareness in patients with consciousness disorders is a challenge that can be facilitated by functional neuroimaging. We elaborated a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to detect covert activity in altered states of consciousness. We hypothesized that passive listening to narratives with graduated emotional charge triggers graduated cerebral activations. The fMRI protocol was designed in healthy subjects for further clinical applications. The emotional charge was graduated using voice familiarity and long-term declarative memory content: low emotional charge, unknown person telling general semantic memory; mean emotional charge, relative telling the same narratives; high emotional charge, same relative telling autobiographical memory. Autobiographical memory was subdivided into semantic autobiographical memory and episodic autobiographical memory. The protocol proved efficient at triggering graduated cerebral activations: low emotional charge, superior temporal gyri and sulci; mean emotional charge, same as low emotional charge plus bilateral premotor cortices and left inferior frontal gyrus; high emotional charge, cingulate, temporal, frontal, prefrontal and angular areas, thalamus and cerebellum. Semantic autobiographical memory revealed larger activations than episodic autobiographical memory. Independent ROI analysis confirmed the preponderant contribution of narratives with autobiographical memory content in triggering cerebral activation, not only in autobiographical memory-sensitive areas, but also in voice-sensitive, language-sensitive and semantic memory-sensitive areas.
Aoki, Kotonari; Tomizawa, Shiho; Sone, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Riwa; Kuriki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yoichiro
Background Although several reports have suggested that patient-generated data from Internet sources could be used to improve drug safety and pharmacovigilance, few studies have identified such data sources in Japan. We introduce a unique Japanese data source: tōbyōki, which translates literally as “an account of a struggle with disease.” Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the basic characteristics of the TOBYO database, a collection of tōbyōki blogs on the Internet, and discuss potential applications for pharmacovigilance. Methods We analyzed the overall gender and age distribution of the patient-generated TOBYO database and compared this with other external databases generated by health care professionals. For detailed analysis, we prepared separate datasets for blogs written by patients with depression and blogs written by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), because these conditions were expected to entail subjective patient symptoms such as discomfort, insomnia, and pain. Frequently appearing medical terms were counted, and their variations were compared with those in an external adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting database. Frequently appearing words regarding patients with depression and patients with RA were visualized using word clouds and word cooccurrence networks. Results As of June 4, 2016, the TOBYO database comprised 54,010 blogs representing 1405 disorders. Overall, more entries were written by female bloggers (68.8%) than by male bloggers (30.8%). The most frequently observed disorders were breast cancer (4983 blogs), depression (3556), infertility (2430), RA (1118), and panic disorder (1090). Comparison of medical terms observed in tōbyōki blogs with those in an external ADR reporting database showed that subjective and symptomatic events and general terms tended to be frequently observed in tōbyōki blogs (eg, anxiety, headache, and pain), whereas events using more technical medical terms (eg, syndrome and
Naidu, Thirusha; Shabangu, Sifiso
This case study presents the use of poetry in psychotherapy with an adolescent girl, Buhle (a pseudonym), who needed surgery to correct a curvature of her spine due to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. She experienced anxiety which prevented surgeons from doing the procedure. Psychotherapists used narrative therapy to explore issues associated with and contributing to her anxiety and encouraged her to document her experiences through poetry, after learning that she was a keen poet. During psychotherapy Buhle's poems were used to track and narrate her experiences and as an empowering method allowing her to make personal sense of challenging experiences. Buhle's poems are presented within an account of the psychotherapy leading up to the surgery. Her poetry reveals a juxtaposition of regular adolescent identity issues in the face of coping with a demanding medical condition and the prospect of invasive surgery.
Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert
States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)
Proposes to return narrative to a more central place in historical writing. Answers critics who complain that history texts do not properly emphasize democracy and citizenship. Suggests using narrative to tell stories students will remember while including a major theme or conclusion. Warns against overuse, wordiness, and sacrifice of human…
Tamura, Eileen H.
