Sample records for narrow radiative recombination

  1. Narrow Radiative Recombination Continua: A Signature of Ions Crossing the Contact Discontinuity of Astrophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Ehud; Nordon, Raanan; Soker, Noam; Kastner, Joel H.; Yu, Young Sam

    2009-01-01

    X-rays from planetary nebulae (PNs) are believed to originate from a shock driven into the fast stellar wind (v 1000 kilometers per second) as it collides with an earlier circumstellar slow wind (v 10 kilometers per second). In theory, the shocked fast wind (hot hubble) and the ambient cold nebula can remain separated by magnetic fields along a surface referred to as the contact discontinuity (CD) that inhibits diffusion and heat conduction. The CD region is extremely difficult to probe directly owing to its small size and faint emission. This has largely left the study of CDs, stellar-shocks, and the associated micro-physics in the realm of theory. This paper presents spectroscopic evidence for ions from the hot bubble (kT approximately equal to 100 eV) crossing the CD and penetrating the cold nebular gas (kT approximately equal to 1 eV). Specifically, a narrow radiative recombination continuum (RRC) emission feature is identified in the high resolution X-ray spectrum of the PN BD+30degree3639 indicating bare C VII ions are recombining with cool electrons at kT(sub e) = 1.7 plus or minus 1.3 eV. An upper limit to the flux of the narrow RRC of H-like C VI is obtained as well. The RRCs are interpreted as due to C ions from the hot bubble of BD+30degree3639 crossing the CD into the cold nebula, where they ultimately recombine with its cool electrons. The RRC flux ratio of C VII to C VI constrains the temperature jump across the CD to deltakT greater than 80 eV, providing for the first time direct evidence for the stark temperature disparity between the two sides of an astrophysical CD, and constraining the role of magnetic fields and heat conduction accordingly. Two colliding-wind binaries are noted to have similar RRCs suggesting a temperature jump and CD crossing by ions may be common feature of stellar wind shocks.

  2. Three-Body Recombination near a Narrow Feshbach Resonance in Li 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; Luo, Le; Gao, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally measure and theoretically analyze the three-atom recombination rate, L3, around a narrow s -wave magnetic Feshbach resonance of Li 6 - Li 6 at 543.3 G. By examining both the magnetic field dependence and, especially, the temperature dependence of L3 over a wide range of temperatures from a few μ K to above 200 μ K , we show that three-atom recombination through a narrow resonance follows a universal behavior determined by the long-range van der Waals potential and can be described by a set of rate equations in which three-body recombination proceeds via successive pairwise interactions. We expect the underlying physical picture to be applicable not only to narrow s wave resonances, but also to resonances in nonzero partial waves, and not only at ultracold temperatures, but also at much higher temperatures.

  3. Local Versus Long-Range Diffusion Effects of Photoexcited States on Radiative Recombination in Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Vrućinić, Milan; Matthiesen, Clemens; Sadhanala, Aditya; Divitini, Giorgio; Cacovich, Stefania; Dutton, Sian E; Ducati, Caterina; Atatüre, Mete; Snaith, Henry; Friend, Richard H; Sirringhaus, Henning; Deschler, Felix

    2015-09-01

    Radiative recombination in thin films of the archetypical, high-performing perovskites CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 shows localized regions of increased emission with dimensions ≈500 nm. Maps of the spectral emission line shape show narrower emission lines in high emission regions, which can be attributed to increased order. Excited states do not diffuse out of high emission regions before they decay, but are decoupled from nearby regions, either by slow diffusion rates or energetic barriers.

  4. Radiative recombination data for tungsten ions: II. W{sup 47+}–W{sup 71+}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Trzhaskovskaya, M.B., E-mail: Trzhask@MT5605.spb.edu; Nikulin, V.K.

    2014-07-15

    New radiative recombination and photoionization cross sections, radiative recombination rate coefficients, and radiated power loss rate coefficients are presented for 23 tungsten impurity ions in plasmas. We consider ions from W{sup 47+} to W{sup 71+} that are of importance to fusion studies for ITER and for experiments using electron beam ion traps. The calculations are fully relativistic and all significant multipoles of the radiative field are taken into account. The Dirac–Fock method is used to compute the electron wavefunctions. Radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates are found using the relativistic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution of the continuum electron velocity. Themore » total radiative recombination cross sections are given in the electron energy range from 1 eV to ∼80keV. Partial cross sections for ground and excited states are approximated by an analytical expression involving five fit parameters. Radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates are calculated in the temperature range from 10{sup 4}K to 10{sup 9}K. The total radiative recombination rates are approximated by another analytical expression with four fit parameters.« less

  5. Narrow-band, slowly varying decimetric radiation from the dwarf M flare star YZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.; Willson, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of slowly varying radiation from the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris with a maximum flux density of 20 mJy and narrow-band frequency structure at frequencies near 1465 MHz are presented. Possible explanations for this radiation are examined. Thermal gyroresonant radiation would require impossibly large coronal loops and magnetic field strengths. The narrow-band structure cannot be explained by continuum emission processes such as thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal gyroresonant radiation, or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation. Coherent burst mechanisms seem to be required.

  6. On the radiative recombination and tunneling of charge carriers in SiGe/Si heterostructures with double quantum wells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yablonsky, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipmras.ru; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Bekin, N. A.

    For SiGe/Si(001) epitaxial structures with two nonequivalent SiGe quantum wells separated by a thin Si barrier, the spectral and time characteristics of interband photoluminescence corresponding to the radiative recombination of excitons in quantum wells are studied. For a series of structures with two SiGe quantum wells different in width, the characteristic time of tunneling of charge carriers (holes) from the narrow quantum well, distinguished by a higher exciton recombination energy, to the wide quantum well is determined as a function of the Si barrier thickness. It is shown that the time of tunneling of holes between the Si{sub 0.8}5Ge{sub 0.15}more » layers with thicknesses of 3 and 9 nm steadily decreases from ~500 to <5 ns, as the Si barrier thickness is reduced from 16 to 8 nm. At intermediate Si barrier thicknesses, an increase in the photoluminescence signal from the wide quantum well is observed, with a characteristic time of the same order of magnitude as the luminescence decay time of the narrow quantum well. This supports the observation of the effect of the tunneling of holes from the narrow to the wide quantum well. A strong dependence of the tunneling time of holes on the Ge content in the SiGe layers at the same thickness of the Si barrier between quantum wells is observed, which is attributed to an increase in the effective Si barrier height.« less

  7. Effect of narrow band nonuniformity on unsteady heat up of water vapor under radiation-conduction combined heat transfer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Okamoto, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Morimune, Atsushi

    Effect of narrow band nonuniformity on unsteady heat up process of water vapor under radiation-conduction combined heat transfer is examined by comparing the result of numerical simulations with and without incorporation of narrow band nonuniformity. The authors propose a rational and comprehensive computational approach for incorporating the narrow band nonuniformity into numerical simulations of radiative heat transfer when the considered field is nonisothermal. Results of examination exhibited that the contribution of radiative heat transfer to the heat up rate of water vapor may be almost twice overestimated, if the narrow band nonuniformity effect is neglected. Separate analyses of radiative energymore » attributed to wall emission and gas emission clarified that the absorption of wall emission is overestimated and, on the contrary, the absorption of radiation energy emitted by water vapor itself is underestimated if the narrow band nonuniformity is neglected. The reason why such over- or under-estimation is induced is understood by examining the influence of line overlap parameter on the transmittance averaged within a narrow band. Smaller value of line overlap parameter {gamma}/d means more violent narrow band nonuniformity. The broken lines show the narrow band transmittance for flat incident power spectrum, and the solid lines show that for the radiative emission from the absorbing gas itself. It is also clarified that the disregard of the narrow band nonuniformity give rise to serious error in the estimation of absorption rate of wall and gas emission even in the case where the disregard of narrow band nonuniformity bring little change to the temperature distribution. The results illustrated in this paper suggest that the narrow band nonuniformity should not be neglected.« less

  8. Narrow-band microwave radiation from a biased single-Cooper-pair transistor.

    PubMed

    Naaman, O; Aumentado, J

    2007-06-01

    We show that a single-Cooper-pair transistor (SCPT) electrometer emits narrow-band microwave radiation when biased in its subgap region. Photoexcitation of quasiparticle tunneling in a nearby SCPT is used to spectroscopically detect this radiation in a configuration that closely mimics a qubit-electrometer integrated circuit. We identify emission lines due to Josephson radiation and radiative transport processes in the electrometer and argue that a dissipative superconducting electrometer can severely disrupt the system it attempts to measure.

  9. Widely tunable narrow-band coherent Terahertz radiation from an undulator at THU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, Q.; Liang, Y.; Niu, L.; Yan, L.; Du, Y.; Huang, W.; Tang, C.

    2018-01-01

    There is anxious demand for intense widely tunable narrow-band Terahertz (THz) radiation in scientific research, which is regarded as a powerful tool for the coherent control of matter. We report the generation of widely tunable THz radiation from a planar permanent magnet undulator at Tsinghua University (THU). A relativistic electron beam is compressed by a magnetic chicane into sub-ps bunch length to excite THz radiation in the undulator coherently. The THz frequency can be tuned from 0.4 THz to 10 THz continuously with narrow-band spectrums when the undulator gap ranges from 23 mm to 75 mm. The measured pulse THz radiation energy from 220 pC bunch is 3.5 μJ at 1 THz and tens of μJ pulse energy (corresponding peak power of 10 MW) can be obtained when excited by 1 nC beam extrapolated from the property of coherent radiation. The experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions, which demonstrates a suitable THz source for the many applications that require intense and widely tunable THz sources.

  10. Radiative recombination data for tungsten ions: III.  W{sup 14+}–W{sup 23+}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Trzhaskovskaya, M.B., E-mail: Trzhask@MT5605.spb.edu; Nikulin, V.K.

    2014-09-15

    This paper completes the cycle of our calculations of the radiative recombination and photoionization data for tungsten ions. Presented here are the photoionization and radiative recombination cross sections, radiative recombination rate coefficients, and radiated power loss rate coefficients for ten tungsten impurity ions from W{sup 14+} to W{sup 23+}. These data are required in diagnostics and modeling fusion plasmas studied in such devices as ITER, ASDEX Upgrade, and EBIT. Partial photoionization cross sections have been fitted by an analytical expression with five fit parameters tabulated here. Total radiative recombination cross sections are presented in the electron energy range from 1 eVmore » to ∼80 keV. Radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates are given in the temperature range from 10{sup 4}  K to 10{sup 9}  K. Calculations have been performed on the basis of the fully relativistic treatment of photoionization and radiative recombination taking into account all significant multipoles of the radiative field. Electron wave functions have been obtained by the Dirac–Fock method with the proper consideration of the electron exchange. The relativistic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution of continuum electrons has been used in calculations of radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates. This decreases values of the rates noticeably at a high temperature as compared to the usual non-relativistic Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. -- Highlights: •Radiative recombination data for ten tungsten ions W{sup 14+}–W{sup 23+} are presented. •Photoionization cross sections are also given. •Calculations are fully relativistic including all multipoles of the radiative field. •We use the Dirac–Fock method to obtain the electron wave functions. •The data are required for diagnostics and modeling fusion plasmas studied in ITER.« less

  11. Radiative and Auger recombination of degenerate carriers in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Bayerl, Dylan; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    Group-III nitrides find applications in many fields - energy conversion, sensors, and solid-state lighting. The band gaps of InN, GaN and AlN alloys span the infrared to ultraviolet spectral range. However, nitride optoelectronic devices suffer from a drop in efficiency as carrier density increases. A major component of this decrease is Auger recombination, but its influence is not fully understood, particularly for degenerate carriers. For nondegenerate carriers the radiative rate scales as the carrier density squared, while the Auger rate scales as the density cubed. However, it is unclear how these power laws decrease as carriers become degenerate. Using first-principles calculations we studied the dependence of the radiative and Auger recombination rates on carrier density in InN. We found a more complex dependence on the Auger rate than expected. The power law of the Auger rate changes at different densities depending on the type of Auger process involved and the type of carriers that have become degenerate. In contrast, the power law of the radiative rate changes when either carrier type becomes degenerate. This creates problems in designing devices, as Auger remains a major contributor to carrier recombination at densities for which radiative recombination is suppressed by phase-space filling. This work was supported by NSF (GRFP DGE 1256260 and CAREER DMR-1254314). Computational resources provided by the DOE NERSC facility (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radiative recombination electron energy loss data (Mao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Badnell, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The weighted electron energy loss factors (dimensionless) are defined by weighting the electron energy loss rate coefficients (per ion) with respect to the total radiative recombination rates. Both the unparameterized and parameterized weighted electron energy-loss factors for H-like to Ne-like ions from H (z=1) up to and including Zn (z=30), in a wide temperature range, are available here. For the unparameterized data set, the temperatures are set to the conventional ADAS temperature grid, i.e. c2*(10,20,50,100,200,...,2*106,5*106,107)K, where c is the ionic charge of the recombined ion. For the fitting parameters, the temperature should be in units of eV. We refer to the recombined ion when we speak of the radiative recombination of a certain ion, for example, for a bare oxygen ion capturing a free electron via radiative recombination to form H-like oxygen (O VIII, s=1, z=8). The fitting accuracies are better than 4%. (2 data files).

  13. Increased impedance near cut-off in plasma-like media leading to emission of high-power, narrow-bandwidth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Hur, M. S.; Ersfeld, B.; Noble, A.; Suk, H.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-intense, narrow-bandwidth, electromagnetic pulses have become important tools for exploring the characteristics of matter. Modern tuneable high-power light sources, such as free-electron lasers and vacuum tubes, rely on bunching of relativistic or near-relativistic electrons in vacuum. Here we present a fundamentally different method for producing narrow-bandwidth radiation from a broad spectral bandwidth current source, which takes advantage of the inflated radiation impedance close to cut-off in a medium with a plasma-like permittivity. We find that by embedding a current source in this cut-off region, more than an order of magnitude enhancement of the radiation intensity is obtained compared with emission directly into free space. The method suggests a simple and general way to flexibly use broadband current sources to produce broad or narrow bandwidth pulses. As an example, we demonstrate, using particle-in-cell simulations, enhanced monochromatic emission of terahertz radiation using a two-colour pumped current source enclosed by a tapered waveguide. PMID:28071681

  14. Increased impedance near cut-off in plasma-like media leading to emission of high-power, narrow-bandwidth radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, M. S.; Ersfeld, B.; Noble, A.; Suk, H.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-intense, narrow-bandwidth, electromagnetic pulses have become important tools for exploring the characteristics of matter. Modern tuneable high-power light sources, such as free-electron lasers and vacuum tubes, rely on bunching of relativistic or near-relativistic electrons in vacuum. Here we present a fundamentally different method for producing narrow-bandwidth radiation from a broad spectral bandwidth current source, which takes advantage of the inflated radiation impedance close to cut-off in a medium with a plasma-like permittivity. We find that by embedding a current source in this cut-off region, more than an order of magnitude enhancement of the radiation intensity is obtained compared with emission directly into free space. The method suggests a simple and general way to flexibly use broadband current sources to produce broad or narrow bandwidth pulses. As an example, we demonstrate, using particle-in-cell simulations, enhanced monochromatic emission of terahertz radiation using a two-colour pumped current source enclosed by a tapered waveguide.

  15. The temporal response of recombination events to gamma radiation of meiotic cells in Sordaria brevicollis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L A

    1982-01-01

    The temporal frequencies of different stages of prophase I were determined cytologically in Sordaria brevicollis (Olive and Fantini) as the basis for ascertaining the degree of synchrony in meiosis in this ascomycete. Croziers, karyogamy-zygotene and pachytene asci were shown to be in significant majorities at three distinct periods of the meiotic cycle. The response of recombination frequency to ionizing radiation was examined for the entire meiotic cycle. Three radiosensitive periods were determined. This response, which correlated temporally with each of the three peaks in ascal frequency, is interpreted as showing that the meiotic cycle of this organism is divided into periods of recombination commitment (radiation reduced frequencies) during the pre-meiotic S phase and recombination consummation (radiation induced frequencies) during zygotene and pachytene. The results are discussed in the context of the time at which recombination is consummated in eukaryotes such as yeast and Drosophila.

  16. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  17. The importance of surface recombination and energy-bandgap narrowing in p-n-junction silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, J. G.; Lindholm, F. A.; Shibib, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data demonstrating the sensitivity of open-circuit voltage to front-surface conditions are presented for a variety of p-n-junction silicon solar cells. Analytical models accounting for the data are defined and supported by additional experiments. The models and the data imply that a) surface recombination significantly limits the open-circuit voltage (and the short-circuit current) of typical silicon cells, and b) energy-bandgap narrowing is important in the manifestation of these limitations. The models suggest modifications in both the structural design and the fabrication processing of the cells that would result in substantial improvements in cell performance. The benefits of one such modification - the addition of a thin thermal silicon-dioxide layer on the front surface - are indicated experimentally.

  18. Generation of tunable narrow-band surface-emitted terahertz radiation in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Avetisyan, Y; Beigang, R

    2001-04-15

    Generation of tunable narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation perpendicular to the surface of periodically poled lithium niobate by optical rectification of femtosecond pulses is reported. The generated THz radiation can be tuned by use of different poling periods and different observation angles, limited only by the available bandwidth of the pump pulse. Typical bandwidths were 50-100 GHz, depending on the collection angle and the number of periods involved.

  19. A narrow-band k-distribution model with single mixture gas assumption for radiative flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sung Min; Kim, Jae Won; Kwon, Oh Joon

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the narrow-band k-distribution (NBK) model parameters for mixtures of H2O, CO2, and CO are proposed by utilizing the line-by-line (LBL) calculations with a single mixture gas assumption. For the application of the NBK model to radiative flows, a radiative transfer equation (RTE) solver based on a finite-volume method on unstructured meshes was developed. The NBK model and the RTE solver were verified by solving two benchmark problems including the spectral radiance distribution emitted from one-dimensional slabs and the radiative heat transfer in a truncated conical enclosure. It was shown that the results are accurate and physically reliable by comparing with available data. To examine the applicability of the methods to realistic multi-dimensional problems in non-isothermal and non-homogeneous conditions, radiation in an axisymmetric combustion chamber was analyzed, and then the infrared signature emitted from an aircraft exhaust plume was predicted. For modeling the plume flow involving radiative cooling, a flow-radiation coupled procedure was devised in a loosely coupled manner by adopting a Navier-Stokes flow solver based on unstructured meshes. It was shown that the predicted radiative cooling for the combustion chamber is physically more accurate than other predictions, and is as accurate as that by the LBL calculations. It was found that the infrared signature of aircraft exhaust plume can also be obtained accurately, equivalent to the LBL calculations, by using the present narrow-band approach with a much improved numerical efficiency.

  20. Radiative recombination and photon recycling in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, M. S.; Melloch, M. R.; Lush, G. B.; Patkar, M. P.; Young, M.; Durbin, S. M.; Gray, J. L.; MacMillan, H. F.; Keyes, B. M.; Levi, D. H.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.

    1992-12-01

    This talk reviews experimental work to develop a detailed understanding of radiative recombination in n-GaAs. Photoluminescence decay studies of minority carrier lifetimes versus doping in n-GaAs are presented. We show that when the substrate is removed by etching, photon recycling is enhanced, and lifetimes increase by nearly a factor of 10. The doping-dependent absorption coefficient is measured, and detailed balance arguments are used to relate absorption and recombination. Modeling surfaces, verified by comparison with experiments, are used to examine the effects of recycling in conventional solar cells and to explore new design options.

  1. Non-Radiative Carrier Recombination Enhanced by Two-Level Process: A First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Shi, Lin; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-02-01

    Non-radiative recombination plays an important role in the performance of optoelectronic semiconductor devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Most textbook examples assume that the recombination process occurs through a single defect level, where one electron and one hole are captured and recombined. Based on this simple picture, conventional wisdom is that only defect levels near the center of the bandgap can be effective recombination centers. Here, we present a new two-level recombination mechanism: first, one type of carrier is captured through a defect level forming a metastable state; then the local defect configuration rapidly changes to a stable state, where the other type of carrier is captured and recombined through another defect level. This novel mechanism is applied to the recombination center in CdTe. We show that this two-level process can significantly increase the recombination rate (by three orders of magnitude) in agreement with experiments. We expect that this two-level recombination process can exist in a wide range of semiconductors, so its effect should be carefully examined in characterizing optoelectronic materials.

  2. Control of radiative base recombination in the quantum cascade light-emitting transistor using quantum state overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kanuo; Hsiao, Fu-Chen; Joy, Brittany; Dallesasse, John M.

    2018-07-01

    The concept of the quantum cascade light-emitting transistor (QCLET) is proposed by incorporating periodic stages of quantum wells and barriers in the completely depleted base-collector junction of a heterojunction bipolar transistor. The radiative band-to-band base recombination in the QCLET is shown to be controllable using the base-collector voltage bias for a given emitter-base biasing condition. A self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson Equation model is built to validate the idea of the QCLET. A GaAs-based QCLET is designed and fabricated. Control of radiative band-to-band base recombination is observed and characterized. By changing the voltage across the quantum cascade region in the QCLET, the alignment of quantum states in the cascade region creates a tunable barrier for electrons that allows or suppresses emitter-injected electron flow from the p-type base through the quantum cascade region into the collector. The field-dependent electron barrier in the base-collector junction manipulates the effective minority carrier lifetime in the base and controls the radiative base recombination process. Under different quantum cascade region biasing conditions, the radiative base recombination is measured and analyzed.

  3. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  4. Non-radiative carrier recombination enhanced by two-level process: A first-principles study

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ji -Hui; Shi, Lin; Wang, Lin -Wang; ...

    2016-02-16

    In this study, non-radiative recombination plays an important role in the performance of optoelectronic semiconductor devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Most textbook examples assume that the recombination process occurs through a single defect level, where one electron and one hole are captured and recombined. Based on this simple picture, conventional wisdom is that only defect levels near the center of the bandgap can be effective recombination centers. Here, we present a new two-level recombination mechanism: first, one type of carrier is captured through a defect level forming a metastable state; then the local defect configuration rapidly changesmore » to a stable state, where the other type of carrier is captured and recombined through another defect level. This novel mechanism is applied to the recombination center Te 2+ cd in CdTe. We show that this two-level process can significantly increase the recombination rate (by three orders of magnitude) in agreement with experiments. We expect that this two-level recombination process can exist in a wide range of semiconductors, so its effect should be carefully examined in characterizing optoelectronic materials.« less

  5. Nongeminate Radiative Recombination of Free Charges in Cation-Exchanged PbS Quantum Dot Films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marshall, Ashley R.; Beard, Matthew C.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-06-01

    Using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy we explore the radiative recombination pathways in PbS quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by two methods. We compare conventionally synthesized PbS from a PbO precursor to PbS synthesized using cation-exchange from CdS QDs. We show that strongly coupled films of PbS QDs from the cation-exchange luminesce with significant efficiency at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to conventional PbS QDs, which have exceedingly weak room temperature emission. Moreover, the power dependence of the emission is quadratic, indicating bimolecular radiative recombination that is reasonably competitive with trap-assisted recombination, a feature previously unreported in coupled PbS QD films.more » We interpret these results in terms of a greatly reduced defect concentration for cation-exchanged QDs that mitigates the influence of trap-assisted recombination. Cation-exchanged QDs have recently been employed in highly efficient and air-stable lead chalcogenide QD devices, and the reduced number of trap states inferred here may lead to improved current collection and higher open circuit voltage.« less

  6. Nongeminate radiative recombination of free charges in cation-exchanged PbS quantum dot films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marshall, Ashley R.; Beard, Matthew C.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-06-01

    Using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy we explore the radiative recombination pathways in PbS quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by two methods. We compare conventionally synthesized PbS from a PbO precursor to PbS synthesized using cation-exchange from CdS QDs. We show that strongly coupled films of PbS QDs from the cation-exchange luminesce with significant efficiency at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to conventional PbS QDs, which have exceedingly weak room temperature emission. Moreover, the power dependence of the emission is quadratic, indicating bimolecular radiative recombination that is reasonably competitive with trap-assisted recombination, a feature previously unreported in coupled PbS QD films.more » We interpret these results in terms of a greatly reduced defect concentration for cation-exchanged QDs that mitigates the influence of trap-assisted recombination. Cation-exchanged QDs have recently been employed in highly efficient and air-stable lead chalcogenide QD devices, and the reduced number of trap states inferred here may lead to improved current collection and higher open circuit voltage.« less

  7. Narrow band vacuum ultraviolet radiation, produced by fast conical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2018-04-01

    The article presents the experimental study of discharges in a conical cavity, filled with Ar at pressure 80 Pa. The electrical current driver (inductive storage with plasma erosion opening switch) supplies to the load electrical current pulse with growth rate about 1012 A s‑1 and maximal value 30–40 kA. The convergent conical shock wave starts from the inner surface of the discharge cavity and collapses in ‘zippering’ mode. The pin hole camera imaging with MCP detector (time resolution 5 ns) have demonstrated the appearance of effectively fast moving compact plasma with visible velocity v  =  (1.5  ±  0.14)  ×  107 cm s‑1. Plasma emits narrow band radiation in the spectral range of Rydberg series transitions of Ar VII, Ar VIII with quantum number up to n  =  9 (wavelength about 11 nm). The intensity of radiation is comparable with the total plasma emission in the range 10–50 nm. Charge exchange between multiply charged Ar ions and cold Ar atoms of working gas is proposed as the possible mechanism of the origin of the radiation.

  8. Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultra-narrow beam

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chongzhao; Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-07-07

    Plasmonic lasers (spasers) generate coherent surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and could be realized at subwavelength dimensions in metallic cavities for applications in nanoscale optics. Plasmonic cavities are also utilized for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which are the brightest available solid-state sources of terahertz radiation. A long standing challenge for spasers that are utilized as nanoscale sources of radiation, is their poor coupling to the far-field radiation. Unlike conventional lasers that could produce directional beams, spasers have highly divergent radiation patterns due to their subwavelength apertures. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new technique for implementing distributed feedback (DFB) thatmore » is distinct from any other previously utilized DFB schemes for semiconductor lasers. The so-termed antenna-feedback scheme leads to single-mode operation in plasmonic lasers, couples the resonant SPP mode to a highly directional far-field radiation pattern, and integrates hybrid SPPs in surrounding medium into the operation of the DFB lasers. Experimentally, the antenna-feedback method, which does not require the phase matching to a well-defined effective index, is implemented for terahertz QCLs, and single-mode terahertz QCLs with a beam divergence as small as 4°×4° are demonstrated, which is the narrowest beam reported for any terahertz QCL to date. Moreover, in contrast to a negligible radiative field in conventional photonic band-edge lasers, in which the periodicity follows the integer multiple of half-wavelengths inside the active medium, antenna-feedback breaks this integer limit for the first time and enhances the radiative field of the lasing mode. Terahertz lasers with narrow-beam emission will find applications for integrated as well as standoff terahertz spectroscopy and sensing. Furthermore, the antenna-feedback scheme is generally applicable to any plasmonic laser with a Fabry–Perot cavity

  9. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    values extracted from OPTP measurements and their dependence on perovskite composition and morphology. The significance of the reviewed charge-carrier recombination and mobility parameters is subsequently evaluated in terms of the charge-carrier diffusion lengths and radiative efficiencies that may be obtained for such hybrid perovskites. We particularly focus on calculating such quantities in the limit of ultra-low trap-related recombination, which has not yet been demonstrated but could be reached through further advances in material processing. We find that for thin films of hybrid lead iodide perovskites with typical charge-carrier mobilities of ∼30cm(2)/(V s), charge-carrier diffusion lengths at solar (AM1.5) irradiation are unlikely to exceed ∼10 μm even if all trap-related recombination is eliminated. We further examine the radiative efficiency for hybrid lead halide perovskite films and show that if high efficiencies are to be obtained for intermediate charge-carrier densities (n ≈ 10(14) cm(-3)) trap-related recombination lifetimes will have to be enhanced well into the microsecond range.

  10. Measurement of the surface wavelength distribution of narrow-band radiation by a colorimetric method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kraiskii, A V; Mironova, T V; Sultanov, T T

    2010-09-10

    A method is suggested for determining the wavelength of narrow-band light from a digital photograph of a radiating surface. The digital camera used should be appropriately calibrated. The accuracy of the wavelength measurement is better than 1 nm. The method was tested on the yellow doublet of mercury spectrum and on the adjacent continuum of the incandescent lamp radiation spectrum. By means of the method suggested the homogeneity of holographic sensor swelling was studied in stationary and transient cases. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. The influence of continuum radiation fields on hydrogen radio recombination lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prozesky, Andri; Smits, Derck P.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of hydrogen departure coefficients using a model with the angular momentum quantum levels resolved that includes the effects of external radiation fields are presented. The stimulating processes are important at radio frequencies and can influence level populations. New numerical techniques with a solid mathematical basis have been incorporated into the model to ensure convergence of the solution. Our results differ from previous results by up to 20 per cent. A direct solver with a similar accuracy but more efficient than the iterative method is used to evaluate the influence of continuum radiation on the hydrogen population structure. The effects on departure coefficients of continuum radiation from dust, the cosmic microwave background, the stellar ionising radiation, and free-free radiation are quantified. Tables of emission and absorption coefficients for interpreting observed radio recombination lines are provided.

  12. Radiative recombination in GaN/InGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kao, Tsung-Ting; Lee, Yi-Che; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-12-14

    We report an electroluminescence (EL) study on npn GaN/InGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Three radiative recombination paths are resolved in the HBTs, corresponding to the band-to-band transition (3.3 eV), conduction-band-to-acceptor-level transition (3.15 eV), and yellow luminescence (YL) with the emission peak at 2.2 eV. We further study possible light emission paths by operating the HBTs under different biasing conditions. The band-to-band and the conduction-band-to-acceptor-level transitions mostly arise from the intrinsic base region, while a defect-related YL band could likely originate from the quasi-neutral base region of a GaN/InGaN HBT. The I{sub B}-dependent EL intensities for these three recombination paths are discussed. The resultsmore » also show the radiative emission under the forward-active transistor mode operation is more effective than that using a diode-based emitter due to the enhanced excess electron concentration in the base region as increasing the collector current increases.« less

  13. Impact of interfacial molecular orientation on radiative recombination and charge generation efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Ran, Niva A.; Roland, Steffen; Love, John A.; ...

    2017-07-19

    Here, a long standing question in organic electronics concerns the effects of molecular orientation at donor/acceptor heterojunctions. Given a well-controlled donor/acceptor bilayer system, we uncover the genuine effects of molecular orientation on charge generation and recombination. These effects are studied through the point of view of photovoltaics—however, the results have important implications on the operation of all optoelectronic devices with donor/acceptor interfaces, such as light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Our findings can be summarized by two points. First, devices with donor molecules face-on to the acceptor interface have a higher charge transfer state energy and less non-radiative recombination, resulting inmore » larger open-circuit voltages and higher radiative efficiencies. Second, devices with donor molecules edge-on to the acceptor interface are more efficient at charge generation, attributed to smaller electronic coupling between the charge transfer states and the ground state, and lower activation energy for charge generation.« less

  14. A new spin on primordial hydrogen recombination and a refined model for spinning dust radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Haimoud, Yacine

    2011-08-01

    This thesis describes theoretical calculations in two subjects: the primordial recombination of the electron-proton plasma about 400,000 years after the Big Bang and electric dipole radiation from spinning dust grains in the present-day interstellar medium. Primordial hydrogen recombination has recently been the subject of a renewed attention because of the impact of its theoretical uncertainties on predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra. The physics of the primordial recombination problem can be divided into two qualitatively different aspects. On the one hand, a detailed treatment of the non-thermal radiation field in the optically thick Lyman lines is required for an accurate recombination history near the peak of the visibility function. On the other hand, stimulated recombinations and out-of equilibrium effects are important at late times and a multilevel calculation is required to correctly compute the low-redshift end of the ionization history. Another facet of the problem is the requirement of computational efficiency, as a large number of recombination histories must be evaluated in Markov chains when analyzing CMB data. In this thesis, an effective multilevel atom method is presented, that speeds up multilevel atom computations by more than 5 orders of magnitude. The impact of previously ignored radiative transfer effects is quantified, and explicitly shown to be negligible. Finally, the numerical implementation of a fast and highly accurate primordial recombination code partly written by the author is described. The second part of this thesis is devoted to one of the potential galactic foregrounds for CMB experiments: the rotational emission from small dust grains. The rotational state of dust grains is described, first classically, and assuming that grains are rotating about their axis of greatest inertia. This assumption is then lifted, and a quantum-mechanical calculation is presented for disk-like grains with a

  15. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y. -E; Maxwell, T. J.

    2011-06-27

    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band (δf/f ~ =20% at f ~ = 0.5 THz) THz transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. In addition, we show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  16. Discovery of a narrow line quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Steiner, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A stellar object is reported which, while having X-ray and optical luminosities typical of quasars, has narrow permitted and forbidden emission lines over the observed spectral range. The narrow-line spectrum is high-excitation, the Balmer lines seem to be recombinational, and a redder optical spectrum than that of most quasars is exhibited, despite detection as a weak radio source. The object does not conform to the relationships between H-beta parameters and X-ray flux previously claimed for a large sample of the active galactic nuclei. Because reddish quasars with narrow lines, such as the object identified, may not be found by the standard techniques for the discovery of quasars, the object may be a prototype of a new class of quasars analogous to high-luminosity Seyfert type 2 galaxies. It is suggested that these objects cannot comprise more than 10% of all quasars.

  17. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  18. Recombination of radiation defects in solid methane: neutron sources and cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.; Savchenko, E. V.; Lawson, C. R.; Khyzhniy, I. V.; Jenkins, D. M.; Uyutnov, S. A.; Bludov, M. A.; Haynes, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Physicochemical properties of solid methane exposed to ionizing radiation have attracted significant interest in recent years. Here we present new trends in the study of radiation effects in solid methane. We particularly focus on relaxation phenomena in solid methane pre-irradiated by energetic neutrons and electron beam. We compare experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 10K to 100K with a model based on the assumption that radiolysis defect recombinations happen in two stages, at two different temperatures. In the case of slow heating up of the solid methane sample, irradiated at 10K, the first wave of recombination occurs around 20K with a further second wave taking place between 50 and 60K. We also discuss the role of the recombination mechanisms in “burp” phenomenon discovered by J. Carpenter in the late 1980s. An understanding of these mechanisms is vital for the designing and operation of solid methane moderators used in advanced neutron sources and could also be a possible explanation for the driving forces behind cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies.

  19. The Role of Radiation Pressure in the Narrow Line Regions of Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa; Groves, Brent; Sutherland, Ralph; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the relative significance of radiation pressure and gas pressure in the extended narrow line regions (ENLRs) of four Seyfert galaxies from the integral field Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). We demonstrate that there exist two distinct types of starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) mixing curves on standard emission line diagnostic diagrams, which reflect the balance between gas pressure and radiation pressure in the ENLR. In two of the galaxies the ENLR is radiation pressure dominated throughout and the ionization parameter remains constant (log U ˜ 0). In the other two galaxies radiation pressure is initially important, but gas pressure becomes dominant as the ionization parameter in the ENLR decreases from log U ˜ 0 to -3.2 ≲ log U ≲ -3.4. Where radiation pressure is dominant, the AGN regulates the density of the interstellar medium on kiloparsec scales and may therefore have a direct impact on star formation activity and/or the incidence of outflows in the host galaxy to scales far beyond the zone of influence of the black hole. We find that both radiation pressure dominated and gas pressure dominated ENLRs are dynamically active with evidence for outflows, indicating that radiation pressure may be an important source of AGN feedback even when it is not dominant over the entire ENLR.

  20. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510

    2011-06-27

    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band ({delta}f/f{approx_equal}20% at f{approx_equal}0.5THz) transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. The bunch train is generated via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique. We also show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  1. Depletion layer recombination effects on the radiation damage hardness of gallium arsenide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlick, G. F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The significant effect of junction depletion layer recombination on the efficiency of windowed GaAs cells was demonstrated. The effect becomes more pronounced as radiation damage occurs. The depletion is considered for 1 MeV electron fluences up to 10 to the 16th power e/sq m. The cell modeling separates damage in emitter and base or buffer layers using different damage coefficients is reported. The lower coefficient for the emitter predicts less loss of performance at fluences greater than 10 to the 15th power e/sq cm. A method for obtaining information on junction recombination effects as damage proceeds is described; this enables a more complete diagnosis of damage to be made.

  2. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju

    2016-03-10

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negativemore » contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.« less

  3. Effect of number of stack on the thermal escape and non-radiative and radiative recombinations of photoexcited carriers in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well-inserted solar cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Ikari, Tetsuo

    2015-02-28

    Three non-destructive methodologies, namely, surface photovoltage (SPV), photoluminescence, and piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) spectroscopies, were adopted to detect the thermal carrier escape from quantum well (QW) and radiative and non-radiative carrier recombinations, respectively, in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cell structure samples. Although the optical absorbance signal intensity was proportional to the number of QW stack, the signal intensities of the SPV and PPT methods decreased at high number of stack. To explain the temperature dependency of these signal intensities, we proposed a model that considers the three carrier dynamics: the thermal escape from the QW, and the non-radiativemore » and radiative carrier recombinations within the QW. From the fitting procedures, it was estimated that the activation energies of the thermal escape ΔE{sub barr} and non-radiative recombination ΔE{sub NR} were 68 and 29 meV, respectively, for a 30-stacked MQW sample. The estimated ΔE{sub barr} value agreed well with the difference between the first electron subband and the top of the potential barrier in the conduction band. We found that ΔE{sub barr} remained constant at approximately 70 meV even with increasing QW stack number. However, the ΔE{sub NR} value monotonically increased with the increase in the number of stack. Since this implies that non-radiative recombination becomes improbable as the number of stack increases, we found that the radiative recombination probability for electrons photoexcited within the QW increased at a large number of QW stack. Additional processes of escaping and recapturing of carriers at neighboring QW were discussed. As a result, the combination of the three non-destructive methodologies provided us new insights for optimizing the MQW components to further improve the cell performance.« less

  4. Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Wan Ki; Park, Young-Shin; Lim, Jaehoon; Lee, Donggu; Padilha, Lazaro A.; McDaniel, Hunter; Robel, Istvan; Lee, Changhee; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on colloidal quantum dots is driven by attractive properties of these fluorophores such as spectrally narrow, tunable emission and facile processibility via solution-based methods. A current obstacle towards improved LED performance is an incomplete understanding of the roles of extrinsic factors, such as non-radiative recombination at surface defects, versus intrinsic processes, such as multicarrier Auger recombination or electron-hole separation due to applied electric field. Here we address this problem with studies that correlate the excited state dynamics of structurally engineered quantum dots with their emissive performance within LEDs. We find that because of significant charging of quantum dots with extra electrons, Auger recombination greatly impacts both LED efficiency and the onset of efficiency roll-off at high currents. Further, we demonstrate two specific approaches for mitigating this problem using heterostructured quantum dots, either by suppressing Auger decay through the introduction of an intermediate alloyed layer, or by using an additional shell that impedes electron transfer into the quantum dot to help balance electron and hole injection. PMID:24157692

  5. Recombination phenomena in high efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The dominant recombination phenomena which limit the highest efficiency attainable in silicon solar cells under terrestrial sunlight are reviewed. The ultimate achievable efficiency is limited by the two intrinsic recombination mechanisms, the interband Auger recombination and interband Radiative recombination, both of which occur in the entire cell body but principally in the base layer. It is suggested that an optimum (26%) cell design is one with lowly doped 50 to 100 micron thick base, a perfect BSF, and zero extrinsic recombination such as the thermal mechanism at recombination centers the Shockley-Read-Hall process (SRH) in the bulk, on the surface and at the interfaces. The importance of recombination at the interfaces of a high-efficiency cell is demonstrated by the ohmic contact on the back surface whose interface recombination velocity is infinite. The importance of surface and interface recombination is demonstrated by representing the auger and radiative recombination losses by effective recombination velocities. It is demonstrated that the three highest efficiency cells may all be limited by the SRH recombination losses at recombination centers in the base layer.

  6. Photoionization and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  7. Anisotropic ionizing radiation in Seyfert galaxies. I - The extended narrow-line region in Markarian 573

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Walsh, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and ionization state of the nuclear extended narrow-line region (ENLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 are studied using narrow-band images of a grid of long-slit spectra. The entire ENLR is mapped spectroscopically, and velocity structure is studied. The velocity field map shows a typical galactic rotation picture with some important deviations. A simple geometric model, in accordance with the 'unified schemes', is employed to study the effects of various parameters of the observed picture. The best match is achieved when a biconical radiation field illuminates the ISM of the host galaxy that takes part in a normal galaxy rotation but also has radial motions close to the nucleus. The emission-line images reveal an ENLR elongated along the radio axis in the northwest-southeast direction, but a map of the flux ratio forbidden O III 5007/(H-alpha + forbidden N II) shows a different structure, with the highest excitation peak offset by about 4 arcsec along the radio axis to the southeast.

  8. Enhanced tunable narrow-band THz emission from laser-modulated electron beams

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiang, D.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We propose and analyze a scheme to generate enhanced narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation through down-conversion of the frequency of optical lasers using laser-modulated electron beams. In the scheme the electron beam is first energy modulated by two lasers with wave numbers k{sub 1} and k2, respectively. After passing through a dispersion section, the energy modulation is converted to density modulation. Due to the nonlinear conversion process, the beam will have density modulation at wave number k = nk{sub 1} + mk{sub 2}, where n and m are positive or negative integers. By properly choosing the parameters for the lasers andmore » dispersion section, one can generate density modulation at THz frequency in the beam using optical lasers. This density-modulated beam can be used to generate powerful narrow-band THz radiation. Since the THz radiation is in tight synchronization with the lasers, it should provide a high temporal resolution for the optical-pump THz-probe experiments. The central frequency of the THz radiation can be easily tuned by varying the wavelength of the two lasers and the energy chirp of the electron beam. The proposed scheme is in principle able to generate intense narrow-band THz radiation covering the whole THz range and offers a promising way towards the tunable intense narrow-band THz sources.« less

  9. Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

    1998-03-01

    Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution.

  10. Exploration of the Dissociative Recombination following DNA ionization to DNA+ due to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Richard A.; Zimmerly, Andrew T.; Andrianarijaona, Vola M.

    2014-05-01

    It is known that ionizing radiation generates low-energy secondary electrons, which may interact with the surrounding area, including biomolecules, such as triggering DNA single strand and double strand breaks as demonstrated by Sanche and coworkers (Radiat. Res. 157, 227(2002)). The bio-effects of low-energy electrons are currently a topic of high interest. Most of the studies are dedicated to dissociative electron attachments; however, the area is still mostly unexplored and still not well understood. We are computationally investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on DNA, such as its ionization to DNA+. More specifically, we are exploring the possibility of the dissociative recombination of the temporary DNA+ with one of the low-energy secondary electrons, produced by the ionizing radiation, to be another process of DNA strand breaks. Our preliminary results, which are performed with the binaries of ORCA, will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  11. The Suzaku Observation of NGC 3516: Complex Absorption and the Broad and Narrow Fe K Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, Alex; Reeves, James N.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Serlemitsos, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Taqoob, Tahir; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a 150 ksec Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1 NGC 3516 in October 2005. The source was in a relatively highly absorbed state. Our best-fit model is consistent with partial covering by a lowly-ionized absorber with a column density near 5x10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and with a covering fraction 96-100 percent. Narrow K-shell absorption features due to He- and H-like Fe confirm the presence of a high-ionization absorbing component as well. A broad Fe K(alpha) diskline is required in all fits, even after the complex absorption is taken into account; an additional partial-covering component is an inadequate substitute for the continuum curvature associated with the broad line. The narrow Fe Ka line at 6.4 keV is resolved, yielding a velocity width commensurate with the optical Broad Line Region. The strength of the Compton reflection hump suggests a contribution mainly from the broad Fe line origin. We include in our model soft band emission lines from He- and H-like ions and radiative recombination lines, consistent with photo-ionization, though a small contribution from collisional ionization is possible.