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
Bateson, Mary Catherine
This paper explores how individuals and communities orient themselves to the future by the way they story the past. There is a persistent tendency to think of such narratives as factual and therefore stable. The mutability of such narratives is actually a key adaptive characteristic, ranging from complete repression of individual traumas to public…
I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the "starting…
Because of the way it prioritizes "interruption" and calls into question the very possibility of producing coherent, self-contained narratives, the deconstructive work of Jacques Derrida is often thought to be intrinsically anti-narrative in its very structure; and yet there are those who insist that, to the contrary, deconstruction is a narrative…
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…
Alves, Daniela; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Baptista, João; Ribeiro, Eugénia; Sousa, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel M
Several studies have proposed that self-narrative transformation occurs through the elaboration of "Innovative Moments" (IMs), which are alternative experiences to the problematic self-narrative. This study aimed to analyze the emergence of IMs among 6 complicated grief women undergoing grief therapy according to the meaning reconstruction approach and to examine associations of IMs to the severity of grief symptomatology, assessed by the "Inventory of Complicated Grief." Eighty-three sessions were analyzed using the "Innovative Moments Coding System" (IMCS). A generalized linear model analysis (GLM) showed a significant association between the emergence of IMs and the interaction between time and symptomatic improvement, indicating a higher rate of IM production over time in cases with better clinical outcomes. These results reinforce IMs' relevance in studying narrative change among cases with distinct clinical progressions.
narrative and social movement theory ? • What is the role of the story model in the creation of a narrative? • To what extent is a group’s narrative co...social movement theory play in the role of competing narratives, it is necessary to take a closer look at the underlying theories involved. The next...independent variables within each case. 9 II. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORY AND COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY The relationship between competing
Goldman, Lynn R.
Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…
Tarter, Shana Lee; Gray, Melissa
Five case studies illustrate evacuation decision making in a wilderness setting. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips: (1) a hiker suffering from hypothermia; (2) a 49-year-old man with chest pains; (3) a 19-year-old woman with abdominal pain; (4) a young woman in anaphylactic shock; and (5) a teenager hit on the…
Mafra, Rafaella; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Thomas; Lu, Amy Shirong
Abstract Objective: This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Materials and Methods: Twenty children (8–11 years old of mixed gender) watched two cartoons (narrative and non-narrative) and were subsequently interviewed. A thematic matrix was used to analyze the interviews. Results: The narrative cartoon (n = 11) was only slightly preferred compared with the non-narrative one (n = 9), with little difference among the participants. The theme categories identified during the analyses were plot, characters, and suggestions. The fight scenes were mentioned by the children as a likeable aspect of the narrative cartoon. In the non-narrative cartoon, the vast majority (n = 17) liked the information about physical activity that was provided. The children enjoyed the appearance and personalities of the characters in both cartoons. A discrepancy in the data about the fight scenes (narrative cartoon) and characters (both cartoons) was found among the female participants (i.e., some girls did not like the fight and thought the characters were too aggressive). However, most of the children wanted to see more action in the story, an increase in the number of fight scenes (narrative cartoon), or more information about exercise and examples of exercises they could do (non-narrative cartoon). They also suggested adding a game to the non-narrative cartoon, including more characters, and improving the animation in both cartoons. Conclusions: The children preferred the narrative cartoon because of the story and the fight. Some gender differences were found, which further studies should investigate. PMID:26881473
Alemayehu, Biruk; Kozusko, Steven D.; Borao, Frank; Vates III, Thomas S.