  12. Why Hart found narrow ecospheres--a minor science mystery solved.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Barton Paul

    2015-05-01

    To explain why two NASA computer simulation studies in the 1970s (Hart, 1978 , 1979 ) briefly rocked the subfield of astrobiology and SETI studies by showing very narrow habitable zones (HZs) for solar-type stars. Although other studies later supported wider HZs, it was never clear why the Hart simulations found the narrow limits they did. Investigation of the state of climate studies and radiative transfer models in the period 1960-1970 provides a likely explanation. Hart's findings were in line with earlier results, preventing him from noticing that his radiation model was inadequate.

  13. Do grain boundaries dominate non-radiative recombination in CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskite thin films?

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Mengjin; Zeng, Yining; Li, Zhen; ...

    2017-01-13

    Here, we examine GBs with respect to non-GB regions (grain surfaces (GSs) and grain interiors (GIs)) in high-quality micrometer-sized perovskite CH 3NH 3PbI 3 (or MAPbI 3) thin films using high-resolution confocal fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy in conjunction with kinetic modeling of charge-transport and recombination processes. We show that, contrary to previous studies, GBs in our perovskite MAPbI3 thin films do not lead to increased recombination but that recombination in these films happens primarily in the non-GB regions (i.e., GSs or GIs). We also find that GBs in these films are not transparent to photogenerated carriers, which is likely associated withmore » a potential barrier at GBs. Lastly, even though GBs generally display lower luminescence intensities than GSs/GIs, the lifetimes at GBs are no worse than those at GSs/GIs, further suggesting that GBs do not dominate non-radiative recombination in MAPbI 3 thin films.« less

  14. Temporal intensity interferometry for characterization of very narrow spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. K.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2017-08-01

    Some stellar objects exhibit very narrow spectral lines in the visible range additional to their blackbody radiation. Natural lasing has been suggested as a mechanism to explain narrow lines in Wolf-Rayet stars. However, the spectral resolution of conventional astronomical spectrographs is still about two orders of magnitude too low to test this hypothesis. We want to resolve the linewidth of narrow spectral emissions in starlight. A combination of spectral filtering with single-photon-level temporal correlation measurements breaks the resolution limit of wavelength-dispersing spectrographs by moving the linewidth measurement into the time domain. We demonstrate in a laboratory experiment that temporal intensity interferometry can determine a 20-MHz-wide linewidth of Doppler-broadened laser light and identify a coherent laser light contribution in a blackbody radiation background.

  15. Carrier-induced transient defect mechanism for non-radiative recombination in InGaN light-emitting devices

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Y. Y.; Song, Jung -Hoon; ...

    2016-04-14

    Non-radiative recombination (NRR) of excited carriers poses a serious challenge to optoelectronic device efficiency. Understanding the mechanism is thus crucial to defect physics and technological applications. Here, by using first-principles calculations, we propose a new NRR mechanism, where excited carriers recombine via a Frenkel-pair (FP) defect formation. While in the ground state the FP is high in energy and is unlikely to form, in the electronic excited states its formation is enabled by a strong electron-phonon coupling of the excited carriers. As a result, this NRR mechanism is expected to be general for wide-gap semiconductors, rather than being limited tomore » InGaN-based light emitting devices.« less

  16. Pre-recombination quenching of the radiation induced fluorescence as the approach to study kinetics of ion-molecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, V. I.; Ivanishko, I. S.

    2011-04-01

    This study deals with the geminate ion recombination in the presence of bulk scavengers, that is the so-called scavenger problem, as well as with the effect of the scavenging reaction on the radiation-induced recombination fluorescence. Borovkov and Velizhanin (2004) have proposed a method to determine the rate constant of the bulk reaction between neutral scavengers and one of the geminate ions if the ion-molecular reaction prevented the formation of electronically excited states upon recombination involving a newly formed ion. If such pre-recombination quenching of the radiation-induced fluorescence took place, it manifested itself as a progressive decrease in the decay of the fluorescence intensity. The relative change in the fluorescence decay as caused by the scavengers was believed to be closely related to the kinetics of the scavenging reaction. The goal of the present study is to support this method, both computationally and experimentally because there are two factors, which cast doubt on the intuitively obvious approach to the scavenger problem: spatial correlations between the particles involved and the drift of the charged reagent in the electric field of its geminate partner. Computer simulation of geminate ions recombination with an explicit modeling of the motion trajectories of scavengers has been performed for media of low dielectric permittivity, i.e. for the maximal Coulomb interaction between the ions. The simulation has shown that upon continuous diffusion of the particles involved, the joint effect of the two above factors can be considered as insignificant with a high accuracy. Besides, it is concluded then that the method of pre-recombination quenching could be applied to study parallel and consecutive reactions where the yields of excited states in the reaction pathways are different with the use of very simple analytical relations of the formal chemical kinetics. The conclusion has been confirmed experimentally by the example of the

  17. CRISPR-directed mitotic recombination enables genetic mapping without crosses.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Meru J; Bloom, Joshua S; Day, Laura; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2016-05-27

    Linkage and association studies have mapped thousands of genomic regions that contribute to phenotypic variation, but narrowing these regions to the underlying causal genes and variants has proven much more challenging. Resolution of genetic mapping is limited by the recombination rate. We developed a method that uses CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) to build mapping panels with targeted recombination events. We tested the method by generating a panel with recombination events spaced along a yeast chromosome arm, mapping trait variation, and then targeting a high density of recombination events to the region of interest. Using this approach, we fine-mapped manganese sensitivity to a single polymorphism in the transporter Pmr1. Targeting recombination events to regions of interest allows us to rapidly and systematically identify causal variants underlying trait differences. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Possibility of the amplification of the radiation at the wave length lambda = 1776 A in recombining plasma (in Russian)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gudzenko, L.I.; Evstigneev, V.V.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1973-09-01

    A calculation is made of the characteristics of the amplification of the radiation in the vaccum ultraviolet spectral range in the 2s-2p transition of Be ions in supercooled (intensely recombining) dense Be plasma. (tr-auth)

  19. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Measurement of the surface wavelength distribution of narrow-band radiation by a colorimetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiskii, A. V.; Mironova, T. V.; Sultanov, T. T.

    2010-09-01

    A method is suggested for determining the wavelength of narrow-band light from a digital photograph of a radiating surface. The digital camera used should be appropriately calibrated. The accuracy of the wavelength measurement is better than 1 nm. The method was tested on the yellow doublet of mercury spectrum and on the adjacent continuum of the incandescent lamp radiation spectrum. By means of the method suggested the homogeneity of holographic sensor swelling was studied in stationary and transient cases.

  20. Phonon effects on the radiative recombination of excitons in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwat, Paweł; Sitek, Anna; Machnikowski, Paweł

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the radiative recombination of excitons in double quantum dots in the presence of carrier-phonon coupling. We show that the phonon-induced pure dephasing effects and transitions between the exciton states strongly modify the spontaneous emission process and make it sensitive to temperature, which may lead to nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the time-resolved luminescence. We show also that, under specific resonance conditions, the biexcitonic interband polarization can be coherently transferred to the excitonic one, leading to an extended lifetime of the total coherent polarization, which is reflected in the nonlinear optical spectrum of the system. We study the stability of this effect against phonon-induced decoherence.

  1. Carbon recombination lines as a diagnostic of photodissociation regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natta, A.; Walmsley, C. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed the C91 alpha radio recombination line toward the Orion H II region. This narrow (approximately 3-5 km per sec full width at half maximum (FWHM)) line is spatially very extended (approximately 8 arcmin or 1 pc). These charateristics compare well with the observed characteristics of the C II fine structure line at 158 microns. Thus, the C91 alpha line originates in the predominantly neutral photodissociation regions separating the H II region from the molecular cloud. We have developed theoretical models for the C II radio recombination lines from photodissociation regions. The results show that the I(C91 alpha)/I(C158) intensity ratio is a sensitive function of the temperature and density of the emitting gas. We have also extended theoretical models for photodissociation regions to include the C II recombination lines. Comparison with these models show that, in the central portion of the Orion region, the C91 alpha line originates in dense (10(exp 6) per cu cm), warm (500-1000 K) gas. Even at large projected distances (approximately 1 pc), the inferred density is still high (10(exp 5) per cu cm) and implies extremely high thermal pressures. As in the case of the (C II) 158 microns line, the large extent of the C91 alpha line shows that (FUV) photons can penetrate to large distances from the illuminating source. The decline of the intensity of the incident radiation field with distance from Theta(sup 1) C seems to be dominated by geometrical dilution, rather than dust extinction. Finally, we have used our models to calculate the intensity of the 9850 A recombination line of C II. The physical conditions inferred from this line are in good agreement with those determined from the radio recombination and the far-infrared fine-structure lines. We show that the ratio of the 9850 A to the C91 alpha lines is a very good probe of very high density clumps.

  2. Recombination dynamics of excitons with low non-radiative component in semi-polar (10-11)-oriented GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Izyumskaya, N.; Monavarian, M.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2014-09-01

    Optical properties of GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N multiple quantum wells grown with semi-polar (10-11) orientation on patterned 7°-off Si (001) substrates have been investigated. Studies performed at 8 K reveal the in-plane anisotropic behavior of the QW photoluminescence (PL) intensity for this semi-polar orientation. The time resolved PL measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K to deduce the effective recombination decay times, with respective radiative and non-radiative contributions. The non-radiative component remains relatively weak with increasing temperature, indicative of high crystalline quality. The radiative decay time is a consequence of contribution from both localized and free excitons. We report an effective density of interfacial defects of 2.3 × 1012 cm-2 and a radiative recombination time of τloc = 355 ps for the localized excitons. This latter value is significantly larger than those reported for the non-polar structures, which we attribute to the presence of a weak residual electric field in the semi-polar QW layers.

  3. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  4. Irradiated esophageal cells are protected from radiation-induced recombination by MnSOD gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yunyun; Wang, Hong; Wiktor-Brown, Dominika; Rugo, Rebecca; Shen, Hongmei; Huq, M Saiful; Engelward, Bevin; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel S

    2010-04-01

    Radiation-induced DNA damage is a precursor to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. During radiotherapy, exposure of healthy tissues can lead to severe side effects. We explored the potential of mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) gene therapy to protect esophageal, pancreatic and bone marrow cells from radiation-induced genomic instability. Specifically, we measured the frequency of homologous recombination (HR) at an integrated transgene in the Fluorescent Yellow Direct Repeat (FYDR) mice, in which an HR event can give rise to a fluorescent signal. Mitochondrial SOD plasmid/liposome complex (MnSOD-PL) was administered to esophageal cells 24 h prior to 29 Gy upper-body irradiation. Single cell suspensions from FYDR, positive control FYDR-REC, and negative control C57BL/6NHsd (wild-type) mouse esophagus, pancreas and bone marrow were evaluated by flow cytometry. Radiation induced a statistically significant increase in HR 7 days after irradiation compared to unirradiated FYDR mice. MnSOD-PL significantly reduced the induction of HR by radiation at day 7 and also reduced the level of HR in the pancreas. Irradiation of the femur and tibial marrow with 8 Gy also induced a significant increase in HR at 7 days. Radioprotection by intraesophageal administration of MnSOD-PL was correlated with a reduced level of radiation-induced HR in esophageal cells. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MnSOD-PL for suppressing radiation-induced HR in vivo.

  5. Economic Value of Narrowing the Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity: Decadal Change in Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing and Low Cloud Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R. M.; Golub, A. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Young, D. F.; Baize, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Several previous studies have been published on the economic value of narrowing the uncertainty in climate sensitivity (Cooke et al. 2015, Cooke et al. 2016, Hope, 2015). All three of these studies estimated roughly 10 Trillion U.S. dollars for the Net Present Value and Real Option Value at a discount rate of 3%. This discount rate is the nominal discount rate used in the U.S. Social Cost of Carbon Memo (2010). The Cooke et al studies approached this problem by examining advances in accuracy of global temperature measurements, while the Hope 2015 study did not address the type of observations required. While temperature change is related to climate sensitivity, large uncertainties of a factor of 3 in current anthropogenic radiative forcing (IPCC, 2013) would need to be solved for advanced decadal temperature change observations to assist the challenge of narrowing climate sensitivity. The present study takes a new approach by extending the Cooke et al. 2015,2016 papers to replace observations of temperature change to observations of decadal change in the effects of changing clouds on the Earths radiative energy balance, a measurement known as Cloud Radiative Forcing, or Cloud Radiative Effect. Decadal change in this observation is direclty related to the largest uncertainty in climate sensitivity which is cloud feedback from changing amount of low clouds, primarily low clouds over the world's oceans. As a result, decadal changes in shortwave cloud radiative forcing are more directly related to cloud feedback uncertainty which is the dominant uncertainty in climate sensitivity. This paper will show results for the new approach, and allow an examination of the sensitivity of economic value results to different observations used as a constraint on uncertainty in climate sensitivity. The analysis suggests roughly a doubling of economic value to 20 Trillion Net Present Value or Real Option Value at 3% discount rate. The higher economic value results from two changes: a

  6. The origin of N III lambda 990 and C III lambda 977 emission in AGN narrow-line region gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, J. W.; Ferland, G. J.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss implications of Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) detections of C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 990 emission from the narrow-line region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. In their discovery paper Kriss et al. showed that the unexpectedly great strength of these lines implies that the emitting gas must be shock-heated if the lines are collisionally excited. Here we investigate other processes which excite these lines in photoionization equilibrium. Recombination, mainly dielectronic, and continuum fluorescence are strong contributors to the line. The resulting intensities are sensitive to the velocity field of the emitting gas and require that the turbulence be of the same order of magnitude as the observed line width. We propose optical observations that will decide whether the gas is collisionally or radiatively heated.

  7. Bandwidth-narrowed Bragg gratings inscribed in double-cladding fiber by femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiawei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Shuhui; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Ningliang; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-01-31

    Bragg gratings with the bandwidth(FWHM) narrowed up to 79 pm were inscribed in double-cladding fiber with femtosecond radiation and a phase mask followed by an annealing treatment. With the annealing temperature below a critical value, the bandwidth of Bragg gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change was narrowed without the reduction of reflectivity. The bandwidth narrowing is due to the profile transformation of the refractive index modulation caused by the annealing treatment. This mechanism was verified by comparing bandwidth narrowing processes of FBGs written with different power densities.

  8. Solid-State Laser Source of Tunable Narrow-Bandwidth Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Lew; Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state laser source of tunable and narrow-bandwidth UV light is disclosed. The system relies on light from a diode laser that preferably generates light at infrared frequencies. The light from the seed diode laser is pulse amplified in a light amplifier, and converted into the ultraviolet by frequency tripling, quadrupling, or quintupling the infrared light. The narrow bandwidth, or relatively pure light, of the seed laser is preserved, and the pulse amplifier generates high peak light powers to increase the efficiency of the nonlinear crystals in the frequency conversion stage. Higher output powers may be obtained by adding a fiber amplifier to power amplify the pulsed laser light prior to conversion.

  9. Meiotic recombination hotspots - a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover. Meiotic recombination has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and is an important tool during crop breeding. Crossovers initiate from programmed DNA double-stranded breaks that are processed to form single-stranded DNA, which can invade a homologous chromosome. Strand invasion events mature into double Holliday junctions that can be resolved as crossovers. Extensive variation in the frequency of meiotic recombination occurs along chromosomes and is typically focused in narrow hotspots, observed both at the level of DNA breaks and final crossovers. We review methodologies to profile hotspots at different steps of the meiotic recombination pathway that have been used in different eukaryote species. We then discuss what these studies have revealed concerning specification of hotspot locations and activity and the contributions of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Understanding hotspots is important for interpreting patterns of genetic variation in populations and how eukaryotic genomes evolve. In addition, manipulation of hotspots will allow us to accelerate crop breeding, where meiotic recombination distributions can be limiting. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recent Theoretical Studies On Excitation and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    New advances in the theoretical treatment of atomic processes in plasmas are described. These enable not only an integrated, unified, and self-consistent treatment of important radiative and collisional processes, but also large-scale computation of atomic data with high accuracy. An extension of the R-matrix work, from excitation and photoionization to electron-ion recombination, includes a unified method that subsumes both the radiative and the di-electronic recombination processes in an ab initio manner. The extensive collisional calculations for iron and iron-peak elements under the Iron Project are also discussed.

  11. Population-specific recombination sites within the human MHC region.

    PubMed

    Lam, T H; Shen, M; Chia, J-M; Chan, S H; Ren, E C

    2013-08-01

    Genetic rearrangement by recombination is one of the major driving forces for genome evolution, and recombination is known to occur in non-random, discreet recombination sites within the genome. Mapping of recombination sites has proved to be difficult, particularly, in the human MHC region that is complicated by both population variation and highly polymorphic HLA genes. To overcome these problems, HLA-typed individuals from three representative populations: Asian, European and African were used to generate phased HLA haplotypes. Extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) plots constructed from the phased haplotype data revealed discreet EHH drops corresponding to recombination events and these signatures were observed to be different for each population. Surprisingly, the majority of recombination sites detected are unique to each population, rather than being common. Unique recombination sites account for 56.8% (21/37 of total sites) in the Asian cohort, 50.0% (15/30 sites) in Europeans and 63.2% (24/38 sites) in Africans. Validation carried out at a known sperm typing recombination site of 45 kb (HLA-F-telomeric) showed that EHH was an efficient method to narrow the recombination region to 826 bp, and this was further refined to 660 bp by resequencing. This approach significantly enhanced mapping of the genomic architecture within the human MHC, and will be useful in studies to identify disease risk genes.

  12. Epistasis and the selective advantage of sex and recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Viviane M.; da Silva, Juliana K.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of the central mechanisms favoring sex and recombination in real populations is one of the fundamental issues in evolutionary biology. Based on a previous stochastic formulation for the study of sex, here we aim to investigate the conditions under which epistasis favors the fixation of the sexual mode of reproduction in a given population. In addition, we try to identify the evolutionary forces which contribute to this process. One considers a finite population model which assumes the existence of a recombination modifier allele that can activate the recombination mechanism. We have found that sex is very little favored in a scenario of antagonistic epistasis, and this advantage only occurs in a narrow range of values of the selection coefficient sd . On the other hand, synergistic epistasis favors recombination in a very broad domain. However, the major mechanism contributing to the spreading of the modifier allele depends on the range of values of sd . At large sd , background selection favors recombination since it increases the efficacy of selection, while at low sd Muller’s ratchet is the leading mechanism.

  13. Fast calculator for X-ray emission due to Radiative Recombination and Radiative Electron Capture in relativistic heavy-ion atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdrich, M. O.; Weber, G.; Gumberidze, A.; Wu, Z. W.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In experiments with highly charged, fast heavy ions the Radiative Recombination (RR) and Radiative Electron Capture (REC) processes have significant cross sections in an energy range of up to a few GeV / u . They are some of the most important charge changing processes in collisions of heavy ions with atoms and electrons, leading to the emission of a photon along with the formation of the ground and excited atomic states. Hence, for the understanding and planning of experiments, in particular for X-ray spectroscopy studies, at accelerator ring facilities, such as FAIR, it is crucial to have a good knowledge of these cross sections and the associated radiation characteristics. In the frame of this work a fast calculator, named RECAL, for the RR and REC process is presented and its capabilities are demonstrated with the analysis of a recently conducted experiment at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. A method is presented to determine unknown X-ray emission cross sections via normalization of the recorded spectra to REC cross sections calculated by RECAL.

  14. Effects of near-ultraviolet light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Machida, I; Saeki, T; Nakai, S

    1986-03-01

    The effects of far (254 nm) and near (290-350 nm) ultraviolet (UV) light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations were compared in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At equivalent survival levels there was not much difference in the induction of nonsense and missense mutations between far- and near-UV radiations. However, frameshift mutations were induced more frequently by near-UV than by far-UV radiation. Near-UV radiation induced intragenic recombination (gene conversion) as efficiently as far-UV radiation and the induced levels were similar in both radiations at equitoxic doses. A strikingly higher frequency was observed for the intergenic recombination induced by near-UV radiation than by far-UV radiation when compared at equivalent survival levels. Photoreactivation reduced the frequency only slightly in far-UV induced intergenic recombination and not at all in near-UV induction. These results indicate that near-UV damage involves strand breakage in addition to pyrimidine dimers and other lesions induced, whereas far-UV damage consists largely of photoreactivable lesions, pyrimidine dimers, and near-UV induced damage is more efficient for the induction of crossing-over.

  15. Impact of Alloy Fluctuations on Radiative and Auger Recombination in InGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christina; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Yan, Qimin; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are important for efficient solid-state lighting (2014 Nobel Prize in Physics). Despite its many successes, InGaN suffers from issues that reduce the efficiency of devices at high power, such as the green gap and efficiency droop. The origin of the droop has been attributed to Auger recombination, mediated by carrier scattering due to phonons and alloy disorder. Additionally, InGaN exhibits atomic-scale composition fluctuations that localize carriers and may affect the efficiency. In this work, we study the effect of local composition fluctuations on the radiative recombination rate, Auger recombination rate, and efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells. We apply k.p calculations to simulate band edges and wave functions of quantum wells with fluctuating alloy distributions based on atom probe tomography data, and we evaluate double and triple overlaps of electron and hole wave functions. We compare results for quantum wells with fluctuating alloy distributions to those with uniform alloy compositions and to published work. Our results demonstrate that alloy-composition fluctuations aggravate the efficiency-droop and green-gap problems and further reduce LED efficiency at high power. We acknowledge the NSF CAREER award DMR-1254314, the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program DGE-1256260, and the DOE NERSC facility (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  16. Specific features of the spectra and relaxation kinetics of long-wavelength photoconductivity in narrow-gap HgCdTe epitaxial films and heterostructures with quantum wells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rumyantsev, V. V., E-mail: rumyantsev@ipmras.ru; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Antonov, A. V.

    2013-11-15

    The spectra and relaxation kinetics of interband photoconductivity are investigated in narrow-gap Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te epitaxial films with x = 0.19-0.23 and in structures with HgCdTe-based quantum wells (QWs), having an interband-transition energy in the range of 30-90 meV, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (013) substrates. A long-wavelength sensitivity band caused by impurities or defects is found in the spectra of the structures with quantum wells in addition to the interband photoconductivity. It is shown that the lifetimes of nonequilibrium carriers in the structures with QWs is less than in bulk samples at the same optical-transition energy. From themore » measured carrier lifetimes, the ampere-watt responsivity and the equivalent noise power for a film with x = 0.19 at a wavelength of 19 {mu}m are estimated. When investigating the relaxation kinetics of the photoconductivity at 4.2 K in high excitation regime, it is revealed that radiative recombination is dominant over other mechanisms of nonequilibrium-carrier recombination.« less

  17. Excitation correlation photoluminescence in the presence of Shockley-Read-Hall recombination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Borgwardt, M., E-mail: mario.borgwardt@helmholtz-berlin.de; Sippel, P.; Eichberger, R.

    Excitation correlation photoluminescence (ECPL) measurements are often analyzed in the approximation of a cross correlation of charge carrier populations generated by the two delayed pulses. In semiconductors, this approach is valid for a linear non-radiative recombination path, but not for a non-linear recombination rate as in the general Shockley-Read-Hall recombination scenario. Here, the evolution of the ECPL signal was studied for deep trap recombination following Shockley-Read-Hall statistics. Analytic solutions can be obtained for a fast minority trapping regime and steady state recombination. For the steady state case, our results show that the quadratic radiative term plays only a minor role,more » and that the shape of the measured signal is mostly determined by the non-linearity of the recombination itself. We find that measurements with unbalanced intense pump and probe pulses can directly provide information about the dominant non-radiative recombination mechanism. The signal traces follow the charge carrier concentrations, despite the complex origins of the signal, thus showing that ECPL can be applied to study charge carrier dynamics in semiconductors without requiring elaborate calculations. The model is compared with measurements on a reference sample with alternating layers of InGaAs/InAlAs that were additionally cross-checked with time resolved optical pump terahertz probe measurements and found to be in excellent agreement.« less

  18. Optically trapped atomic resonant devices for narrow linewidth spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lipeng

    This thesis focuses on the development of atomic resonant devices for spectroscopic applications. The primary emphasis is on the imaging properties of optically thick atomic resonant fluorescent filters and their applications. In addition, this thesis presents a new concept for producing very narrow linewidth light as from an atomic vapor lamp pumped by a nanosecond pulse system. This research was motivated by application for missile warning system, and presents an innovative approach to a wide angle, ultra narrow linewidth imaging filter using a potassium vapor cell. The approach is to image onto and collect the fluorescent photons emitted from the surface of an optically thick potassium vapor cell, generating a 2 GHz pass-band imaging filter. This linewidth is narrow enough to fall within a Fraunhefer dark zone in the solar spectrum, thus make the detection solar blind. Experiments are conducted to measure the absorption line shape of the potassium resonant filter, the quantum efficiency of the fluorescent behavior, and the resolution of the fluorescent image. Fluorescent images with different spatial frequency components are analyzed by using a discrete Fourier transform, and the imaging capability of the fluorescent filter is described by its Modulation Transfer Function. For the detection of radiation that is spectrally broader than the linewidth of the potassium imaging filter, the fluorescent image is seen to be blurred by diffuse fluorescence from the slightly off resonant photons. To correct this, an ultra-thin potassium imaging filter is developed and characterized. The imaging property of the ultra-thin potassium imaging cell is tested with a potassium seeded flame, yielding a resolution image of ˜ 20 lines per mm. The physics behind the atomic resonant fluorescent filter is radiation trapping. The diffusion process of the resonant photons trapped in the atomic vapor is theoretically described in this thesis. A Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the

  19. Surface and interface effects on non-radiative exciton recombination and relaxation dynamics in CdSe/Cd,Zn,S nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Brenna R.; Saari, Jonathan I.; Krause, Michael M.; Nick, Robert; Coe-Sullivan, Seth; Kambhampati, Patanjali

    2016-06-01

    Excitonic state-resolved pump/probe spectroscopy and time correlate single photon counting were used to study exciton dynamics from the femtosecond to nanosecond time scales in CdSe/Cd,Zn,S nanocrystals. These measurements reveal the role of the core/shell interface as well as surface on non-radiative excitonic processes over three time regimes. Time resolved photoluminescence reports on how the interface controls slow non-radiative processes that dictate emission at the single excitonic level. Heterogeneity in decay is minimized by interfacial structure. Pump/probe measurements explore the non-radiative multiexcitonic recombination processes on the picosecond timescale. These Auger based non-radiative processes dictate lifetimes of multiexcitonic states. Finally state-resolved pump/probe measurements on the femtosecond timescale reveal the influence of the interface on electron and hole relaxation dynamics. We find that the interface has a profound influence on all three types of non-radiative processes which ultimately control light emission from nanocrystals.

  20. Meiotic homoeologous recombination-based alien gene introgression in the genomics era of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect h...

  1. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOEpatents

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  2. Minority carrier lifetime in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb superlattices: Photon recycling and the role of radiative and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanisms

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Höglund, L.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.

    The influence of radiative recombination on the minority carrier lifetime in mid-wavelength InAs/InAsSb superlattices was investigated. From the lifetime's dependence on temperature, photon recycling, and carrier concentration, it was demonstrated that radiative lifetime dominates for carrier concentrations >5 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination starts to dominate the minority carrier lifetime for carrier concentrations <5 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. An observed increase of the minority carrier lifetime with increasing superlattice thickness was attributed to photon recycling, and good agreement between measured and theoretical values of the photon recycling factor was obtained.

  3. Sensitive Detection of Radiation-Induced Medulloblastomas after Acute or Protracted Gamma-Ray Exposures in Ptch1 Heterozygous Mice Using a Radiation-Specific Molecular Signature.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Blyth, Benjamin J; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Shinagawa, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2016-10-01

    Recently reported studies have led to a heightened awareness of the risks of cancer induced by diagnostic radiological imaging, and in particular, the risk of brain cancer after childhood CT scans. One feature of Ptch1 +/- mice is their sensitivity to radiation-induced medulloblastomas (an embryonic cerebellar tumor) during a narrow window of time centered on the days around birth. Little is known about the dynamics of how dose protraction interacts with such narrow windows of sensitivity in individual tissues. Using medulloblastomas from irradiated Ptch1 +/- mice with a hybrid C3H × C57BL/6 F1 genetic background, we previously showed that the alleles retained on chromosome 13 (which harbors the Ptch1 gene) reveal two major mechanisms of loss of the wild-type allele. The loss of parental alleles from the telomere extending up to or past the Ptch1 locus by recombination (spontaneous type) accounts for almost all medulloblastomas in nonirradiated mice, while tumors in irradiated mice often exhibited interstitial deletions, which start downstream of the wild-type Ptch1 and extend up varying lengths towards the centromere (radiation type). In this study, Ptch1 +/- mice were exposed to an acute dose of either 100 or 500 mGy gamma rays in utero or postnatally, or the same radiation doses protracted over a four-day period, and were monitored for medulloblastoma development. The results showed dose- and age-dependent radiation-induced type tumors. Furthermore, the size of the radiation-induced deletion differed with the dose rate. The results of this work suggest that tumor latency may be related to the size of the deletion. In this study, 500 mGy exposure produced radiation-induced type tumors at all ages and dose rates, while 100 mGy exposure did not significantly produce radiation-induced type tumors. The radiation signature allows for unique mechanistic insight into the action of radiation to induce DNA lesions with known causal relationship to a specific tumor type

  4. Ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation does not affect UV-induced recombination and mutagenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, O N; Belt, M L; Mathur, S P; Lee, J C; Akyel, Y

    1998-01-01

    Cell samples of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were exposed to 100 J/m2 of 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation followed by a 30 min treatment with ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses. The UWB pulses (101-104 kV/m, 1.0 ns width, 165 ps rise time) were applied at the repetition rates of 0 Hz (sham), 16 Hz, or 600 Hz. The effect of exposures was evaluated from the colony-forming ability of the cells on complete and selective media and the number of aberrant colonies. The experiments established no effect of UWB exposure on the UV-induced reciprocal and non-reciprocal recombination, mutagenesis, or cell survival.

  5. Bandgap narrowing and emitter efficiency in heavily doped emitter structures revisited

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Vliet, C.M.

    The developments of heavy doping effects and of bandgap narrowing concepts (BGN) during the last two decades are critically discussed. The differences between the real bandgap reduction [Delta]E[sub g] and the apparent electrical bandgap reduction [Delta]G are once more set forth, showing the precise meaning of the density-of-states and degeneracy contributions to [Delta]G. From these concepts, previously elaborated by Marshak and Van Vilet and by Lundstrom et al., the authors indicated before that for negligible recombination the minority-carrier emitter current (J[sub pe]) is given by a Merten-type result. In this paper they show that in the presence of surface andmore » (or) bulk recombination (Auger and SRH) the result of Selvakumar and Roulston is recovered; however, the electrical field in the emitter and the effective intrinsic density of carriers are not those used by these authors but, on the contrary, these quantities are given by the detailed expressions of their previous work.« less

  6. Carrier recombination dynamics in anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Bogani, Franco; Vinattieri, Anna; Cortese, Lorenzo; Colocci, Marcello; Faso, Valentina; Baldi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the radiative recombination dynamics in size-controlled TiO 2 nanoparticles in the range 20-130 nm. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra clearly show a dominance of self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, with main features not dependent on the nanoparticle size and on its environment. From picosecond time-resolved experiments as a function of the excitation density and the nanoparticle size we address the STE recombination dynamics as the result of two main processes related to the direct STE formation and to the indirect STE formation mediated by non-radiative surface states.

  7. Fine-scale maps of recombination rates and hotspots in the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Brunschwig, Hadassa; Levi, Liat; Ben-David, Eyal; Williams, Robert W; Yakir, Benjamin; Shifman, Sagiv

    2012-07-01

    Recombination events are not uniformly distributed and often cluster in narrow regions known as recombination hotspots. Several studies using different approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of recombination hotspot regulation. Population genetic data have been used to map and quantify hotspots in the human genome. Genetic variation in recombination rates and hotspots usage have been explored in human pedigrees, mouse intercrosses, and by sperm typing. These studies pointed to the central role of the PRDM9 gene in hotspot modulation. In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome resequencing and genotyping studies of mouse inbred strains to estimate recombination rates across the mouse genome and identified 47,068 historical hotspots--an average of over 2477 per chromosome. We show by simulation that inbred mouse strains can be used to identify positions of historical hotspots. Recombination hotspots were found to be enriched for the predicted binding sequences for different alleles of the PRDM9 protein. Recombination rates were on average lower near transcription start sites (TSS). Comparing the inferred historical recombination hotspots with the recent genome-wide mapping of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mouse sperm revealed a significant overlap, especially toward the telomeres. Our results suggest that inbred strains can be used to characterize and study the dynamics of historical recombination hotspots. They also strengthen previous findings on mouse recombination hotspots, and specifically the impact of sequence variants in Prdm9.

  8. The consequences of sequence erosion in the evolution of recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Schwarz, Theresa; Striedner, Yasmin; Heissl, Angelika

    2017-12-19

    Meiosis is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) introduced in the DNA by a highly controlled process that is repaired by recombination. In many organisms, recombination occurs at specific and narrow regions of the genome, known as recombination hotspots, which overlap with regions enriched for DSBs. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that conversions and mutations resulting from the repair of DSBs lead to a rapid sequence evolution at recombination hotspots eroding target sites for DSBs. We still do not fully understand the effect of this erosion in the recombination activity, but evidence has shown that the binding of trans -acting factors like PRDM9 is affected. PRDM9 is a meiosis-specific, multi-domain protein that recognizes DNA target motifs by its zinc finger domain and directs DSBs to these target sites. Here we discuss the changes in affinity of PRDM9 to eroded recognition sequences, and explain how these changes in affinity of PRDM9 can affect recombination, leading sometimes to sterility in the context of hybrid crosses. We also present experimental data showing that DNA methylation reduces PRDM9 binding in vitro Finally, we discuss PRDM9-independent hotspots, posing the question how these hotspots evolve and change with sequence erosion.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. The consequences of sequence erosion in the evolution of recombination hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Theresa; Heissl, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) introduced in the DNA by a highly controlled process that is repaired by recombination. In many organisms, recombination occurs at specific and narrow regions of the genome, known as recombination hotspots, which overlap with regions enriched for DSBs. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that conversions and mutations resulting from the repair of DSBs lead to a rapid sequence evolution at recombination hotspots eroding target sites for DSBs. We still do not fully understand the effect of this erosion in the recombination activity, but evidence has shown that the binding of trans-acting factors like PRDM9 is affected. PRDM9 is a meiosis-specific, multi-domain protein that recognizes DNA target motifs by its zinc finger domain and directs DSBs to these target sites. Here we discuss the changes in affinity of PRDM9 to eroded recognition sequences, and explain how these changes in affinity of PRDM9 can affect recombination, leading sometimes to sterility in the context of hybrid crosses. We also present experimental data showing that DNA methylation reduces PRDM9 binding in vitro. Finally, we discuss PRDM9-independent hotspots, posing the question how these hotspots evolve and change with sequence erosion. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109225

  10. Defining the proximal border of the Huntington disease candidate region by multipoint recombination analyses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Skraastad, M.I.; De Rooij, K.E.; De Koning Gans, P.A.M.

    1993-06-01

    The candidate region for the Huntington disease (HD) gene has been narrowed down to a 2.2-Mb region between D4S10 and D4S98 on the short arm of chromosome 4. To map the HD gene within this candidate region 65 Dutch HD families were studied. In total 338 informative meioses were analyzed and 11 multiple informative crossovers were detected. Assuming a minimum number of recombinations and no double recombinations, the multiple informative crossovers are consistent with one specific genetic order for 12 loci: D4S10-(D4S81,D4S126)-D4S125-(D4S127,D4S95)-D4S43-(D4S115, D4S96, D4S111, D4S90, D4S141).This is in agreement with the known data derived from similar and other methods. Themore » loci between brackets could not be mapped relative to each other. In the family material, two informative three-point marker recombination events were detected in the proximal HD candidate region, which are also informative for HD. Both recombination events map the HD gene distal to D4S81 and most likely distal to D4S125, narrowing down the HD candidate region to a 1.7-Mb region between D4S125 and D4S98. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  11. CATALYTIC RECOMBINER FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-07-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen recombiner is described for use with water-boiler type reactors. The catalyst used is the wellknown platinized alumina, and the novelty lies in the structural arrangement used to prevent flashback through the gas input system. The recombiner is cylindrical, the gases at the input end being deflected by a baffle plate through a first flashback shield of steel shot into an annular passage adjacent to and extending the full length of the housing. Below the baffle plate the gases flow first through an outer annular array of alumina pellets which serve as a second flashback shield, a means of distributing the flowing gases evenly and as a means of reducing radiation losses to the walls. Thereafter the gases flow inio the centrally disposed catalyst bed where recombination is effected. The steam and uncombined gases flow into a centrally disposed cylindrical passage inside the catalyst bod and thereafter out through the exit port. A high rate of recombination is effected.

  12. The Impact of Recombination Hotspots on Genome Evolution of a Fungal Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Croll, Daniel; Lendenmann, Mark H.; Stewart, Ethan; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Recombination has an impact on genome evolution by maintaining chromosomal integrity, affecting the efficacy of selection, and increasing genetic variability in populations. Recombination rates are a key determinant of the coevolutionary dynamics between hosts and their pathogens. Historic recombination events created devastating new pathogens, but the impact of ongoing recombination in sexual pathogens is poorly understood. Many fungal pathogens of plants undergo regular sexual cycles, and sex is considered to be a major factor contributing to virulence. We generated a recombination map at kilobase-scale resolution for the haploid plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. To account for intraspecific variation in recombination rates, we constructed genetic maps from two independent crosses. We localized a total of 10,287 crossover events in 441 progeny and found that recombination rates were highly heterogeneous within and among chromosomes. Recombination rates on large chromosomes were inversely correlated with chromosome length. Short accessory chromosomes often lacked evidence for crossovers between parental chromosomes. Recombination was concentrated in narrow hotspots that were preferentially located close to telomeres. Hotspots were only partially conserved between the two crosses, suggesting that hotspots are short-lived and may vary according to genomic background. Genes located in hotspot regions were enriched in genes encoding secreted proteins. Population resequencing showed that chromosomal regions with high recombination rates were strongly correlated with regions of low linkage disequilibrium. Hence, genes in pathogen recombination hotspots are likely to evolve faster in natural populations and may represent a greater threat to the host. PMID:26392286

  13. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  14. Anomalous Abundances in Gaseous Nebulae From Recombination and Collisional Lines: Improved Photoionization and Recombination Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil Kumar; Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W. B.; Montenegro, M.

    2011-01-01

    A perplexing anomaly arises in the determination of abundances of common elements in gaseous nebulae, as derived from collisionally excited lines (CEL) as opposed to those from Recombination Lines (RCL). The "abundance discrepancy factors" can range from a factor of 2 to an order of magnitude or more. That has led to quite different interpretation of the physical structure and processes in gaseous nebulae, such as temperature fluctuations across the object, or metal-rich concentrations leading to a dual-abundnace scenario. We show that the problem may lie in inaccuracies in photoionization and recombination models neglecting low-energy resonance phenomena due to fine structure. Whereas the atomic physics of electron impact excitation of forbidden lines is well understood, and accurate collision strengths have long been available, that is not generally the case for electron-ion recombination cross sections. A major problem is the inclusion of relativisitic effects as it pertains to the existence of very low-energy fine structure resonances in photoionization cross sections. We carry out new relativistic calculations for photoionization and recombination cross sections using a recently extended version of the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes, and the unified electron-ion recombination method that subsumes both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination (RR and DR) processes in an ab initio and self-consistent manner. We find that near-thresold resonances manifest themselves within fine structure levels of the ground state of ions, enhancing low-temperature recombination rate coefficients at 1000-10,000 K. The resulting enahncement in level-specific and total recombination rate coefficients should therefore lead to reduced abundances derived from RCL, and in accordance with those from CEL. We present results for photoionization of O II into, and recombination from, O III. Theoretical cross sections are benchmarked against high-resolution measurements from synchrotron

  15. 25th anniversary article: charge transport and recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kuik, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A H; Nicolai, Herman T; Craciun, N Irina; De Leeuw, Dago M; Blom, Paul W M

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the basic physical processes of charge transport and recombination in organic semiconductors. As a workhorse, LEDs based on a single layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives are used. The hole transport in these PPV derivatives is governed by trap-free space-charge-limited conduction, with the mobility depending on the electric field and charge-carrier density. These dependencies are generally described in the framework of hopping transport in a Gaussian density of states distribution. The electron transport on the other hand is orders of magnitude lower than the hole transport. The reason is that electron transport is hindered by the presence of a universal electron trap, located at 3.6 eV below vacuum with a typical density of ca. 3 × 10¹⁷ cm⁻³. The trapped electrons recombine with free holes via a non-radiative trap-assisted recombination process, which is a competing loss process with respect to the emissive bimolecular Langevin recombination. The trap-assisted recombination in disordered organic semiconductors is governed by the diffusion of the free carrier (hole) towards the trapped carrier (electron), similar to the Langevin recombination of free carriers where both carriers are mobile. As a result, with the charge-carrier mobilities and amount of trapping centers known from charge-transport measurements, the radiative recombination as well as loss processes in disordered organic semiconductors can be fully predicted. Evidently, future work should focus on the identification and removing of electron traps. This will not only eliminate the non-radiative trap-assisted recombination, but, in addition, will shift the recombination zone towards the center of the device, leading to an efficiency improvement of more than a factor of two in single-layer polymer LEDs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Recombination by grain-boundary type in CdTe

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moseley, John, E-mail: john.moseley@nrel.gov; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.; Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401

    2015-07-14

    We conducted cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging and electron backscatter diffraction on the same microscopic areas of CdTe thin films to correlate grain-boundary (GB) recombination by GB “type.” We examined misorientation-based GB types, including coincident site lattice (CSL) Σ = 3, other-CSL (Σ = 5–49), and general GBs (Σ > 49), which make up ∼47%–48%, ∼6%–8%, and ∼44%–47%, respectively, of the GB length at the film back surfaces. Statistically averaged CL total intensities were calculated for each GB type from sample sizes of ≥97 GBs per type and were compared to the average grain-interior CL intensity. We find that only ∼16%–18% of Σ = 3 GBs are active non-radiativemore » recombination centers. In contrast, all other-CSL and general GBs are observed to be strong non-radiative centers and, interestingly, these GB types have about the same CL intensity. Both as-deposited and CdCl{sub 2}-treated films were studied. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment reduces non-radiative recombination at both other-CSL and general GBs, but GBs are still recombination centers after the CdCl{sub 2} treatment.« less

  17. Self-injection-locking linewidth narrowing in a semiconductor laser coupled to an external fiber-optic ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobko, Dmitry A.; Zolotovskii, Igor O.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Spirin, Vasily V.; Fotiadi, Andrei A.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for modeling of semiconductor laser coupled to an external fiber-optic ring resonator. The developed approach has shown good qualitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results for particular configuration of a self-injection locked DFB laser delivering narrow-band radiation. The model is capable of describing the main features of the experimentally measured laser outputs such as laser line narrowing, spectral shape of generated radiation, mode-hoping instabilities and makes possible exploring the key physical mechanisms responsible for the laser operation stability.

  18. Multiple exciton generation and recombination in carbon nanotubes and nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2013-06-18

    Semiconducting nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit unique size-dependent quantum properties. They have therefore attracted considerable attention from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and functional device applications. SWCNTs and NCs also provide an excellent new stage for experimental studies of many-body effects of electrons and excitons on optical processes in nanomaterials. In this Account, we discuss multiple exciton generation and recombination in SWCNTs and NCs for next-generation photovoltaics. Strongly correlated ensembles of conduction-band electrons and valence-band holes in semiconductors are complex quantum systems that exhibit unique optical phenomena. In bulk crystals, the carrier recombination dynamics can be described by a simple model, which includes the nonradiative single-carrier trapping rate, the radiative two-carrier recombination rate, and the nonradiative three-carrier Auger recombination rate. The nonradiative Auger recombination rate determines the carrier recombination dynamics at high carrier density and depends on the spatial localization of carriers in two-dimensional quantum wells. The Auger recombination and multiple exciton generation rates can be advantageously manipulated by nanomaterials with designated energy structures. In addition, SWCNTs and NCs show quantized recombination dynamics of multiple excitons and carriers. In one-dimensional SWCNTs, excitons have large binding energies and are very stable at room temperature. The extremely rapid Auger recombination between excitons determines the photoluminescence (PL) intensity, the PL linewidth, and the PL lifetime. SWCNTs can undergo multiple exciton generation, while strong exciton-exciton interactions and complicated exciton structures affect the quantized Auger rate and the multiple exciton generation efficiency. Interestingly, in zero-dimensional NC quantum dots, quantized Auger recombination causes unique

  19. Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient in crystalline silicon from spectral photoluminescence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nguyen, Hieu T., E-mail: hieu.nguyen@anu.edu.au; Macdonald, Daniel; Baker-Finch, Simeon C.

    2014-03-17

    The radiative recombination coefficient B(T) in crystalline silicon is determined for the temperature range 90–363 K, and in particular from 270 to 350 K with an interval of 10 K, where only sparse data are available at present. The band-band absorption coefficient established recently by Nguyen et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 043710 (2014)] via photoluminescence spectrum measurements is employed to compute the values of B(T) at various temperatures. The results agree very well with literature data from Trupke et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930 (2003).] We present a polynomial parameterization describing the temperature dependence of the product of B(T) and themore » square of the intrinsic carrier density. We also find that B(T) saturates at a near constant value at room temperature and above for silicon samples with relatively low free carrier densities.« less

  20. Computational Spectrally Correlated Thermal Radiation through Gaseous Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhal, W.; Trabelsi, S.; Sediki, E.; Soufiani, A.; Moussa, M.

    2007-09-01

    The Treatment of the spectral nature of thermal radiation in absorbing emitting gases at high temperature inside a heated or cooled duct is presented with taking into account the non-gray behavior of gas. Radiative properties of the flowing gases (H2O or CO2) are modeled by using narrow-band and global models. Although the narrow-band models are considered more accurate, global model are more adequate for combined heat transfer study in complex geometry. Thus, accuracy of narrow-band and global models study is provide. In this investigation, we focus our attention on the practical way to use the Correlated-K narrow-band model in radiative transfer, as the asymptotic limit of accuracy of the global model. Results are presented in terms of radiative power fields.

  1. Volume versus surface-mediated recombination in anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Bogani, Franco; Vinattieri, Anna; Faso, Valentina; Baldi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    We present an experimental study of the radiative recombination dynamics in size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in the range 20-130 nm. From time-integrated photoluminescence spectra and picosecond time-resolved experiments as a function of the nanoparticle size, excitation density, and temperature, we show that photoluminescence comes out from a bulk and a surface radiative recombination. The spectral shift and the different time dynamics provide a clear distinction between them. Moreover, the intrinsic nature of the emission is also proven, providing a quantitative evaluation of volume and surface contributions.

  2. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Woerner, August E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; McManus, Kimberly F.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Wall, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471–475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10–15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  3. The Impact of Recombination Hotspots on Genome Evolution of a Fungal Plant Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Croll, Daniel; Lendenmann, Mark H; Stewart, Ethan; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    Recombination has an impact on genome evolution by maintaining chromosomal integrity, affecting the efficacy of selection, and increasing genetic variability in populations. Recombination rates are a key determinant of the coevolutionary dynamics between hosts and their pathogens. Historic recombination events created devastating new pathogens, but the impact of ongoing recombination in sexual pathogens is poorly understood. Many fungal pathogens of plants undergo regular sexual cycles, and sex is considered to be a major factor contributing to virulence. We generated a recombination map at kilobase-scale resolution for the haploid plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. To account for intraspecific variation in recombination rates, we constructed genetic maps from two independent crosses. We localized a total of 10,287 crossover events in 441 progeny and found that recombination rates were highly heterogeneous within and among chromosomes. Recombination rates on large chromosomes were inversely correlated with chromosome length. Short accessory chromosomes often lacked evidence for crossovers between parental chromosomes. Recombination was concentrated in narrow hotspots that were preferentially located close to telomeres. Hotspots were only partially conserved between the two crosses, suggesting that hotspots are short-lived and may vary according to genomic background. Genes located in hotspot regions were enriched in genes encoding secreted proteins. Population resequencing showed that chromosomal regions with high recombination rates were strongly correlated with regions of low linkage disequilibrium. Hence, genes in pathogen recombination hotspots are likely to evolve faster in natural populations and may represent a greater threat to the host. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Quantum structures for recombination control in the light-emitting transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kanuo; Hsiao, Fu-Chen; Joy, Brittany; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Recombination of carriers in the direct-bandgap base of a transistor-injected quantum cascade laser (TI-QCL) is shown to be controllable through the field applied across the quantum cascade region located in the transistor's base-collector junction. The influence of the electric field on the quantum states in the cascade region's superlattice allows free flow of electrons out of the transistor base only for field values near the design field that provides optimal QCL gain. Quantum modulation of base recombination in the light-emitting transistor is therefore observed. In a GaAs-based light-emitting transistor, a periodic superlattice is grown between the p-type base and the n-type collector. Under different base-collector biasing conditions the distribution of quantum states, and as a consequence transition probabilities through the wells and barriers forming the cascade region, leads to strong field-dependent mobility for electrons in transit through the base-collector junction. The radiative base recombination, which is influenced by minority carrier transition lifetime, can be modulated through the quantum states alignment in the superlattice. A GaAs-based transistor-injected quantum cascade laser with AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice is designed and fabricated. Radiative base recombination is measured under both common-emitter and common-base configuration. In both configurations the optical output from the base is proportional to the emitter injection. When the quantum states in the superlattice are aligned the optical output in the base is reduced as electrons encounter less impedance entering the collector; when the quantum states are misaligned electrons have longer lifetime in the base and the radiative base recombination process is enhanced.

  5. Immune-driven recombination and loss of control after HIV superinfection.

    PubMed

    Streeck, Hendrik; Li, Bin; Poon, Art F Y; Schneidewind, Arne; Gladden, Adrianne D; Power, Karen A; Daskalakis, Demetre; Bazner, Suzane; Zuniga, Rosario; Brander, Christian; Rosenberg, Eric S; Frost, Simon D W; Altfeld, Marcus; Allen, Todd M

    2008-08-04

    After acute HIV infection, CD8(+) T cells are able to control viral replication to a set point. This control is often lost after superinfection, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear. In this study, we illustrate in an HLA-B27(+) subject that loss of viral control after HIV superinfection coincides with rapid recombination events within two narrow regions of Gag and Env. Screening for CD8(+) T cell responses revealed that each of these recombination sites (approximately 50 aa) encompassed distinct regions containing two immunodominant CD8 epitopes (B27-KK10 in Gag and Cw1-CL9 in Env). Viral escape and the subsequent development of variant-specific de novo CD8(+) T cell responses against both epitopes were illustrative of the significant immune selection pressures exerted by both responses. Comprehensive analysis of the kinetics of CD8 responses and viral evolution indicated that the recombination events quickly facilitated viral escape from both dominant WT- and variant-specific responses. These data suggest that the ability of a superinfecting strain of HIV to overcome preexisting immune control may be related to its ability to rapidly recombine in critical regions under immune selection pressure. These data also support a role for cellular immune pressures in driving the selection of new recombinant forms of HIV.

  6. Dielectronic recombination data for dynamic finite-density plasmas. XV. The silicon isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagjit; Gorczyca, T. W.; Badnell, N. R.

    2018-02-01

    Context. We aim to present a comprehensive theoretical investigation of dielectronic recombination (DR) of the silicon-like isoelectronic sequence and provide DR and radiative recombination (RR) data that can be used within a generalized collisional-radiative modelling framework. Aims: Total and final-state level-resolved DR and RR rate coefficients for the ground and metastable initial levels of 16 ions between P+ and Zn16+ are determined. Methods: We carried out multi-configurational Breit-Pauli DR calculations for silicon-like ions in the independent processes, isolated resonance, distorted wave approximation. Both Δnc = 0 and Δnc = 1 core excitations are included using LS and intermediate coupling schemes. Results: Results are presented for a selected number of ions and compared to all other existing theoretical and experimental data. The total dielectronic and radiative recombination rate coefficients for the ground state are presented in tabulated form for easy implementation into spectral modelling codes. These data can also be accessed from the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) OPEN-ADAS database. This work is a part of an assembly of a dielectronic recombination database for the modelling of dynamic finite-density plasmas.

  7. A Narrow Quantitative Trait Locus in C. elegans Coordinately Affects Longevity, Thermotolerance, and Resistance to Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Vertino, Anthony; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Thaden, John J.; Reis, Robert J. Shmookler

    2011-01-01

    By linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci, we previously identified at least 11 natural genetic variants that significantly modulate Caenorhabditis elegans life-span (LS), many of which would have eluded discovery by knock-down or mutation screens. A region on chromosome IV between markers stP13 and stP35 had striking effects on longevity in three inter-strain crosses (each P < 10−9). In order to define the limits of that interval, we have now constructed two independent lines by marker-based selection during 20 backcross generations, isolating the stP13–stP35 interval from strain Bergerac-BO in a CL2a background. These congenic lines differed significantly from CL2a in LS, assayed in two environments (each P < 0.001). We then screened for exchange of flanking markers to isolate recombinants that partition this region, because fine-mapping the boundaries for overlapping heteroallelic spans can greatly narrow the implicated interval. Recombinants carrying the CL2a allele at stP35 were consistently long-lived compared to those retaining the Bergerac-BO allele (P < 0.001), and more resistant to temperature elevation and paraquat (each ∼1.7-fold, P < 0.0001), but gained little protection from ultraviolet or peroxide stresses. Two rounds of recombinant screening, followed by fine-mapping of break-points and survival testing, narrowed the interval to 0.18 Mb (13.35–13.53 Mb) containing 26 putative genes and six small-nuclear RNAs – a manageable number of targets for functional assessment. PMID:22303358

  8. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on efficacy of radiation therapy in tumor-bearing rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koji Kabaya; Masahiko Watanabe; Masaru Kusaka

    The effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on radiation-induced neutropenia and on growth of transplanted tumors treated by irradiation was investigated using tumor-bearing rats as a model for radiation therapy. In a preliminary study using normal rats, neutropenia induced by upper hemi-body irradiation at 3 Gy/day 5 times a week for 3 weeks was prevented by consecutive subcutaneous injections of rhG-CSF at 100 {mu}g/kg/day. Rats bearing Walker-256, a mammary tumor, were scheduled to receive upper hemibody irradiation at 3 Gy/day for 15 times in 3 weeks if white blood cell (WBC) counts were maintained above 3,000/{mu}l. In control tumor-bearingmore » rats not receiving rhG-CSF, irradiation was often withheld because of the decrease in WBC counts below 3,000/{mu}l. In contrast, a decrease in WBC counts below 3,000/{mu}l was rarely found in tumor-bearing rats injected daily with rhG-CSF. The average number of radiation treatments in control rats and rats treated with rhG-CSF was about 8 and 14, respectively, out of the scheduled 15 treatments in 3 weeks. Treatment with rgG-CSF made it possible to complete the radiation therapy regimen and thus inhibit the growth of the transplanted tumor more effectively. These results suggest that rgG-CSF may be useful to ensure radiation therapy on schedule in cancer patients. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Atom-atom inelastic collisions and three-body atomic recombination in weakly ionized argon plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, C. G.; Kunc, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A stationary collisional-radiative model including both inelastic electron-atom and atom-atom collisions is used to examine nonequilibrium weakly ionized argon plasmas with atomic densities 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 20th/cu cm, temperatures below 6000 K, and with different degrees of radiation trapping. It is shown that three-body atomic recombination becomes important at high particle densities. Comparison is made between the present approach and Thomson's theory for atomic recombination.

  10. Narrowing the Gap in Quantification of Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, G.; McComiskey, A. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.; Johnson, J. S.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite large advances in our understanding of aerosol and cloud processes over the past years, uncertainty in the aerosol-cloud radiative effect/forcing is still of major concern. In this talk we will advocate a methodology for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect that considers the primacy of fundamental cloud properties such as cloud amount and albedo alongside the need for process level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. We will present a framework for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect, regime-by-regime, through process-based modelling and observations at the large eddy scale. We will argue that understanding the co-variability between meteorological and aerosol drivers of the radiative properties of the cloud system may be as important an endeavour as attempting to untangle these drivers.

  11. Recombination-enhanced surface expansion of clusters in intense soft x-ray laser pulses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Adolph, Marcus

    Here, we studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed themore » value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.« less

  12. Recombination-enhanced surface expansion of clusters in intense soft x-ray laser pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Adolph, Marcus; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed themore » value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.« less

  13. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the diffusion-dominated regime has a temperature-independent value of 2, which reveals that nonradiative trap-assisted recombination dominates the current. In contrast, the ideality factor of the light output approaches unity, demonstrating that luminance is governed by recombination of the bimolecular Langevin type. This apparent contradiction can be resolved by measuring the current and luminance ideality factor for a white-emitting polymer, where both free and trapped charge carriers recombine radiatively. With increasing bias voltage, Langevin recombination becomes dominant over trap-assisted recombination due to its stronger dependence on carrier density, leading to an enhancement in OLED efficiency.

  14. Is Perceptual Narrowing Too Narrow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Denicola, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing list of examples illustrating that infants are transitioning from having earlier abilities that appear more "universal," "broadly tuned," or "unconstrained" to having later abilities that appear more "specialized," "narrowly tuned," or "constrained." Perceptual narrowing, a well-known phenomenon related to face, speech, and…

  15. Recombination activity of threading dislocations in GaInP influenced by growth temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, K.; Reilly, C. H.; Callahan, P. G.; Seward, G. G. E.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature non-radiative recombination is studied at single dislocations in Ga0.5In0.5P quantum wells grown on metamorphic templates using cathodoluminescence and electron channeling contrast imaging. An analysis of the light emission intensity profiles around single dislocations reveals that the average recombination strength of a dislocation decreases by a factor of four and seven as a result of decreasing growth temperature of the GaInP quantum well from 725 to 675 and 625 °C, respectively. This reduction occurs despite little change in the diffusion length, precluding the prospect of inducing carrier localization by ordering and phase separation in GaInP at lower growth temperatures. These observations are rationalized by the premise that point defects or impurities are largely responsible for the recombination activity of dislocations, and the extent of decoration of the dislocation core decreases with temperature. Preliminary evidence for the impact of the Burgers vector is also presented. The lowest growth temperature, however, negatively impacts light emission away from dislocations. Carrier recombination in the bulk and at dislocations needs to be considered together for metamorphic devices, and this work can lead to new techniques to limit non-radiative recombination.

  16. Two-step narrow ridge cascade diode lasers emitting near $$2~\\mu$$ m

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Tao; Hosoda, Takashi; Shterengas, Leon; ...

    2017-01-02

    Nearly diffraction limited GaSb-based type-I quantum well cascade diode lasers emitting in the spectral region 1.95-2 μm were designed and fabricated. Two-step 5.5-μm-wide shallow and 14-μm-wide deep etched ridge waveguide design yielded devices generating stable single lobe beams with 250 mW of continuous wave output power at 20 °C. Quantum well radiative recombination current contributes about 13% to laser threshold as estimated from true spontaneous emission and modal gain analysis. Here, recombination at etched sidewalls of the 14-μmwide deep ridges controls about 30% of the threshold.

  17. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  18. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies. PMID:27104744

  19. Improving radiation hardness in space-based Charge-Coupled Devices through the narrowing of the charge transfer channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. J.; Skottfelt, J.; Soman, M. R.; Bush, N.; Holland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been the detector of choice for imaging and spectroscopy in space missions for several decades, such as those being used for the Euclid VIS instrument and baselined for the SMILE SXI. Despite the many positive properties of CCDs, such as the high quantum efficiency and low noise, when used in a space environment the detectors suffer damage from the often-harsh radiation environment. High energy particles can create defects in the silicon lattice which act to trap the signal electrons being transferred through the device, reducing the signal measured and effectively increasing the noise. We can reduce the impact of radiation on the devices through four key methods: increased radiation shielding, device design considerations, optimisation of operating conditions, and image correction. Here, we concentrate on device design operations, investigating the impact of narrowing the charge-transfer channel in the device with the aim of minimising the impact of traps during readout. Previous studies for the Euclid VIS instrument considered two devices, the e2v CCD204 and CCD273, the serial register of the former having a 50 μm channel and the latter having a 20 μm channel. The reduction in channel width was previously modelled to give an approximate 1.6× reduction in charge storage volume, verified experimentally to have a reduction in charge transfer inefficiency of 1.7×. The methods used to simulate the reduction approximated the charge cloud to a sharp-edged volume within which the probability of capture by traps was 100%. For high signals and slow readout speeds, this is a reasonable approximation. However, for low signals and higher readout speeds, the approximation falls short. Here we discuss a new method of simulating and calculating charge storage variations with device design changes, considering the absolute probability of capture across the pixel, bringing validity to all signal sizes and readout speeds. Using this method, we

  20. Synchrotron Radiation II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a unique form of radiation that spans the electro-magnetic spectrum from X-rays through the ultraviolet and visible into the infrared. Tunable monochromators enable scientists to select a narrow band of wavelengths at any point in the spectrum. (Author/BB)

  1. Narrow-band erbium-doped fibre linear–ring laser

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kolegov, A A; Sofienko, G S; Minashina, L A

    2014-01-31

    We have demonstrated a narrow-band linear – ring fibre laser with an output power of 15 mW at a wavelength of 1.55 μm and an emission bandwidth less than 5 kHz. The laser frequency is stabilised by an unpumped active fibre section and fibre Bragg grating. The fibre laser operates in a travelling wave mode, which allows the spatial hole burning effect to be avoided. At a certain pump power level, the laser switches from continuous mode to repetitivepulse operation, corresponding to relaxation oscillations. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Narrowing down the region of the Vf locus for scab resistance in apple using AFLP-derived SCARs.

    PubMed

    Huaracha, E; Xu, M; Korban, S S

    2004-01-01

    A narrow-down strategy to restrict the Vf region, which controls resistance to the fungal disease apple scab in apple, to a genetic distance of 0.4 cM is presented. Using 11 AFLP-derived SCARs and three RAPD-derived SCARs, all linked to the Vf gene, we subjected 1,412 scab-resistant individuals from 16 mapping populations to genotype analysis. Eleven recombinant individuals were identified within a genetic distance of 0.9 cM around the Vf gene. Using these 11 recombinants, we achieved fine-resolution of several AFLP-derived SCAR markers surrounding the Vf gene, resulting in the following genetic linkage map: ACS-6 and ACS are located left of the Vf gene at genetic distances of 0.2 cM and 0.1 cM, respectively; ACS-7 and ACS-9 are inseparable from the Vf gene; ACS-8, ACS-10, and ACS-4 are located to the right of the Vf gene at genetic distances of 0.1 cM, 0.4 cM, and 0.5 cM, respectively; the remaining five SCARs-ACS-11, ACS-5, ACS-2, ACS-1, and AL07-are inseparable and are located right of the Vf gene at a genetic distance of 0.7 cM. By integrating this linkage data with our previous physical map, we generated a revised map of the narrowed-down region of Vf.

  3. Novel schemes for the optimization of the SPARC narrow band THz source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marchetti, B., E-mail: barbara.marchetti@desy.de; Zagorodnov, I.; Bacci, A.

    2015-07-15

    A pulsed, tunable, narrow band radiation source with frequency in the THz region can be obtained collecting the coherent transition radiation produced by a train of ultra-short electron bunches having picosecond scale inter-distance. In this paper, we review the techniques feasible at the SPARC-LAB test facility to produce and manipulate the requested train of electron bunches and we examine the dynamics of their acceleration and compression. In addition, we show how the performances of the train compression and the radiation intensity and bandwidth can be significantly improved through the insertion of a fourth order harmonic cavity, working in the X-bandmore » and acting as a longitudinal phase space linearizer.« less

  4. Enhanced ultraviolet electroluminescence and spectral narrowing from ZnO quantum dots/GaN heterojunction diodes by using high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mo, Xiaoming; Long, Hao; Wang, Haoning

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrated the capability of realizing enhanced ZnO-related UV emissions by using the low-cost and solution-processable ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with the help of a high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer (EBL) for the ZnO QDs/p-GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Full-width at half maximum of the LED devices was greatly decreased from ∼110 to ∼54 nm, and recombinations related to nonradiative centers were significantly suppressed with inserting HfO{sub 2} EBL. The electroluminescence of the ZnO QDs/HfO{sub 2}/p-GaN LEDs demonstrated an interesting spectral narrowing effect with increasing HfO{sub 2} thickness. The Gaussian fitting revealed that the great enhancement of the Zn{sub i}-related emissionmore » at ∼414 nm whereas the deep suppression of the interfacial recombination at ∼477 nm should be the main reason for the spectral narrowing effect.« less

  5. Narrow groove plasmonic nano-gratings for surface plasmon resonance sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Anuj; Canva, Michael; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) configuration based on narrow groove (sub-15 nm) plasmonic nano-gratings such that normally incident radiation can be coupled into surface plasmons without the use of prism-coupling based total internal reflection, as in the classical Kretschmann configuration. This eliminates the angular dependence requirements of SPR-based sensing and allows development of robust miniaturized SPR sensors. Simulations based on Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) were carried out to numerically calculate the reflectance - from different gold and silver nano-grating structures - as a function of the localized refractive index of the media around the SPR nano-gratings as well as the incident radiation wavelength and angle of incidence. Our calculations indicate substantially higher differential reflectance signals, on localized change of refractive index in the narrow groove plasmonic gratings, as compared to those obtained from conventional SPR-based sensing systems. Furthermore, these calculations allow determination of the optimal nano-grating geometric parameters - i. e. nanoline periodicity, spacing between the nanolines, as well as the height of the nanolines in the nano-grating - for highest sensitivity to localized change of refractive index, as would occur due to binding of a biomolecule target to a functionalized nano-grating surface. PMID:21263620

  6. Distribution of recombination hotspots in the human genome--a comparison of computer simulations with real data.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Dorota; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro; Moss de Oliveira, Suzana; Cebrat, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Recombination is the main cause of genetic diversity. Thus, errors in this process can lead to chromosomal abnormalities. Recombination events are confined to narrow chromosome regions called hotspots in which characteristic DNA motifs are found. Genomic analyses have shown that both recombination hotspots and DNA motifs are distributed unevenly along human chromosomes and are much more frequent in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes than in their central parts. Clusters of motifs roughly follow the distribution of recombination hotspots whereas single motifs show a negative correlation with the hotspot distribution. To model the phenomena related to recombination, we carried out computer Monte Carlo simulations of genome evolution. Computer simulations generated uneven distribution of hotspots with their domination in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. They also revealed that purifying selection eliminating defective alleles is strong enough to cause such hotspot distribution. After sufficiently long time of simulations, the structure of chromosomes reached a dynamic equilibrium, in which number and global distribution of both hotspots and defective alleles remained statistically unchanged, while their precise positions were shifted. This resembles the dynamic structure of human and chimpanzee genomes, where hotspots change their exact locations but the global distributions of recombination events are very similar.

  7. Optimisation of contained Nicotiana tabacum cultivation for the production of recombinant protein pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Richard; Atkinson, Christopher J; Paul, Matthew; Hassan, Sally; Drake, Pascal M W; Sexton, Amy L; Santa-Cruz, Simon; James, David; Hamp, Keith; Gutteridge, Colin; Ma, Julian K-C

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum is emerging as a crop of choice for production of recombinant protein pharmaceuticals. Although there is significant commercial expertise in tobacco farming, different cultivation practices are likely to be needed when the objective is to optimise protein expression, yield and extraction, rather than the traditional focus on biomass and alkaloid production. Moreover, pharmaceutical transgenic tobacco plants are likely to be grown initially within a controlled environment, the parameters for which have yet to be established. Here, the growth characteristics and functional recombinant protein yields for two separate transgenic tobacco plant lines were investigated. The impacts of temperature, day-length, compost nitrogen content, radiation and plant density were examined. Temperature was the only environmental variable to affect IgG concentration in the plants, with higher yields observed in plants grown at lower temperature. In contrast, temperature, supplementary radiation and plant density all affected the total soluble protein yield in the same plants. Transgenic plants expressing a second recombinant protein (cyanovirin-N) responded differently to IgG transgenic plants to elevated temperature, with an increase in cyanovirin-N concentration, although the effect of the environmental variables on total soluble protein yields was the same as the IgG plants. Planting density and radiation levels were important factors affecting variability of the two recombinant protein yields in transgenic plants. Phenotypic differences were observed between the two transgenic plant lines and non-transformed N. tabacum, but the effect of different growing conditions was consistent between the three lines. Temperature, day length, radiation intensity and planting density all had a significant impact on biomass production. Taken together, the data suggest that recombinant protein yield is not affected substantially by environmental factors other than growth

  8. A simplified scheme for generating narrow-band mid-ultraviolet laser radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Almog, G.; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München; Scholz, M., E-mail: Matthias.Scholz@toptica.com

    2015-03-15

    We report on the development and characterization of continuous, narrow-band, and tunable laser systems that use direct second-harmonic generation from blue and green diode lasers with an output power level of up to 11.1 mW in the mid-ultraviolet. One of our laser systems was tuned to the mercury 6{sup 1}S{sub 0} → 6{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line at 253.7 nm. We could perform Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy on this line and were able to lock our laser to the transition frequency on long time scales.

  9. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  10. LDSplitDB: a database for studies of meiotic recombination hotspots in MHC using human genomic data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Hao; Yang, Peng; Lee, Yew Ti; Wu, Min; Przytycka, Teresa M; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2018-04-20

    Meiotic recombination happens during the process of meiosis when chromosomes inherited from two parents exchange genetic materials to generate chromosomes in the gamete cells. The recombination events tend to occur in narrow genomic regions called recombination hotspots. Its dysregulation could lead to serious human diseases such as birth defects. Although the regulatory mechanism of recombination events is still unclear, DNA sequence polymorphisms have been found to play crucial roles in the regulation of recombination hotspots. To facilitate the studies of the underlying mechanism, we developed a database named LDSplitDB which provides an integrative and interactive data mining and visualization platform for the genome-wide association studies of recombination hotspots. It contains the pre-computed association maps of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region in the 1000 Genomes Project and the HapMap Phase III datasets, and a genome-scale study of the European population from the HapMap Phase II dataset. Besides the recombination profiles, related data of genes, SNPs and different types of epigenetic modifications, which could be associated with meiotic recombination, are provided for comprehensive analysis. To meet the computational requirement of the rapidly increasing population genomics data, we prepared a lookup table of 400 haplotypes for recombination rate estimation using the well-known LDhat algorithm which includes all possible two-locus haplotype configurations. To the best of our knowledge, LDSplitDB is the first large-scale database for the association analysis of human recombination hotspots with DNA sequence polymorphisms. It provides valuable resources for the discovery of the mechanism of meiotic recombination hotspots. The information about MHC in this database could help understand the roles of recombination in human immune system. DATABASE URL: http://histone.scse.ntu.edu.sg/LDSplitDB.

  11. On the Use of Hydrogen Recombination Energy during Common Envelope Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    In this Letter we discuss what happens to hydrogen recombination energy that is released during regular common envelope (CE) events as opposed to self-regulated CE events. We show that the amount of recombination energy that can be transferred away by either convection or radiation from the regions where recombination takes place is negligible. Instead, recombination energy is destined to be used either to help CE expansion, as a work term, or to accelerate local fluid elements. The exceptions are donors that initially have very high entropy material, S/(k B N A) > 37 mol g‑1. The analysis and conclusions are independent of specific stellar models or evolutionary codes, and rely on fundamental properties of stellar matter such as the equation of state, Saha equation, and opacities, as well as on stellar structure equations and the mixing length theory of convection.

  12. Intensity Variations of Narrow Bands of Solar UV Radiation during Descending Phases of SACs 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigolashvili, M.; Kapanadze, N.

    2014-12-01

    The study of variations of four narrow bands of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the ultraviolet (UV) range for period 1981-2008 is presented. Observational data obtained by space-flight missions SORCE, UARS, SME and daily meanings of international sunspot number (ISN) have been used. The investigated data cover the decreasing phases of the solar activity cycles (SACs) 21, 22 and 23. We have revealed a peculiar behavior of intensity variability of some solar ultraviolet spectral lines originated in the solar chromospheres for period corresponding to the declining phase of the solar cycle 23. It is found that variability of emission of different solar spectral narrow bands (289.5 nm, 300.5 nm) does not agree equally well with ISN variability during decreasing phase of the solar activity cycle 23. The negative correlations between total solar irradiance and the solar spectral narrow bands of UV emission (298.5 nm, 300.5 nm) had been revealed. The existence of the negative correlation can be explained by the sensitivity of SSI of some emission lines to the solar global magnetic field.

  13. Distribution of Recombination Hotspots in the Human Genome – A Comparison of Computer Simulations with Real Data

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Dorota; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro; Moss de Oliveira, Suzana; Cebrat, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Recombination is the main cause of genetic diversity. Thus, errors in this process can lead to chromosomal abnormalities. Recombination events are confined to narrow chromosome regions called hotspots in which characteristic DNA motifs are found. Genomic analyses have shown that both recombination hotspots and DNA motifs are distributed unevenly along human chromosomes and are much more frequent in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes than in their central parts. Clusters of motifs roughly follow the distribution of recombination hotspots whereas single motifs show a negative correlation with the hotspot distribution. To model the phenomena related to recombination, we carried out computer Monte Carlo simulations of genome evolution. Computer simulations generated uneven distribution of hotspots with their domination in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. They also revealed that purifying selection eliminating defective alleles is strong enough to cause such hotspot distribution. After sufficiently long time of simulations, the structure of chromosomes reached a dynamic equilibrium, in which number and global distribution of both hotspots and defective alleles remained statistically unchanged, while their precise positions were shifted. This resembles the dynamic structure of human and chimpanzee genomes, where hotspots change their exact locations but the global distributions of recombination events are very similar. PMID:23776462

  14. The Narrow-Line Region of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Binette, Luc; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Donzelli, Carlos J.

    2000-08-01

    This work studies the optical emission-line properties and physical conditions of the narrow-line region (NLR) of seven narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1's) for which high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations were available. The resolution is 340 km s-1 (at Hα) over the wavelength interval 3700-9500 Å, enabling us to separate the broad and narrow components of the permitted emission lines. Our results show that the flux carried out by the narrow component of Hβ is, on average, 50% of the total line flux. As a result, the [O III] λ5007/Hβ ratio emitted in the NLR varies from 1 to 5, instead of the universally adopted value of 10. This has strong implications for the required spectral energy distribution that ionizes the NLR gas. Photoionization models that consider a NLR composed of a combination of matter-bounded and ionization-bounded clouds are successful at explaining the low [O III] λ5007/Hβ ratio and the weakness of low-ionization lines of NLS1's. Variation of the relative proportion of these two type of clouds nicely reproduces the dispersion of narrow-line ratios found among the NLS1 sample. Assuming similar physical model parameters of both NLS1's and the normal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, we show that the observed differences of emission-line ratios between these two groups of galaxies can be explained, to a first approximation, in terms of the shape of the input ionizing continuum. Narrow emission-line ratios of NLS1's are better reproduced by a steep power-law continuum in the EUV-soft X-ray region, with spectral index α~-2. Flatter spectral indices (α~-1.5) match the observed line ratios of NGC 5548 but are unable to provide a good match to the NLS1 ratios. This result is consistent with ROSAT observations of NLS1's, which show that these objects are characterized by steeper power-law indices than those of Seyfert 1 galaxies with strong broad optical lines. Based on observations made at CASLEO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito

  15. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 1015 cm−3, defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence. PMID:28239146

  16. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K L; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-27

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 10 15  cm -3 , defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence.

  17. Ionization equilibrium and radiative energy loss rates for C, N, and O ions in low-density plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.; Davis, J.; Rogerson, J. E.; Blaha, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of calculations of the ionization equilibrium and radiative energy loss rates for C, N and O ions in low-density plasmas are presented for electron temperatures in the range 10,000-10,000,000 K. The ionization structure is determined by using the steady-state corona model, in which electron impact ionization from the ground states is balanced by direct radiative and dielectronic recombination. With an improved theory, detailed calculations are carried out for the dielectronic recombination rates in which account is taken of all radiative and autoionization processes involving a single-electron electric-dipole transition of the recombining ion. The radiative energy loss processes considered are electron-impact excitation of resonance line emission, direct radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and electron-ion bremsstrahlung. For all three elements, resonance line emission resulting from 2s-2p transitions produces a broad maximum in the energy loss rate near 100,000 K.

  18. Resistance of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation is influenced by homologous recombination status

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sprong, Debbie; Janssen, Hilde L.; Vens, Conchita

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of DNA repair in hypoxic radioresistance. Methods and Materials: Chinese hamster cell lines with mutations in homologous recombination (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRAC2, RAD51C) or nonhomologous end-joining (DNA-PKcs) genes were irradiated under normoxic (20% oxygen) and hypoxic (<0.1% oxygen) conditions, and the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculated. In addition, Fanconi anemia fibroblasts (complementation groups C and G) were compared with fibroblasts from nonsyndrome patients. RAD51 foci were studied using immunofluorescence. Results: All hamster cell lines deficient in homologous recombination showed a decrease in OER (1.5-2.0 vs. 2.6-3.0 for wild-types). In contrast, the OER for the DNA-PKcs-deficientmore » line was comparable to wild-type controls. The two Fanconi anemia cell strains also showed a significant reduction in OER. The OER for RAD51 foci formation at late times after irradiation was considerably lower than that for survival in wild-type cells. Conclusion: Homologous recombination plays an important role in determining hypoxic cell radiosensitivity. Lower OERs have also been reported in cells deficient in XPF and ERCC1, which, similar to homologous recombination genes, are known to play a role in cross-link repair. Because Fanconi anemia cells are also sensitive to cross-linking agents, this strengthens the notion that the capacity to repair cross-links determines hypoxic radiosensitivity.« less

  19. A study of the nature of the emission centres and mechanisms of radiative recombination in semi-insulating GaAs crystals (in English)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, V. G.; Motsnyi, F. V.; Motsnyi, V. F.; Zinets, O. S.

    The low temperature photoluminescence spectra of semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by Czochralski method at different technological conditions have been studied. One of the main background impurities in such materials is carbon. The traditional high temperature annealing of semi-insulating GaAs wafers significantly aggravates their structure perfection because near the surface the creation of conductive layers with the thickness of several microns takes place. The fine structure of the bands of 1.514 and 1.490 eV has been registered. This structure caused by a) polariton emission from upper and low polariton branches; b) radiative recombination of free holes on shallow neutral donors (D^0, h); c) radiative recombination of excitons bound to shallow neutral donors (D^0, X) and to shallow carbon acceptors (C^0_{As}, X); d) excitons bound to the point structure defects (d, X); e) electron transitions between the conduction band and shallow neutral carbon acceptor; f) the electron transitions between donor-acceptor pairs in which carbon and possibly zinc are acceptors in the ground 1S_{3/2} state. The lux-intensity dependencies of the polariton emission from upper polariton branch and photoluminescence of (D^0, h), (C^0_{As}, X), (d, X) complexes are in good agreement with the theory. It is shown that one of the best available semi-insulating GaAs materials is a new commercial AGCP-5V material which differs from others by considerable concentration of shallow donors and new acceptors alongside of the known shallow C^0_{As} acceptor centres.

  20. Narrow Angle Wide Spectral Range Radiometer Design FEANICS/REEFS Radiometer Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camperchioli, William

    2005-01-01

    A critical measurement for the Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) microgravity combustion experiment is the net radiative flux emitted from the gases and from the solid fuel bed. These quantities are measured using a set of narrow angle, wide spectral range radiometers. The radiometers are required to have an angular field of view of 1.2 degrees and measure over the spectral range of 0.6 to 30 microns, which presents a challenging design effort. This report details the design of this radiometer system including field of view, radiometer response, radiometric calculations, temperature effects, error sources, baffling and amplifiers. This report presents some radiometer specific data but does not present any REEFS experiment data.

  1. Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Choudhury, Samrat; Manandhar, Sandeep

    The interaction of radiation with materials controls the performance, reliability, and safety of many structures in nuclear power systems. Revolutionary improvements in radiation damage resistance may be attainable if methods can be found to manipulate interface properties to give optimal interface stability and point defect recombination capability. To understand how variations in interface properties such as misfit dislocation density and local chemistry affect radiation-induced defect absorption and recombination, a model system of metallic Cr xV 1-x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) epitaxial films deposited on MgO(001) single crystal substrates has been explored in this paper. By controlling film composition, themore » lattice mismatch between the film and MgO is adjusted to vary the misfit dislocation density at the metal/oxide interface. The stability of these interfaces under various irradiation conditions is studied experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that, unlike at metal/metal interfaces, the misfit dislocation density does not dominate radiation damage tolerance at metal/oxide interfaces. Rather, the stoichiometry and the location of the misfit dislocation extra half-plane (in the metal or the oxide) drive radiation-induced defect behavior. Finally, together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity of defect recombination to interfacial chemistry and provide new avenues for engineering radiation-tolerant nanomaterials for next-generation nuclear power plants.« less

  2. Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Choudhury, Samrat; Manandhar, Sandeep; ...

    2017-04-24

    The interaction of radiation with materials controls the performance, reliability, and safety of many structures in nuclear power systems. Revolutionary improvements in radiation damage resistance may be attainable if methods can be found to manipulate interface properties to give optimal interface stability and point defect recombination capability. To understand how variations in interface properties such as misfit dislocation density and local chemistry affect radiation-induced defect absorption and recombination, a model system of metallic Cr xV 1-x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) epitaxial films deposited on MgO(001) single crystal substrates has been explored in this paper. By controlling film composition, themore » lattice mismatch between the film and MgO is adjusted to vary the misfit dislocation density at the metal/oxide interface. The stability of these interfaces under various irradiation conditions is studied experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that, unlike at metal/metal interfaces, the misfit dislocation density does not dominate radiation damage tolerance at metal/oxide interfaces. Rather, the stoichiometry and the location of the misfit dislocation extra half-plane (in the metal or the oxide) drive radiation-induced defect behavior. Finally, together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity of defect recombination to interfacial chemistry and provide new avenues for engineering radiation-tolerant nanomaterials for next-generation nuclear power plants.« less

  3. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  4. LDsplit: screening for cis-regulatory motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wu, Min; Guo, Jing; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Zheng, Jie

    2014-02-17

    As a fundamental genomic element, meiotic recombination hotspot plays important roles in life sciences. Thus uncovering its regulatory mechanisms has broad impact on biomedical research. Despite the recent identification of the zinc finger protein PRDM9 and its 13-mer binding motif as major regulators for meiotic recombination hotspots, other regulators remain to be discovered. Existing methods for finding DNA sequence motifs of recombination hotspots often rely on the enrichment of co-localizations between hotspots and short DNA patterns, which ignore the cross-individual variation of recombination rates and sequence polymorphisms in the population. Our objective in this paper is to capture signals encoded in genetic variations for the discovery of recombination-associated DNA motifs. Recently, an algorithm called "LDsplit" has been designed to detect the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and proximal meiotic recombination hotspots. The association is measured by the difference of population recombination rates at a hotspot between two alleles of a candidate SNP. Here we present an open source software tool of LDsplit, with integrative data visualization for recombination hotspots and their proximal SNPs. Applying LDsplit on SNPs inside an established 7-mer motif bound by PRDM9 we observed that SNP alleles preserving the original motif tend to have higher recombination rates than the opposite alleles that disrupt the motif. Running on SNP windows around hotspots each containing an occurrence of the 7-mer motif, LDsplit is able to guide the established motif finding algorithm of MEME to recover the 7-mer motif. In contrast, without LDsplit the 7-mer motif could not be identified. LDsplit is a software tool for the discovery of cis-regulatory DNA sequence motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by screening and narrowing down to hotspot associated SNPs. It is the first computational method that utilizes the genetic variation of

  5. LDsplit: screening for cis-regulatory motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As a fundamental genomic element, meiotic recombination hotspot plays important roles in life sciences. Thus uncovering its regulatory mechanisms has broad impact on biomedical research. Despite the recent identification of the zinc finger protein PRDM9 and its 13-mer binding motif as major regulators for meiotic recombination hotspots, other regulators remain to be discovered. Existing methods for finding DNA sequence motifs of recombination hotspots often rely on the enrichment of co-localizations between hotspots and short DNA patterns, which ignore the cross-individual variation of recombination rates and sequence polymorphisms in the population. Our objective in this paper is to capture signals encoded in genetic variations for the discovery of recombination-associated DNA motifs. Results Recently, an algorithm called “LDsplit” has been designed to detect the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and proximal meiotic recombination hotspots. The association is measured by the difference of population recombination rates at a hotspot between two alleles of a candidate SNP. Here we present an open source software tool of LDsplit, with integrative data visualization for recombination hotspots and their proximal SNPs. Applying LDsplit on SNPs inside an established 7-mer motif bound by PRDM9 we observed that SNP alleles preserving the original motif tend to have higher recombination rates than the opposite alleles that disrupt the motif. Running on SNP windows around hotspots each containing an occurrence of the 7-mer motif, LDsplit is able to guide the established motif finding algorithm of MEME to recover the 7-mer motif. In contrast, without LDsplit the 7-mer motif could not be identified. Conclusions LDsplit is a software tool for the discovery of cis-regulatory DNA sequence motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by screening and narrowing down to hotspot associated SNPs. It is the first computational method that

  6. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for InxGa1-xAs grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.

  7. The Red Queen model of recombination hot-spot evolution: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Latrille, Thibault; Duret, Laurent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-12-19

    In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs. Thus far, however, this Red Queen model has not been formalized as a quantitative population-genetic model, fully accounting for the intricate interplay between biased gene conversion, mutation, selection, demography and genetic diversity at the PRDM9 locus. Here, we explore the population genetics of the Red Queen model of recombination. A Wright-Fisher simulator was implemented, allowing exploration of the behaviour of the model (mean equilibrium recombination rate, diversity at the PRDM9 locus or turnover rate) as a function of the parameters (effective population size, mutation and erosion rates). In a second step, analytical results based on self-consistent mean-field approximations were derived, reproducing the scaling relations observed in the simulations. Empirical fit of the model to current data from the mouse suggests both a high mutation rate at PRDM9 and strong biased gene conversion on its targets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. The Red Queen model of recombination hot-spot evolution: a theoretical investigation

    PubMed Central

    Latrille, Thibault; Duret, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs. Thus far, however, this Red Queen model has not been formalized as a quantitative population-genetic model, fully accounting for the intricate interplay between biased gene conversion, mutation, selection, demography and genetic diversity at the PRDM9 locus. Here, we explore the population genetics of the Red Queen model of recombination. A Wright–Fisher simulator was implemented, allowing exploration of the behaviour of the model (mean equilibrium recombination rate, diversity at the PRDM9 locus or turnover rate) as a function of the parameters (effective population size, mutation and erosion rates). In a second step, analytical results based on self-consistent mean-field approximations were derived, reproducing the scaling relations observed in the simulations. Empirical fit of the model to current data from the mouse suggests both a high mutation rate at PRDM9 and strong biased gene conversion on its targets. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109226

  9. Low-Frequency Carbon Recombination Lines in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Chenoa D.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Cunningham, Maria; Jones, Paul A.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha

    2018-05-01

    We detail tentative detections of low-frequency carbon radio recombination lines from within the Orion molecular cloud complex observed at 99-129 MHz. These tentative detections include one alpha transition and one beta transition over three locations and are located within the diffuse regions of dust observed in the infrared at 100 μm, the Hα emission detected in the optical, and the synchrotron radiation observed in the radio. With these observations, we are able to study the radiation mechanism transition from collisionally pumped to radiatively pumped within the H ii regions within the Orion molecular cloud complex.