Background. Polyorchidism, alternatively supernumerary testes (SNT), is a condition where an individual is born with more than two testicles. This congenital anomaly is quite rare and the literature has described various presentations. Questions/Purposes. To our knowledge, this presentation of polyorchidism has yet to be described in the literature. The goal of this case study is to add to the pediatric, general, and urologic surgery's body of knowledge of the subject matter. Case Study. A nine-month-old boy was admitted for an impalpable right testis and phimosis. At the time of surgical exploration, there appeared to be polyorchid testis on the right-hand side, with three masses that potentially appeared to be undescended testes. Discussion. Proponents of a conservative approach argue that infertility is common in patients with polyorchidism and, by preserving a potentially functional SNT, there may be improved spermatogenesis. When performing definitive surgical treatment, meticulous intra-abdominal and intrainguinal exploration must be undertaken. Orchiopexy should be performed to reduce the chances of torsion, malignancy, and infertility. Conclusion. Our case is important to the literature as it is the first known case of polyorchidism with 3 SNT on the right side, located intra-abdominally, and in a patient less than 1 year of age. PMID:27722006
The value of case studies for theory building is still doubted in psychology. The paper argues for the importance of case studies and the possibility of generalizing from these for a specific sociocultural understanding of human development. The paper first clarifies the notion of abduction within case studies, drawing on pragmatists James and Peirce and expanding it with the work of Lewin, and argues that it is the core mechanism that allows generalization from case studies. The second section presents the possibility of generalizing from individual single case studies, for which not only the subjective perspective, but also the dynamics by which the social and cultural environment guide and enable the person's development, have to be accounted for. The third section elaborates the question of institutional case studies, where the challenge is to account both for institutional dynamics, and for persons' trajectories within; this is exemplified with an ongoing study on the process of obtaining citizenship in Switzerland. The paper briefly concludes by highlighting two possible implications of the paper, one concerning the process of theoretical reasoning, the other, the fact that sociocultural psychology could itself be seen as an institution in-the-making.
This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.
This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.
The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.
Mickley, G. Andrew; Hoyt, Daniel A.
Stories register in human memory in special ways, and stories about neurological cases can entertain and move a reader while simultaneously being an important part of any neuroscience curriculum. Here we describe a course taught in the context of the liberal arts curriculum of Baldwin-Wallace College. Students from a variety of disciplines learned basic neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neurochemistry and then used this information to help them understand published neurological case studies, which were analyzed for their literary as well as scientific qualities. Later in the course, students were paired with a person with a neurological disorder and they investigated their cases in some depth. The capstone experience was a monograph that aimed to be both good science and good story telling. Narratives and Neurons was team taught by faculty from the Neuroscience and English departments. However, the case studies were shaped and improved by all the class participants using writing workshop methods common to creative writing classes. Assessments of this course were very favorable, suggesting that students find that the work enhanced their resourcefulness and challenged their abilities to critically evaluate and problem solve. Some of the cases have found their way into the peer-reviewed literature. Moreover, the interaction between students and individuals with neurological disorders provided a diversity of experiences that enriched the lives of all the participants. PMID:23493566
Calhoun, Chantae M.
Community colleges educate almost half of all American undergraduates. These students include but are not limited to under-prepared high school graduates, and individuals who are working full-time while attending school, as well as students of diverse cultural, socioeconomic, and ethnic backgrounds. With such a diverse student population, science educators may find it difficult to teach science, especially since the language of science is exceptional and contains some inner hierarchy that most other disciplines do not (Osborne, 2002). This qualitative case study examined a community college science faculty member notion's learning to use visual illustrations in science instruction through a collaborative professional development approach. Through this study, insights were gained on how to implement relevant science pedagogy at this community college. Narratives are used to tell the story of a community college science instructor's experience using visual illustrations through science concepts (e.g. cell structure, cellular transport, and metabolism) taught. Narratives reflect the science instructor's story leading to further studies in multiliteracies, professional development, and student perception of visual images in community college setting.