  10. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination.

  11. Self-consistent ab initio Calculations for Photoionization and Electron-Ion Recombination Using the R-Matrix Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Most astrophysical plasmas entail a balance between ionization and recombination. We present new results from a unified method for self-consistent and ab initio calculations for the inverse processes of photoionization and (e + ion) recombination. The treatment for (e + ion) recombination subsumes the non-resonant radiative recombination and the resonant dielectronic recombination processes in a unified scheme (S.N. Nahar and A.K. Pradhan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1816 (1994);H.L. Zhang, S.N. Nahar, and A.K. Pradhan, J.Phys.B, 32,1459 (1999)). Calculations are carried out using the R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation using an identical wavefunction expansion for both processes to ensure self-consistency. The results for photoionization and recombination cross sections may also be compared with state-of-the-art experiments on synchrotron radiation sources for photoionization, and on heavy ion storage rings for recombination. The new experiments display heretofore unprecedented detail in terms of resonances and background cross sections and thereby calibrate the theoretical data precisely. We find a level of agreement between theory and experiment at about 10% for not only the ground state but also the metastable states. The recent experiments therefore verify the estimated accuracy of the vast amount of photoionization data computed under the OP, IP and related works. features. Present work also reports photoionization cross sections including relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) approximation. Detailed features in the calculated cross sections exhibit the missing resonances due to fine structure. Self-consistent datasets for photoionization and recombination have so far been computed for approximately 45 atoms and ions. These are being reported in a continuing series of publications in Astrophysical J. Supplements (e.g. references below). These data will also be available from the electronic database TIPTOPBASE (http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  12. Tunable polarization plasma channel undulator for narrow bandwidth photon emission

    DOE PAGES

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Wang, J. W.; Kharin, V. Yu.; ...

    2016-09-09

    The theory of a plasma undulator excited by a short intense laser pulse in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The undulator fields are generated either by the laser pulse incident off-axis and/or under the angle with respect to the channel axis. Linear plasma theory is used to derive the wakefield structure. It is shown that the electrons injected into the plasma wakefields experience betatron motion and undulator oscillations. Optimal electron beam injection conditions are derived for minimizing the amplitude of the betatron motion, producing narrow-bandwidth undulator radiation. Polarization control is readily achieved by varying the laser pulse injection conditions.

  13. Recombination processes in quantum well lasers with superlattice barriers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blood, P.; Fletcher, E.D.; Foxon, C.T.

    1989-12-04

    Spontaneous emission spectra from GaAs quantum well lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy show that the radiative recombination rate in (AlAs)(GaAs) superlattice barriers is greater than in alloy barriers of the same average composition ({ital x}=0.25) due to reduction in effective gap by superlattice effects. Measurements of emission spectra as functions of temperature show that these radiative processes account for a significant part of the temperature variation of the threshold current and we estimate that the nonradiative lifetime in the superlattice barriers is an order of magnitude longer than in alloy barriers grown under similar conditions.

  14. Recombineering: A Homologous Recombination-Based Method of Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Shyam K.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Kuznetsov, Sergey G.; Court, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering is an efficient method of in vivo genetic engineering applicable to chromosomal as well as episomal replicons in E. coli. This method circumvents the need for most standard in vitro cloning techniques. Recombineering allows construction of DNA molecules with precise junctions without constraints being imposed by restriction enzyme site location. Bacteriophage homologous recombination proteins catalyze these recombineering reactions using double- and single-strand linear DNA substrates, so-called targeting constructs, introduced by electroporation. Gene knockouts, deletions and point mutations are readily made, gene tags can be inserted, and regions of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or the E. coli genome can be subcloned by gene retrieval using recombineering. Most of these constructs can be made within about a week's time. PMID:19180090

  15. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico, E-mail: bellotti@bu.edu

    2016-05-28

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for In{sub x}Ga{submore » 1−x}As grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.« less

  16. Self-focusing of microwave radiation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, V. P.; Didenko, A. N.; Zherlitsyn, A. G.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Tsvetkov, V. I.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental reults are presented on the self-focusing of 1-cm-wavelength radiation in air at microwave radiation powers of 10 to the 8th to 10 to the 9th W. It is shown that self-focusing leading to the formation of a beam with a narrow radiation pattern can arise at microwave radiation power densities greater than 100,000 W/sq cm.

  17. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy study of recombinant T β4 folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Chin; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Chen, Peng-Jen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    Thymosin beta 4 (T β4) is a 43-amino acid small peptide, has been demonstrated that it can promote cardiac repair, wound repair, tissue protection, and involve in the proliferation of blood cell precursor stem cells of bone marrow. Moreover, T β4 has been identified as a multifunction intrinsically disordered protein, which is lacking the stable tertiary structure. Owing to the small size and disordered character, the T β4 protein degrades rapidly and the storage condition is critical. Therefore, it is not easy to reveal its folding mechanism of native T β4. However, recombinant T β4 protein (rT β4), which fused with a 5-kDa peptide in its amino-terminal, is stable and possesses identical function of T β4. Therefore, rT β4 can be used to study its folding mechanism. By using over-critical folding process, stable folding intermediates of rT β4 can be obtained. Structure analysis of folding intermediates by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and fluorescence spectroscopies indicate that rT β4 is a random coli major protein and its hydrophobic region becomes compact gradually. Moreover, the rT β4 folding is a two state transition. Thermal denaturation analysis indicates that rT β4 lacks stable tertiary structure. These results indicated that rT β4, similar to T β4, is an intrinsically disordered protein. Research is supported by MOST, Taiwan. MOST 103-2112-M-009-011-MY3. Corresponding author: Chia-Ching Chang; ccchang01@faculty.nctu.edu.tw.

  18. The limited role of recombination energy in common envelope removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichener, Aldana; Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the outward energy transport time by convection and photon diffusion in an inflated common envelope and find this time to be shorter than the envelope expansion time. We conclude therefore that most of the hydrogen recombination energy ends in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the outflowing envelope. We use the stellar evolution code MESA and inject energy inside the envelope of an asymptotic giant branch star to mimic energy deposition by a spiraling-in stellar companion. During 1.7 years the envelope expands by a factor of more than 2. Along the entire evolution the convection can carry the energy very efficiently outwards, to the radius where radiative transfer becomes more efficient. The total energy transport time stays within several months, shorter than the dynamical time of the envelope. Had we included rapid mass loss, as is expected in the common envelope evolution, the energy transport time would have been even shorter. It seems that calculations that assume that most of the recombination energy ends in the outflowing gas might be inaccurate.

  19. Steady-state photoluminescent excitation characterization of semiconductor carrier recombination.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, J S; Moore, J E; Wang, X; Bermel, P; Lundstrom, M S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy is a contactless characterization technique that can provide valuable information about the surface and bulk recombination parameters of a semiconductor device, distinct from other sorts of photoluminescent measurements. For this technique, a temperature-tuned light emitting diode (LED) has several advantages over other light sources. The large radiation density offered by LEDs from near-infrared to ultraviolet region at a low cost enables efficient and fast photoluminescence measurements. A simple and inexpensive LED-based setup facilitates measurement of surface recombination velocity and bulk Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime, which are key parameters to assess device performance. Under the right conditions, this technique can also provide a contactless way to measure the external quantum efficiency of a solar cell.

  20. Steady-state photoluminescent excitation characterization of semiconductor carrier recombination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bhosale, J. S.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; Moore, J. E.

    2016-01-15

    Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy is a contactless characterization technique that can provide valuable information about the surface and bulk recombination parameters of a semiconductor device, distinct from other sorts of photoluminescent measurements. For this technique, a temperature-tuned light emitting diode (LED) has several advantages over other light sources. The large radiation density offered by LEDs from near-infrared to ultraviolet region at a low cost enables efficient and fast photoluminescence measurements. A simple and inexpensive LED-based setup facilitates measurement of surface recombination velocity and bulk Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime, which are key parameters to assess device performance. Under the right conditions, this technique canmore » also provide a contactless way to measure the external quantum efficiency of a solar cell.« less

  1. Spectral line narrowing in PPLN OPO devices for 1-μm wavelength doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, Brian J.; Terry, Jonathan A. C.; Mason, Paul D.; Orchard, David A.

    2004-12-01

    One route to generating mid-infrared (mid-IR) radiation is through a two-stage non-linear conversion process from the near-IR, exploiting powerful neodymium lasers operating at wavelengths close to 1 μm. In the first stage of this process non-linear conversion within a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is used to double the wavelength of the 1 μm laser. The resultant 2 μm radiation is then used to pump a second OPO, based on a material such as ZGP, for conversion into the 3 to 5 μm mid-IR waveband. Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is a useful material for conversion from 1 to 2 μm due to its high non-linear coefficient (deff ~ 16 pm/V) and the long crystal lengths available (up to 50 mm). Slope efficiencies in excess of 40% have readily been achieved using a simple plane-plane resonator when pumped at 10 kHz with 3.5 mJ pulses from a 1.047 μm Nd:YLF laser. However, the OPO output was spectrally broad at degeneracy with a measured full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) linewidth of approximately 65 nm. This output linewidth is significantly broader than the spectral acceptance bandwidth of ZGP for conversion into the mid-IR. In this paper techniques for spectral narrowing the output from a degenerate PPLN OPO are investigated using two passive elements, a diffraction grating and an air spaced etalon. Slope efficiencies approaching 20% have been obtained using the grating in a dog-leg cavity configuration producing spectrally narrow 2 μm output with linewidths as low as 2 nm. A grating-narrowed degenerate PPLN OPO has been successfully used to pump a ZGP OPO.

  2. Interrogating Seyferts with NebulaBayes: Spatially Probing the Narrow-line Region Radiation Fields and Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Adam D.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Groves, Brent A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Blanc, Guillermo A.

    2018-04-01

    NebulaBayes is a new Bayesian code that implements a general method of comparing observed emission-line fluxes to photoionization model grids. The code enables us to extract robust, spatially resolved measurements of abundances in the extended narrow-line regions (ENLRs) produced by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We observe near-constant ionization parameters but steeply radially declining pressures, which together imply that radiation pressure regulates the ENLR density structure on large scales. Our sample includes four “pure Seyfert” galaxies from the S7 survey that have extensive ENLRs. NGC 2992 shows steep metallicity gradients from the nucleus into the ionization cones. An inverse metallicity gradient is observed in ESO 138-G01, which we attribute to a recent gas inflow or minor merger. A uniformly high metallicity and hard ionizing continuum are inferred across the ENLR of Mrk 573. Our analysis of IC 5063 is likely affected by contamination from shock excitation, which appears to soften the inferred ionizing spectrum. The peak of the ionizing continuum E peak is determined by the nuclear spectrum and the absorbing column between the nucleus and the ionized nebula. We cannot separate variation in this intrinsic E peak from the effects of shock or H II region contamination, but E peak measurements nevertheless give insights into ENLR excitation. We demonstrate the general applicability of NebulaBayes by analyzing a nuclear spectrum from the non-active galaxy NGC 4691 using a H II region grid. The NLR and H II region model grids are provided with NebulaBayes for use by the astronomical community.

  3. Outdiffusion of recombination centers from the substrate into LPE layers - GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are presented showing that outdiffusion of recombination centers from the GaAs substrate into the epitaxial layer takes place during growth. Such outdiffusion decreases the carrier lifetime in the epitaxial layer to much lower values than the radiative recombination limit. Furthermore, it introduces a lifetime gradient across the epitaxial layer which depends critically on the growth velocity and thermal treatment. High rates of growth (such as those attainable in electroepitaxy) and high cooling rates can minimize the adverse effects of normally available substrates on the epitaxial layers; however, good quality substrates are essential for the consistent growth of device quality layers.

  4. DNA double strand breaks induced by the indirect effect of radiation are more efficiently repaired by non-homologous end joining compared to homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Natarajan, Adayapalam T; Erixon, Klaus; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative involvement of three major DNA repair pathways, i.e., non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HRR) and base excision (BER) in repair of DNA lesions of different complexity induced by low- or high-LET radiation with emphasis on the contribution of the indirect effect of radiation for these radiation qualities. A panel of DNA repair-deficient CHO cell lines was irradiated by (137)Cs γ-rays or radon progeny α-particles. Irradiation was also performed in the presence of 2M DMSO to reduce the indirect effect of radiation and the complexity of the DNA damage formed. Clonogenic survival and micronucleus assays were used to estimate efficiencies of the different repair pathways for DNA damages produced by direct and indirect effects. Removal of the indirect effect of low-LET radiation by DMSO increased clonogenic survival and decreased MN formation for all cell lines investigated. A direct contribution of the indirect effect of radiation to DNA base damage was suggested by the significant protection by DMSO seen for the BER deficient cell line. Lesions formed by the indirect effect are more readily repaired by the NHEJ pathway than by HRR after irradiation with γ-rays or α-particles as evaluated by cell survival and the yields of MN. The results obtained with BER- and NHEJ-deficient cells suggest that the indirect effect of radiation contributes significantly to the formation of repair substrates for these pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of quantum interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination on photorecombination cross-section profiles for the He-like ions Ar{sup 16+} and Fe{sup 24+}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Behar, Ehud; Jacobs, Verne L.; Oreg, Joseph

    Total cross sections for electron-ion photorecombination (PR) processes are calculated using a projection-operator and resolvent-operator approach. This approach provides a unified quantum-mechanical description of the combined electron-ion PR process, including radiative and dielectronic recombination as coherent, interfering components. An especially adapted version of the Hebrew-University Lawrence-Livermore Atomic Code HULLAC is developed and employed for the calculations. In particular, PR cross sections for He-like argon and iron ions are calculated for incident-electron energies in the vicinity of the 1s2l2l{sup '} and 1s2l3l{sup '} doubly-excited, autoionizing levels of the Li-like ions. Significant effects of quantum interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination, inmore » the form of asymmetric PR cross-section profiles, are predicted, especially for weak transitions. The general behavior of the interference effect, as a function of the ion charge q and as a function of the principal quantum number n{sup '} of the outer electron in the autoionizing state, is investigated using a hydrogenic-scaling analysis. It is found that the degree of asymmetry in the PR cross-section profile can be substantial for close-to-neutral ions and also for very highly-charged ions. In the intermediate-charge regime, on the other hand, the asymmetry is anticipated to be less prominent. The dependence of the quantum-interference effect on n{sup '} is predicted to be much weaker.« less

  6. Recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins. Cellular Ca2+ ion indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, O; Inouye, S; Musicki, B; Kishi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Properties of a recombinant aequorin were investigated in comparison with those of natural aequorin. In chromatographic behaviour the recombinant aequorin did not match any of ten isoaequorins tested, although it was very similar to aequorin J. Its sensitivity to Ca2+ was found to be higher than that of any isoaequorin except aequorin D. The recombinant aequorin exhibited no toxicity when tested in various kinds of cells, even where samples of natural aequorin had been found to be toxic. Properties of four recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins (fch-, hcp-, e- and n-types), prepared from the recombinant apo-aequorin and synthetic analogues of coelenterazine, were approximately parallel with those of corresponding semi-synthetic aequorins prepared from natural apo-aequorin. Both recombinant e-aequorin and natural e-aequorin J luminesced with high values of the luminescence intensity ratio I400/I465, although the ratios were not pCa-dependent. The recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins are highly suited for monitoring cellular Ca2+. PMID:2400391

  7. Rattling of Oxygen Ions in a Sub-Nanometer-Sized Cage Converts Terahertz Radiation to Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yoshitake; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Khutoryan, Eduard; Idehara, Toshitaka; Matsuishi, Satoru; Sushko, Peter V; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-12-26

    A simple and robust approach to visualization of continuous wave terahertz (CW-THz) light would open up opportunities to couple physical phenomena that occur at fundamentally different energy scales. Here we demonstrate how nanoscale cages of Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 crystal enable conversion of CW-THz radiation to visible light. These crystallographic cages are partially occupied with weakly bonded oxygen ions and give rise to a narrow conduction band that can be populated with localized, yet mobile electrons. CW-THz light excites a nearly stand-alone rattling motion of the encaged oxygen species, which promotes electron transfer from them to the neighboring vacant cages. When the power of CW-THz light reaches tens of watts, the coupling between forced rattling in the confined space, electronic excitation and ionization of oxygen species, and corresponding recombination processes result in emission of bright visible light.

  8. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmerle, Achim; Momtazur Rahman, Md.; Werner, Sabrina; Mack, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Richter, Armin; Haug, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the surface recombination velocity Sp at the silicon-dielectric interface of phosphorus-doped surfaces for two industrially relevant passivation schemes for crystalline silicon solar cells. A broad range of surface dopant concentrations together with a high accuracy of evaluating the latter is achieved by incremental back-etching of the surface. The analysis of lifetime measurements and the simulation of the surface recombination consistently apply a set of well accepted models, namely, the Auger recombination by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 1-14 (2012)], the carrier mobility by Klaassen [Solid-State Electron. 35, 953-959 (1992); 35, 961-967 (1992)], the intrinsic carrier concentration for undoped silicon by Altermatt et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1598-1604 (2003)], and the band-gap narrowing by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684-3695 (1998)]. The results show an increased Sp at textured in respect to planar surfaces. The obtained parameterizations are applicable in modern simulation tools such as EDNA [K. R. McIntosh and P. P. Altermatt, in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (2010), pp. 1-6], PC1Dmod [Haug et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 131, 30-36 (2014)], and Sentaurus Device [Synopsys, Sentaurus TCAD, Zürich, Switzerland] as well as in the analytical solution under the assumption of local charge neutrality by Cuevas et al. [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 1181-1183 (1993)].

  9. The minimum bandwidths of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, M. M.; Calvert, W.

    1987-01-01

    The bandwidths of the discrete spectral components of the auroral kilometric radiation can sometimes be as narrow as 5 Hz. Since this would imply an apparent source thickness of substantially less than the wavelength, it is inconsistent with the previous explanation for such discrete components based simply upon vertical localization of a cyclotron source. Instead, such narrow bandwidths can only be explained by radio lasing.

  10. Effect of common building materials in narrow shaped X-ray fields transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, I.; Tsantilas, X.; Fountos, G.; Delis, H.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and interventional radiology, are an essential part of present day medical practice. Advances in X-ray imaging technology, together with developments in digital imaging have had a significant impact on the practice of radiology. This includes improvement in image quality, reduction in dose and a broader range of available applications resulting to better patient diagnosis and treatment. X-rays have the potential for damaging healthy cells and tissues, therefore all medical procedures employing X-ray equipment must be carefully managed. In all facilities and for all equipment types, procedures must be in place in order to ensure that exposures to patients, staff and the public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Commonly used construction materials such as, ceramic tiles and plasterboards can provide a certain degree of protection against X-radiation. In this study, the secondary radiation transmission through common building materials is investigated, in the case of narrow shaped X-ray fields. Double plasterboard and double reinforced in thickness ceramic tile provided better radiation protection results.

  11. Genome-wide recombination rate variation in a recombination map of cotton.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Li, Ximei; Zhang, Ruiting; Lin, Zhongxu

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species' genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions. Recombination rates significantly varied between A-subgenome (At) (range = 1.60 to 3.26 centimorgan/megabase [cM/Mb]) and D-subgenome (Dt) (range = 2.17 to 4.97 cM/Mb), which explained why the genetic maps of At and Dt are similar but the physical map of Dt is only half that of At. The translocation regions between A02 and A03 and between A04 and A05, and the inversion regions on A10, D10, A07 and D07 indicated relatively high recombination rates in the distal regions of the chromosomes. Recombination rates were positively correlated with the densities of genes, markers and the distance from the centromere, and negatively correlated with transposable elements (TEs). The gene ontology (GO) categories showed that genes in high recombination regions may tend to response to environmental stimuli, and genes in low recombination regions are related to mitosis and meiosis, which suggested that they may provide the primary driving force in adaptive evolution and assure the stability of basic cell cycle in a rapidly changing environment. Global knowledge of recombination rates will facilitate genetics and breeding in cotton.

  12. Genome-wide recombination rate variation in a recombination map of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chao; Li, Ximei; Zhang, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species’ genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions. Recombination rates significantly varied between A-subgenome (At) (range = 1.60 to 3.26 centimorgan/megabase [cM/Mb]) and D-subgenome (Dt) (range = 2.17 to 4.97 cM/Mb), which explained why the genetic maps of At and Dt are similar but the physical map of Dt is only half that of At. The translocation regions between A02 and A03 and between A04 and A05, and the inversion regions on A10, D10, A07 and D07 indicated relatively high recombination rates in the distal regions of the chromosomes. Recombination rates were positively correlated with the densities of genes, markers and the distance from the centromere, and negatively correlated with transposable elements (TEs). The gene ontology (GO) categories showed that genes in high recombination regions may tend to response to environmental stimuli, and genes in low recombination regions are related to mitosis and meiosis, which suggested that they may provide the primary driving force in adaptive evolution and assure the stability of basic cell cycle in a rapidly changing environment. Global knowledge of recombination rates will facilitate genetics and breeding in cotton. PMID:29176878

  13. DNA methylation epigenetically silences crossover hot spots and controls chromosomal domains of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yelina, Nataliya E; Lambing, Christophe; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Santos, Bruno; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-10-15

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which is typically concentrated in narrow hot spots that are controlled by genetic and epigenetic information. Arabidopsis chromosomes are highly DNA methylated in the repetitive centromeres, which are also crossover-suppressed. Here we demonstrate that RNA-directed DNA methylation is sufficient to locally silence Arabidopsis euchromatic crossover hot spots and is associated with increased nucleosome density and H3K9me2. However, loss of CG DNA methylation maintenance in met1 triggers epigenetic crossover remodeling at the chromosome scale, with pericentromeric decreases and euchromatic increases in recombination. We used recombination mutants that alter interfering and noninterfering crossover repair pathways (fancm and zip4) to demonstrate that remodeling primarily involves redistribution of interfering crossovers. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show that crossover remodeling is driven by loss of CG methylation within the centromeric regions. Using cytogenetics, we profiled meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci in met1 and found them unchanged relative to wild type. We propose that met1 chromosome structure is altered, causing centromere-proximal DSBs to be inhibited from maturation into interfering crossovers. These data demonstrate that DNA methylation is sufficient to silence crossover hot spots and plays a key role in establishing domains of meiotic recombination along chromosomes. © 2015 Yelina et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Stukenbrock, Eva H.; Dutheil, Julien Y.

    2018-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae. We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. PMID:29263029

  15. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2018-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. Copyright © 2018 Stukenbrock and Dutheil.

  16. Recombination monitor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au 78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au 78+ beam from the Au 79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au 78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machinemore » operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.« less

  17. Measurement of carrier transport and recombination parameter in heavily doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Richard M.

    1986-01-01

    The minority carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped bulk silicon were measured. Both Si:P and Si:B with bulk dopings from 10 to the 17th and 10 to the 20th power/cu cm were studied. It is shown that three parameters characterize transport in bulk heavily doped Si: the minority carrier lifetime tau, the minority carrier mobility mu, and the equilibrium minority carrier density of n sub 0 and p sub 0 (in p-type and n-type Si respectively.) However, dc current-voltage measurements can never measure all three of these parameters, and some ac or time-transient experiment is required to obtain the values of these parameters as a function of dopant density. Using both dc electrical measurements on bipolar transitors with heavily doped base regions and transients optical measurements on heavily doped bulk and epitaxially grown samples, lifetime, mobility, and bandgap narrowing were measured as a function of both p and n type dopant densities. Best fits of minority carrier mobility, bandgap narrowing and lifetime as a function of doping density (in the heavily doped range) were constructed to allow accurate modeling of minority carrier transport in heavily doped Si.

  18. Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.

  19. Narrow-headed garter snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The narrow-headed garter snake is a harmless, nonvenomous snake that is distinguished by its elongated, triangular-shaped head and the red or dark spots on its olive to tan body. Today, the narrow-headed garter snake is a species of special concern in the United States because of its decline over much of its historic range. Arizona's Oak Creek has historically contained the largest population of narrow-headed garter snakes in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Arizona Game and Fish Department jointly funded research by USGS scientists in Oak Creek to shed light on the factors causing declining population numbers. The research resulted in better understanding of the snake's habitat needs, winter and summer range, and dietary habits. Based on the research findings, the U.S. Forest Service has developed recommendations that visitors and local residents can adopt to help slow the decline of the narrow-headed garter snake in Oak Creek.

  20. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  1. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantagesmore » of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.« less

  2. THE SEARCH FOR CELESTIAL POSITRONIUM VIA THE RECOMBINATION SPECTRUM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J., E-mail: sce@physics.usyd.edu.a, E-mail: jbh@physics.usyd.edu.a

    2009-12-10

    Positronium is a short-lived atom consisting of a bound electron-positron pair. In the triplet state, when the spins of both particles are parallel, radiative recombination lines will be emitted prior to annihilation. The existence of celestial positronium is revealed through gamma-ray observations of its annihilation products. These observations, however, have intrinsically low angular resolution. In this paper, we examine the prospects for detecting the positronium recombination spectrum. Such observations have the potential to reveal discrete sources of e {sup +} for the first time and will allow the acuity of optical telescopes and instrumentation to be applied to observations ofmore » high-energy phenomena. We review the theory of the positronium recombination spectrum and provide formulae to calculate expected line strengths from the e {sup +} production rate and for different conditions in the interstellar medium. We estimate the positronium emission line strengths for several classes of Galactic and extragalactic sources. These are compared to current observational limits and to current and future sensitivities of optical and infrared instrumentation. We find that observations of the Psalpha line should soon be possible due to recent advances in NIR spectroscopy.« less

  3. Doping-enhanced radiative efficiency enables lasing in unpassivated GaAs nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Tim; Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Li, Zhe; Hall, Christopher R.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yuda; Smith, Leigh M.; Fu, Lan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Nanolasers hold promise for applications including integrated photonics, on-chip optical interconnects and optical sensing. Key to the realization of current cavity designs is the use of nanomaterials combining high gain with high radiative efficiency. Until now, efforts to enhance the performance of semiconductor nanomaterials have focused on reducing the rate of non-radiative recombination through improvements to material quality and complex passivation schemes. Here we employ controlled impurity doping to increase the rate of radiative recombination. This unique approach enables us to improve the radiative efficiency of unpassivated GaAs nanowires by a factor of several hundred times while also increasing differential gain and reducing the transparency carrier density. In this way, we demonstrate lasing from a nanomaterial that combines high radiative efficiency with a picosecond carrier lifetime ready for high speed applications. PMID:27311597

  4. Dramatic impact of the giant local magnetic fields on spin-dependent recombination processes in gadolinium based garnets

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Romanov, N. G., E-mail: nikolai.romanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.

    2015-06-29

    A giant magnetic field effect on spin-dependent recombination of the radiation-induced defects has been found in cerium doped gadolinium based garnet crystals and ceramics, promising materials for scintillator applications. A sharp and strong increase in the afterglow intensity stimulated by external magnetic field and an evidence of the magnetic field memory have been discovered. The effect was ascribed to huge Gd-induced internal magnetic fields, which suppress the recombination, and cross-relaxation with Gd{sup 3+} ions leading to reorientation of the spins of the electron and hole centers. Thus, the spin system of radiation-induced defects in gadolinium garnet based scintillator materials wasmore » shown to accumulate significant energy which can be released in external magnetic fields.« less

  5. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  6. The size-luminosity relationship of quasar narrow-line regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Ross; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-07-01

    The presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) can strongly affect its host. Due to the copious radiative power of the nucleus, the effects of radiative feedback can be detected over the entire host galaxy and sometimes well into the intergalactic space. In this paper we model the observed size-luminosity relationship of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of AGN. We model the NLR as a collection of clouds in pressure equilibrium with the ionizing radiation, with each cloud producing line emission calculated by Cloudy. The sizes of the NLRs of powerful quasars are reproduced without any free parameters, as long as they contain massive (105-107 M⊙) ionization-bounded clouds. At lower AGN luminosities the observed sizes are larger than the model sizes, likely due to additional unmodeled sources of ionization (e.g. star formation). We find that the observed saturation of sizes at ˜10 kpc which is observed at high AGN luminosities (Lion ≃ 1046 erg s-1) is naturally explained by optically thick clouds absorbing the ionizing radiation and preventing illumination beyond a critical distance. Using our models in combination with observations of the [O III]/IR ratio and the [O III] size-IR luminosity relationship, we calculate the covering factor of the obscuring torus (and therefore the type 2 fraction within the quasar population) to be f = 0.5, though this is likely an upper bound. Finally, because the gas behind the ionization front is invisible in ionized gas transitions, emission-based NLR mass calculations underestimate the mass of the NLR and therefore of the energetics of ionized-gas winds.

  7. The Size-Luminosity Relationship of Quasar Narrow-Line Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Ross; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-04-01

    The presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) can strongly affect its host. Due to the copious radiative power of the nucleus, the effects of radiative feedback can be detected over the entire host galaxy and sometimes well into the intergalactic space. In this paper we model the observed size-luminosity relationship of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of AGN. We model the NLR as a collection of clouds in pressure equilibrium with the ionizing radiation, with each cloud producing line emission calculated by Cloudy. The sizes of the NLRs of powerful quasars are reproduced without any free parameters, as long as they contain massive (105M⊙ to 107M⊙) ionization-bounded clouds. At lower AGN luminosities the observed sizes are larger than the model sizes, likely due to additional unmodeled sources of ionization (e.g., star formation). We find that the observed saturation of sizes at ˜10kpc which is observed at high AGN luminosities (Lion ≃ 1046erg/s) is naturally explained by optically thick clouds absorbing the ionizing radiation and preventing illumination beyond a critical distance. Using our models in combination with observations of the [O III]/IR ratio and the [O III] size - IR luminosity relationship, we calculate the covering factor of the obscuring torus (and therefore the type 2 fraction within the quasar population) to be f = 0.5, though this is likely an upper bound. Finally, because the gas behind the ionization front is invisible in ionized gas transitions, emission-based NLR mass calculations underestimate the mass of the NLR and therefore of the energetics of ionized-gas winds.

  8. The effects of temperature dependent recombination rates on performance of InGaN/GaN blue superluminescent light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi Milani, N.; Mohadesi, V.; Asgari, A.

    2015-07-01

    The effects of temperature dependent radiative and nonradiative recombination (Shockley-Read-Hall, spontaneous radiative, and Auger coefficients) on the spectral and power characteristics of a blue multiple quantum well (MQW) superluminescent light emitting diode (SLD or SLED) have been studied. The study is based on the rate equations model, where three rate equations corresponding to MQW active region, separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) layer, and spectral density of optical power are solved self-consistently with no k-selection energy dependent gain and quasi-Fermi level functions at steady state. We have taken into account the temperature effects on Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), spontaneous radiative, and Auger recombination in the rate equations and have investigated the effects of temperature rising from 300 K to 375 K at a fixed current density. We examine this procedure for a moderate current density and interpret the spectral radiation power and light output power diagrams. The investigation reveals that the main loss due to temperature is related to Auger coefficient.

  9. Integration of narrow-host-range vectors from Escherichia coli into the genomes of amino acid-producing corynebacteria after intergeneric conjugation.

    PubMed

    Mateos, L M; Schäfer, A; Kalinowski, J; Martin, J F; Pühler, A

    1996-10-01

    Conjugative transfer of mobilizable derivatives of the Escherichia coli narrow-host-range plasmids pBR322, pBR325, pACYC177, and pACYC184 from E. coli to species of the gram-positive genera Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium resulted in the integration of the plasmids into the genomes of the recipient bacteria. Transconjugants appeared at low frequencies and reproducibly with a delay of 2 to 3 days compared with matings with replicative vectors. Southern analysis of corynebacterial transconjugants and nucleotide sequences from insertion sites revealed that integration occurs at different locations and that different parts of the vector are involved in the process. Integration is not dependent on indigenous insertion sequence elements but results from recombination between very short homologous DNA segments (8 to 12 bp) present in the vector and in the host DNA. In the majority of the cases (90%), integration led to cointegrate formation, and in some cases, deletions or rearrangements occurred during the recombination event. Insertions were found to be quite stable even in the absence of selective pressure.

  10. Integration of narrow-host-range vectors from Escherichia coli into the genomes of amino acid-producing corynebacteria after intergeneric conjugation.

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, L M; Schäfer, A; Kalinowski, J; Martin, J F; Pühler, A

    1996-01-01

    Conjugative transfer of mobilizable derivatives of the Escherichia coli narrow-host-range plasmids pBR322, pBR325, pACYC177, and pACYC184 from E. coli to species of the gram-positive genera Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium resulted in the integration of the plasmids into the genomes of the recipient bacteria. Transconjugants appeared at low frequencies and reproducibly with a delay of 2 to 3 days compared with matings with replicative vectors. Southern analysis of corynebacterial transconjugants and nucleotide sequences from insertion sites revealed that integration occurs at different locations and that different parts of the vector are involved in the process. Integration is not dependent on indigenous insertion sequence elements but results from recombination between very short homologous DNA segments (8 to 12 bp) present in the vector and in the host DNA. In the majority of the cases (90%), integration led to cointegrate formation, and in some cases, deletions or rearrangements occurred during the recombination event. Insertions were found to be quite stable even in the absence of selective pressure. PMID:8824624

  11. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kimmerle, Achim, E-mail: achim-kimmerle@gmx.de; Momtazur Rahman, Md.; Werner, Sabrina

    We investigate the surface recombination velocity S{sub p} at the silicon-dielectric interface of phosphorus-doped surfaces for two industrially relevant passivation schemes for crystalline silicon solar cells. A broad range of surface dopant concentrations together with a high accuracy of evaluating the latter is achieved by incremental back-etching of the surface. The analysis of lifetime measurements and the simulation of the surface recombination consistently apply a set of well accepted models, namely, the Auger recombination by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 1–14 (2012)], the carrier mobility by Klaassen [Solid-State Electron. 35, 953–959 (1992); 35, 961–967 (1992)], the intrinsic carriermore » concentration for undoped silicon by Altermatt et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1598–1604 (2003)], and the band-gap narrowing by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684–3695 (1998)]. The results show an increased S{sub p} at textured in respect to planar surfaces. The obtained parameterizations are applicable in modern simulation tools such as EDNA [K. R. McIntosh and P. P. Altermatt, in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (2010), pp. 1–6], PC1Dmod [Haug et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 131, 30–36 (2014)], and Sentaurus Device [Synopsys, Sentaurus TCAD, Zürich, Switzerland] as well as in the analytical solution under the assumption of local charge neutrality by Cuevas et al. [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 1181–1183 (1993)].« less

  12. Intensity- and temperature- dependent carrier recombination in InAs/In(As 1-xSb x) type-II superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, Benjamin Varberg; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Kim, Jin K.; ...

    2015-04-17

    Our time-resolved measurements for carrier recombination are reported as a midwave infrared InAs/InAs 0.66Sb 0.34 type-II superlattice (T2SL) function of pump intensity and sample temperature. By including the T2SL doping level in the analysis, the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), radiative, and Auger recombination components of the carrier lifetime are uniquely distinguished at each temperature. SRH is the limiting recombination mechanism for excess carrier densities less than the doping level (the low-injection regime) and temperatures less than 175 K. A SRH defect energy of 95 meV, either below the T2SL conduction-band edge or above the T2SL valence-band edge, is identified. Auger recombination limitsmore » the carrier lifetimes for excess carrier densities greater than the doping level (the high-injection regime) for all temperatures tested. Additionally, at temperatures greater than 225 K, Auger recombination also limits the low-injection carrier lifetime due to the onset of the intrinsic temperature range and large intrinsic carrier densities. Radiative recombination is found to not have a significant contribution to the total lifetime for all temperatures and injection regimes, with the data implying a photon recycling factor of 15. Using the measured lifetime data, diffusion currents are calculated and compared to calculated Hg 1-xCd xTe dark current, indicating that the T2SL can have a lower dark current with mitigation of the SRH defect states. Our results illustrate the potential for InAs/InAs 1-xSb x T2SLs as absorbers in infrared photodetectors.« less

  13. Narrow Networks on the Individual Marketplace in 2017.

    PubMed

    Polski, Daniel; Weiner, Janet; Zhang, Yuehan

    2017-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes the breadth of physician networks on the ACA marketplaces in 2017. We find that the overall rate of narrow networks is 21%, which is a decline since 2014 (31%) and 2016 (25%). Narrow networks are concentrated in plans sold on state-based marketplaces, at 42%, compared to 10% of plans on federally-facilitated marketplaces. Issuers that have traditionally offered Medicaid coverage have the highest prevalence of narrow network plans at 36%, with regional/local plans and provider-based plans close behind at 27% and 30%. We also find large differences in narrow networks by state and by plan type.

  14. Narrowband thermal radiation from closed-end microcavities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kohiyama, Asaka; Shimizu, Makoto; Iguchi, Fumitada

    2015-10-07

    High spectral selectivity of thermal radiation is important for achieving high-efficiency energy systems. In this study, intense, narrowband, and low directional absorption/radiation were observed in closed-end microcavity which is a conventional open-end microcavity covered by a semi-transparent thin metal film. The quality factor (Q factor) of optical absorption band strongly depended on the film electrical conductivity. Asymmetric and narrow absorption band with a Q factor of 25 at 1.28 μm was obtained for a 6-nm-thick Au film. Numerical simulations suggest that the formation of a fixed-end mode at the cavity aperture contributes to the narrowband optical absorption. The closed-end microcavity filledmore » with SiO{sub 2} exhibits intense and isotropic thermal radiation over a wide solid angle according to numerical simulation. The narrow and asymmetric absorption spectrum was experimentally confirmed in a model of closed-end microcavity.« less

  15. Recombination imaging of III-V solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virshup, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    An imaging technique based on the radiative recombination of minority carriers in forward-biased solar cells has been developed for characterization of III-V solar cells. When used in mapping whole wafers, it has helped identify three independent loss mechanisms (broken grid lines, shorting defects, and direct-to-indirect bandgap transitions), all of which resulted in lower efficiencies. The imaging has also led to improvements in processing techniques to reduce the occurrence of broken gridlines as well as surface defects. The ability to visualize current mechanisms in solar cells is an intuitive tool which is powerful in its simplicity.

  16. PHL 1092: A narrow-line quasar emerging from the darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Luigi

    2013-10-01

    The radio quiet, narrow line quasar, PHL1092 exhibits the extreme behaviour associated with 1H0707 and IRAS13224, but at a high redshift (z=0.396) and with high luminosity (~10^45 erg/s). From a short, bright state observation of PHL1092 we discovered a super soft excess, possible relativistically broadened FeL and K emission, high radiative efficiency, and possible high velocity outflow. Follow up observations between 2008-10 caught the quasar in a deep minimum that could be attributed to disruption of the corona. We will monitor PHL1092 with Swift to catch the quasar emerging from its current low-flux state so that we can study the bright state of the AGN with a triggered 130ks XMM observation.

  17. Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

    PubMed

    Passarella, Salvatore; Karu, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  19. Diffusion controlled initial recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, T.; Büttiker, M.

    1998-08-01

    This work addresses nucleation rates in systems with strong initial recombination. Initial (or ``geminate'') recombination is a process where a dissociated structure (anion, vortex, kink, etc.) recombines with its twin brother (cation, antivortex, antikink) generated in the same nucleation event. Initial recombination is important if there is an asymptotically vanishing interaction force instead of a generic saddle-type activation barrier. At low temperatures, initial recombination strongly dominates homogeneous recombination. In a first part, we discuss the effect in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diffusion controlled systems with spherical symmetry. Since there is no well-defined saddle, we introduce a threshold which is to some extent arbitrary but which is restricted by physically reasonable conditions. We show that the dependence of the nucleation rate on the specific choice of this threshold is strongest for one-dimensional systems and decreases in higher dimensions. We also discuss the influence of a weak driving force, and show that the transport current is directly determined by the imbalance of the activation rate in the direction of the field and the rate against this direction. In a second part, we apply the results to the overdamped sine-Gordon system at equilibrium. It turns out that diffusive initial recombination is the essential mechanism which governs the equilibrium kink nucleation rate. We emphasize analogies between the single particle problem with initial recombination and the multidimensional kink-antikink nucleation problem.

  20. Study of recombination characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Malinauskas, T.; Meskauskaite, D.; Miasojedovas, S.; Mickevicius, J.; Pavlov, J.; Rumbauskas, V.; Simoen, E.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The radiative and non-radiative recombination carrier decay lifetimes in GaN epi-layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition technology on Si substrates were measured by contactless techniques of time-resolved photoluminescence and microwave-probed transients of photoconductivity. The lifetime variations were obtained to be dependent on growth regimes. These variations have been related to varied densities of edge dislocations associated with growth temperature. It has been also revealed that the lateral carrier lifetime and photoluminescence intensity distribution is determined by the formation of dislocation clusters dependent on the growth conditions. For low excitation level, the asymptotic component within the excess carrier decay transients is attributed to carrier trapping and anomalous diffusion through random-walk processes within dislocation cluster regions and barriers at dislocation cores. The two-componential decay process at high excitation conditions, where excess carriers may suppress barriers, proceeds through a nonlinear recombination, where band-to-band transitions determine the nonlinearity of the process, while the asymptotic component is ascribed to the impact of D-A pair PL within the long-wavelength wing of the UV-PL band.

  1. Ring resonator based narrow-linewidth semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for using ring resonators to produce narrow linewidth hybrid semiconductor lasers. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the narrow linewidths are produced by combining the semiconductor gain chip with a narrow pass band external feedback element. The semi conductor laser is produced using a ring resonator which, combined with a Bragg grating, acts as the external feedback element. According to another embodiment of the present invention, the proposed integrated optics ring resonator is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO.sub.2 /SiON/SiO.sub.2 waveguide technology.

  2. Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.

    2014-02-01

    The optical properties of GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K-300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells.

  3. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  4. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  5. Origin of Non-Radiative Voltage Losses in Fullerene-Based Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benduhn, Johannes; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Ullbrich, Sascha; Neher, Dieter; Spoltore, Donato; Vandewal, Koen

    The open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells (OSCs) is low as compared to the optical gap of the absorber molecules, indicating high energy losses per absorbed photon. These voltage losses arise only partly due to necessity of an electron transfer event to dissociate the excitons. A large part of these voltage losses is due to recombination of photo-generated charge carriers, including inevitable radiative recombination. In this work, we study the non-radiative recombination losses and we find that they increase when the energy difference between charge transfer (CT) state and ground state decreases. This behavior is in agreement with the \\x9Denergy gap law for non-radiative transition\\x9D, which implies that internal conversion from CT state to ground state is facilitated by skeletal molecular vibrations. This intrinsic loss mechanism, which until now has not been thoroughly considered for OSCs, is different in its nature as compared to the commonly considered inorganic photovoltaic loss mechanisms of defect, surface, and Auger recombination. As a consequence, the theoretical upper limit for the power conversion efficiency of a single junction OSC reduces by 25% as compared to the Shockley-Queisser limit for an optimal optical gap of the main absorber between (1.45-1.65) eV.

  6. Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-11-11

    The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.

  7. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  8. Ocular Biometrics of Myopic Eyes With Narrow Angles.

    PubMed

    Chong, Gabriel T; Wen, Joanne C; Su, Daniel Hsien-Wen; Stinnett, Sandra; Asrani, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ocular biometrics between myopic patients with and without narrow angles. Patients with a stable myopic refraction (myopia worse than -1.00 D spherical equivalent) were prospectively recruited. Angle status was assessed using gonioscopy and biometric measurements were performed using an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and an IOLMaster. A total of 29 patients (58 eyes) were enrolled with 13 patients (26 eyes) classified as having narrow angles and 16 patients (32 eyes) classified as having open angles. Baseline demographics of age, sex, and ethnicity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The patients with narrow angles were on average older than those with open angles but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.12). The central anterior chamber depth was significantly less in the eyes with narrow angles (P=0.05). However, the average lens thickness, although greater in the eyes with narrow angles, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). Refractive error, axial lengths, and iris thicknesses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P=0.32, 0.47, 0.15). Narrow angles can occur in myopic eyes. Routine gonioscopy is therefore recommended for all patients regardless of refractive error.

  9. Intramyocardial arterial narrowing in dogs with subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Falk, T; Jönsson, L; Pedersen, H D

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies have described intramyocardial arterial narrowing based on hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the vessel wall in dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). In theory, such changes might increase the risk of sudden death, as they seem to do in heart disease in other species. This retrospective pathological study describes and quantifies intramyocardial arterial narrowing in 44 dogs with naturally occurring SAS and in eight control dogs. The majority of the dogs with SAS died suddenly (n=27); nine had died or been euthanased with signs of heart failure and eight were euthanased without clinical signs. Dogs with SAS had significantly narrower intramyocardial arteries (P<0.001) and more myocardial fibrosis (P<0.001) than control dogs. Male dogs and those with more severe hypertrophy had more vessel narrowing (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas dogs with dilated hearts had slightly less pronounced arterial thickening (P=0.01). Arterial narrowing was not related to age, but fibrosis increased with age (P=0.047). Dogs that died suddenly did not have a greater number of arterial changes than other dogs with SAS. This study suggests that most dogs with SAS have intramyocardial arterial narrowing and that the risk of dying suddenly is not significantly related to the overall degree of vessel obliteration.

  10. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  12. Rocket observations of solar UV radiation during the eclipse of 7 March 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Results of observations of the solar eclipse of Mar. 7, 1970, with photometers sensitive to narrow bands of radiation at Lyman-alpha (1216 A) and at 2600 A included in the payloads of four Nike Apache rockets flown before and during the eclipse. At the center of totality, the flux of Lyman-alpha from the solar corona is 0.15% of the flux from the unobscured sun. The flux at second contact is 0.64%; at third contact, two observations give 0.52 and 0.59%. The brightness of the chromosphere in Lyman-alpha decreases exponentially over the range from 5 to 30 arc-sec from the limb with a scale height of 3835 plus or minus 70 km. In addition to the coronal and chromospheric Lyman-alpha a diffuse source is found. This is restricted to within 20 deg of the earth's horizon and is nearly uniform in azimuth at 170 km, the flux is about 3% of that from the unobscured sun. The flux of Lyman-alpha during the eclipse is considered in relation to the observed variation in electron density. It is concluded that, in totality, the ionosphere near 80 km is not in equilibrium with the ionizing radiation and that the production rate for electrons is not negligible if the loss process is recombination; it is negligible if the loss process is attachment-like.

  13. Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure and Recombination Dynamics in InP/ZnS Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Biadala, Louis; Siebers, Benjamin; Beyazit, Yasin; Tessier, Mickaël D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred

    2016-03-22

    We report on a temperature-, time-, and spectrally resolved study of the photoluminescence of type-I InP/ZnS colloidal nanocrystals with varying core size. By studying the exciton recombination dynamics we assess the exciton fine structure in these systems. In addition to the typical bright-dark doublet, the photoluminescence stems from an upper bright state in spite of its large energy splitting (∼100 meV). This striking observation results from dramatically lengthened thermalization processes among the fine structure levels and points to optical-phonon bottleneck effects in InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Furthermore, our data show that the radiative recombination of the dark exciton scales linearly with the bright-dark energy splitting for CdSe and InP nanocrystals. This finding strongly suggests a universal dangling bonds-assisted recombination of the dark exciton in colloidal nanostructures.

  14. Determination of lifetimes and recombination currents in p-n junction solar cells, diodes, and transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.

    1981-01-01

    New methods are presented and illustrated that enable the accurate determination of the diffusion length of minority carriers in the narrow regions of a solar cell or a diode. Other methods now available are inaccurate for the desired case in which the width of the region is less than the diffusion length. Once the diffusion length is determined by the new methods, this result can be combined with measured dark I-V characteristics and with small-signal admittance characteristics to enable determination of the recombination currents in each quasi-neutral region of the cell - for example, in the emitter, low-doped base, and high-doped base regions of the BSF (back-surface-field) cell. This approach leads to values for the effective surface recombination velocity of the high-low junction forming the back-surface field of BSF cells or the high-low emitter junction of HLE cells. These methods are also applicable for measuring the minority-carrier lifetime in thin epitaxial layers grown on substrates with opposite conductivity type.

  15. Effects of Bounded Fault on Seismic Radiation and Rupture Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Yang, H.

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that narrow rectangle fault may emit stopping phases that can largely affect seismic radiation and thus rupture propagation, e.g., generation of short-duration pulse-like ruptures. Here we investigate the effects of narrow along-dip rectangle fault (analogously to 2015 Nepal earthquake with 200 km * 40 km) on seismic radiation and rupture propagation through numerical modeling in the framework of the linear slip-weakening friction law. First, we found the critical slip-weakening distance Dc may largely affect the seismic radiation and other source parameters, such as rupture speed, final slip and stress drop. Fixing all other uniform parameters, decreasing Dc could decrease the duration time of slip rate and increase the peak slip rate, thus increase the seismic radiation energy spectrum of slip acceleration. In addition, smaller Dc could lead to larger rupture speed (close to S wave velocity), but smaller stress drop and final slip. The results show that Dc may control the efficiency of far-field radiation. Furthermore, the duration time of slip rate at locations close to boundaries is 1.5 - 4 s less than that in the center of the fault. Such boundary effect is especially remarkable for smaller Dc due to the smaller average duration time of slip rate, which could increase the high-frequency radiation energy and impede low-frequency component near the boundaries from the analysis of energy spectrum of slip acceleration. These results show high frequency energy tends to be radiated near the fault boundaries as long as Dc is small enough. In addition, ruptures are fragile and easy to self-arrest if the width of the seismogenic zone is very narrow. In other words, the sizes of nucleation zone need to be larger to initiate runaway ruptures. Our results show the critical sizes of nucleation zones increase as the widths of seismogenic zones decrease.

  16. Generation-recombination noise in extrinsic photoconductive detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brukilacchio, T. J.; Skeldon, M. D.; Boyd, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of generation-recombination noise is presented and applied to the analysis of the performance limitations of extrinsic photoconductive detectors. The theory takes account both of the photoinduced generation of carriers and of thermal generation that is due to the finite temperature of the detector. Explicit formulas are derived that relate the detector response time, responsivity, and noise equivalent power to the material properties of the photoconductor (such as the presence of compensating impurities) and to the detector's operating conditions, such as its temperature and the presence of background radiation. The detector's performance is shown to degrade at high background levels because of saturation effects.

  17. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Kratz, D. P.; Caldwell, J.; Kim, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Mutually consistent line-by-line, narrow-band and broad-band infrared radiation models are presented for methane, a potentially important anthropogenic trace gas within the atmosphere. Comparisons of the modeled band absorptances with existing laboratory data produce the best agreement when, within the band models, spurious band intensities are used which are consistent with the respective laboratory data sets, but which are not consistent with current knowledge concerning the intensity of the infrared fundamental band of methane. This emphasizes the need for improved laboratory band absorptance measurements. Since, when applied to atmospheric radiation calculations, the line-by-line model does not require the use of scaling approximations, the mutual consistency of the band models provides a means of appraising the accuracy of scaling procedures. It is shown that Curtis-Godson narrow-band and Chan-Tien broad-band scaling provide accurate means of accounting for atmospheric temperature and pressure variations.

  18. Narrow-linewidth Q-switched random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangming; Ye, Jun; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu

    2016-08-22

    A narrow-linewidth Q-switched random fiber laser (RFL) based on a half-opened cavity, which is realized by narrow-linewidth fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a section of 3 km passive fiber, has been proposed and experimentally investigated. The narrow-linewidth lasing is generated by the spectral filtering of three FBGs with linewidth of 1.21 nm, 0.56 nm, and 0.12 nm, respectively. The Q switching of the distributed cavity is achieved by placing an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) between the FBG and the passive fiber. The maximal output powers of the narrow-linewidth RFLs with the three different FBGs are 0.54 W, 0.27 W, and 0.08 W, respectively. Furthermore, the repetition rates of the output pulses are 500 kHz, and the pulse durations are about 500 ns. The corresponding pulse energies are about 1.08 μJ, 0.54 μJ, and 0.16 μJ, accordingly. The linewidth of FBG can influence the output characteristics in full scale. The narrower the FBG, the higher the pump threshold; the lower the output power at the same pump level, the more serious the linewidth broadening; and thus the higher the proportion of the CW-ground exists in the output pulse trains. Thanks to the assistance of the band-pass filter (BPF), the proportion of the CW-ground of narrow-linewidth Q-switched RFL under the relative high-pump-low-output condition can be reduced effectively. The experimental results indicate that it is challenging to demonstrate a narrow-linewidth Q-switched RFL with high quality output. But further power scaling and linewidth narrowing is possible in the case of operating parameters, optimization efforts, and a more powerful pump source. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of narrow-linewidth generation in a Q-switched RFL.

  19. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  20. Evolution via recombination: Cell-to-cell contact facilitates larger recombination events in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Lauren A; Petersen, Fernanda C; Junges, Roger; Jimson D Jimenez, Med; Morrison, Donald A; Hanage, William P

    2018-06-01

    Homologous recombination in the genetic transformation model organism Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to be important in the adaptation and evolution of this pathogen. While competent pneumococci are able to scavenge DNA added to laboratory cultures, large-scale transfers of multiple kb are rare under these conditions. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to map transfers in recombinants arising from contact of competent cells with non-competent 'target' cells, using strains with known genomes, distinguished by a total of ~16,000 SNPs. Experiments designed to explore the effect of environment on large scale recombination events used saturating purified donor DNA, short-term cell assemblages on Millipore filters, and mature biofilm mixed cultures. WGS of 22 recombinants for each environment mapped all SNPs that were identical between the recombinant and the donor but not the recipient. The mean recombination event size was found to be significantly larger in cell-to-cell contact cultures (4051 bp in filter assemblage and 3938 bp in biofilm co-culture versus 1815 bp with saturating DNA). Up to 5.8% of the genome was transferred, through 20 recombination events, to a single recipient, with the largest single event incorporating 29,971 bp. We also found that some recombination events are clustered, that these clusters are more likely to occur in cell-to-cell contact environments, and that they cause significantly increased linkage of genes as far apart as 60,000 bp. We conclude that pneumococcal evolution through homologous recombination is more likely to occur on a larger scale in environments that permit cell-to-cell contact.

  1. Radiation Effects in Fission and Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. Robert; Wirth, Brian D.

    Since the prediction of "Wigner disease" [1] and the subsequent observation of anisotropic growth of the graphite used in the Chicago Pile, the effects of radiation on materials has been an important technological concern. The broad field of radiation effects impacts many critical advanced technologies, ranging from semiconductor processing to severe materials degradation in nuclear reactor environments. Radiation effects also occur in many natural environments, ranging from deep space to inside the Earth's crust. As selected examples that involve many basic phenomena that cross-cut and illustrate the broader impacts of radiation exposure on materials, this article focuses on modeling microstructural changes in iron-based ferritic alloys under high-energy neutron irradiation relevant to light water fission reactor pressure vessels. We also touch briefly on radiation effects in structural alloys for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures; in this case the focus is on modeling the evolution of self-interstitial atom clusters and dislocation loops. Note, since even the narrower topic of structural materials for nuclear energy applications encompass a vast literature dating from 1942, the references included in this article are primarily limited to these two narrower subjects. Thus, the references cited here are presented as examples, rather than comprehensive bibliographies. However, the interested reader is referred to proceedings of continuing symposia series that have been sponsored by several organizations, several monographs [2-4] and key journals (e.g., Journal of Nuclear Materials, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids).

  2. The effect of PbS nanocrystal additives on the charge transfer state recombination in a bulk heterojunction blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Protesescu, Loredana; Dirin, Dmitry N.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-05-01

    A persistent limitation of organic semiconductors is their low dielectric constant єr, which limits the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. One way to increase єr is to employ high-єr additives, such as PbS nanocrystals (QDs) to BHJ blends. In this work, we use the recombination of the interfacial charge transfer (CT) state as a means to study the effects of PbS nanocrystals on blends of a narrow bandgap copolymer: poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1- b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We show that at low dilution levels (0.25% - 0.75% by weight), there is a decrease in the relative weight of the CT recombination lifetime (longer decay component); suggesting that there is an increase in the local єr of the ternary blend.

  3. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diversemore » as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a

  4. Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Choudhury, Samrat; Manandhar, Sandeep

    To understand how variations in interface properties such as misfit-dislocation density and local chemistry affect radiation-induced defect absorption and recombination, we have explored a model system of CrxV1-x alloy epitaxial films deposited on MgO single crystals. By controlling film composition, the lattice mismatch with MgO was adjusted so that the misfit-dislocation density varies at the interface. These interfaces were exposed to irradiation and in situ results show that the film with a semi-coherent interface (Cr) withstands irradiation while V film, which has similar semi-coherent interface like Cr, showed the largest damage. Theoretical calculations indicate that, unlike at metal/metal interfaces, themore » misfit dislocation density does not dominate radiation damage tolerance at metal/oxide interfaces. Rather, the stoichiometry, and the precise location of the misfit-dislocation density relative to the interface, drives defect behavior. Together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity of defect recombination to interfacial chemistry and provide new avenues for engineering radiation-tolerant nanomaterials.« less

  5. Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun

    2013-05-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future.

  6. Instrumentation for remote sensing solar radiation from light aircraft.

    PubMed

    Howard, J A; Barton, I J

    1973-10-01

    The paper outlines the instrumentation needed to study, from a light aircraft, the solar radiation reflected by ground surfaces and the incoming solar radiation. A global shortwave radiometer was mounted on the roof of the aircraft and a specially designed mount was used to support a downward pointing 70-mm aerial camera, a downward pointing narrow-beam pyranometer, and, sometimes, a downward pointing global shortwave pyranometer. Calibration factors were determined for the three pyranometers by comparison with a standard Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer. Results have indicated trends in the albedos of major plant communities and have shown that the calculated albedo values vary according to whether the downward pointing instrument is narrow-beam or global. Comparisons were also made with albedos measured on the ground.

  7. Characteristics of The Narrow Spectrum Beams Used in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N; El Balaa, H; Younes, G; Al Kattar, Z

    2017-06-15

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series. In order to perform this calibration work, it is very important to identify all the beam characteristics for the different types of sources and qualities of radiation. The following work describes the methods used for the determination of different beam characteristics and calibration coefficients with their uncertainties in order to enhance the radiation protection of workers and patient applications in the fields of medical diagnosis and industrial X-ray. All the characteristics of the X-ray beams are determined for the narrow spectrum series in the 40 and 200 keV range where the inherent filtration, the current intensity, the high voltage, the beam profile and the total uncertainty are the specific characteristics of these X-ray beams. An X-ray software was developed in order to visualize the reference values according to the characteristics of each beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    The primary work during this year has been the analysis and interpretation of our HST spectra from two extreme Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) 13224-3809 and 1H 0707-495. This work has been presented as an invited talk at the workshop entitled "Observational and theoretical progress in the Study of Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies" held in Bad Honnef, Germany December 8-11, as a contributed talk at the January 2000 AAS meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, and as a contributed talk at the workshop "Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei by Multiwavelength Monitoring" held at Goddard Space Flight Center June 20-22, 2000.

  9. Radiation reabsorption in a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, W.; John, R. W.; Paul, H.; Steudel, H.

    1988-11-01

    Taking into account the emission and absorption of resonance radiation in a recombining laser-produced plasma of intermediate density, the system of rate equations for the population densities coupled with the radiative transfer equation is approximately treated. In the case of spatially varying absorption, an approximate form of the rate equation determining the population density of the upper resonance level is derived. By applying this relation to an axially symmetric plasma, a simple formula that describes the effect of radiation reabsorption on the spatial behavior of the population density is obtained.

  10. Recombination of cluster ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  11. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  12. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Narrow-line, cw orange light generation in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using volume Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y L; Chen, W W; Du, C E; Chang, W K; Wang, J L; Chung, T Y; Chen, Y H

    2009-12-07

    We report on the demonstration of a narrow-line, cw orange 593-nm laser achieved via intracavity sum-frequency generation (SFG) of a diode-pumped dual-wavelength (1064 and 1342 nm) Nd:YVO(4) laser using two volume Bragg grating (VBG) reflectors. At diode pump power of up to 3.6 W, the 593-nm intracavity SFG laser radiates at the single longitudinal mode of spectral linewidth as narrow as approximately 15 MHz. More than 23-mW single-longitudinal-mode or 40-mW, <8.5-GHz (10-pm) linewidth (at 4.2-W diode pump power) 593-nm orange lights can be obtained from this compact laser system. Spectral tuning of the orange light was performed via the temperature tuning of the two VBGs in this system, achieving an effective tuning rate of ~5 pm/degrees C.

  14. An enhanced narrow-band imaging method for the microvessel detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Song, Enmin; Liu, Hong; Wan, Youming; Zhu, Jun; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    A medical endoscope system combined with the narrow-band imaging (NBI), has been shown to be a superior diagnostic tool for early cancer detection. The NBI can reveal the morphologic changes of microvessels in the superficial cancer. In order to improve the conspicuousness of microvessel texture, we propose an enhanced NBI method to improve the conspicuousness of endoscopic images. To obtain the more conspicuous narrow-band images, we use the edge operator to extract the edge information of the narrow-band blue and green images, and give a weight to the extracted edges. Then, the weighted edges are fused with the narrow-band blue and green images. Finally, the displayed endoscopic images are reconstructed with the enhanced narrow-band images. In addition, we evaluate the performance of enhanced narrow-band images with different edge operators. Experimental results indicate that the Sobel and Canny operators achieve the best performance of all. Compared with traditional NBI method of Olympus company, our proposed method has more conspicuous texture of microvessel.

  15. Acquisition and visualization techniques for narrow spectral color imaging.

    PubMed

    Neumann, László; García, Rafael; Basa, János; Hegedüs, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new approach in narrow-band imaging (NBI). Existing NBI techniques generate images by selecting discrete bands over the full visible spectrum or an even wider spectral range. In contrast, here we perform the sampling with filters covering a tight spectral window. This image acquisition method, named narrow spectral imaging, can be particularly useful when optical information is only available within a narrow spectral window, such as in the case of deep-water transmittance, which constitutes the principal motivation of this work. In this study we demonstrate the potential of the proposed photographic technique on nonunderwater scenes recorded under controlled conditions. To this end three multilayer narrow bandpass filters were employed, which transmit at 440, 456, and 470 nm bluish wavelengths, respectively. Since the differences among the images captured in such a narrow spectral window can be extremely small, both image acquisition and visualization require a novel approach. First, high-bit-depth images were acquired with multilayer narrow-band filters either placed in front of the illumination or mounted on the camera lens. Second, a color-mapping method is proposed, using which the input data can be transformed onto the entire display color gamut with a continuous and perceptually nearly uniform mapping, while ensuring optimally high information content for human perception.

  16. Dynamics and kinetics of narrow dusty ringlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K. L.; Spahn, F.; Schmidt, J.

    2011-10-01

    Several narrow dusty rings have been discovered in the Saturn system, such as the F ring, ringlets in the C Ring, the Cassini division, and the Encke Gap [1] [2]. The kinky and clumpy structures in the F ring are considered as the result of embedded moonlets which are dynamically dominated by shepherding moons [3]. Similar features are found in Encke ringlets which we hypothesize to be associated with embedded moonlets [4] [5]. On the other hand, these ringlets are believed to be composed of micron-sized particles [6], which are strongly perturbed by solar radiation pressure and their lifetime is restricted. Therefore mechanisms must be at work to replenish these ringlets. We develop a model for the kinetic balance of dust production, dynamical evolution, and sinks by assuming that dust is freed and annihilated by moonlets embedded in the ringlet. The dynamics of particles ejected from these putative moonlets is explored and the contribution of impact-ejecta to the ringlet is estimated [7] [8]. We found that the optical depth sustained by embedded moonlets is too low (orders of magnitude), indicating that other sources or processes should be responsible for supporting the Encke ringlet.

  17. Twilight airglow. I - Photoelectrons and forbidden O I 5577-angstrom radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Sharp, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    A payload consisting of a number of experiments to study the earth's atmosphere was launched from White Sands on Feb. 8, 1971. The differential photoelectron flux spectrum was measured as a function of altitude. The energy distribution revealed the N2 vibrational structure appearing at 2.8 V, rising to a maximum at 4 eV, decreasing to an 8-volt-wide plateau at 20 V, and then further decreasing. The ion and electron density distributions were measured simultaneously. An optical measurement of forbidden O I 5577-A radiation was made. Both electron impact on atomic oxygen and dissociative recombination of O2(+) were found to produce this emission above 150 km. The recombination rate for the O(1 S) found from a reported nightglow profile is 2.5 plus or minus 1.5 x 10 to the minus 9th cu cm/sec. Between 140 and 120 km, photodissociation is a source of 5577 radiation. Chapman three-body recombination is dominant below 120 km.

  18. Associations between narrow angle and adult anthropometry: the Liwan Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuzhen; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S; Khawaja, Anthony P; Lee, Pak Sang; Nolan, Winifred P; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the associations between narrow angle and adult anthropometry. Chinese adults aged 50 years and older were recruited from a population-based survey in the Liwan District of Guangzhou, China. Narrow angle was defined as the posterior trabecular meshwork not visible under static gonioscopy in at least three quadrants (i.e. a circumference of at least 270°). Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between narrow angle and anthropomorphic measures (height, weight and body mass index, BMI). Among the 912 participants, lower weight, shorter height, and lower BMI were significantly associated with narrower angle width (tests for trend: mean angle width in degrees vs weight p < 0.001; vs height p < 0.001; vs BMI p = 0.012). In univariate analyses, shorter height, lower weight and lower BMI were all significantly associated with greater odds of narrow angle. The crude association between height and narrow angle was largely attributable to a stronger association with age and sex. Lower BMI and weight remained significantly associated with narrow angle after adjustment for height, age, sex, axial ocular biometric measures and education. In analyses stratified by sex, the association between BMI and narrow angle was only observed in women. Lower BMI and weight were associated with significantly greater odds of narrow angle after adjusting for age, education, axial ocular biometric measures and height. The odds of narrow angle increased 7% per 1 unit decrease in BMI. This association was most evident in women.

  19. Energy transfer and radiative recombination processes in (Gd, Lu)3Ga3Al2O12:Pr3+ scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Ren, Guohao

    2013-10-01

    (GdxLu3-x)Ga3Al2O12:0.3 at.%Pr (x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) (GLGAG:Pr) polycrystalline powders are prepared by solid-state reaction method. To better understand the luminescence mechanism, the optical diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence emission and excitation, X-ray excited luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of GLGAG:Pr were investigated in detailed, allowing the determination of energy transfer from 5d state of Pr3+ to 4f state of Gd3+, and the non-radiative relaxation from 5d to 4f state of Pr3+. Besides, the former process plays more negative role in the emission quenching of GLGAG:Pr than later one. Pr3+ ion is regarded as an ineffective activation ion in Gd-based multicomponent aluminate garnets. In addition, the wavelength-resolved thermoluminescence spectra of GLGAG:Pr were studied after UV and X-ray irradiation. It is revealed that the localized recombination processes from electron traps to lower lying 4f levels of Pr3+ occurs without populating the higher 5d levels of Pr3+.

  20. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed.

  1. Magnetized cosmological perturbations in the post-recombination era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Hera; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2016-01-01

    We study inhomogeneous magnetized cosmologies through the post-recombination era in the framework of Newtonian gravity and the ideal-magnetohydrodynamic limit. The non-linear kinematic and dynamic equations are derived and linearized around the Newtonian counterpart of the Einstein-de Sitter universe. This allows for a direct comparison with the earlier relativistic treatments of the issue. Focusing on the evolution of linear density perturbations, we provide new analytic solutions which include the effects of the magnetic pressure as well as those of the field's tension. We confirm that the pressure of field inhibits the growth of density distortions and can induce a purely magnetic Jeans length. On scales larger than the aforementioned characteristic length the inhomogeneities grow, though slower than in non-magnetized universes. Wavelengths smaller than the magnetic Jeans length typically oscillate with decreasing amplitude. We also identify a narrow range of scales, just below the Jeans length, where the perturbations exhibit a slower power-law decay. In all cases, the effect of the field is proportional to its strength and increases as we move to progressively smaller lengths.

  2. Effects of Temperature on the Meiotic Recombination Landscape of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Wu, Xue-Chang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Petes, Thomas D

    2017-12-19

    Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature. In S. cerevisiae , regions near the telomeres and centromeres tend to have low levels of meiotic recombination. This tendency was observed in cells sporulated at 14°C and 30°C, but not at 37°C. Thus, the temperature of sporulation in yeast affects some global property of chromosome structure relevant to meiotic recombination. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific whole-genome microarrays, we also examined crossovers and their associated gene conversion events as well as gene conversion events that were unassociated with crossovers in all four spores of tetrads obtained by sporulation of diploids at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Although tetrads from cells sporulated at 30°C had slightly (20%) more crossovers than those derived from cells sporulated at the other two temperatures, spore viability was good at all three temperatures. Thus, despite temperature-induced variation in the genetic maps, yeast cells produce viable haploid products at a wide variety of sporulation temperatures. IMPORTANCE In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , recombination is usually studied in cells that undergo meiosis at 25°C or 30°C. In a genome-wide analysis, we showed that the locations of genomic regions with high and low levels of meiotic recombination (hot spots and cold spots, respectively) differed

  3. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  4. A new model for volume recombination in plane-parallel chambers in pulsed fields of high dose-per-pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotz, M.; Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J.

    2017-11-01

    In order to describe the volume recombination in a pulsed radiation field of high dose-per-pulse this study presents a numerical solution of a 1D transport model of the liberated charges in a plane-parallel ionization chamber. In addition, measurements were performed on an Advanced Markus ionization chamber in a pulsed electron beam to obtain suitable data to test the calculation. The experiment used radiation pulses of 4 μs duration and variable dose-per-pulse values up to about 1 Gy, as well as pulses of variable duration up to 308 μs at constant dose-per-pulse values between 85 mGy and 400 mGy. Those experimental data were compared to the developed numerical model and existing descriptions of volume recombination. At low collection voltages the observed dose-per-pulse dependence of volume recombination can be approximated by the existing theory using effective parameters. However, at high collection voltages large discrepancies are observed. The developed numerical model shows much better agreement with the observations and is able to replicate the observed behavior over the entire range of dose-per-pulse values and collection voltages. Using the developed numerical model, the differences between observation and existing theory are shown to be the result of a large fraction of the charge being collected as free electrons and the resultant distortion of the electric field inside the chamber. Furthermore, the numerical solution is able to calculate recombination losses for arbitrary pulse durations in good agreement with the experimental data, an aspect not covered by current theory. Overall, the presented numerical solution of the charge transport model should provide a more flexible tool to describe volume recombination for high dose-per-pulse values as well as for arbitrary pulse durations and repetition rates.

  5. A new model for volume recombination in plane-parallel chambers in pulsed fields of high dose-per-pulse.

    PubMed

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2017-11-01

    In order to describe the volume recombination in a pulsed radiation field of high dose-per-pulse this study presents a numerical solution of a 1D transport model of the liberated charges in a plane-parallel ionization chamber. In addition, measurements were performed on an Advanced Markus ionization chamber in a pulsed electron beam to obtain suitable data to test the calculation. The experiment used radiation pulses of 4 μs duration and variable dose-per-pulse values up to about 1 Gy, as well as pulses of variable duration up to 308 [Formula: see text] at constant dose-per-pulse values between 85 mGy and 400 mGy. Those experimental data were compared to the developed numerical model and existing descriptions of volume recombination. At low collection voltages the observed dose-per-pulse dependence of volume recombination can be approximated by the existing theory using effective parameters. However, at high collection voltages large discrepancies are observed. The developed numerical model shows much better agreement with the observations and is able to replicate the observed behavior over the entire range of dose-per-pulse values and collection voltages. Using the developed numerical model, the differences between observation and existing theory are shown to be the result of a large fraction of the charge being collected as free electrons and the resultant distortion of the electric field inside the chamber. Furthermore, the numerical solution is able to calculate recombination losses for arbitrary pulse durations in good agreement with the experimental data, an aspect not covered by current theory. Overall, the presented numerical solution of the charge transport model should provide a more flexible tool to describe volume recombination for high dose-per-pulse values as well as for arbitrary pulse durations and repetition rates.

  6. An empirical model of diagnostic x-ray attenuation under narrow-beam geometry.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Kelsey B; Kappadath, S Cheenu; White, R Allen; Atkinson, E Neely; Cody, Dianna D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe narrow-beam attenuation of kilovoltage x-ray beams for the intended applications of half-value layer (HVL) and quarter-value layer (QVL) estimations, patient organ shielding, and computer modeling. An empirical model, which uses the Lambert W function and represents a generalized Lambert-Beer law, was developed. To validate this model, transmission of diagnostic energy x-ray beams was measured over a wide range of attenuator thicknesses [0.49-33.03 mm Al on a computed tomography (CT) scanner, 0.09-1.93 mm Al on two mammography systems, and 0.1-0.45 mm Cu and 0.49-14.87 mm Al using general radiography]. Exposure measurements were acquired under narrow-beam geometry using standard methods, including the appropriate ionization chamber, for each radiographic system. Nonlinear regression was used to find the best-fit curve of the proposed Lambert W model to each measured transmission versus attenuator thickness data set. In addition to validating the Lambert W model, we also assessed the performance of two-point Lambert W interpolation compared to traditional methods for estimating the HVL and QVL [i.e., semi-logarithmic (exponential) and linear interpolation]. The Lambert W model was validated for modeling attenuation versus attenuator thickness with respect to the data collected in this study (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, Lambert W interpolation was more accurate and less sensitive to the choice of interpolation points used to estimate the HVL and/or QVL than the traditional methods of semilogarithmic and linear interpolation. The proposed Lambert W model accurately describes attenuation of both monoenergetic radiation and (kilovoltage) polyenergetic beams (under narrow-beam geometry).

  7. An empirical model of diagnostic x-ray attenuation under narrow-beam geometry

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kelsey B.; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; White, R. Allen; Atkinson, E. Neely; Cody, Dianna D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe narrow-beam attenuation of kilovoltage x-ray beams for the intended applications of half-value layer (HVL) and quarter-value layer (QVL) estimations, patient organ shielding, and computer modeling. Methods: An empirical model, which uses the Lambert W function and represents a generalized Lambert-Beer law, was developed. To validate this model, transmission of diagnostic energy x-ray beams was measured over a wide range of attenuator thicknesses [0.49–33.03 mm Al on a computed tomography (CT) scanner, 0.09–1.93 mm Al on two mammography systems, and 0.1–0.45 mm Cu and 0.49–14.87 mm Al using general radiography]. Exposure measurements were acquired under narrow-beam geometry using standard methods, including the appropriate ionization chamber, for each radiographic system. Nonlinear regression was used to find the best-fit curve of the proposed Lambert W model to each measured transmission versus attenuator thickness data set. In addition to validating the Lambert W model, we also assessed the performance of two-point Lambert W interpolation compared to traditional methods for estimating the HVL and QVL [i.e., semilogarithmic (exponential) and linear interpolation]. Results: The Lambert W model was validated for modeling attenuation versus attenuator thickness with respect to the data collected in this study (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, Lambert W interpolation was more accurate and less sensitive to the choice of interpolation points used to estimate the HVL and∕or QVL than the traditional methods of semilogarithmic and linear interpolation. Conclusions: The proposed Lambert W model accurately describes attenuation of both monoenergetic radiation and (kilovoltage) polyenergetic beams (under narrow-beam geometry). PMID:21928626

  8. An empirical model of diagnostic x-ray attenuation under narrow-beam geometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mathieu, Kelsey B.; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; White, R. Allen

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe narrow-beam attenuation of kilovoltage x-ray beams for the intended applications of half-value layer (HVL) and quarter-value layer (QVL) estimations, patient organ shielding, and computer modeling. Methods: An empirical model, which uses the Lambert W function and represents a generalized Lambert-Beer law, was developed. To validate this model, transmission of diagnostic energy x-ray beams was measured over a wide range of attenuator thicknesses [0.49-33.03 mm Al on a computed tomography (CT) scanner, 0.09-1.93 mm Al on two mammography systems, and 0.1-0.45 mm Cu and 0.49-14.87more » mm Al using general radiography]. Exposure measurements were acquired under narrow-beam geometry using standard methods, including the appropriate ionization chamber, for each radiographic system. Nonlinear regression was used to find the best-fit curve of the proposed Lambert W model to each measured transmission versus attenuator thickness data set. In addition to validating the Lambert W model, we also assessed the performance of two-point Lambert W interpolation compared to traditional methods for estimating the HVL and QVL [i.e., semilogarithmic (exponential) and linear interpolation]. Results: The Lambert W model was validated for modeling attenuation versus attenuator thickness with respect to the data collected in this study (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Furthermore, Lambert W interpolation was more accurate and less sensitive to the choice of interpolation points used to estimate the HVL and/or QVL than the traditional methods of semilogarithmic and linear interpolation. Conclusions: The proposed Lambert W model accurately describes attenuation of both monoenergetic radiation and (kilovoltage) polyenergetic beams (under narrow-beam geometry).« less

  9. Fracture strength and probability of survival of narrow and extra-narrow dental implants after fatigue testing: In vitro and in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Fardin, Vinicius P; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the probability of survival (reliability) and failure modes of narrow implants with different diameters. For fatigue testing, 42 implants with the same macrogeometry and internal conical connection were divided, according to diameter, as follows: narrow (Ø3.3×10mm) and extra-narrow (Ø2.9×10mm) (21 per group). Identical abutments were torqued to the implants and standardized maxillary incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing (SSALT) in water. The use-level probability Weibull curves, and reliability for a mission of 50,000 and 100,000 cycles at 50N, 100, 150 and 180N were calculated. For the finite element analysis (FEA), two virtual models, simulating the samples tested in fatigue, were constructed. Loading at 50N and 100N were applied 30° off-axis at the crown. The von-Mises stress was calculated for implant and abutment. The beta (β) values were: 0.67 for narrow and 1.32 for extra-narrow implants, indicating that failure rates did not increase with fatigue in the former, but more likely were associated with damage accumulation and wear-out failures in the latter. Both groups showed high reliability (up to 97.5%) at 50 and 100N. A decreased reliability was observed for both groups at 150 and 180N (ranging from 0 to 82.3%), but no significant difference was observed between groups. Failure predominantly involved abutment fracture for both groups. FEA at 50N-load, Ø3.3mm showed higher von-Mises stress for abutment (7.75%) and implant (2%) when compared to the Ø2.9mm. There was no significant difference between narrow and extra-narrow implants regarding probability of survival. The failure mode was similar for both groups, restricted to abutment fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research Update: Relativistic origin of slow electron-hole recombination in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarhoosh, Pooya; McKechnie, Scott; Frost, Jarvist M.; Walsh, Aron; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) exhibits long minority-carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. We show that slow recombination originates from a spin-split indirect-gap. Large internal electric fields act on spin-orbit-coupled band extrema, shifting band-edges to inequivalent wavevectors, making the fundamental gap indirect. From a description of photoluminescence within the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation for MAPI, CdTe, and GaAs, we predict carrier lifetime as a function of light intensity and temperature. At operating conditions we find radiative recombination in MAPI is reduced by a factor of more than 350 compared to direct gap behavior. The indirect gap is retained with dynamic disorder.

  11. Associations between Narrow Angle and Adult Anthropometry: The Liwan Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuzhen; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Lee, Pak Sang; Nolan, Winifred P.; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the associations between narrow angle and adult anthropometry. Methods Chinese adults aged 50 years and older were recruited from a population-based survey in the Liwan District of Guangzhou, China. Narrow angle was defined as the posterior trabecular meshwork not visible under static gonioscopy in at least three quadrants (i.e. a circumference of at least 270°). Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between narrow angle and anthropomorphic measures (height, weight and body mass index, BMI). Results Among the 912 participants, lower weight, shorter height, and lower BMI were significantly associated with narrower angle width (tests for trend: mean angle width in degrees vs weight p<0.001; vs height p<0.001; vs BMI p = 0.012). In univariate analyses, shorter height, lower weight and lower BMI were all significantly associated with greater odds of narrow angle. The crude association between height and narrow angle was largely attributable to a stronger association with age and sex. Lower BMI and weight remained significantly associated with narrow angle after adjustment for height, age, sex, axial ocular biometric measures and education. In analyses stratified by sex, the association between BMI and narrow angle was only observed in women. Conclusion Lower BMI and weight were associated with significantly greater odds of narrow angle after adjusting for age, education, axial ocular biometric measures and height. The odds of narrow angle increased 7% per 1 unit decrease in BMI. This association was most evident in women. PMID:24707840

  12. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Ma, Hong; Rose, Rebecca; Qazi, Sanjive

    2015-01-01

    In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD) burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL”) fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI) combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1) xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS) mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2) radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT. PMID:26097891

  13. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  14. Ultra-thin narrow-band, complementary narrow-band, and dual-band metamaterial absorbers for applications in the THz regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, ultra-thin narrow-band, complementary narrow-band, and dual-band metamaterial absorbers (MMAs), exploiting the same electric ring resonator configuration, are investigated at normal and oblique incidence for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and with different physical properties in the THz regime. In the analysis of the ultra-thin narrow-band MMA, the limit of applicability of the transmission line model has been overcome with the introduction of a capacitance which considers the z component of the electric field. These absorbing structures have shown a wide angular response and a polarization-insensitive behavior due to the introduction of a conducting ground plane and to the four-fold rotational symmetry of the resonant elements around the propagation axis. We have adopted a retrieval procedure to extract the effective electromagnetic parameters of the proposed MMAs and we have compared the simulated and analytical results through the interference theory.

  15. Narrow-band generation in random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Sugavanam, Srikanth; Tarasov, Nikita; Shu, Xuewen; Churkin, Dmitry V

    2013-07-15

    Narrow-band emission of spectral width down to ~0.05 nm line-width is achieved in the random distributed feedback fiber laser employing narrow-band fiber Bragg grating or fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer filters. The observed line-width is ~10 times less than line-width of other demonstrated up to date random distributed feedback fiber lasers. The random DFB laser with Fabry-Perot interferometer filter provides simultaneously multi-wavelength and narrow-band (within each line) generation with possibility of further wavelength tuning.

  16. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  17. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  18. Effects on the CMB from magnetic field dissipation before recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic fields present before decoupling are damped due to radiative viscosity. This energy injection affects the thermal and ionization history of the cosmic plasma. The implications for the CMB anisotropies and polarization are investigated for different parameter choices of a nonhelical stochastic magnetic field. Assuming a Gaussian smoothing scale determined by the magnetic damping wave number at recombination, it is found that magnetic fields with present-day strength less than 0.1 nG and negative magnetic spectral indices have a sizable effect on the CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization.

  19. Understanding non-radiative recombination processes of the optoelectronic materials from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yinan

    The annual potential of the solar energy hit on the Earth is several times larger than the total energy consumption in the world. This huge amount of energy source makes it appealing as an alternative to conventional fuels. Due to the problems, for example, global warming, fossil fuel shortage, etc. arising from utilizing the conventional fuels, a tremendous amount of efforts have been applied toward the understanding and developing cost effective optoelectrical devices in the past decades. These efforts have pushed the efficiency of optoelectrical devices, say solar cells, increases from 0% to 46% as reported until 2015. All these facts indicate the significance of the optoelectrical devices not only regarding protecting our planet but also a large potential market. Empirical experience from experiment has played a key role in optimization of optoelectrical devices, however, a deeper understanding of the detailed electron-by-electron, atom-by-atom physical processes when material upon excitation is the key to gain a new sight into the field. It is also useful in developing the next generation of solar materials. Thanks to the advances in computer hardware, new algorithms, and methodologies developed in computational chemistry and physics in the past decades, we are now able to 1). model the real size materials, e.g. nanoparticles, to locate important geometries on the potential energy surfaces(PESs); 2). investigate excited state dynamics of the cluster models to mimic the real systems; 3). screen large amount of possible candidates to be optimized toward certain properties, so to help in the experiment design. In this thesis, I will discuss the efforts we have been doing during the past several years, especially in terms of understanding the non-radiative decay process of silicon nanoparticles with oxygen defects using ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics as well as the accurate, efficient multireference electronic structure theories we have developed to

  20. I-V-T analysis of radiation damage in high efficiency Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, S.; Anderson, W. A.; Rao, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed analysis of current-voltage characteristics of N(+)-P/P solar cells indicate that there is a combination of different mechanisms which results in an enhancement in the dark current and in turn deteriorates the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells after 1 MeV e(-) irradiation. The increase in the dark current is due to three effects, i.e., bulk recombination, space charge recombination by deep traps and space charge recombination through shallow traps. It is shown that the increase in bulk recombination current is about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude whereas space charge recombination current due to shallow traps increases only by an order or so and no space charge recombination through deep traps was observed after irradiation. Thus, in order to improve the radiation hardness of these devices, bulk properties should be preserved.

  1. Terahertz plasmonic lasers with narrow beams and large tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuan; Wu, Chongzhao; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic lasers generate coherent long-range or localized surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPPs), where the SPP mode exists at the interface of the metal (or a metallic nanoparticle) and a dielectric. Metallic-cavities sup- porting SPP modes are also utilized for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). Due to subwavelength apertures, plasmonic lasers have highly divergent radiation patterns. Recently, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new technique for implementing distributed-feedback (DFB), which is termed as an antenna- feedback scheme, to establish a hybrid SPP mode in the surrounding medium of a plasmonic laser's cavity with a large wavefront. This technique allows such lasers to radiate in narrow beams without requirement of any specific design considerations for phase-matching. Experimental demonstration is done for terahertz QCLs that show beam-divergence as small as 4-degrees. The antenna-feedback scheme has a characteristic feature in that refractive-index of the laser's surrounding medium affects its radiative frequency in the same vein as refractive- index of the cavity. Hence, any perturbations in the refractive-index of the surrounding medium could lead to large modulation in the laser's emission frequency. Along this line, we report 57 GHz reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of such QCLs operating at 78 K based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric on an already mounted QCL chip. This is the largest tuning range achieved for terahertz QCLs when operating much above the temperature of liquid-Helium. We review the aforementioned experimental results and discuss methods to increase optical power output from terahertz QCLs with antenna-feedback. Peak power output of 13 mW is realized for a 3.3 THz QCL operating in a Stirling cooler at 54 K. A new dual-slit photonic structure based on antenna-feedback scheme is proposed to further improve output power as well as provide enhanced tunability.