This study explores the impact of simulation upon learning for undergraduate nursing students. The study objectives were (a) to explore the experiences of participating in simulation education for a small group of student nurses; and (b) to explore learning through simulation from the perspectives of the nursing students, the nurse educators and the nurse mentors. Conducted as a small-scale narrative case study, it tells the unique stories of a small number of undergraduate nursing students, nurse mentors and nurse educators and explores their experiences of learning through simulation. Data analysis through progressive focusing revealed that the nurse educators viewed simulation as a means of helping students to learn to be nurses, whilst, the nurse mentors suggested that simulation helped them to determine nursing potential. The students' narratives showed that they approached simulation learning in different ways resulting in a range of outcomes: those who were successfully becoming nurses, those who were struggling or working hard to become nurses and those who were not becoming nurses. Theories of professional practice learning and activity theory present an opportunity to articulate and theorise the learning inherent in simulation activities. They recognise the links between learning and the environment of work and highlight the possibilities for learning to inspire change and innovation.
Savin-Baden, Maggi; Van Niekerk, Lana
This article offers an overview of the method of narrative inquiry and explores competing trends in the use of the approach. It not only examines the theories relating to the method but also offers practical guidance on using narrative inquiry, including an exploration of what might count as a narrative and ways of analysing narrative data. The…
Taylor, Peter Charles
John Settlage's article— Counterstories from White Mainstream Preservice Teachers: Resisting the Master Narrative of Deficit by Default—outlines his endeavour to enable pre-service teachers to develop culturally responsive science teaching identities for resisting the master narrative of deficit thinking when confronted by the culturally different `other.' Case study results are presented of the role of counterstories in enabling five pre-service teachers to overcome deficit thinking. In this forum, Philip Moore, a cultural anthropologist and university professor, deepens our understanding of the power and significance of counterstories as an educational tool for enabling students to deconstruct oppressive master narratives. Jill Slay, dean of a science faculty, examines her own master narrative about the compatibility of culturally similar academics and graduate students, and finds it lacking. But first, I introduce this scholarship with background notes on the critical paradigm and its adversary, the grand narrative of science education, following which I give an appreciative understanding of John's pedagogical use of counterstories as a transformative strategy for multi-worldview science teacher education.
Beck, Cheryl Tatano
The reported prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder due to childbirth ranges from 1.5 to 6%. The purpose of this qualitative study is to conduct a narrative analysis of 11 mothers' birth trauma stories. The dramatistic pentad provided the overall structure for this narrative analysis. Using pentadic cartography, the author mapped the verbal terrain of each narrative using the pentad's five terms of scene, act, purpose, agent, and agency. The ratio imbalance between act and agency appeared most prominently on the pentadic map. Viewing the mothers' narratives through the act:agency ratio offered a terministic screen that helped pinpoint where the trauma that women experienced occurred during labor and delivery. Implications for clinical practice focus on the How (agency), the way clinicians provide care to women during childbirth.
Correa, Kelly A.; Stone, Bradly T.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris
Research on narrative persuasion has yet to investigate whether this process influences behavior. The current study explored whether: (1) a narrative could persuade participants to donate to a charity, a prosocial, behavioral decision; (2) psychophysiological metrics can delineate the differences between donation/non-donation behaviors; and (3) donation behavior can be correlated with measures of psychophysiology, self-reported reactions to the narrative, and intrinsic characteristics. Participants (n = 49) completed personality/disposition questionnaires, viewed one of two versions of a narrative while EEG and ECG were recorded, completed a questionnaire regarding their reactions to the narrative, and were given an opportunity to donate to a charity related to the themes of the narrative. Results showed that: (1) 34.7% of participants donated; (2) psychophysiological metrics successfully delineated between donation behaviors and the effects of narrative version; and (3) psychophysiology and reactions to the narrative were better able to explain the variance (88 and 65%, respectively) in the amount donated than all 3 metrics combined as well as any metric alone. These findings demonstrate the promise of narrative persuasion for influencing prosocial, behavioral decisions. Our results also illustrate the utility of the previously stated metrics for understanding and possibly even manipulating behaviors resulting from narrative persuasion. PMID:26379488
Simpson, Jane; Heath, James; Wall, Gemma
This study aimed to synthesise the illness narratives of individuals living with a pituitary tumour. Eight adults with a pituitary tumour were recruited from an endocrinology service in the north-west of England. A narrative methodology was adopted which investigated elements of the individual narratives such as metaphor and structure but which also aimed to produce a joint account of experience in this particular illness context by extracting themes across the stories; these are presented as part of a chronological narrative. However, the resulting group story was also analysed in terms of different types of narrative plots. The group narrative started from the recognition of symptoms and then diagnosis though treatment to post-treatment and future plans. In terms of narrative plots, one notable element of the joint narrative was the flow between the culturally dominant restitution narrative, where participants focused on treatment and recovery and the chaos narrative when recovery did not seem possible. The findings contain many elements consistent with previous research; however, the use of a celebrity figure to communicate about the illness experience and a perception that objects or individuals should not be taken at face value emerged as more novel findings.
Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.
The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…
Lin, Grace Hui Chin
The primary purpose of this case study was to identify what were Taiwanese University English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' perceptions about learning communication strategies. This study collected qualitative data about students' beliefs and attitudes as they learned communication strategies. The research question guiding the study was:…
Hershberg, Sandra G
This chapter is an exploration of the psychoanalytic aspects of biography and the biographical aspects of psychoanalysis. The narratives that emerge from biography and psychoanalytic treatment incorporate elements of empathy, ideology (theory), and transference/countertransference and are co-constructed within an intersubjective field involving the subjectivities of both participants, the biographer and her subject and the analyst and her analysand. I will provide examples that demonstrate the way in which these processes play out in the biographical realm. Correspondingly, I will illustrate the way in which the analyst's biography and analysand's autobiography change in the course of the psychoanalytic treatment. Salient differences between biographical and psychoanalytic endeavors are also discussed.
Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer
The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care.
Harris, Alexis R.; Walton, Marsha D.
We studied 364 narratives about personal experiences with conflict written by urban 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. Narratives were examined in terms of children's narrative and perspective-taking skills and the responses to conflict they described. Several features of narrative were reliably coded, including level of violence described in the story,…
McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.; Fournier, Marc A.
The present study examined aspects of identity development in a sample of adolescent boys from two approaches: individuation and narrative. To extend the more recent research on narrative identity development, we also examined relations between narrative identity, well-being, and age. Narrative meaning making was predicted by themes of…
Yamaguchi, T; Matsushima, Y; Takada, Y; Niimi, Y; Umezu, R; Fukuyama, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Inaba, Y
The cause of Moyamoya disease is still unknown. We made a research about the factors closely related to Moyamoya disease through a case-control study. The number of cases studied was 66. Controls were selected from among patients' friends, matched as to sex, age and residential area. Questionnaires were sent to the cases and the respective controls by mail. The questions were about past history, developmental history, school records, habitual factors, dietary habits and pets. The first symptoms and age at onset were also surveyed in the cases. The response rate was 84.8% (56 cases) of the cases and 76.5% (101 cases) out of the 132 controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, and bronchitis. Odds ratio of fever of unknown origin is 2.793 and X2 is 7.213. Diseases whose odds ratio was over 1 were herpes, appendicitis, bronchitis, asthma, anemia, dental caries, head injury and drug allergy. But all of them were not significantly prevalent. Odds ratios of school records were 4-9 and X2 were 4-17 from elementary to junior high school. Odds ratio of western dishes was 2.709 and X2 was 5.189. There was no significant difference as to pets kept. We could not find overt relationships between Moyamoya disease and diseases of head and neck like tonsillitis.
Davis, Elizabeth M
This study explores the construction of risk and patient identity in medical discourse directed toward women with breast cancer. Eleven documents produced by the National Cancer Institute on the topic of breast cancer are studied using narrative analysis. A distinct patient narrative presents all women as at risk for breast cancer and creates an idealized patient identity that serves a prescriptive function for women. The narrative constructs an early-cancer experience where the patient is treatable and cancer is cured or controlled. There are no significant changes in the narrative after time.