  2. Consequences of narrow cyclotron emission from Hercules X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The implications of the recent observations of a narrow cyclotron line in the hard X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 are studied. A Monte Carlo code is used to simulate the X-ray transfer of an intrinsically narrow feature at approximately 56 keV through an opaque, cold magnetospheric shell. The results of this study indicate that if a narrow line can be emitted by the source region, then only about 10% of the photons remain in a narrow feature after scattering through the shell. The remaining photons are scattered into a broad feature (FWHM approximately 30 keV) that peaks near 20 keV. Thus, these calculations indicate that the intrinsic source luminosity of the cyclotron line is at least an order of magnitude greater than the observed luminosity.

  3. Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.; Hartmann, Andreas; Limoli, Charles L.; Nagar, Shruti; Ponnaiya, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.

  4. Signals from the epoch of cosmological recombination (Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyaev, R. A.; Chluba, J.

    2009-07-01

    The physical ingredients to describe the epoch of cosmological recombination are amazingly simple and well-understood. This fact allows us to take into account a very large variety of physical processes, still finding potentially measurable consequences for the energy spectrum and temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In this contribution we provide a short historical overview in connection with the cosmological recombination epoch and its connection to the CMB. Also we highlight some of the detailed physics that were studied over the past few years in the context of the cosmological recombination of hydrogen and helium. The impact of these considerations is two-fold: The associated release of photons during this epoch leads to interesting and unique deviations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) energy spectrum from a perfect blackbody, which, in particular at decimeter wavelength and the Wien part of the CMB spectrum, may become observable in the near future. Despite the fact that the abundance of helium is rather small, it still contributes a sizeable amount of photons to the full recombination spectrum, leading to additional distinct spectral features. Observing the spectral distortions from the epochs of hydrogen and helium recombination, in principle would provide an additional way to determine some of the key parameters of the Universe (e.g. the specific entropy, the CMB monopole temperature and the pre-stellar abundance of helium). Also it permits us to confront our detailed understanding of the recombination process with direct observational evidence. In this contribution we illustrate how the theoretical spectral template of the cosmological recombination spectrum may be utilized for this purpose. We also show that because hydrogen and helium recombine at very different epochs it is possible to address questions related to the thermal history of our Universe. In particular the cosmological recombination radiation may

  5. Discrete ordinates solutions of nongray radiative transfer with diffusely reflecting walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menart, J. A.; Lee, Haeok S.; Kim, Tae-Kuk

    1993-01-01

    Nongray gas radiation in a plane parallel slab bounded by gray, diffusely reflecting walls is studied using the discrete ordinates method. The spectral equation of transfer is averaged over a narrow wavenumber interval preserving the spectral correlation effect. The governing equations are derived by considering the history of multiple reflections between two reflecting wails. A closure approximation is applied so that only a finite number of reflections have to be explicitly included. The closure solutions express the physics of the problem to a very high degree and show relatively little error. Numerical solutions are obtained by applying a statistical narrow-band model for gas properties and a discrete ordinates code. The net radiative wail heat fluxes and the radiative source distributions are obtained for different temperature profiles. A zeroth-degree formulation, where no wall reflection is handled explicitly, is sufficient to predict the radiative transfer accurately for most cases considered, when compared with increasingly accurate solutions based on explicitly tracing a larger number of wail reflections without any closure approximation applied.

  6. Conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating waves via a narrow aperture edge.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a quantitative study of conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating in isotropic plates. The conversion is substantiated by prescribing time-harmonic Lamb displacements/tractions through a narrow aperture at an edge of a semi-infinite plate. Complex-valued dispersion and group velocity curves are employed to characterize the conversion process. The amplitude coefficient of the propagating Lamb modes converted from evanescent is quantified based on the complex reciprocity theorem via a finite element analysis. The power flow generated into the plate can be separated into radiative and reactive parts made on the basis of propagating and evanescent Lamb waves, where propagating Lamb waves are theoretically proved to radiate pure real power flow, and evanescent Lamb waves carry reactive pure imaginary power flow. The propagating power conversion efficiency is then defined to quantitatively describe the conversion. The conversion efficiency is strongly frequency dependent and can be significant. With the converted propagating waves from evanescent, sensors at far-field can recapture some localized damage information that is generally possessed in evanescent waves and may have potential application in structural health monitoring.

  7. Effects of Temperature on the Meiotic Recombination Landscape of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature. In S. cerevisiae, regions near the telomeres and centromeres tend to have low levels of meiotic recombination. This tendency was observed in cells sporulated at 14°C and 30°C, but not at 37°C. Thus, the temperature of sporulation in yeast affects some global property of chromosome structure relevant to meiotic recombination. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific whole-genome microarrays, we also examined crossovers and their associated gene conversion events as well as gene conversion events that were unassociated with crossovers in all four spores of tetrads obtained by sporulation of diploids at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Although tetrads from cells sporulated at 30°C had slightly (20%) more crossovers than those derived from cells sporulated at the other two temperatures, spore viability was good at all three temperatures. Thus, despite temperature-induced variation in the genetic maps, yeast cells produce viable haploid products at a wide variety of sporulation temperatures. PMID:29259092

  8. Report on LEReC Recombination Monitor APEX Study on June 15th 2016

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Drees, A.; Bruno, D.; Curcio, T.

    2016-12-21

    During the prospective Low Energy RHIC electron Cooling (LEReC) operation, the electron beam will overlap and interact with the low energy ion beam to provide transverse cooling. Cooling is needed to facilitate reaching the BES-2 (Beam Energy Scan 2) program goals of an average store luminosity of 5 × 10 24 cm -2 s -1 at 3.85 GeV/n and 17.3 × 10 24 cm -2 s -1 at 9.1 GeV/n. The RHIC phase of BES-2 is currently planned for the RHIC runs in 2019 and 2020. Effective cooling will depend on the accuracy of velocity matching between the two beams.more » Another process, the rate of ion-electron recombination, is also maximized when the velocities are matched, but the exact matching requirement is less stringent. Therefore, as suggested by one of us, detecting and maximizing recombination signals should be helpful in finding the narrow velocity matching window conducive to cooling. When 197Au 79+ RHIC ions pick up an electron from the LEREeC electron beam they are converted into 197Au 78+ ions with nearly the same momentum while having about 1.3% higher magnetic rigidity than the original 197Au 79+ particles. The detection of the recombined ions can be done by driving the 197Au 78+ beam into the beam pipe wall, creating showers of secondary particles which then can be detected outside the cryostat by using appropriately positioned detectors. For the purpose of forcing losses of the expected off-momentum particles a dedicated lattice with large horizontal dispersion in one arc was proposed and designed.« less

  9. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  10. Low-frequency Carbon Radio Recombination Lines. I. Calculations of Departure Coefficients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Salgado, F.; Morabito, L. K.; Oonk, J. B. R.

    In the first paper of this series, we study the level population problem of recombining carbon ions. We focus our study on high quantum numbers, anticipating observations of carbon radio recombination lines to be carried out by the Low Frequency Array. We solve the level population equation including angular momentum levels with updated collision rates up to high principal quantum numbers. We derive departure coefficients by solving the level population equation in the hydrogenic approximation and including low-temperature dielectronic capture effects. Our results in the hydrogenic approximation agree well with those of previous works. When comparing our results including dielectronicmore » capture, we find differences that we ascribe to updates in the atomic physics (e.g., collision rates) and to the approximate solution method of the statistical equilibrium equations adopted in previous studies. A comparison with observations is discussed in an accompanying article, as radiative transfer effects need to be considered.« less

  11. Design, Construction, Demonstration and Delivery of an Automated Narrow Gap Welding System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-29

    DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, DEMONSTRATION AND DELIVERY OF WE DA4I &NARROW GAP CONTRACT NO. NOOGOO-81-C-E923 TO DAVID TAYLOR NAVAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...the automated * Narrow Gap welding process, is the narrow (3/8 - inch), square-butt joint *design. This narrow joint greatly reduces the volume of weld...AD-i45 495 DESIGN CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATION AiND DELIVERY OF RN 1/j AUrOMATED NARROW GAP WELDING SYSTEMI() CRC AUTOMATIC WELDING CO HOUSTON TX 29

  12. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation by targeting the homologous recombination pathway in glioma initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yi Chieh; Roberts, Tara L; Day, Bryan W; Stringer, Brett W; Kozlov, Sergei; Fazry, Shazrul; Bruce, Zara C; Ensbey, Kathleen S; Walker, David G; Boyd, Andrew W; Lavin, Martin F

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma is deemed the most malignant form of brain tumour, particularly due to its resistance to conventional treatments. A small surviving group of aberrant stem cells termed glioma initiation cells (GICs) that escape surgical debulking are suggested to be the cause of this resistance. Relatively quiescent in nature, GICs are capable of driving tumour recurrence and undergo lineage differentiation. Most importantly, these GICs are resistant to radiotherapy, suggesting that radioresistance contribute to their survival. In a previous study, we demonstrated that GICs had a restricted double strand break (DSB) repair pathway involving predominantly homologous recombination (HR) associated with a lack of functional G1/S checkpoint arrest. This unusual behaviour led to less efficient non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair and overall slower DNA DSB repair kinetics. To determine whether specific targeting of the HR pathway with small molecule inhibitors could increase GIC radiosensitivity, we used the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated inhibitor (ATMi) to ablate HR and the DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (DNA-PKi) to inhibit NHEJ. Pre-treatment with ATMi prior to ionizing radiation (IR) exposure prevented HR-mediated DNA DSB repair as measured by Rad51 foci accumulation. Increased cell death in vitro and improved in vivo animal survival could be observed with combined ATMi and IR treatment. Conversely, DNA-PKi treatment had minimal impact on GICs ability to resolve DNA DSB after IR with only partial reduction in cell survival, confirming the major role of HR. These results provide a mechanistic insight into the predominant form of DNA DSB repair in GICs, which when targeted may be a potential translational approach to increase patient survival. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants’ face recognition abilities are subject to “perceptual narrowing,” the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in “face space,” a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise. PMID:22709406

  14. Narrow Escape of Interacting Diffusing Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranov, Tal; Meerson, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    The narrow escape problem deals with the calculation of the mean escape time (MET) of a Brownian particle from a bounded domain through a small hole on the domain's boundary. Here we develop a formalism which allows us to evaluate the nonescape probability of a gas of diffusing particles that may interact with each other. In some cases the nonescape probability allows us to evaluate the MET of the first particle. The formalism is based on the fluctuating hydrodynamics and the recently developed macroscopic fluctuation theory. We also uncover an unexpected connection between the narrow escape of interacting particles and thermal runaway in chemical reactors.

  15. Parametric Dynamic Load Prediction of a Narrow Gauge Rocket Sled

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Monorail λ Compared to Sled Tests.......................................................... 11 Figure 2.1 Application of Vertical λ to a Narrow Gauge sled...Three distinct sled configurations are used: monorail , dual rail wide gauge, and dual rail narrow gauge. Of the three, the narrow gauge...weight and the resulting value was termed λ. Monorail λ factor loading was first documented by Mixon (1971) where a few measured data points were

  16. Study of the Radiative Recombination of Free Carriers Produced by Electron Bombardment in Cadmium Sulfide (thesis); ETUDE DE LA RECOMBINAISON RADIATIVE DES PORTEURS LIBRES PRODUITS PAR UN BOMBARDEMENT ELECTRONIQUE DANS LE SULFURE DE CADMIUM (THESES)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    de Gaalon, G.

    1962-01-01

    The structure of the blue emission at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was studied using improved apparatus. The observations were carried to the temperature of liquid He in order to deduce the mechanism of the recombination of the free carriers. Before analysis of the light emitted by CdS single crystals exposed to electron bombardment and before a description of the experimental apparatus, the interaction of electron beams with the crystal and the resultant formation of free carriers are studied theoretically. The experimental study showed that the structure of the emission situated at the absorption limit, obtained by electron bombardment, doesmore » not differ basically from that observed under uv irradiation. However, the existence at 4 deg K of radiation (not observed with uv irradiation) with wave lengths less than 4.856 A was shown. (J.S.R.)« less

  17. Targeting vector construction through recombineering.

    PubMed

    Malureanu, Liviu A

    2011-01-01

    Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells is an essential, yet still very expensive and highly time-consuming, tool and method to study gene function at the organismal level or to create mouse models of human diseases. Conventional cloning-based methods have been largely used for generating targeting vectors, but are hampered by a number of limiting factors, including the variety and location of restriction enzymes in the gene locus of interest, the specific PCR amplification of repetitive DNA sequences, and cloning of large DNA fragments. Recombineering is a technique that exploits the highly efficient homologous recombination function encoded by λ phage in Escherichia coli. Bacteriophage-based recombination can recombine homologous sequences as short as 30-50 bases, allowing manipulations such as insertion, deletion, or mutation of virtually any genomic region. The large availability of mouse genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries covering most of the genome facilitates the retrieval of genomic DNA sequences from the bacterial chromosomes through recombineering. This chapter describes a successfully applied protocol and aims to be a detailed guide through the steps of generation of targeting vectors through recombineering.

  18. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, whichmore » leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10 -5 .« less

  19. Charge Generation and Recombination in Organic Materials for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jessica Jacklyn

    Understanding the nature of molecular exciton states is critical for the design of organic photovoltaic materials that push current device efficiencies into the next realm. This thesis describes several research projects that have sought to further our understanding of the generation and recombination of charge carriers, facilitated by such excitonic states, in organic systems. We begin with fundamental studies on the excited-state dynamics of several fullerene derivatives. We also venture away from the traditional fullerene-based electron acceptors and consider several derivatized perylene diimides as alternate electron acceptors. We then report on the observation of a broad, structureless, emission emanating from charge-generating films comprised of perfluoroalkyl fullerene derivatives dilutely dispersed in polyfluorene hosts. We have determined that this red-shifted PL signature is the result of radiative recombination from a charge-transfer state that is populated initially as a precursor to charge generation, and may be repopulated upon charge recombination. Our data offers an observable link between charge-generation and charge-transfer emission that is kinetically associated with carrier recombination, and we utilize this link to probe the influence of driving force and polymer microstructure in the fundamental processes of charge generation and decay in small molecule/polymer heterojunctions. Thereafter, we sought to develop our understanding of a novel photophysical mechanism (known as energy pooling) which would allow for the energy of multiple excitons to be 'pooled' towards a central molecular moiety, where the individual exciton energies may add together to create a single highly excited excitonic state. This upconversion-like process would facilitate more efficient photocurrent generation in devices utilizing this mode of charge separation. The primary modes of inquiry utilized in this work come from the spectroscopic techniques of absorbance, steady

  20. Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Romain Shanil; Dissanayake, Poruwalage Harsha; Senarath, Upul; Wijayaratne, Lalith Sirimevan; Karunanayake, Aranjan Lional; Dissanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana

    2017-05-15

    Radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) are common findings in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain; however, its role in disability and intensity of pain is debatable. This study aims to investigate the associations of the x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who attended the rheumatology clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, from May 2012 to May 2014. Severity of disability was measured using Modified Oswestry Disability Index and intensity of pain was assessed using numeric rating scale (0-100). X-ray features of LDD (disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD) and spondylolisthesis were assessed in lateral recumbent lumbar x-rays (L1/L2 to L5/S1) and graded by a consultant radiologist blinded to clinical data. Generalised linear model with linear response was used to assess the associations of x-ray features of LDD with severity of disability and intensity of pain adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and pain radiating into legs. Mean age was 48.99 ± 11.21 and 323 (73.58%) were females. 87 (19.82%) were obese. Mean severity of disability was 30.95 ± 13.67 and mean intensity of pain was 45.50 ± 20.37. 69 (15.72%), 26 (5.92%) and 85 (19.36%) patients had grade 2 disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD, respectively. 51 (11.62%) patients had lumbar spondylolisthesis. Grade of disc space narrowing and overall LDD were not associated with severity of disability or intensity of pain. The presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was associated with severity of disability. Female gender and pain radiating into legs were associated with severity of disability and intensity of pain. Advancing age was associated with x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with severity of

  1. Resonant Transparency and Non-Trivial Non-Radiating Excitations in Toroidal Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Fedotov, V. A.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Savinov, V.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2013-01-01

    Engaging strongly resonant interactions allows dramatic enhancement of functionalities of many electromagnetic devices. However, resonances can be dampened by Joule and radiation losses. While in many cases Joule losses may be minimized by the choice of constituting materials, controlling radiation losses is often a bigger problem. Recent solutions include the use of coupled radiant and sub-radiant modes yielding narrow asymmetric Fano resonances in a wide range of systems, from defect states in photonic crystals and optical waveguides with mesoscopic ring resonators to nanoscale plasmonic and metamaterial systems exhibiting interference effects akin to electromagnetically-induced transparency. Here we demonstrate theoretically and confirm experimentally a new mechanism of resonant electromagnetic transparency, which yields very narrow isolated symmetric Lorentzian transmission lines in toroidal metamaterials. It exploits the long sought non-trivial non-radiating charge-current excitation based on interfering electric and toroidal dipoles that was first proposed by Afanasiev and Stepanovsky in [J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 28, 4565 (1995)]. PMID:24132231

  2. Chlorine Doping Reduces Electron–Hole Recombination in Lead Iodide Perovskites: Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jin; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-10-27

    Rapid development in lead halide perovskites has led to solution-processable thin film solar cells with power conversion efficiencies close to 20%. Nonradiative electron–hole recombination within perovskites has been identified as the main pathway of energy losses, competing with charge transport and limiting the efficiency. Using nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics, combined with time-domain density functional theory, we show that nonradiative recombination happens faster than radiative recombination and long-range charge transfer to an acceptor material. Doping of lead iodide perovskites with chlorine atoms reduces charge recombination. On the one hand, chlorines decrease the NA coupling because they contribute little to the wavemore » functions of the valence and conduction band edges. On the other hand, chlorines shorten coherence time because they are lighter than iodines and introduce high-frequency modes. Both factors favor longer excited-state lifetimes. The simulation shows good agreement with the available experimental data and contributes to the comprehensive understanding of electronic and vibrational dynamics in perovskites. The generated insights into design of higher-efficiency solar cells range from fundamental scientific principles, such as the role of electron–vibrational coupling and quantum coherence, to practical guidelines, such as specific suggestions for chemical doping.« less

  3. Pulse stretcher for narrow pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, R. S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A pulse stretcher for narrow pulses is presented. The stretcher is composed of an analog section for processing each arriving analog pulse and a digital section with logic for providing command signals to the gates and switches in the analog section.

  4. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  5. Carrier-density-dependent recombination dynamics of excitons and electron-hole plasma in m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Butté, R.; Dussaigne, A.; Grandjean, N.; Deveaud, B.; Jacopin, G.

    2016-11-01

    We study the carrier-density-dependent recombination dynamics in m -plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in the presence of n -type background doping by time-resolved photoluminescence. Based on Fermi's golden rule and Saha's equation, we decompose the radiative recombination channel into an excitonic and an electron-hole pair contribution, and extract the injected carrier-density-dependent bimolecular recombination coefficients. Contrary to the standard electron-hole picture, our results confirm the strong influence of excitons even at room temperature. Indeed, at 300 K, excitons represent up to 63 ± 6% of the photoexcited carriers. In addition, following the Shockley-Read-Hall model, we extract the electron and hole capture rates by deep levels and demonstrate that the increase in the effective lifetime with injected carrier density is due to asymmetric capture rates in presence of an n -type background doping. Thanks to the proper determination of the density-dependent recombination coefficients up to high injection densities, our method provides a way to evaluate the importance of Auger recombination.

  6. Large tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chongzhao; Jin, Yuan; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-12-19

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser’s surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ~57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K. The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning rangemore » compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL’s characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7°) is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.« less

  7. The Effect of Pre-irradiation Defects on the Recombination Luminescence in Activated Crystals K2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketai, Temirgaly; Tagayeva, Batima; Tussupbekova, Ainura; Mussenova, Elmira

    The recombinational luminescence of crystals of K2SO4-Mn2+ and K2SO4-Ni2+ is studied in the article. It is established that impurity ions form the radiation induced centers. The cause of changes of the distribution of lightsum on TSL peaks of a matrix is established. It is proposed that it is related to pre-radiation defeсts in crystals. It is established from this effect that ions of Mn2+ and Ni2+ selectively replace cations in a crystal lattice of potassium sulfate.

  8. Radiation-induced synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) nanogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Malgorzata; Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Ulanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Nanogel is a two-component system of a diameter in the range of tens of nanometers, consisting of an intramolecularly crosslinked polymer chain and solvent, typically water, filling the space between segments of the macromolecule. Microgels are bigger than nanogels and their size range is between 100 nm to 100 μm. One of the methods used for synthesizing nanogels is linking the segments of a single macromolecule with the use of ionizing radiation, by intramolecular recombination of radiation-generated polymer radicals. The main advantage of this technique is absence of monomers, catalysts, surfactants or crosslinking agents. This method is an interesting alternative way of synthesizing polymeric carriers for biomedical applications. The aim of the study was radiation synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic acid) - PAA - nanogels and microgels. The physico-chemical properties were described by determination of weight-average molecular weight and dimensions (radius of gyration, hydrodynamic radius) of the nanogels and microgels. Influence of polymer concentration and dose on these parameters was analyzed. Adjusting the PAA concentration and absorbed dose, one can control the molecular weight and dimensions of nanogels. The solutions of PAA were irradiated with two sources of ionizing radiation: γ-source and electron accelerator. The former method yields mainly microgels due to prevailing intermolecular crosslinking, while the latter promotes intramolecular recombination of PAA-derived radicals and in consequence formation of nanogels. In the future radiation-synthesized PAA nanogels, after functionalization, will be tested as carriers for delivering radionuclides to the tumor cells.

  9. Recombination emissions and spectral blueshift of pump radiation from ultrafast laser induced plasma in a planar water microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anija, M.; Philip, Reji

    2009-09-01

    We report spectroscopic investigations of an ultrafast laser induced plasma generated in a planar water microjet. Plasma recombination emissions along with the spectral blueshift and broadening of the pump laser pulse contribute to the total emission. The laser pulses are of 100 fs duration, and the incident intensity is around 10 15 W/cm 2. The dominant mechanisms leading to plasma formation are optical tunnel ionization and collisional ionization. Spectrally resolved polarization measurements show that the high frequency region of the emission is unpolarized whereas the low frequency region is polarized. Results indicate that at lower input intensities the emission arises mainly from plasma recombinations, which is accompanied by a weak blueshift of the incident laser pulse. At higher input intensities strong recombination emissions are seen, along with a broadening and asymmetric spectral blueshift of the pump laser pulse. From the nature of the blueshifted laser pulse it is possible to deduce whether the rate of change of free electron density is a constant or variable within the pulse lifetime. Two input laser intensity regimes, in which collisional and tunnel ionizations are dominant respectively, have been thus identified.

  10. Genomic correlates of recombination rate and its variability across eight recombination maps in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin R; DeFelice, Dominick S; Hunt, Greg J; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-02-21

    Meiotic recombination has traditionally been explained based on the structural requirement to stabilize homologous chromosome pairs to ensure their proper meiotic segregation. Competing hypotheses seek to explain the emerging findings of significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between genomes, but intraspecific comparisons of genome-wide recombination patterns are rare. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) exhibits the highest rate of genomic recombination among multicellular animals with about five cross-over events per chromatid. Here, we present a comparative analysis of recombination rates across eight genetic linkage maps of the honey bee genome to investigate which genomic sequence features are correlated with recombination rate and with its variation across the eight data sets, ranging in average marker spacing ranging from 1 Mbp to 120 kbp. Overall, we found that GC content explained best the variation in local recombination rate along chromosomes at the analyzed 100 kbp scale. In contrast, variation among the different maps was correlated to the abundance of microsatellites and several specific tri- and tetra-nucleotides. The combined evidence from eight medium-scale recombination maps of the honey bee genome suggests that recombination rate variation in this highly recombining genome might be due to the DNA configuration instead of distinct sequence motifs. However, more fine-scale analyses are needed. The empirical basis of eight differing genetic maps allowed for robust conclusions about the correlates of the local recombination rates and enabled the study of the relation between DNA features and variability in local recombination rates, which is particularly relevant in the honey bee genome with its exceptionally high recombination rate.

  11. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  12. Analysis of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Simulated Space Radiation Qualities by Use of Recombinant Bacteria Carrying a Dual-Function Dual-Reporter Construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Zahoor, Ahmed; Testard, Isabelle; Reitz, Guenther

    Along with the long-term space exploration come various potential health risks due to unique physical factors of the space environment. Space radiation is one of the primary environmental hazards associated with space flight. In order to deal with space-related risk radiation exposure must be properly characterised and quantified, and biological effects of charged particles have to be analysed in ground based research, especially as astronauts are subjected to a differing radiation quality in space than they receive on Earth. For risk assessment, the mutagenic potential of the heavy ion component of the galactic cosmic radiation is of major concern for tumour induction as radiation late effects. The recombinant SWITCH test is based on TA1535 Salmonella typhimurium cells transformed with a dual-function dual-reporter vector harbouring (a) the genes for bioluminescence production from Photobacterium leiognathi under the control of a DNA-damage inducible promoter and (b) the gene for green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria under the control of a constitutive promoter. Suchlike genetically modified organism report on the presence of genotoxic conditions by dose dependent increase of bioluminescence induction and on the presence of cytotoxic conditions by dose dependent decrease in GFP fluorescence. By this, it is possible to analyse bacterial inactivation and mutation induction by ionizing radiation in parallel in the same cell within short time. Experiments with heavy ions have been performed with the SWITCH test at GANIL with the following accelerated heavy ions: 35 MeV/u (72 keV/µm) and 75 MeV/u (37 keV/µm) carbon, 95 MeV/u argon (377 keV/µm), 95 MeV/u neon (98 keV/µm), 75 MeV/u nickel (967 keV/µm) and 29 MeV/u lead (10238 keV/µm). The results obtained clearly show that the numbers of hits (particles per cm2 ) necessary to inactivate the bacteria (cytotoxicity) depend on LET. The higher the ionisation capacity of the accelerated ion, the

  13. On the conservative nature of intragenic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, D. Allan; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Meyer, Michelle M.; Wilke, Claus O.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2005-01-01

    Intragenic recombination rapidly creates protein sequence diversity compared with random mutation, but little is known about the relative effects of recombination and mutation on protein function. Here, we compare recombination of the distantly related β-lactamases PSE-4 and TEM-1 to mutation of PSE-4. We show that, among β-lactamase variants containing the same number of amino acid substitutions, variants created by recombination retain function with a significantly higher probability than those generated by random mutagenesis. We present a simple model that accurately captures the differing effects of mutation and recombination in real and simulated proteins with only four parameters: (i) the amino acid sequence distance between parents, (ii) the number of substitutions, (iii) the average probability that random substitutions will preserve function, and (iv) the average probability that substitutions generated by recombination will preserve function. Our results expose a fundamental functional enrichment in regions of protein sequence space accessible by recombination and provide a framework for evaluating whether the relative rates of mutation and recombination observed in nature reflect the underlying imbalance in their effects on protein function. PMID:15809422

  14. On the conservative nature of intragenic recombination.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D Allan; Silberg, Jonathan J; Meyer, Michelle M; Wilke, Claus O; Arnold, Frances H

    2005-04-12

    Intragenic recombination rapidly creates protein sequence diversity compared with random mutation, but little is known about the relative effects of recombination and mutation on protein function. Here, we compare recombination of the distantly related beta-lactamases PSE-4 and TEM-1 to mutation of PSE-4. We show that, among beta-lactamase variants containing the same number of amino acid substitutions, variants created by recombination retain function with a significantly higher probability than those generated by random mutagenesis. We present a simple model that accurately captures the differing effects of mutation and recombination in real and simulated proteins with only four parameters: (i) the amino acid sequence distance between parents, (ii) the number of substitutions, (iii) the average probability that random substitutions will preserve function, and (iv) the average probability that substitutions generated by recombination will preserve function. Our results expose a fundamental functional enrichment in regions of protein sequence space accessible by recombination and provide a framework for evaluating whether the relative rates of mutation and recombination observed in nature reflect the underlying imbalance in their effects on protein function.

  15. Electron-Beam Recombination Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Robert Lewis

    1992-01-01

    The first known instance of electron-beam pumping of the 546.1 nm mercury laser is reported. This has been achieved using high-energy electrons to create intense ionization in a coaxial diode chamber containing a mixture of noble gases with a small amount of mercury vapor. Also reported are the results of a study of the 585.3 nm neon laser in He:Ne:Ar mixtures under similar experimental conditions. Both of these lasers are believed to be predominantly pumped by recombination. For the mercury laser, kinetic processes in the partially ionized plasma following the excitation pulse of high-energy electrons should favor the production of atomic mercury ions and molecular ions containing mercury. Subsequent recombination with electrons heavily favors the production of the 7^3S and 6^3 D states of Hg, of which 7^3S is the upper level of the reported laser. For the neon laser, the dominant recombining ion has been previously shown to be Ne_2^{+}. One of the dominant roles of helium in recombination lasers is inferred from the data for the neon laser at low helium concentrations. Helium appears to be necessary for the rapid relaxation of the electron energy which then increases the reaction rates for all known recombination processes thus increasing the pump rate into the upper state.

  16. Narrow plasmon resonances enabled by quasi-freestanding bilayer epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Kevin M.; Jadidi, M. Mehdi; Sushkov, Andrei B.; Nath, Anindya; Boyd, Anthony K.; Sridhara, Karthik; Drew, H. Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    2017-06-01

    Exploiting the underdeveloped terahertz range (~1012-1013 Hz) of the electromagnetic spectrum could advance many scientific fields (e.g. medical imaging for the identification of tumors and other biological tissues, non-destructive evaluation of hidden objects or ultra-broadband communication). Despite the benefits of operating in this regime, generation, detection and manipulation have proven difficult, as few materials have functional interactions with THz radiation. In contrast, graphene supports resonances in the THz regime through structural confinement of surface plasmons, which can lead to enhanced absorption. In prior work, the achievable plasmon resonances in such structures have been limited by multiple electron scattering mechanisms (i.e. large carrier scattering rates) which greatly broaden the resonance (>100 cm-1 3 THz). We report the narrowest room temperature Drude response to-date, 30 cm-1 (0.87 THz), obtained using quasi-free standing bilayer epitaxial graphene (QFS BLG) synthesized on (0 0 0 1)6H-SiC. This narrow response is due to a 4-fold increase in carrier mobility and improved thickness and electronic uniformity of QFS BLG. Moreover, QFS BLG samples patterned into microribbons targeting 1.8-5.7 THz plasmon resonances also exhibit low scattering rates (37-53 cm-1). Due to the improved THz properties of QFS BLG, the effects of e-beam processing on carrier scattering rates was determined and we found that fabrication conditions can be tuned to minimize the impact on optoelectronic properties. In addition, electrostatic gating of patterned QFS BLG shows narrow band THz amplitude modulation. Taken together, these properties of QFS BLG should facilitate future development of THz optoelectronic devices for monochromatic applications.

  17. The narrow pentaquark

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Diakonov, Dmitri

    2007-02-27

    The experimental status of the pentaquark searches is briefly reviewed. Recent null results by the CLAS collaboration are commented, and new strong evidence of a very narrow {theta}+ resonance by the DIANA collaboration is presented. On the theory side, I revisit the argument against the existence of the pentaquark - that of Callan and Klebanov - and show that actually a strong resonance is predicted in that approach, however its width is grossly overestimated. A recent calculation gives 2 MeV for the pentaquark width, and this number is probably still an upper bound.

  18. Effects of helium concentration and radiation temperature on interaction of helium atoms with displacement cascades in bcc iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chan; Tian, Dongfeng; Li, Maosheng; Qian, Dazhi

    2018-03-01

    In fusion applications, helium, implanted or created by transmutation, plays an important role in the response of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels to neutron radiation damage. The effects of helium concentration and radiation temperature on interaction of interstitial helium atoms with displacement cascades have been studied in Fe-He system using molecular dynamics with recently developed Fe-He potential. Results indicate that interstitial helium atoms produce no additional defects at peak time and promote recombination of Frenkel pairs at lower helium concentrations, but suppress recombination of Frenkel pairs at larger helium concentrations. Moreover, large helium concentrations promote the production of defects at the end of cascades. The number of substitutional helium atoms increases with helium concentration at peak time and the end of cascades, but the number of substitutional helium atoms at peak time is smaller than that at the end of displacement cascades. High radiation temperatures promote the production at peak time and the recombination of defects at the end of cascades. The number of substitutional helium atoms increases with radiation temperature, but that at peak time is smaller than that at the end of cascades.

  19. Effects of chemical and physical agents on recombination events in cells of the germ line of male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Würgler, F E

    1991-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can induce mutations as well as recombination in the genetic material. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was one of the first assay systems to test physical and chemical agents for recombinogenic effects. Such effects can be observed in cells of the germ line as well as in somatic cells. At present information is available on 54 agents, among them 48 chemicals that have been tested in cells of the germ line of males and/or females. Effects on meiotic recombination in female germ cells cannot simply be classified as positive or negative since for a number of agents, depending on the chromosome region studied, recombination frequencies may be increased, unaffected or decreased. The male germ line of D. melanogaster represents a unique situation because meiotic recombination does not occur. Among 25 agents tested in male germ cells 24 did induce male recombination, among them alkylating, intercalating and cross-linking agents, direct-acting ones as well as compounds needing metabolic activation. With several compounds the frequency of induced recombination is highest in the heterochromatic regions near the centromeres. In brood pattern analyses, e.g., after exposure of adult males to ionizing radiation, the first appearance of crossover progeny is indicative of the sampling of exposed spermatocytes. In premeiotic cells of the male and the female germ line mitotic recombination can occur. Upon clonal expansion of the recombinant cells, clusters of identical crossovers can be observed.

  20. Site-specific genetic recombination: hops, flips, and flops.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, P D

    1993-06-01

    Genetic recombination plays a key role in the life of organisms as diverse as bacteriophages and humans. Contrary to our idea that chromosomes are stable structures, studies of recombination over the past few decades have shown that in fact DNA replicons are remarkably plastic, undergoing frequent recombination-induced rearrangements. This review summarizes our recent knowledge of the biochemistry of the two major classes of site-specific recombination: 1) transpositional recombination, and 2) conservative site-specific recombination.

  1. Galaxy properties from J-PAS narrow-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía-Narváez, A.; Bruzual, G.; Magris, C. G.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Benítez, N.; Carneiro, S.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Dupke, R.; Ederoclite, A.; Marín-Franch, A.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; Moles, M.; Sodre, L.; Taylor, K.; Varela, J.; Ramió, H. Vázquez

    2017-11-01

    We study the consistency of the physical properties of galaxies retrieved from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting as a function of spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a selection of physically motivated star formation histories, we set up a control sample of mock galaxy spectra representing observations of the local Universe in high-resolution spectroscopy, and in 56 narrow-band and 5 broad-band photometry. We fit the SEDs at these spectral resolutions and compute their corresponding stellar mass, the mass- and luminosity-weighted age and metallicity, and the dust extinction. We study the biases, correlations and degeneracies affecting the retrieved parameters and explore the role of the spectral resolution and the SNR in regulating these degeneracies. We find that narrow-band photometry and spectroscopy yield similar trends in the physical properties derived, the former being considerably more precise. Using a galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we compare more realistically the results obtained from high-resolution and narrow-band SEDs (synthesized from the same SDSS spectra) following the same spectral fitting procedures. We use results from the literature as a benchmark to our spectroscopic estimates and show that the prior probability distribution functions, commonly adopted in parametric methods, may introduce biases not accounted for in a Bayesian framework. We conclude that narrow-band photometry yields the same trend in the age-metallicity relation in the literature, provided it is affected by the same biases as spectroscopy, albeit the precision achieved with the latter is generally twice as large as with the narrow-band, at SNR values typical of the different kinds of data.

  2. Experimental evolution across different thermal regimes yields genetic divergence in recombination fraction but no divergence in temperature associated plastic recombination.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kathryn P; Singh, Nadia D

    2018-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is pervasive in nature. One mechanism underlying the evolution and maintenance of such plasticity is environmental heterogeneity. Indeed, theory indicates that both spatial and temporal variation in the environment should favor the evolution of phenotypic plasticity under a variety of conditions. Cyclical environmental conditions have also been shown to yield evolved increases in recombination frequency. Here, we use a panel of replicated experimental evolution populations of D. melanogaster to test whether variable environments favor enhanced plasticity in recombination rate and/or increased recombination rate in response to temperature. In contrast to expectation, we find no evidence for either enhanced plasticity in recombination or increased rates of recombination in the variable environment lines. Our data confirm a role of temperature in mediating recombination fraction in D. melanogaster, and indicate that recombination is genetically and plastically depressed under lower temperatures. Our data further suggest that the genetic architectures underlying plastic recombination and population-level variation in recombination rate are likely to be distinct. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. The Effect of Divided Attention on Emotion-Induced Memory Narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Katherine R. Mickley; Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorized to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants’ attentional resources at encoding, by dividing attention, did not affect the emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2), and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across-the-board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond limitations of attentional resources. PMID:24295041

  4. The effect of divided attention on emotion-induced memory narrowing.

    PubMed

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Waring, Jill D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorised to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants' attentional resources at encoding by dividing attention did not affect emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2) and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across the board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond the limitations of attentional resources.

  5. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  6. Selections that isolate recombinant mitochondrial genomes in animals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hansong; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination is widespread and catalyzes evolution. Nonetheless, its existence in animal mitochondrial DNA is questioned. We designed selections for recombination between co-resident mitochondrial genomes in various heteroplasmic Drosophila lines. In four experimental settings, recombinant genomes became the sole or dominant genome in the progeny. Thus, selection uncovers occurrence of homologous recombination in Drosophila mtDNA and documents its functional benefit. Double-strand breaks enhanced recombination in the germline and revealed somatic recombination. When the recombination partner was a diverged Drosophila melanogaster genome or a genome from a different species such as Drosophila yakuba, sequencing revealed long continuous stretches of exchange. In addition, the distribution of sequence polymorphisms in recombinants allowed us to map a selected trait to a particular region in the Drosophila mitochondrial genome. Thus, recombination can be harnessed to dissect function and evolution of mitochondrial genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07247.001 PMID:26237110

  7. Defect-Reduction Mechanism for Improving Radiative Efficiency in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes using InGaN Underlayers

    DOE PAGES

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Crawford, Mary H.; ...

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a dilute In xGa 1-xN (x~0.03) underlayer (UL) grown below a single In 0.16Ga 0.84N quantum well (SQW), within a light-emitting diode(LED), on the radiative efficiency and deep level defect properties was studied using differential carrier lifetime (DCL) measurements and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DCL measurements found that inclusion of the UL significantly improved LED radiative efficiency. At low current densities, the non-radiative recombination rate of the LED with an UL was found to be 3.9 times lower than theLED without an UL, while the radiative recombination rates were nearly identical. This, then, suggests that themore » improved radiative efficiency resulted from reduced non-radiative defect concentration within the SQW. DLOS measurement found the same type of defects in the InGaN SQWs with and without ULs. However, lighted capacitance-voltage measurements of the LEDs revealed a 3.4 times reduction in a SQW-related near-mid-gap defect state for the LED with an UL. Furthermore, quantitative agreement in the reduction of both the non-radiative recombination rate (3.9×) and deep level density (3.4×) upon insertion of an UL corroborates deep level defect reduction as the mechanism for improved LED efficiency.« less

  8. Heterologous mitochondrial DNA recombination in human cells.

    PubMed

    D'Aurelio, Marilena; Gajewski, Carl D; Lin, Michael T; Mauck, William M; Shao, Leon Z; Lenaz, Giorgio; Moraes, Carlos T; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2004-12-15

    Inter-molecular heterologous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination is known to occur in yeast and plants. Nevertheless, its occurrence in human cells is still controversial. To address this issue we have fused two human cytoplasmic hybrid cell lines, each containing a distinct pathogenic mtDNA mutation and specific sets of genetic markers. In this hybrid model, we found direct evidence of recombination between these two mtDNA haplotypes. Recombinant mtDNA molecules in the hybrid cells were identified using three independent experimental approaches. First, recombinant molecules containing genetic markers from both parental alleles were demonstrated with restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction products, by measuring the relative frequencies of each marker. Second, fragments of recombinant mtDNA were cloned and sequenced to identify the regions involved in the recombination events. Finally, recombinant molecules were demonstrated directly by Southern blot using appropriate combinations of polymorphic restriction sites and probes. This combined approach confirmed the existence of heterogeneous species of recombinant mtDNA molecules in the hybrid cells. These findings have important implications for mtDNA-related diseases, the interpretation of human evolution and population genetics and forensic analyses based on mtDNA genotyping.

  9. Age-Dependent Recombination Rates in Human Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Hussin, Julie; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gendron, Roxanne; Andelfinger, Gregor; Awadalla, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, chromosome-number abnormalities have been associated with altered recombination and increased maternal age. Therefore, age-related effects on recombination are of major importance, especially in relation to the mechanisms involved in human trisomies. Here, we examine the relationship between maternal age and recombination rate in humans. We localized crossovers at high resolution by using over 600,000 markers genotyped in a panel of 69 French-Canadian pedigrees, revealing recombination events in 195 maternal meioses. Overall, we observed the general patterns of variation in fine-scale recombination rates previously reported in humans. However, we make the first observation of a significant decrease in recombination rates with advancing maternal age in humans, likely driven by chromosome-specific effects. The effect appears to be localized in the middle section of chromosomal arms and near subtelomeric regions. We postulate that, for some chromosomes, protection against non-disjunction provided by recombination becomes less efficient with advancing maternal age, which can be partly responsible for the higher rates of aneuploidy in older women. We propose a model that reconciles our findings with reported associations between maternal age and recombination in cases of trisomies. PMID:21912527

  10. Electromagnetic fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of lightning signatures known as narrow bipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Vernon; Cooray, Gerald; Marshall, Thomas; Arabshahi, Shahab; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This model of the avalanche was utilized to test the idea whether the source of the lightning signatures known as narrow bipolar pulses could be relativistic avalanches. The idea was tested by using the simultaneously measured electric fields of narrow bipolar pulses at two distances, one measured far away from the source and the other in the near vicinity. The avalanche parameters were extracted from the distant field and they are used to evaluate the close field. The results show that the source of the NBP can be modeled either as a single or a multiple burst of relativistic avalanches with speed of avalanches in the range of 2-3 × 108 m/s. The multiple avalanche model agrees better with the experimental data in that it can also generate the correct signature of the time derivatives and the HF and VHF radiation bursts of NBP.

  11. Monitoring Recombination During Meiosis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Owens, Shannon; Tang, Shangming; Hunter, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Homologous recombination is fundamental to sexual reproduction, facilitating accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first division of meiosis, and creating novel allele combinations that fuel evolution. Following initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange form joint molecule (JM) intermediates that are ultimately resolved into crossover and noncrossover repair products. Physical monitoring of the DNA steps of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures undergoing synchronous meiosis has provided seminal insights into the molecular basis of meiotic recombination and affords a powerful tool for dissecting the molecular roles of recombination factors. This chapter describes a suit of electrophoretic and Southern hybridization techniques used to detect and quantify the DNA intermediates of meiotic recombination at recombination hotspots in budding yeast. DSBs and recombination products (crossovers and noncrossovers) are resolved using one-dimensional electrophoresis and distinguished by restriction site polymorphisms between the parental chromosomes. Psoralen cross-linking is used to stabilize branched JMs, which are resolved from linear species by native/native two-dimensional electrophoresis. Native/denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis is employed to determine the component DNA strands of JMs and to measure the processing of DSBs. These techniques are generally applicable to any locus where the frequency of recombination is high enough to detect intermediates by Southern hybridization. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Very narrow excited Ωc baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, LHCb reported the discovery of five extremely narrow excited Ωc baryons decaying into Ξc+K-. We interpret these baryons as bound states of a c quark and a P -wave s s diquark. For such a system, there are exactly five possible combinations of spin and orbital angular momentum. The narrowness of the states could be a signal that it is hard to pull apart the two s quarks in a diquark. We predict two of spin 1 /2 , two of spin 3 /2 , and one of spin 5 /2 , all with negative parity. Of the five states, two can decay in S -wave, and three can decay in D -wave. Some of the D -wave states might be narrower than the S -wave states. We discuss the relations among the five masses expected in the quark model and the likely spin assignments, and we compare them with the data. A similar pattern is expected for negative-parity excited Ωb states. An alternative interpretation is noted in which the heaviest two states are 2 S excitations with JP=1 /2+ and 3 /2+, while the lightest three are those with JP=3 /2- , 3 /2- , 5 /2- , expected to decay via D -waves. In this case, we expect JP=1 /2- Ωc states around 2904 and 2978 MeV.

  13. Recombination of Globally Circulating Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Kundu, Samit; Atkinson, Claire; Brown, Julianne; Haque, Tanzina; Hussaini, Yusuf; MacMahon, Eithne; Molyneaux, Pamela; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sengupta, Nitu; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.; Underhill, Gillian S.; Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie; Breuer, Judith; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus, which during primary infection typically causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Later in life, the virus may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ; also known as shingles). To prevent these diseases, a live-attenuated heterogeneous vaccine preparation, vOka, is used routinely in many countries worldwide. Recent studies of another alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, demonstrate that live-attenuated vaccine strains can recombine in vivo, creating virulent progeny. These findings raised concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines under conditions that favor recombination. To investigate whether VZV may undergo recombination, which is a prerequisite for VZV vaccination to create such conditions, we here analyzed 115 complete VZV genomes. Our results demonstrate that recombination occurs frequently for VZV. It thus seems that VZV is fully capable of recombination if given the opportunity, which may have important implications for continued VZV vaccination. Although no interclade vaccine-wild-type recombinant strains were found, intraclade recombinants were frequently detected in clade 2, which harbors the vaccine strains, suggesting that the vaccine strains have already been involved in recombination events, either in vivo or in vitro during passages in cell culture. Finally, previous partial and complete genomic studies have described strains that do not cluster phylogenetically to any of the five established clades. The additional VZV strains sequenced here, in combination with those previously published, have enabled us to formally define a novel sixth VZV clade. IMPORTANCE Although genetic recombination has been demonstrated to frequently occur for other human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, only a few ancient and isolated recent recombination events have hitherto been demonstrated for VZV. In the

  14. Quantitative X-ray - UV Line and Continuum Spectroscopy with Application to AGN: State-Specific Hydrogenic Recombination Cooling Coefficients for a Wide Range of Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMothe, J.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Recombination cooling, in which a free electron emits light while being captured to an ion, is an important cooling process in photoionized clouds that are optically thick or have low metallicity. State specific rather than total recombination cooling rates are needed since the hydrogen atom tends to become optically thick in high-density regimes such as Active Galactic Nuclei. This paper builds upon previous work to derive the cooling rate over the full temperature range where the process can be a significant contributor in a photoionized plasma. We exploit the fact that the recombination and cooling rates are given by intrinsically similar formulae to express the cooling rate in terms of the closely related radiative recombination rate. We give an especially simple but accurate approximation that works for any high hydrogenic level and can be conveniently employed in large-scale numerical simulations.

  15. Detecting and Analyzing Genetic Recombination Using RDP4.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darren P; Murrell, Ben; Khoosal, Arjun; Muhire, Brejnev

    2017-01-01

    Recombination between nucleotide sequences is a major process influencing the evolution of most species on Earth. The evolutionary value of recombination has been widely debated and so too has its influence on evolutionary analysis methods that assume nucleotide sequences replicate without recombining. When nucleic acids recombine, the evolution of the daughter or recombinant molecule cannot be accurately described by a single phylogeny. This simple fact can seriously undermine the accuracy of any phylogenetics-based analytical approach which assumes that the evolutionary history of a set of recombining sequences can be adequately described by a single phylogenetic tree. There are presently a large number of available methods and associated computer programs for analyzing and characterizing recombination in various classes of nucleotide sequence datasets. Here we examine the use of some of these methods to derive and test recombination hypotheses using multiple sequence alignments.

  16. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  17. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  18. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swartz, Craig H.; Dippo, Pat; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S.; Sohal, Sandeep; Hancock, Bobby L.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Myers, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe1-xSex (x ˜ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd1-xMgxTe barriers (x ˜ 0.25-0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ˜6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.

  19. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swartz, Craig H.

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe 1-xSex (x ~ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd1-xMgxTe barriers (x ~ 0.25-0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects havemore » a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ~6 um, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 us with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 us.« less

  20. Cold Atomic Hydrogen, Narrow Self-Absorption, and the Age of Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history, and current work on HI and its importance in star formation. Through many observations of HI Narrow Self Absorption (HINSA) the conclusions are drawn and presented. Local molecular clouds have HI well-mixed with molecular constituents This HI is cold, quiescent, and must be well-shielded from the UV radiation field The density and fractional abundance (wrt H2) of the cold HI are close to steady state values The time required to convert these starless clouds from purely HI initial state to observed present composition is a few to ten million years This timescale is a lower limit - if dense clouds being swept up from lower density regions by shocks, the time to accumulate material to get A(sub v) is approximately 1 and provide required shielding may be comparable or longer

  1. SequenceLDhot: detecting recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Fearnhead, Paul

    2006-12-15

    There is much local variation in recombination rates across the human genome--with the majority of recombination occurring in recombination hotspots--short regions of around approximately 2 kb in length that have much higher recombination rates than neighbouring regions. Knowledge of this local variation is important, e.g. in the design and analysis of association studies for disease genes. Population genetic data, such as that generated by the HapMap project, can be used to infer the location of these hotspots. We present a new, efficient and powerful method for detecting recombination hotspots from population data. We compare our method with four current methods for detecting hotspots. It is orders of magnitude quicker, and has greater power, than two related approaches. It appears to be more powerful than HotspotFisher, though less accurate at inferring the precise positions of the hotspot. It was also more powerful than LDhot in some situations: particularly for weaker hotspots (10-40 times the background rate) when SNP density is lower (< 1/kb). Program, data sets, and full details of results are available at: http://www.maths.lancs.ac.uk/~fearnhea/Hotspot.

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  4. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  5. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C.; Phadnis, Naina; Holm, Laerke; Geelhood, Jennifer L.; Thon, Genevieve; Smith, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    During meiosis, the formation of viable haploid gametes from diploid precursors requires that each homologous chromosome pair be properly segregated to produce an exact haploid set of chromosomes. Genetic recombination, which provides a physical connection between homologous chromosomes, is essential in most species for proper homologue segregation. Nevertheless, recombination is repressed specifically in and around the centromeres of chromosomes, apparently because rare centromeric (or pericentromeric) recombination events, when they do occur, can disrupt proper segregation and lead to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination. Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. PMID:20421495

  6. Recombination properties of dislocations in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2018-04-01

    The recombination activity of threading dislocations in n-GaN with different dislocation densities and different doping levels was studied using electron beam induced current (EBIC). The recombination velocity on a dislocation, also known as the dislocation recombination strength, was calculated. The results suggest that dislocations in n-GaN giving contrast in EBIC are charged and surrounded by a space charge region, as evidenced by the observed dependence of dislocation recombination strength on dopant concentration. For moderate (below ˜108 cm-2) dislocation densities, these defects do not primarily determine the average diffusion length of nonequilibrium charge carriers, although locally, dislocations are efficient recombination sites. In general, it is observed that the effect of the growth method [standard metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), epitaxial lateral overgrowth versions of MOCVD, and hydride vapor phase epitaxy] on the recombination activity of dislocations is not very pronounced, although the average diffusion lengths can widely differ for various samples. The glide of basal plane dislocations at room temperature promoted by low energy electron irradiation does not significantly change the recombination properties of dislocations.

  7. Annealing Vs. Invasion in Phage λ Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, M. M.; Thomason, L.; Poteete, A. R.; Tarkowski, T.; Kuzminov, A.; Stahl, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic recombination catalyzed by λ's Red pathway was studied in rec(+) and recA mutant bacteria by examining both intracellular λ DNA and mature progeny particles. Recombination of nonreplicating phage chromosomes was induced by double-strand breaks delivered at unique sites in vivo. In rec(+) cells, cutting only one chromosome gave nearly maximal stimulation of recombination; the recombinants formed contained relatively short hybrid regions, suggesting strand invasion. In contrast, in recA mutant cells, cutting the two parental chromosomes at non-allelic sites was required for maximal stimulation; the recombinants formed tended to be hybrid over the entire region between the two cuts, implying strand annealing. We conclude that, in the absence of RecA and the presence of non-allelic DNA ends, the Red pathway of λ catalyzes recombination primarily by annealing. PMID:9383045

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Narrow-Swath Imaging Sensors with Reference to Non-Coincident Wide-Swath Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Lockwood, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    An inter-calibration method is developed to provide absolute radiometric calibration of narrow-swath imaging sensors with reference to non-coincident wide-swath sensors. The method predicts at-sensor radiance using non-coincident imagery from the reference sensor and knowledge of spectral reflectance of the test site. The imagery of the reference sensor is restricted to acquisitions that provide similar view and solar illumination geometry to reduce uncertainties due to directional reflectance effects. Spectral reflectance of the test site is found with a simple iterative radiative transfer method using radiance values of a well-understood wide-swath sensor and spectral shape information based on historical ground-based measurements. At-sensor radiance is calculated for the narrow-swath sensor using this spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters that are also based on historical in situ measurements. Results of the inter-calibration method show agreement on the 2 5 percent level in most spectral regions with the vicarious calibration technique relying on coincident ground-based measurements referred to as the reflectance-based approach. While the variability of the inter-calibration method based on non-coincident image pairs is significantly larger, results are consistent with techniques relying on in situ measurements. The method is also insensitive to spectral differences between the sensors by transferring to surface spectral reflectance prior to prediction of at-sensor radiance. The utility of this inter-calibration method is made clear by its flexibility to utilize image pairings with acquisition dates differing in excess of 30 days allowing frequent absolute calibration comparisons between wide- and narrow-swath sensors.

  9. Oligonucleotide recombination enabled site-specific mutagenesis in bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombineering refers to a strategy for engineering DNA sequences using a specialized mode of homologous recombination. This technology can be used for rapidly constructing precise changes in bacterial genome sequences in vivo. Oligo recombination is one type of recombineering that uses ssDNA olig...

  10. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Jingfu, E-mail: jfwang@bjut.edu.cn; Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. Inmore » this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.« less

  11. The Meteorological Setting of Narrow Bipolar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, M. A.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Heavner, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Narrow Bipolar Events (NBEs) are an impulsive form of electrical breakdown in storms which emits strong VHF radiation. It is well known that these events can be readily detected by VHF receivers in orbit and thus may provide a highly practical means to globally monitor storm activity. However, relatively little is known about how NBEs relate to the convective phase of storms and of how good a predictor they are of severe weather events such as large hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes. On June 10, 2002, numerous energetic NBEs were detected over Kansas by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Edot array, which is primarily located in Florida. These NBEs were also detected by a VHF receiver on-board the SVN 54 GPS satellite. The NBEs were associated with severe thunderstorms which produced softball size hail exceeding 11 centimeters in diameter and a weak F0 tornado. In another case study, several F2 tornadic Florida storms were analyzed for March, 2001. Unlike the Kansas storms, the NBEs of the Florida tornadic storms were spread out over a much wider area and exhibited considerable variability in both frequency of occurrence and predominant polarity of vertical charge transfer. To further explore the significance of the NBE rate variability, we will analyze NEXRAD radar volume scans in conjunction with Edot 3-dimensional locations to better understand how NBEs correlate with the thunderstorm life-cycle.

  12. Genetic recombination of the hepatitis C virus: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Morel, V; Fournier, C; François, C; Brochot, E; Helle, F; Duverlie, G; Castelain, S

    2011-02-01

    Genetic recombination is a well-known feature of RNA viruses that plays a significant role in their evolution. Although recombination is well documented for Flaviviridae family viruses, the first natural recombinant strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified as recently as 2002. Since then, a few other natural inter-genotypic, intra-genotypic and intra-subtype recombinant HCV strains have been described. However, the frequency of recombination may have been underestimated because not all known HCV recombinants are screened for in routine practice. Furthermore, the choice of treatment regimen and its predictive outcome remain problematic as the therapeutic strategy for HCV infection is genotype dependent. HCV recombination also raises many questions concerning its mechanisms and effects on the epidemiological and physiopathological features of the virus. This review provides an update on recombinant HCV strains, the process that gives rise to recombinants and clinical implications of recombination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Low-temperature creation of Frenkel defects via hot electron-hole recombination in highly pure NaCl single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Nagirnyi, V.; Shablonin, E.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2016-07-01

    The creation spectrum of stable F centres (being part of F-H pairs of Frenkel defects) by synchrotron radiation of 7-40 eV has been measured for highly pure NaCl single crystals at 12 K using a highly sensitive luminescent method. It is shown that the efficiency of F centre creation in a closely packed NaCl is low at the decay of anion or cation excitons (7.8-8.4 and 33.4 eV, respectively) or at the recombination of relaxed conduction electrons and valence holes. Only the recombination of nonrelaxed (hot) electrons with holes provides the energy exceeding threshold value EFD, which is sufficient for the creation of Frenkel defects at low temperature.

  14. Evidence for Radiative Recombination of O+ Ions as a Significant Source of O 844.6 nm Emission Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrop, L.; Kerr, R. B.; Huang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectron (PE) impact on ground-state O(3P) atoms is well known as a major source of twilight 844.6 nm emission in the midlatitude thermosphere. Knowledge of the PE flux can be used to infer thermospheric oxygen density, [O], from photometric measurements of 844.6 nm airglow, provided that PE impact is the dominant process generating the observed emission. During several spring observational campaigns at Arecibo Observatory, however, we have observed significant 844.6 nm emission throughout the night, which is unlikely to arise from PE impact excitation which requires solar illumination of either the local or geomagnetically conjugate thermosphere. Here we show that radiative recombination (RR) of O+ ions is likely responsible for the observed nighttime emission, based on model predictions of electron and O+ ion density and temperature by the Incoherent Scatter Radar Ionosphere Model. The calculated emission brightness produced by O + RR exhibits good agreement with the airglow data, in that both decay approximately monotonically throughout the night at similar rates. We conclude that the conventional assumption of a pure PE impact source is most likely to be invalid during dusk twilight, when RR-generated emission is most significant. Estimation of [O] from measurements of 844.6 nm emission demands isolation of the PE impact source via coincident estimation of the RR source, and the effective cross section for RR-generated emission is found here to be consistent with optically thin conditions.

  15. Widespread recombination in published animal mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, A D; Martin, D P; Ladoukakis, E D; Posada, D; Zouros, E

    2005-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination has been observed in several animal species, but there are doubts as to whether it is common or only occurs under special circumstances. Animal mtDNA sequences retrieved from public databases were unambiguously aligned and rigorously tested for evidence of recombination. At least 30 recombination events were detected among 186 alignments examined. Recombinant sequences were found in invertebrates and vertebrates, including primates. It appears that mtDNA recombination may occur regularly in the animal cell but rarely produces new haplotypes because of homoplasmy. Common animal mtDNA recombination would necessitate a reexamination of phylogenetic and biohistorical inference based on the assumption of clonal mtDNA transmission. Recombination may also have an important role in producing and purging mtDNA mutations and thus in mtDNA-based diseases and senescence.

  16. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  17. Ultralow surface recombination velocity in InP nanowires probed by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hannah J; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Yong, Chaw-Keong; Docherty, Callum J; Paiman, Suriati; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2012-10-10

    Using transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements, we have made noncontact, room temperature measurements of the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in InP nanowires. InP nanowires exhibited a very long photoconductivity lifetime of over 1 ns, and carrier lifetimes were remarkably insensitive to surface states despite the large nanowire surface area-to-volume ratio. An exceptionally low surface recombination velocity (170 cm/s) was recorded at room temperature. These results suggest that InP nanowires are prime candidates for optoelectronic devices, particularly photovoltaic devices, without the need for surface passivation. We found that the carrier mobility is not limited by nanowire diameter but is strongly limited by the presence of planar crystallographic defects such as stacking faults in these predominantly wurtzite nanowires. These findings show the great potential of very narrow InP nanowires for electronic devices but indicate that improvements in the crystallographic uniformity of InP nanowires will be critical for future nanowire device engineering.

  18. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in chromosome 6p12-p11: Locus heterogeneity and recombinations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, A.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.; Serratosa, J.M.

    1996-06-14

    We recently analyzed under homogeneity a large pedigree from Belize with classic juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). After a genome-wide search with 146 microsatellites, we obtained significant linkage between chromosome 6p markers, D6S257 and D6S272, and both convulsive and EEG traits of JME. Recombinations in two affected members defined a 40 cM JME region flanked by D6S313 and D6S258. In the present communication, we explored if the same chromosome 6p11 microsatellites also have a role in JME mixed with pyknoleptic absences. We allowed for heterogeneity during linkage analyses. We tested for heterogeneity by the admixture test and looked for more recombinations.more » D6S272, D6S466, D6S294, and D6S257 were significantly linked (Z{sub max} > 3.5) to the clinical and EEG traits of 22 families, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance with 70% penetrance. Pairwise Z{sub max} were 4.230 for D6S294 ({theta}{sub m=f} at 0.133) and 4.442 for D6S466 ({theta}{sub m=f} at 0.111). Admixture test (H{sub 2} vs. H{sub 1}) was significant (P = 0.0234 for D6S294 and 0.0128 for D6S272) supporting the hypotheses of linkage with heterogeneity. Estimated proportion of linked families, {alpha}, was 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.05-0.99) for D6S294 and D6S272. Multipoint analyses and recombinations in three new families narrowed the JME locus to a 7 cM interval flanked by D6S272 and D6S257. 44 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  19. Reconditioning of Cassini Narrow-Angle Camera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-23

    These five images of single stars, taken at different times with the narrow-angle camera on NASA Cassini spacecraft, show the effects of haze collecting on the camera optics, then successful removal of the haze by warming treatments.

  20. Recombinant levels of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants deficient in various replication, recombination, or repair genes.

    PubMed Central

    Zieg, J; Maples, V F; Kushner, S R

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing mutations in lexA, rep, uvrA, uvrD, uvrE, lig, polA, dam, or xthA were constructed and tested for conjugation and transduction proficiencies and ability to form Lac+ recombinants in an assay system utilizing a nontandem duplication of two partially deleted lactose operons (lacMS286phi80dIIlacBK1). lexA and rep mutants were as deficient (20% of wild type) as recB and recC strains in their ability to produce Lac+ progeny. All the other strains exhibited increased frequencies of Lac+ recombinant formation, compared with wild type, ranging from 2- to 13-fold. Some strains showed markedly increased conjugation proficiency (dam uvrD) compared to wild type, while others appeared deficient (polA107). Some differences in transduction proficiency were also observed. Analysis of the Lac+ recombinants formed by the various mutants indicated that they were identical to the recombinants formed by a wild-type strain. The results indicate that genetic recombination in E. coli is a highly regulated process involving multiple gene products. PMID:350859

  1. Marker-Dependent Recombination in T4 Bacteriophage. IV. Recombinational Effects of Antimutator T4 DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakov, V. P.; Plugina, L. A.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinational effects of the antimutator allele tsL42 of gene 43 of phage T4, encoding DNA polymerase, were studied in crosses between rIIB mutants. Recombination under tsL42-restricted conditions differed from the normal one in several respects: (1) basic recombination was enhanced, especially within very short distances; (2) mismatch repair tracts were shortened, while the contribution of mismatch repair to recombination was not changed; (3) marker interference at very short distances was augmented. We infer that the T4 DNA polymerase is directly involved in mismatch repair, performing both excision of a nonmatched single strand (by its 3' -> 5' exonuclease) and filling the resulting gap. A pathway for the mismatch repair was substantiated; it includes sequential action of endo VII (gp49) -> 3'->5' exonuclease (gp43) -> DNA polymerase (gp43) -> DNA ligase (gp30). It is argued that the marker interference at very short distances may result from the same sequence of events during the final processing of recombinational intermediates. PMID:7635281

  2. Recombination Modulates How Selection Affects Linked Sites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Loewe, Laurence; Goldstein, Steve; Himmel, Tiffany L.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill–Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate. PMID:23152720

  3. Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhengdong; Zhang, Senlin; Gong, Chensheng; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonics offer an exciting way to mediate the interaction between light and matter, allowing strong field enhancement and confinement, large absorption and scattering at resonance. However, simultaneous realization of ultra-narrow band perfect absorption and electromagnetic field enhancement is challenging due to the intrinsic high optical losses and radiative damping in metals. Here, we propose an all-metal plasmonic absorber with an absorption bandwidth less than 8 nm and polarization insensitive absorptivity exceeding 99%. Unlike traditional Metal-Dielectric-Metal configurations, we demonstrate that the narrowband perfect absorption and field enhancement are ascribed to the vertical gap plasmonic mode in the deep subwavelength scale, which has a high quality factor of 120 and mode volume of about 10−4 × (λres/n)3. Based on the coupled mode theory, we verify that the diluted field enhancement is proportional to the absorption, and thus perfect absorption is critical to maximum field enhancement. In addition, the proposed perfect absorber can be operated as a refractive index sensor with a sensitivity of 885 nm/RIU and figure of merit as high as 110. It provides a new design strategy for narrow band perfect absorption and local field enhancement, and has potential applications in biosensors, filters and nonlinear optics. PMID:27046540

  4. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. Decreased airway narrowing and smooth muscle contraction in hyperresponsive pigs.

    PubMed

    Turner, Debra J; Noble, Peter B; Lucas, Matthew P; Mitchell, Howard W

    2002-10-01

    Increased smooth muscle contractility or reduced smooth muscle mechanical loads could account for the excessive airway narrowing and hyperresponsiveness seen in asthma. These mechanisms were investigated by using an allergen-induced porcine model of airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway narrowing to electric field stimulation was measured in isolated bronchial segments, over a range of transmural pressures (0-20 cmH(2)O). Contractile responses to ACh were measured in bronchial segments and in isolated tracheal smooth muscle strips isolated from control and test (ovalbumin sensitized and challenged) pigs. Test airways narrowed less than controls (P < 0.0001). Test pigs showed reduced contractility to ACh, both in isolated bronchi (P < 0.01) and smooth muscle strips (P < 0.01). Thus isolated airways from pigs exhibiting airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo are hyporesponsive in vitro. The decreased narrowing in bronchi from hyperresponsive pigs may be related to decreased smooth muscle contractility. These data suggest that mechanisms external to the airway wall may be important to the hyperresponsive nature of sensitized lungs.

  6. Recombination walking: genetic selection of clones from pooled libraries of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M; Savinelli, E A; Couture, S M; Hannigan, G M; Han, Z; Selden, R F; Treco, D A

    1993-01-01

    Recombination walking is based on the genetic selection of specific human clones from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by homologous recombination. The desired clone is selected from a pooled (unordered) YAC library, eliminating labor-intensive steps typically used in organizing and maintaining ordered YAC libraries. Recombination walking represents an efficient approach to library screening and is well suited for chromosome-walking approaches to the isolation of genes associated with common diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8367472

  7. Evolution of meiotic recombination genes in maize and teosinte.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Warzecha, Tomasz; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2017-01-25

    Meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. The role of recombination in evolution is recognized but little is known about how evolutionary forces affect the recombination pathway itself. Although the recombination pathway is fundamentally conserved across different species, genetic variation in recombination components and outcomes has been observed. Theoretical predictions and empirical studies suggest that changes in the recombination pathway are likely to provide adaptive abilities to populations experiencing directional or strong selection pressures, such as those occurring during species domestication. We hypothesized that adaptive changes in recombination may be associated with adaptive evolution patterns of genes involved in meiotic recombination. To examine how maize evolution and domestication affected meiotic recombination genes, we studied patterns of sequence polymorphism and divergence in eleven genes controlling key steps in the meiotic recombination pathway in a diverse set of maize inbred lines and several accessions of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We discovered that, even though the recombination genes generally exhibited high sequence conservation expected in a pathway controlling a key cellular process, they showed substantial levels and diverse patterns of sequence polymorphism. Among others, we found differences in sequence polymorphism patterns between tropical and temperate maize germplasms. Several recombination genes displayed patterns of polymorphism indicative of adaptive evolution. Despite their ancient origin and overall sequence conservation, meiotic recombination genes can exhibit extensive and complex patterns of molecular evolution. Changes in these genes could affect the functioning of the recombination pathway, and may have contributed to the successful domestication of maize and its expansion to new cultivation areas.

  8. Mitigating Mitochondrial Genome Erosion Without Recombination.

    PubMed

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Kokko, Hanna; Christie, Joshua R

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes uniparentally, often without recombination among genetically divergent organelles. While this asymmetric inheritance maintains the efficacy of purifying selection at the level of the cell, the absence of recombination could also make the genome susceptible to Muller's ratchet. How mitochondria escape this irreversible defect accumulation is a fundamental unsolved question. Occasional paternal leakage could in principle promote recombination, but it would also compromise the purifying selection benefits of uniparental inheritance. We assess this tradeoff using a stochastic population-genetic model. In the absence of recombination, uniparental inheritance of freely-segregating genomes mitigates mutational erosion, while paternal leakage exacerbates the ratchet effect. Mitochondrial fusion-fission cycles ensure independent genome segregation, improving purifying selection. Paternal leakage provides opportunity for recombination to slow down the mutation accumulation, but always at a cost of increased steady-state mutation load. Our findings indicate that random segregation of mitochondrial genomes under uniparental inheritance can effectively combat the mutational meltdown, and that homologous recombination under paternal leakage might not be needed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Distinguishing triplet energy transfer and trap-assisted recombination in multi-color organic light-emitting diode with an ultrathin phosphorescent emissive layer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xue, Qin, E-mail: xueqin19851202@163.com; Liu, Shouyin; Xie, Guohua

    2014-03-21

    An ultrathin layer of deep-red phosphorescent emitter tris(1-phenylisoquinoline) iridium (III) (Ir(piq){sub 3}) is inserted within different positions of the electron blocking layer fac-tris (1-phenylpyrazolato-N,C{sup 2′})-iridium(III) (Ir(ppz){sub 3}) to distinguish the contribution of the emission from the triplet exciton energy transfer/diffusion from the adjacent blue phosphorescent emitter and the trap-assisted recombination from the narrow band-gap emitter itself. The charge trapping effect of the narrow band-gap deep-red emitter which forms a quantum-well-like structure also plays a role in shaping the electroluminescent characteristics of multi-color organic light-emitting diodes. By accurately controlling the position of the ultrathin sensing layer, it is considerably easy tomore » balance the white emission which is quite challenging for full-color devices with multiple emission zones. There is nearly no energy transfer detectable if 7 nm thick Ir(ppz){sub 3} is inserted between the blue phosphorescent emitter and the ultrathin red emitter.« less

  10. Photovoltaic measurement of bandgap narrowing in moderately doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Alamo, Jesus A.; Swanson, Richard M.; Lietoila, Arto

    1983-05-01

    Solar cells have been fabricated on n-type and p-type moderately doped Si. The shrinkage of the Si bandgap has been obtained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency in the near infrared spectrum ( hv = 1.00-1.25 eV) around the fundamental absorption edge. The results agree with previous optical measurements of bandgap narrowing in Si. It is postulated that this optically-determined bandgap narrowing is the rigid shrinkage of the forbidden gap due to many-body effects. The "device bandgap narrowing" obtained by measuring the pn product in bipolar devices leads to discrepant values because (i) the density of states in the conduction and valence band is modified due to the potential fluctuations originated in the variations in local impurity density, and (ii) the influence of Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  11. EXAMINATION OF Zr AND Ti RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1958-12-19

    Cold-worked specimens of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, iodide titanium, and A-55 titanium were tested in a high-pressure recombiner loop in an attempt to duplicate anomalous results obtained in a prior recombiner loop. Hydrogen analyses and metallographic examinations were made on all specimens. The titanium materials and Zircaloy-2 picked up major amounts of hydrogen in the cell section. None of the materials tested showed appreciable hydrogen absorption in the recombiner section. Complete recrystallization occurred in all cell specimens while only Zircaloy-2, of the recombiner specimens, showed any degree of recrystallization. No explanation for this behavior can be given. A survnnary of themore » data obtained in previous recombiner loops is compared with the results of this loop. Conclusions were based on the results of three recombiner loops. Primarlly because of the hydrogen absorption data obtained in all three recombiner loops it is recommended that the zirconium and titunium materials tested not be used in environments similar to those encountered in high pressure recombiner loops. (auth)« less

  12. Mitochondrial recombination increases with age in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Goedbloed, Daniël J; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Maas, Marc F P M; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

    2010-05-01

    With uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, there seems little reason for homologous recombination in mitochondria, but the machinery for mitochondrial recombination is quite well-conserved in many eukaryote species. In fungi and yeasts heteroplasmons may be formed when strains fuse and transfer of organelles takes place, making it possible to study mitochondrial recombination when introduced mitochondria contain different markers. A survey of wild-type isolates from a local population of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina for the presence of seven optional mitochondrial introns indicated that mitochondrial recombination does take place in nature. Moreover the recombination frequency appeared to be correlated with age: the more rapidly ageing fraction of the population had a significantly lower linkage disequilibrium indicating more recombination. Direct confrontation experiments with heterokaryon incompatible strains with different mitochondrial markers at different (relative) age confirmed that mitochondrial recombination increases with age. We propose that with increasing mitochondrial damage over time, mitochondrial recombination - even within a homoplasmic population of mitochondria - is a mechanism that may restore mitochondrial function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of FSK models for radiative heat transfer under oxyfuel conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Alastair G.; Porter, Rachael; Pranzitelli, Alessandro; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Oxyfuel is a promising technology for carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to combustion processes. It would be highly advantageous in the deployment of CCS to be able to model and optimise oxyfuel combustion, however the increased concentrations of CO2 and H2O under oxyfuel conditions modify several fundamental processes of combustion, including radiative heat transfer. This study uses benchmark narrow band radiation models to evaluate the influence of assumptions in global full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) models, and whether they are suitable for modelling radiation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of oxyfuel combustion. The statistical narrow band (SNB) and correlated-k (CK) models are used to calculate benchmark data for the radiative source term and heat flux, which are then compared to the results calculated from FSK models. Both the full-spectrum correlated k (FSCK) and the full-spectrum scaled k (FSSK) models are applied using up-to-date spectral data. The results show that the FSCK and FSSK methods achieve good agreement in the test cases. The FSCK method using a five-point Gauss quadrature scheme is recommended for CFD calculations in oxyfuel conditions, however there are still potential inaccuracies in cases with very wide variations in the ratio between CO2 and H2O concentrations.

  14. Simulations of radiation pressure experiments narrow down the energy and momentum of light in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethune-Waddell, Max; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    Consensus on a single electrodynamic theory has yet to be reached. Discord was seeded over a century ago when Abraham and Minkowski proposed different forms of electromagnetic momentum density and has since expanded in scope with the gradual introduction of other forms of momentum and force densities. Although degenerate sets of electrodynamic postulates can be fashioned to comply with global energy and momentum conservation, hope remains to isolate a single theory based on detailed comparison between force density predictions and radiation pressure experiments. This comparison is two-fold challenging because there are just a handful of quantitative radiation pressure measurements over the past century and the solutions developed from different postulates, which consist of approximate expressions and inferential deductions, are scattered throughout the literature. For these reasons, it is appropriate to conduct a consolidated and comprehensive re-analysis of past experiments under the assumption that the momentum and energy of light in matter are degenerate. We create a combined electrodynamic/fluid dynamic simulation testbed that uses five historically significant sets of electrodynamic postulates, including those by Abraham and Minkowski, to model radiation pressure under diverse configurations with minimal assumptions. This leads to new interpretations of landmark investigations of light momentum, including the Balazs thought experiment, the Jones-Richards and Jones-Leslie measurements of radiation pressure on submerged mirrors, observations of laser-deformed fluid surfaces, and experiments on optical trapping and tractor beaming of dielectric particles. We discuss the merits and demerits of each set of postulates when compared to available experimental evidence and fundamental conservation laws. Of the five sets of postulates, the Abraham and Einstein-Laub postulates provide the greatest consistency with observations and the most physically plausible

  15. Theory of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of oil radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariamov, N B

    1942-01-01

    In the present report the coefficients of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance are theoretically obtained for the case of laminar flow of a heated viscous liquid in a narrow rectangular channel. The results obtained are applied to the computation of oil radiators, which to a first approximation may be considered as made up of a system of such channels. In conclusion, a comparison is given of the theoretical with the experimental results obtained from tests on airplane oil radiators.

  16. The effects of narrow and elevated path walking on aperture crossing.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Cinelli, Michael E; Denomme, Luke T; Frank, James S

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the impact that action capabilities have on identifying possibilities for action, particularly how postural threat influences the passability of apertures. To do this, the ability to maintain balance was challenged by manipulating the level of postural threat while walking. First, participants walked along a 7m path and passed through two vertical obstacles spaced 1.1-1.5×the shoulder width apart during normal walking. Next, postural threat was manipulated by having participants complete the task either walking on a narrow, ground level path or on an elevated/narrow path. Despite a decrease in walking speed as well as an increase in trunk sway in both the narrow and elevated/narrow walking conditions, the passability of apertures was only affected when the consequence of instability was greatest. In the elevated/narrow walking condition, individuals maintained a larger critical point (rotated their shoulders for larger aperture widths) compared to normal walking. However, this effect was not observed for the narrow path walking suggesting that the level of postural threat was not enough to impose similar changes to the critical point. Therefore, it appears that manipulating action capabilities by increasing postural threat does indeed influence aperture crossing behavior, however the consequence associated with instability must be high before both gait characteristics and the critical point are affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfect narrow band absorber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shiwen; Zhao, Jun; Zuo, Duluo; Wang, Xinbing

    2016-05-02

    We design and numerically investigate a perfect narrow band absorber based on a metal-metal-dielectric-metal structure which consists of periodic metallic nanoribbon arrays. The absorber presents an ultra narrow absorption band of 1.11 nm with a nearly perfect absorption of over 99.9% in the infrared region. For oblique incidence, the absorber shows an absorption more than 95% for a wide range of incident angles from 0 to 50°. Structure parameters to the influence of the performance are investigated. The structure shows high sensing performance with a high sensitivity of 1170 nm/RIU and a large figure of merit of 1054. The proposed structure has great potential as a biosensor.

  18. Complexity of genetic mechanisms conferring nonuniformity of recombination in maize.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingchun; Deng, Min; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Lin

    2017-04-26

    Recombinations occur nonuniformly across the maize genome. To dissect the genetic mechanisms underlying the nonuniformity of recombination, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using recombinant inbred line populations. Genome-wide QTL scan identified hundreds of QTLs with both cis-prone and trans- effects for recombination number variation. To provide detailed insights into cis- factors associated with recombination variation, we examined the genomic features around recombination hot regions, including density of genes, DNA transposons, retrotransposons, and some specific motifs. Compared to recombination variation in whole genome, more QTLs were mapped for variations in recombination hot regions. The majority QTLs for recombination hot regions are trans-QTLs and co-localized with genes from the recombination pathway. We also found that recombination variation was positively associated with the presence of genes and DNA transposons, but negatively related to the presence of long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Additionally, 41 recombination hot regions were fine-mapped. The high-resolution genotyping of five randomly selected regions in two F 2 populations verified that they indeed have ultra-high recombination frequency, which is even higher than that of the well-known recombination hot regions sh1-bz and a1-sh2. Taken together, our results further our understanding of recombination variation in plants.

  19. Recombination rate plasticity: revealing mechanisms by design

    PubMed Central

    Sefick, Stephen; Rushton, Chase

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit ‘plastic’ responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve. Further, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms and molecular processes that contribute to recombination rate plasticity. Here, we review 100 years of experimental work on recombination rate plasticity conducted in Drosophila melanogaster. We categorize this work into four major classes of experimental designs, which we describe via classic studies in D. melanogaster. Based on these studies, we highlight molecular mechanisms that are supported by experimental results and relate these findings to studies in other systems. We synthesize lessons learned from this model system into experimental guidelines for using recent advances in genotyping technologies, to study recombination rate plasticity in non-model organisms. Specifically, we recommend (1) using fine-scale genome-wide markers, (2) collecting time-course data, (3) including crossover distribution measurements, and (4) using mixed effects models to analyse results. To illustrate this approach, we present an application adhering to these guidelines from empirical work we conducted in Drosophila pseudoobscura. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109222

  20. Measurements of Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for He-like and H-like Metal Ions from Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K. W.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D. W.; Decaux, V.

    1991-01-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate coefficients associated with the Δn = 1 radiative core transitions have been determined for Ti XXI, Fe XXV, Ni XXVII, and Ti XXII as a function of the electron temperature from the analysis of x-ray satellite spectra emitted from tokamak plasmas. The results obtained are in good agreement with the recent theoretical predictions of Bely-Dubau et al., and Karim and Bhalla.

  1. Kinetic neoclassical calculations of impurity radiation profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Stotler, D. P.; Battaglia, D. J.; Hager, R.; ...

    2016-12-30

    Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states, as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions atmore » a given electron temperature. As a result, analogous simulations with a neon impurity yield qualitatively similar results.« less

  2. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  3. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401; Kuciauskas, Darius

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (x ∼ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te barriers (x ∼ 0.25–0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have amore » zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ∼6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.« less

  4. H- photodetachment and radiative attachment for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Forrey, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    We combine R-matrix calculations, asymptotic relations, and comparison to available experimental data to construct an H- photodetachment cross section reliable over a large range of photon energies and take into account the series of auto-detaching shape and Feshbach resonances between 10.92 and 14.35 eV. The accuracy of the cross section is controlled by ensuring that it satisfies all known oscillator strength sum rules, including contributions from the resonances and single-photon double-electron photodetachment. From the resulting recommended cross section, spontaneous and stimulated radiative attachment rate coefficients are obtained. Photodetachment rates are also computed for the standard interstellar radiation field, in diffuse and dense interstellar clouds, for blackbody radiation, and for high redshift distortion photons in the recombination epoch. Implications are investigated for these astrophysical radiation fields and epochs.

  5. Connecting theory and data to understand recombination rate evolution.

    PubMed

    Dapper, Amy L; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-12-19

    Meiotic recombination is necessary for successful gametogenesis in most sexually reproducing organisms and is a fundamental genomic parameter, influencing the efficacy of selection and the fate of new mutations. The molecular and evolutionary functions of recombination should impose strong selective constraints on the range of recombination rates. Yet, variation in recombination rate is observed on a variety of genomic and evolutionary scales. In the past decade, empirical studies have described variation in recombination rate within genomes, between individuals, between sexes, between populations and between species. At the same time, theoretical work has provided an increasingly detailed picture of the evolutionary advantages to recombination. Perhaps surprisingly, the causes of natural variation in recombination rate remain poorly understood. We argue that empirical and theoretical approaches to understand the evolution of recombination have proceeded largely independently of each other. Most models that address the evolution of recombination rate were created to explain the evolutionary advantage of recombination rather than quantitative differences in rate among individuals. Conversely, most empirical studies aim to describe variation in recombination rate, rather than to test evolutionary hypotheses. In this Perspective, we argue that efforts to integrate the rich bodies of empirical and theoretical work on recombination rate are crucial to moving this field forward. We provide new directions for the development of theory and the production of data that will jointly close this gap.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Influence of the narrow {111} planes on axial and planar ion channeling.

    PubMed

    Motapothula, M; Dang, Z Y; Venkatesan, T; Breese, M B H; Rana, M A; Osman, A

    2012-05-11

    We report channeling patterns where clearly resolved effects of the narrow {111} planes are observed in axial and planar alignments for 2 MeV protons passing through a 55 nm [001] silicon membrane. At certain axes, such as <213> and <314>, the offset in atomic rows forming the narrow {111} planes results in shielding from the large potential at the wide {111} planes, producing a region of shallow, asymmetric potential from which axial channeling patterns have no plane of symmetry. At small tilts from such axes, different behavior is observed from the wide and narrow {111} planes. At planar alignment, distinctive channeling effects due to the narrow planes are observed. As a consequence of the shallow potential well at the narrow planes, incident protons suffer dechanneled trajectories which are excluded from channeling within the wide planes, resulting in an anomalously large scattered beam at {111} alignment.

  7. Statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Shot noise is the cause of statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation generated by an ensemble of electrons oscillating in magnetic field. Autophasing time - the time required for the cooperative cyclotron radiation power to peak - is the critical parameter characterizing the dynamics of electron-oscillators interacting via the radiation field. It is shown that premodulation of charged particles leads to a considerable narrowing of the autophasing time distribution function for which the analytic expression is obtained. When the number of particles Ne exceeds a certain value that depends on the degree to which the particles have been premodulated, the relative root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the autophasing time δT changes from a logarithmic dependence on Ne (δT ∼ 1 / lnNe) to square-root (δT ∼ 1 /√{Ne }). A slight energy spread (∼4%) results in a twofold drop of the maximum attainable power of cooperative cyclotron radiation.

  8. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  9. Radiative decays of massive relic particles and the submillimeter background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, George B.; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of the decay photons of an unstable relic particle species with the microwave background radiation is considered. The radiative decays of these particles delay recombination and serve as an energy source for the resultant plasma. Nonrelativistic Compton scattering by these electrons couples the decay photons to the microwave background, producing submillimeter distortions. If the decay products close the universe, they must decay with a radiative branching ratio larger than 2.5 x 10 to the -5th in order to produce recently observed excess submillimeter background radiation. To be consistent with measurements of the UV background, their mass m is much greater than 114 keV and their decay redshift z is much greater than 5200.

  10. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, T; Otto, S P

    2000-01-01

    Most models describing the evolution of recombination have focused on the case of a single population, implicitly assuming that all individuals are equally likely to mate and that spatial heterogeneity in selection is absent. In these models, the evolution of recombination is driven by linkage disequilibria generated either by epistatic selection or drift. Models based on epistatic selection show that recombination can be favored if epistasis is negative and weak compared to directional selection and if the recombination modifier locus is tightly linked to the selected loci. In this article, we examine the joint effects of spatial heterogeneity in selection and epistasis on the evolution of recombination. In a model with two patches, each subject to different selection regimes, we consider the cases of mutation-selection and migration-selection balance as well as the spread of beneficial alleles. We find that including spatial heterogeneity extends the range of epistasis over which recombination can be favored. Indeed, recombination can be favored without epistasis, with negative and even with positive epistasis depending on environmental circumstances. The selection pressure acting on recombination-modifier loci is often much stronger with spatial heterogeneity, and even loosely linked modifiers and free linkage may evolve. In each case, predicting whether recombination is favored requires knowledge of both the type of environmental heterogeneity and epistasis, as none of these factors alone is sufficient to predict the outcome. PMID:10978305

  11. Design and fabrication of dichroic mirrors for color separation and recombination of the Kr-Ar laser (white laser)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungho; Park, Youngjun; Hwang, Young M.

    1997-10-01

    Cut-off filters reject all the radiation below and transmit all the above a certain wavelength and vice versa. In this paper, we will study the design and fabrication of a short wave pass or a long wave pass dichroic mirrors for color separation and recombination from the R.G.B. color beam source. In the laser display system, color separation and recombination is very important. We designed the coating layers so that the best performance may be obtained from a 45 degree incident s-polarized light. The following fabrication specification is satisfied in our color separation/recombination of the Kr-Ar laser source. The first dichroic mirror for the blue color separation, maximized on reflectance and transmittance as R > 99% in the blue regions (400 approximately 490 nm) and T > 90% in the green and red region (510 approximately 700 nm). The second dichroic mirror for the color recombination maximized the reflectance and transmittance as R > 99% in the range of 510 approximately 700 nm and T > 90% in the blue color region. In the third dichroic mirror for which it used the color separation and recombination of the green and red simultaneously, maximized the reflectance and transmittance as R > 99% in the green region (510 approximately 560 nm) and T > 90% in the red region. These fabricated mirrors were applied in our laser display projection system. We obtained an excellent result.

  12. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  13. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  14. Growth of Nanosized Single Crystals for Efficient Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungjin; Park, Jong Hyun; Nam, Yun Seok; Lee, Bo Ram; Zhao, Baodan; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Jung, Eui Dae; Jeon, Hansol; Kim, Ju-Young; Jeong, Hu Young; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2018-04-24

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging as promising emitting materials due to their narrow full-width at half-maximum emissions, color tunability, and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs). However, the thermal generation of free charges at room temperature results in a low radiative recombination rate and an excitation-intensity-dependent PLQY, which is associated with the trap density. Here, we report perovskite films composed of uniform nanosized single crystals (average diameter = 31.7 nm) produced by introducing bulky amine ligands and performing the growth at a lower temperature. By effectively controlling the crystal growth, we maximized the radiative bimolecular recombination yield by reducing the trap density and spatially confining the charges. Finally, highly bright and efficient green emissive perovskite light-emitting diodes that do not suffer from electroluminescence blinking were achieved with a luminance of up to 55 400 cd m -2 , current efficiency of 55.2 cd A -1 , and external quantum efficiency of 12.1%.

  15. Numerical study of electronic impact and radiation in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ning; Wang, Long; Hu, Xiwei

    1998-02-01

    A hydrodynamic simulation of pure argon single-bubble sonoluminescence including electron collisional ionization, recombination, and radiative energy loss has been performed. We find that near the moment that the bubble reaches its minimum radius the atoms inside a very thin layer around the origin of the bubble are strongly ionized, and the light emission occurs nearly simultaneously. Therefore we conclude that multiple ionization and recombination, which mainly occur in the thin layer of plasma, play a dramatically important role in the noble gas sonoluminescence. We also find that the temperature and the intensity of luminescence are not so high as those predicted by previous models, which consider only neutral gases.

  16. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  17. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  18. Physical conditions in broad and associated narrow absorption-line systems toward APM 08279+5255

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.

    2000-05-01

    Results of a careful analysis of the absorption systems with z_abs =~ z_em seen toward the bright, z_em ~ 3.91, gravitationally lensed quasar APM 08279+5255 are presented. Two of the narrow-line systems, at z_abs = 3.8931 and z_abs = 3.9135, show absorptions from singly ionized species with weak or no N v and O vi absorptions at the same redshift. Absorption due to fine structure transitions of C ii and S ii i (excitation energies corresponding to, respectively, 156mu m and 34mu m) are detected at z_abs = 3.8931. Excitation by IR radiation is favored as the column density ratios are consistent with the shape of APM 08279+5255 IR spectrum. The low-ionization state of the system favors a picture where the cloud is closer to the IR source than to the UV source, supporting the idea that the extension of the IR source is larger than ~ 200 pc. The absence of fine structure lines at z_abs = 3.9135 suggests that the gas responsible for this system is farther away from the IR source. Abundances are ~ 0.01 and 1 Zsun at z_abs = 3.913 and 3.8931 and aluminum could be over-abundant with respect to silicon and carbon by at least a factor of two and five. All this suggests that whereas the z_abs = 3.8931 system is probably located within 200 pc from the QSO and ejected at a velocity larger than 1000 km s-1, the z_abs = 3.9135 system is farther away and part of the host-galaxy. Several narrow-line systems have strong absorption lines due to C iv, O vi and N v and very low neutral hydrogen optical depths. This probably implies metallicities Z>= Z_sun although firm conclusion cannot be drawn as the exact value depends strongly on the shape of the ionizing spectrum. The C iv broad absorption has a complex structure with mini-BALs (width <= 1000 km s-1) and narrow components superposed on a continuous absorption of smaller optical depth. The continuous absorption is much stronger in O vi indicating that the corresponding gas-component is of higher ionization than the other components

  19. Nonmutagenic carcinogens induce intrachromosomal recombination in dividing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, R H

    1993-12-01

    A large number of animal and human carcinogens without apparent genotoxic activity exist (nonmutagenic carcinogens) that are difficult or impossible to detect with the currently used short-term tests. Because of the association of carcinogenesis with genome rearrangement, a system selecting for intrachromosomal recombination (DEL recombination) that results in genome rearrangement has been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because DEL recombination is under different genetic control than interchromosomal recombination and meiotic recombination, it is probably due to a different mechanism. It has been found that DEL recombination is readily inducible by 10 mutagenic carcinogens and 17 nonmutagenic carcinogens that are not detectable (false negatives) with the Ames assay. In addition, three out of four mutagens that do not cause cancer (false positives in the Ames assay) do not induce DEL recombination. DEL recombination is inducible by UV only in dividing cells but not in cells synchronized in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Interchromosomal recombination, on the other hand, is inducible in G1 but not in G2. The nonmutagenic carcinogens induce DEL recombination only in actively growing cells, which may give some indication as to their mechanism. Further characterization of the mechanism involved in induction of DEL recombination may contribute to the understanding of the biological activity of nonmutagenic carcinogens.

  20. Spectrally narrowed lasing of a self-injection KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yasuhiro; Wani, Koichi; Miki, Tadaaki; Kawahara, Hidehito; Mimasu, Mutsumi; Ogata, Yoshiro

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally nantwed lasing of a KrF excimer laser has teen ahieved by a self-injection technique using abeam splitter for power extraction aixi intravity etalons for spectral-narrowing. The laser cavity is divithi into an amplifying branch aix! a spectralnarrowing branch. The spectral bandwidth was narrowed to <3pm FWHM with air-sed etalons placed in the spectral-narrowing branch. A laser propagation model was intrOdUced for describing the laser intensity traveling in the laser cavity. The calculated intensityincident onthe intracavityetalons wassmaller thanthat in theconventional Fabry-Perotcavity withplane-parallel mirrors.

  1. Evolution of recombination in a constant environment

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Marcus W.; Christiansen, Freddy B.; Brooks, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of evolution at a selectively neutral locus that controls the recombination between two major loci that are under selection is studied. If the major loci are at a stable equilibrium in linkage disequilibrium under selection and recombination, then a mutation at the modifier locus will increase in frequency when rare if and only if it decreases the recombination fraction. If the major loci are in disequilibrium at a balance between selection against deleterious alleles and mutation towards them, then two new phenomena are observed. First, a recombination increasing mutation will succeed if the disequilibrium is negative and the modifier is sufficiently tightly linked to the major loci. Second, depending on the strength of selection, even if the disequilibrium is negative, recombination reduction may occur for looser linkage between the major and modifier loci. PMID:16592864

  2. Rapid one-step recombinational cloning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Changlin; Wehr, Daniel R.; Edwards, Janice; Hauge, Brian

    2008-01-01

    As an increasing number of genes and open reading frames of unknown function are discovered, expression of the encoded proteins is critical toward establishing function. Accordingly, there is an increased need for highly efficient, high-fidelity methods for directional cloning. Among the available methods, site-specific recombination-based cloning techniques, which eliminate the use of restriction endonucleases and ligase, have been widely used for high-throughput (HTP) procedures. We have developed a recombination cloning method, which uses truncated recombination sites to clone PCR products directly into destination/expression vectors, thereby bypassing the requirement for first producing an entry clone. Cloning efficiencies in excess of 80% are obtained providing a highly efficient method for directional HTP cloning. PMID:18424799

  3. Multifactorial Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to High-Energy Proton Radiation: Role of Spore Structural Components and the Homologous Recombination and Non-Homologous End Joining DNA Repair Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Günther; Li, Zuofeng; Klein, Stuart; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The space environment contains high-energy charged particles (e.g., protons, neutrons, electrons, α-particles, heavy ions) emitted by the Sun and galactic sources or trapped in the radiation belts. Protons constitute the majority (87%) of high-energy charged particles. Spores of Bacillus species are one of the model systems used for astro- and radiobiological studies. In this study, spores of different Bacillus subtilis strains were used to study the effects of high energetic proton irradiation on spore survival. Spores of the wild-type B. subtilis strain [mutants deficient in the homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways and mutants deficient in various spore structural components such as dipicolinic acid (DPA), α/β-type small, acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) formation, spore coats, pigmentation, or spore core water content] were irradiated as air-dried multilayers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons with 218 MeV protons [with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 0.4 keV/μm] to various final doses up to 2500 Gy. Spores deficient in NHEJ- and HR-mediated DNA repair were significantly more sensitive to proton radiation than wild-type spores, indicating that both HR and NHEJ DNA repair pathways are needed for spore survival. Spores lacking DPA, α/β-type SASP, or with increased core water content were also significantly more sensitive to proton radiation, whereas the resistance of spores lacking pigmentation or spore coats was essentially identical to that of the wild-type spores. Our results indicate that α/β-type SASP, core water content, and DPA play an important role in spore resistance to high-energy proton irradiation, suggesting their essential function as radioprotectants of the spore interior. Key Words: Bacillus—Spores—DNA repair—Protection—High-energy proton radiation. Astrobiology 12, 1069–1077. PMID:23088412

  4. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  5. Evolution of synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy for various isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Makoto; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Hosokawa, Shuuich; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mibu, Ko

    2017-11-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy that yields absorption type Mössbauer spectra has been applied to various isotopes. This method enables the advanced measurement by using the excellent features of synchrotron radiation, such as Mössbauer spectroscopic measurement under high-pressures. Furthermore, energy selectivity of synchrotron radiation allows us to measure 40K Mössbauer spectra, of which observation is impossible by using ordinary radioactive sources because the first excited state of 40K is not populated by any radioactive parent nuclides. Moreover, this method has flexibility of the experimental setup that the measured sample can be used as a transmitter or a scatterer, depending on the sample conditions. To enhance the measurement efficiency of the spectroscopy, we developed a detection system in which a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector is combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect internal conversion electrons adding to X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. In particular, by selecting the emission from the scatterer sample, depth selective synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy is possible. Furthermore, limitation of the time window in the delayed components enables us to obtain narrow linewidth in Mössbauer spectra. Measurement system that records velocity dependent time spectra and energy information simultaneously realizes the depth selective and narrow linewidth measurement.

  6. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  7. Prisoner's dilemma posed by fitness-associated recombination strategies.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Ydo; Rokhlenko, Oleg

    2007-07-07

    Genetic recombination is a central and repeated topic of study in the evolution of life. However, along with the influence of recombination on evolution, we understand surprisingly little of how selection shapes the nature of recombination. One explanation for recombination is that it allows organisms to escape from perilous situations where they experience very low fitness. As a corollary, it has been suggested that selection should favor recombination at low fitness and not at high fitness (fitness-associated recombination, FAR), and theory suggests that such strategies can indeed be selected. Here we develop models to further investigate the evolution of FAR. Consistent with previous works, we find that FAR can invade and dominate over a strategy of uniform recombination that is independent of fitness. However, our simulation results suggest that extreme FAR strategies, known as group-elitism, are not necessarily superior to other FAR strategies. Moreover, we argue that FAR domination will often occur with a net loss of mean population fitness. Interestingly, this suggests that the strategy of not recombining at high fitness will sometimes be analogous to a defector strategy from the famous "prisoner's dilemma" game: a selfish strategy that is selected but leads to a loss of mean fitness for all players.

  8. Recombinant Allergens in Structural Biology, Diagnosis, and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tscheppe, Angelika; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2017-01-01

    The years 1988–1995 witnessed the beginning of allergen cloning and the generation of recombinant allergens, which opened up new avenues for the diagnosis and research of human allergic diseases. Most crystal and solution structures of allergens have been obtained using recombinant allergens. Structural information on allergens allows insights into their evolutionary biology, illustrates clinically observed cross-reactivities, and makes the design of hypoallergenic derivatives for allergy vaccines possible. Recombinant allergens are widely used in molecule-based allergy diagnosis such as protein microarrays or suspension arrays. Recombinant technologies have been used to produce well-characterized, noncontaminated vaccine components with known biological activities including a variety of allergen derivatives with reduced IgE reactivity. Such recombinant hypoallergens as well as wild-type recombinant allergens have been used successfully in several immunotherapy trials for more than a decade to treat birch and grass pollen allergy. As a more recent application, the development of antibody repertoires directed against conformational epitopes during immunotherapy has been monitored by recombinant allergen chimeras. Although much progress has been made, the number and quality of recombinant allergens will undoubtedly increase and keep improving our knowledge in basic scientific investigations, diagnosis, and therapy of human allergic diseases. PMID:28467993

  9. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Sharmi W.; Hilt, Deborah A.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Jackwood, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus. PMID:21994806

  10. Selfish genes, pleiotropy and the origin of recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Hey, J

    1998-01-01

    If multiple linked polymorphisms are under natural selection, then conflicts arise and the efficiency of natural selection is hindered relative to the case of no linkage. This simple interaction between linkage and natural selection creates an opportunity for mutations that raise the level of recombination to increase in frequency and have an enhanced chance of fixation. This important finding by S. Otto and N. Barton means that mutations that raise the recombination rate, but are otherwise neutral, will be selectively favored under fairly general circumstances of multilocus selection and linkage. The effect described by Otto and Barton, which was limited to neutral modifiers, can also be extended to include all modifiers of recombination, both beneficial and deleterious. Computer simulations show that beneficial mutations that also increase recombination have an increased chance of fixation. Similarly, deleterious mutations that also decrease recombination have an increased chance of fixation. The results suggest that a simple model of recombination modifiers, including both neutral and pleiotropic modifiers, is a necessary explanation for the evolutionary origin of recombination. PMID:9691060

  11. Transitioning to a narrow path: the impact of fear of falling in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Pamela; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Wert, David; Brach, Jennifer S

    2012-01-01

    Everyday ambulation requires navigation of variable terrain, transitions from wide to narrow pathways, and avoiding obstacles. While the effect of age on the transition to a narrow path has been examined briefly, little is known about the impact of fear of falling on gait during the transition to a narrow path. The purpose was to examine the effect of age and fear of falling on gait during transition to a narrow path. In 31 young, mean age=25.3 years, and 30 older adults, mean age=79.6 years, step length, step time, step width and gait speed were examined during usual and transition to narrow pathway using an instrumented walkway. During the transition to narrow walk condition, fearful older adults compared to young had a wider step width (0.06 m vs 0.04 m) prior to the narrow path and took shorter steps (0.53 m vs 0.72 m; p<0.001). Compared to non-fearful older adults, fearful older adults walked slower and took shorter steps during narrow path walking (gait speed: 1.1m/s vs 0.82 m/s; p=0.01; step length: 0.60 m vs 0.47 m; p=0.03). In young and non-fearful older adults narrow path gait was similar to usual gait. Whereas older adults who were fearful, walked slower (0.82 m/s vs 0.91 m/s; p=0.001) and took shorter steps (0.44 m vs 0.53 m; p=0.004) during narrow path walking compared to usual walking. Changes in gait characteristics with transitioning to a narrow pathway were greater for fear of falling than for age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A narrow band pattern-matching model of vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, James M.; Houde, Robert A.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate a new model of vowel perception which assumes that vowel identity is recognized by a template-matching process involving the comparison of narrow band input spectra with a set of smoothed spectral-shape templates that are learned through ordinary exposure to speech. In the present simulation of this process, the input spectra are computed over a sufficiently long window to resolve individual harmonics of voiced speech. Prior to template creation and pattern matching, the narrow band spectra are amplitude equalized by a spectrum-level normalization process, and the information-bearing spectral peaks are enhanced by a ``flooring'' procedure that zeroes out spectral values below a threshold function consisting of a center-weighted running average of spectral amplitudes. Templates for each vowel category are created simply by averaging the narrow band spectra of like vowels spoken by a panel of talkers. In the present implementation, separate templates are used for men, women, and children. The pattern matching is implemented with a simple city-block distance measure given by the sum of the channel-by-channel differences between the narrow band input spectrum (level-equalized and floored) and each vowel template. Spectral movement is taken into account by computing the distance measure at several points throughout the course of the vowel. The input spectrum is assigned to the vowel template that results in the smallest difference accumulated over the sequence of spectral slices. The model was evaluated using a large database consisting of 12 vowels in /hVd/ context spoken by 45 men, 48 women, and 46 children. The narrow band model classified vowels in this database with a degree of accuracy (91.4%) approaching that of human listeners.

  13. Phylogenetic study of recombinant strains of Potato virus Y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) exists as a complex of strains, including a growing number of recombinants. Evolution of PVY proceeds through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination. Here, the role of recombination in PVY evolution and the origin of common PVY recombinants were studied...

  14. Design principles for radiation-resistant solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Thomas; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert

    2017-05-01

    We develop a multiscale approach to quantify the increase in the recombined fraction of point defects under irradiation resulting from dilute solute additions to a solid solution. This methodology provides design principles for radiation-resistant materials. Using an existing database of solute diffusivities, we identify Sb as one of the most efficient solutes for this purpose in a Cu matrix. We perform density-functional-theory calculations to obtain binding and migration energies of Sb atoms, vacancies, and self-interstitial atoms in various configurations. The computed data informs the self-consistent mean-field formalism to calculate transport coefficients, allowing us to make quantitative predictions of the recombined fraction of point defects as a function of temperature and irradiation rate using homogeneous rate equations. We identify two different mechanisms according to which solutes lead to an increase in the recombined fraction of point defects; at low temperature, solutes slow down vacancies (kinetic effect), while at high temperature, solutes stabilize vacancies in the solid solution (thermodynamic effect). Extension to other metallic matrices and solutes are discussed.

  15. DNA recombination activity in soybean mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Manchekar, Medha; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn; Song, Daqing; Khazi, Fayaz; McLean, Stephanie L; Nielsen, Brent L

    2006-02-17

    Mitochondrial genomes in higher plants are much larger and more complex as compared to animal mitochondrial genomes. There is growing evidence that plant mitochondrial genomes exist predominantly as a collection of linear and highly branched DNA molecules and replicate by a recombination-dependent mechanism. However, biochemical evidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination activity in plants has previously been lacking. We provide the first report of strand-invasion activity in plant mitochondria. Similar to bacterial RecA, this activity from soybean is dependent on the presence of ATP and Mg(2+). Western blot analysis using an antibody against the Arabidopsis mitochondrial RecA protein shows cross-reaction with a soybean protein of about 44 kDa, indicating conservation of this protein in at least these two plant species. mtDNA structure was analyzed by electron microscopy of total soybean mtDNA and molecules recovered after field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). While most molecules were found to be linear, some molecules contained highly branched DNA structures and a small but reproducible proportion consisted of circular molecules (many with tails) similar to recombination intermediates. The presence of recombination intermediates in plant mitochondria preparations is further supported by analysis of mtDNA molecules by 2-D agarose gel electrophoresis, which indicated the presence of complex recombination structures along with a considerable amount of single-stranded DNA. These data collectively provide convincing evidence for the occurrence of homologous DNA recombination in plant mitochondria.

  16. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  17. mtDNA recombination in a natural population.

    PubMed

    Saville, B J; Kohli, Y; Anderson, J B

    1998-02-03

    Variation in mtDNA has been used extensively to draw inferences in phylogenetics and population biology. In the majority of eukaryotes investigated, transmission of mtDNA is uniparental and clonal, with genotypic diversity arising from mutation alone. In other eukaryotes, the transmission of mtDNA is biparental or primarily uniparental with the possibility of "leakage" from the minority parent. In these cases, heteroplasmy carries the potential for recombination between mtDNAs of different descent. In fungi, such mtDNA recombination has long been documented but only in laboratory experiments and only under conditions in which heteroplasmy is ensured. Despite this experimental evidence, mtDNA recombination has not been to our knowledge documented in a natural population. Because evidence from natural populations is prerequisite to understanding the evolutionary impact of mtDNA recombination, we investigated the possibility of mtDNA recombination in an organism with the demonstrated potential for heteroplasmy in laboratory matings. Using nucleotide sequence data, we report here that the genotypic structure of mtDNA in a natural population of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria gallica is inconsistent with purely clonal mtDNA evolution and is fully consistent with mtDNA recombination.

  18. Airway complications after covered stent placement for malignant esophageal stricture: special reference to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Yeon; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Yi, Seong Yoon; Kim, Jin Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of airway complications and survival with special reference to radiation therapy in the care of patients undergoing covered stent placement for malignant esophageal strictures. A total of 208 patients who underwent stent placement with or without palliative radiation therapy for inoperable esophageal cancer were included. The endpoints were frequency, type, and management of airway complications; association between occurrence of airway complications and radiation therapy history; and differences in stent-to-complication interval and survival period after esophageal stenting between patients who underwent radiation therapy before and those who underwent radiation therapy after stent placement. Airway complications occurred in 23 patients (11.1%): 18 (78.3%) had esophagorespiratory fistula, three (13.0%) had airway narrowing, and two (8.7%) had both complications. The frequency of airway complications was significantly greater among patients who underwent RT than those who did not (p = 0.005) but was not significantly different between the radiation before stenting and radiation after stenting groups (p = 0.158). The median stent-to-complication interval and survival period after esophageal stenting were significantly shorter in the radiation before stenting group than in the radiation after stenting group (p = 0.002, p = 0.001). Esophagorespiratory fistula is much more common than airway narrowing as an airway complication. The rate of complications increases significantly in association with radiation therapy among patients with malignant esophageal stricture. Clinicians need to be aware of earlier airway complications and poorer prognosis among patients who undergo radiation therapy before placement of an esophageal stent than in patients who undergo radiation after stent placement.

  19. Natural Variation at sympathy for the ligule Controls Penetrance of the Semidominant Liguleless narrow-R Mutation in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Moon, Jihyun; Runkel, Anne; Hake, Sarah; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf architecture determines plant structural integrity, light harvesting, and economic considerations such as plant density. Ligules, junctions at the leaf sheath and blade in grasses, protect stalks from environmental stresses and, in conjunction with auricles, controls leaf angle. Previous studies in mutants have recessive liguleless mutants (lg1 and lg2) and dominant mutations in knotted1-like homeobox genes (Lg3-O, Lg4, and Kn1) involved in ligule development. Recently, a new semidominant liguleless mutant, Liguleless narrow (Lgn-R), has been characterized in maize that affects ligule and auricle development and results in a narrow leaf phenotype. We show that quantitative genetic variation affects penetrance of Lgn-R. To examine the genetic architecture underlying Lgn-R expressivity, crosses between Lgn-R/+ mutants in a B73 background and intermated B73 x Mo17 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated in multiple years and locations. A single main-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 1 (sympathy for the ligule; sol) was discovered with a Mo17-contributed allele that suppressed Lgn-R mutant phenotypes. This QTL has a genetic-interaction with a locus on chromosome 7 (lucifer; lcf) for which the B73-contributed allele increases the ability of the solMo17 allele to suppress Lgn-R. Neither of the genetic intervals likely to contain sol or lcf overlap with any current liguleless genes nor with previously identified genome-wide association QTL connected to leaf architecture. Analysis of phenotypes across environments further identified a genotype by enviroment interaction determining the strength of the sol x lcf interaction. PMID:25344411

  20. On the renormalisation of the diffusion asymptotics in the problem of reflection of a narrow optical beam from a biological medium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Appanov, A Yu; Barabanenkov, Yu N

    2005-12-31

    An analytic hybrid method is considered for solving the stationary radiation transfer equation in the problem on reflection of a narrow laser beam from biological media such as the 2% aqueous solution of intralipid and erythrocyte suspension with the volume concentration (hematocrit) H=0.41. The method is based on the reciprocity of the Green function in the radiation transfer theory and on the iteration solution of the integral equation for this function. As a result, the ray intensity is represented as a sum of two terms. The first of them describes the contribution of finite-order scattering to the intensity of amore » beam diffusely reflected from the medium. The second term contains the explicit analytic expression for a spatially distributed effective source of diffuse radiation emerging from the deep layers of the medium to the surface. This approach substantially improves the diffusion approximation for the problem under study and allows one to obtain the uniform asymptotics of the reflection coefficient at the specified interval of distances between the radiation source and detector on the medium surface with the relative error within {+-}6% for the 2% intralipid emulsion and erythrocyte suspension (H=0.41). (radiation scattering)« less

  1. Effect of the external electric field on the kinetics of recombination of photoexcited carriers in a ZnSe/BeTe type II heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, E. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Waag, A.

    2011-12-01

    The kinetics of the radiative recombination of photoexcited electrons and holes for a spatially direct transition in a ZnSe/BeTe type II heterostructure in an external electric field has been analyzed. A strong decrease (more than two orders of magnitude) in the photoluminescence intensity, as well as a decrease in the duration of the relaxation of the direct transition, is observed when the electric field is applied. The energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons and holes in the ZnSe/BeTe heterostructure subjected to the electric field have been numerically calculated. It has been shown that the observed decrease in the photoluminescence intensity and duration of the relaxation of the direct transition is due to both an increase in the radiative recombination time and an increase in the rate of escape of photoexcited holes from the above-barrier level in the ZnSe layer to the BeTe layer.

  2. Effect of the external electric field on the kinetics of recombination of photoexcited carriers in a ZnSe/BeTe type II heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, E. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Waag, A.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the radiative recombination of photoexcited electrons and holes for a spatially direct transition in a ZnSe/BeTe type II heterostructure in an external electric field has been analyzed. A strong decrease (more than two orders of magnitude) in the photoluminescence intensity, as well as a decrease in the duration of the relaxation of the direct transition, is observed when the electric field is applied. The energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons and holes in the ZnSe/BeTe heterostructure subjected to the electric field have been numerically calculated. It has been shown that the observed decrease in the photoluminescence intensity and duration of the relaxation of the direct transition is due to both an increase in the radiative recombination time and an increase in the rate of escape of photoexcited holes from the above-barrier level in the ZnSe layer to the BeTe layer.

  3. The extremely narrow-caliber esophagus is a treatment-resistant subphenotype of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eluri, Swathi; Runge, Thomas M; Cotton, Cary C; Burk, Caitlin M; Wolf, W Asher; Woosley, John T; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-06-01

    Some patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have an extremely narrow esophagus, but the characteristics of this group have not been extensively described. We aimed to characterize the narrow-caliber phenotype of EoE, determine associated risk factors, and identify differences in treatment response in this subgroup of patients. This retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2014 included subjects with a new diagnosis of EoE per consensus guidelines. Demographic, endoscopic, histologic, and treatment response data were extracted from medical records. An extremely narrow-caliber esophagus was defined when a neonatal endoscope was required to traverse the esophagus due to the inability to pass an adult endoscope. Patients with and without an extremely narrow-caliber esophagus were compared. Multivariable logistical regression was performed to assess treatment outcomes. Of 513 patients with EoE, 46 (9%) had an extremely narrow-caliber esophagus. These patients were older (33 vs 22 years; P < .01), had longer symptom duration (11 vs 3 years; P < .01), more dysphagia (98% vs 66%; P < .01), and food impactions (53% vs 31%; P < .01). Dilation was more common with extreme narrowing (69% vs 17%; P < .01). Patients with a narrow-caliber esophagus were more refractory to steroid treatment, with lower symptom (56% vs 85%), endoscopic (52% vs 76%), and histologic (33% vs 63%) responses (P < .01 for all), and these differences persisted after multivariate analysis. The extremely narrow-caliber esophagus is a more treatment-resistant subphenotype of EoE and is characterized by longer symptom duration and the need for multiple dilations. Recognition of an extremely narrow-caliber esophagus at diagnosis of EoE can provide important prognostic information. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  5. Ion recombination correction in carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Lee, N D; Delor, A; Thomas, R A S; Romano, F; Fukumura, A; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work, ion recombination is studied as a function of energy and depth in carbon ion beams. Measurements were performed in three different passively scattered carbon ion beams with energies of 62 MeV/n, 135 MeV/n, and 290 MeV/n using various types of plane-parallel ionization chambers. Experimental results were compared with two analytical models for initial recombination. One model is generally used for photon beams and the other model, developed by Jaffé, takes into account the ionization density along the ion track. An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect on the ion recombination correction with varying ionization chamber orientation with respect to the direction of the ion tracks. The variation of the ion recombination correction factors as a function of depth was studied for a Markus ionization chamber in the 62 MeV/n nonmodulated carbon ion beam. This variation can be related to the depth distribution of linear energy transfer. Results show that the theory for photon beams is not applicable to carbon ion beams. On the other hand, by optimizing the value of the ionization density and the initial mean-square radius, good agreement is found between Jaffé's theory and the experimental results. As predicted by Jaffé's theory, the results confirm that ion recombination corrections strongly decrease with an increasing angle between the ion tracks and the electric field lines. For the Markus ionization chamber, the variation of the ion recombination correction factor with depth was modeled adequately by a sigmoid function, which is approximately constant in the plateau and strongly increasing in the Bragg peak region to values of up to 1.06. Except in the distal edge region, all experimental results are accurately described by Jaffé's theory. Experimental results confirm that ion recombination in the investigated carbon ion beams is dominated by initial recombination. Ion recombination corrections are found to be significant and cannot be

  6. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  7. Reliability and failure modes of narrow implant systems.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ronaldo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Machado, Lucas S; Freitas, Gileade; Fardin, Vinicius P; Tovar, Nick; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-09-01

    Narrow implants are indicated in areas of limited bone width or when grafting is nonviable. However, the reduction of implant diameter may compromise their performance. This study evaluated the reliability of several narrow implant systems under fatigue, after restored with single-unit crowns. Narrow implant systems were divided (n = 18 each), as follows: Astra (ASC); BioHorizons (BSC); Straumann Roxolid (SNC), Intra-Lock (IMC), and Intra-Lock one-piece abutment (ILO). Maxillary central incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Use level probability Weibull curves and reliability for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 130- and 180-N loads (90 % two-sided confidence intervals) were calculated. Scanning electron microscopy was used for fractography. Reliability for 100,000 cycles at 130 N was ∼99 % in group ASC, ∼99 % in BSC, ∼96 % in SNC, ∼99 % in IMC, and ∼100 % in ILO. At 180 N, reliability of ∼34 % resulted for the ASC group, ∼91 % for BSC, ∼53 % for SNC, ∼70 % for IMC, and ∼99 % for ILO. Abutment screw fracture was the main failure mode for all groups. Reliability was not different between systems for 100,000 cycles at the 130-N load. A significant decrease was observed at the 180-N load for ASC, SNC, and IMC, whereas it was maintained for BSC and ILO. The investigated narrow implants presented mechanical performance under fatigue that suggests their safe use as single crowns in the anterior region.

  8. Construction and characterization of a recombinant invertebrate iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Arzu; Muratoglu, Hacer; Demirbag, Zihni; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Nalcacioglu, Remziye

    2014-08-30

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially named Insect iridescent virus 6 (IIV6), is the type species of the genus Iridovirus (family Iridoviridae). In this paper we constructed a recombinant CIV, encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This recombinant can be used to investigate viral replication dynamics. We showed that homologous recombination is a valid method to make CIV gene knockouts and to insert foreign genes. The CIV 157L gene, putatively encoding a non-functional inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), was chosen as target for foreign gene insertion. The gfp open reading frame preceded by the viral mcp promoter was inserted into the 157L locus by homologous recombination in Anthonomus grandis BRL-AG-3A cells. Recombinant virus (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was purified by successive rounds of plaque purification. All plaques produced by the purified recombinant virus emitted green fluorescence due to the presence of GFP. One-step growth curves for recombinant and wild-type CIV were similar and the recombinant was fully infectious in vivo. Hence, CIV157L can be inactivated without altering the replication kinetics of the virus. Consequently, the CIV 157L locus can be used as a site for insertion of foreign DNA, e.g. to modify viral properties for insect biocontrol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, I. S.; Janeschitz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  10. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate bridge...

  11. Poliovirus Polymerase Leu420 Facilitates RNA Recombination and Ribavirin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Brian J.; Peersen, Olve B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3Dpol, as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3Dpol may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination. Furthermore, we reasoned that alanine substitution mutations that disrupt 3Dpol-RNA interactions within the polymerase elongation complex might increase and/or decrease the magnitudes of recombination. We found that an L420A mutation in 3Dpol decreased the frequency of RNA recombination, whereas alanine substitutions at other sites in 3Dpol increased the frequency of recombination. The 3Dpol Leu420 side chain interacts with a ribose in the nascent RNA product 3 nucleotides from the active site of the polymerase. Notably, the L420A mutation that reduced recombination also rendered the virus more susceptible to inhibition by ribavirin, coincident with the accumulation of ribavirin-induced G→A and C→U mutations in viral RNA. We conclude that 3Dpol Leu420 is critically important for RNA recombination and that RNA recombination contributes to ribavirin resistance. IMPORTANCE Recombination contributes to the formation of picornavirus species groups and the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). The recombinant viruses that arise in nature are occasionally more fit than either parental strain, especially when the two partners in recombination are closely related, i.e., members of characteristic species groups, such as enterovirus species groups A to H or rhinovirus species groups A to C. Our study shows that RNA recombination requires conserved features of the viral polymerase. Furthermore, a

  12. Electronic structure descriptor for the discovery of narrow-band red-emitting phosphors

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhenbin; Chu, Iek -Heng; Zhou, Fei; ...

    2016-05-09

    Narrow-band red-emitting phosphors are a critical component of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes for highly efficient illumination-grade lighting. In this work, we report the discovery of a quantitative descriptor for narrow-band Eu 2+-activated emission identified through a comparison of the electronic structures of known narrow-band and broad-band phosphors. We find that a narrow emission bandwidth is characterized by a large splitting of more than 0.1 eV between the two highest Eu 2+ 4 f 7 bands. By incorporating this descriptor in a high-throughput first-principles screening of 2259 nitride compounds, we identify five promising new nitride hosts for Eu 2+-activated red-emitting phosphors thatmore » are predicted to exhibit good chemical stability, thermal quenching resistance, and quantum efficiency, as well as narrow-band emission. Lastly, our findings provide important insights into the emission characteristics of rare-earth activators in phosphor hosts and a general strategy to the discovery of phosphors with a desired emission peak and bandwidth.« less

  13. Electronic structure descriptor for the discovery of narrow-band red-emitting phosphors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Zhenbin; Chu, Iek -Heng; Zhou, Fei

    Narrow-band red-emitting phosphors are a critical component of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes for highly efficient illumination-grade lighting. In this work, we report the discovery of a quantitative descriptor for narrow-band Eu 2+-activated emission identified through a comparison of the electronic structures of known narrow-band and broad-band phosphors. We find that a narrow emission bandwidth is characterized by a large splitting of more than 0.1 eV between the two highest Eu 2+ 4 f 7 bands. By incorporating this descriptor in a high-throughput first-principles screening of 2259 nitride compounds, we identify five promising new nitride hosts for Eu 2+-activated red-emitting phosphors thatmore » are predicted to exhibit good chemical stability, thermal quenching resistance, and quantum efficiency, as well as narrow-band emission. Lastly, our findings provide important insights into the emission characteristics of rare-earth activators in phosphor hosts and a general strategy to the discovery of phosphors with a desired emission peak and bandwidth.« less

  14. Genome-wide recombination dynamics are associated with phenotypic variation in maize.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingchun; Li, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Tong, Hao; Xu, Shutu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Weiya; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic recombination is a major driver of genetic diversity, species evolution, and agricultural improvement. Thus, an understanding of the genetic recombination landscape across the maize (Zea mays) genome will provide insight and tools for further study of maize evolution and improvement. Here, we used c. 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms to precisely map recombination events in 12 artificial maize segregating populations. We observed substantial variation in the recombination frequency and distribution along the ten maize chromosomes among the 12 populations and identified 143 recombination hot regions. Recombination breakpoints were partitioned into intragenic and intergenic events. Interestingly, an increase in the number of genes containing recombination events was accompanied by a decrease in the number of recombination events per gene. This kept the overall number of intragenic recombination events nearly invariable in a given population, suggesting that the recombination variation observed among populations was largely attributed to intergenic recombination. However, significant associations between intragenic recombination events and variation in gene expression and agronomic traits were observed, suggesting potential roles for intragenic recombination in plant phenotypic diversity. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the maize recombination landscape, and show an association between recombination, gene expression and phenotypic variation, which may enhance crop genetic improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Multipoint Pacing versus conventional ICD in Patients with a Narrow QRS complex (MPP Narrow QRS trial): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Maurizio; Galimberti, Paola; Bragato, Renato; Ghio, Stefano; Raineri, Claudia; Landolina, Maurizio; Chieffo, Enrico; Lunati, Maurizio; Mulargia, Ederina; Proclemer, Alessandro; Facchin, Domenico; Rordorf, Roberto; Vicentini, Alessandro; Marcantoni, Lina; Zanon, Francesco; Klersy, Catherine

    2016-12-03

    Despite an intensive search for predictors of the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the QRS duration remains the simplest and most robust predictor of a positive response. QRS duration of ≥ 130 ms is considered to be a prerequisite for CRT; however, some studies have shown that CRT may also be effective in heart failure (HF) patients with a narrow QRS (<130 ms). Since CRT can now be performed by pacing the left ventricle from multiple vectors via a single quadripolar lead, it is possible that multipoint pacing (MPP) might be effective in HF patients with a narrow QRS. This article reports the design of the MPP Narrow QRS trial, a prospective, randomized, multicenter, controlled feasibility study to investigate the efficacy of MPP using two LV pacing vectors in patients with a narrow QRS complex (100-130 ms). Fifty patients with a standard ICD indication will be enrolled and randomized (1:1) to either an MPP group or a Standard ICD group. All patients will undergo a low-dose dobutamine stress echo test and only those with contractile reserve will be included in the study and randomized. The primary endpoint will be the percentage of patients in each group that have reverse remodeling at 12 months, defined as a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) of >15% from the baseline. This feasibility study will determine whether MPP improves reverse remodeling, as compared with standard ICD, in HF patients who have a narrow QRS complex (100-130 ms). ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02402816 . Registered on 25 March 2015.

  16. Temporally-Controlled Site-Specific Recombination in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Freudenreich, Dorian; Brand, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Conventional use of the site-specific recombinase Cre is a powerful technology in mouse, but almost absent in other vertebrate model organisms. In zebrafish, Cre-mediated recombination efficiency was previously very low. Here we show that using transposon-mediated transgenesis, Cre is in fact highly efficient in this organism. Furthermore, temporal control of recombination can be achieved by using the ligand-inducible CreERT2. Site-specific recombination only occurs upon administration of the drug tamoxifen (TAM) or its active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT). Cre-mediated recombination is detectable already 4 or 2 hours after administration of TAM or 4-OHT, demonstrating fast recombination kinetics. In addition, low doses of TAM allow mosaic labeling of single cells. Combined, our results show that conditional Cre/lox will be a valuable tool for both, embryonic and adult zebrafish studies. Furthermore, single copy insertion transgenesis of Cre/lox constructs suggest a strategy suitable also for other organisms. PMID:19247481

  17. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  18. Analysis of the Functions of Recombination-Related Genes in the Generation of Large Chromosomal Deletions by Loop-Out Recombination in Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2012-01-01

    Loop-out-type recombination is a type of intrachromosomal recombination followed by the excision of a chromosomal region. The detailed mechanism underlying this recombination and the genes involved in loop-out recombination remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the functions of ku70, ligD, rad52, rad54, and rdh54 in the construction of large chromosomal deletions via loop-out recombination and the effect of the position of the targeted chromosomal region on the efficiency of loop-out recombination in Aspergillus oryzae. The efficiency of generation of large chromosomal deletions in the near-telomeric region of chromosome 3, including the aflatoxin gene cluster, was compared with that in the near-centromeric region of chromosome 8, including the tannase gene. In the Δku70 and Δku70-rdh54 strains, only precise loop-out recombination occurred in the near-telomeric region. In contrast, in the ΔligD, Δku70-rad52, and Δku70-rad54 strains, unintended chromosomal deletions by illegitimate loop-out recombination occurred in the near-telomeric region. In addition, large chromosomal deletions via loop-out recombination were efficiently achieved in the near-telomeric region, but barely achieved in the near-centromeric region, in the Δku70 strain. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks by I-SceI endonuclease facilitated large chromosomal deletions in the near-centromeric region. These results indicate that ligD, rad52, and rad54 play a role in the generation of large chromosomal deletions via precise loop-out-type recombination in the near-telomeric region and that loop-out recombination between distant sites is restricted in the near-centromeric region by chromosomal structure. PMID:22286092

  19. A broad survey of recombination in animal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Piganeau, Gwenaël; Gardner, Michael; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2004-12-01

    Recombination in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) remains a controversial topic. Here we present a survey of 279 animal mtDNA data sets, of which 12 were from asexual species. Using four separate tests, we show that there is widespread evidence of recombination; for one test as many as 14.2% of the data sets reject a model of clonal inheritance and in several data sets, including primates, the recombinants can be identified visually. We show that none of the tests give significant results for obligate clonal species (apomictic pathogens) and that the sexual species show significantly greater evidence of recombination than asexual species. For some data sets, such as Macaca nemestrina, additional data sets suggest that the recombinants are not artifacts. For others, it cannot be determined whether the recombinants are real or produced by laboratory error. Either way, the results have important implications for how mtDNA is sequenced and used.

  20. Narrow-Band Applications of Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlan, Bert; Horowitz, Andrew

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages of "narrow-band" applications of communications satellites for education. It begins by discussing the general controversy surrounding the use of satellites in education, by placing the concern within the larger context of the general debate over the uses of new technologies in education, and by…

  1. Bimolecular recombination quenching in Langmuir Blodgett multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. E.; Jeong, I. S.; Scott, K.; Donovan, K. J.; Wilson, E. G.

    2000-11-01

    A model is developed that describes bimolecular recombination of photogenerated carriers in two dimensional systems. Carriers are free to diffuse in two dimensions and undergo bimolecular recombination, while drifting under the influence of an electric field in the third dimension. The model describes a competition between carrier loss due to transiting and loss due to bimolecular recombination. This model of recombination quenching is then used to obtain information on microscopic parameters associated with photogeneration efficiency and charge transport in organic quantum wells formed from Langmuir Blodgett films of conjugated molecules. The ratio of the intralayer to interlayer tunneling rates is found along with the quantum efficiency for photocarrier generation for two bis-phthalocyanine amphiphilic molecules.

  2. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    PubMed

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  3. Radiation forces on small particles in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. A.; Lamy, P. L.; Soter, S.

    1979-01-01

    Solar radiation forces on small particles in the solar system are examined, and the resulting orbital evolution of interplanetary and circumplanetary dust is considered. An expression is derived for the effects of radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag on small, spherical particles using the energy and momentum transformation laws of special relativity, and numerical examples are presented to illustrate that radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag are only important for particles within a narrow size range. The orbital consequences of these radiation forces are considered both for heliocentric and planetocentric orbiting particles, and the coupling between particle sizes and dynamics is discussed. A qualitative derivation is presented for the differential Doppler effect, which is due to the differential Doppler shifting of radiation from approaching and receding solar hemispheres, and the Yarkovsky effect, which is important for rotating meter-to kilometer-sized particles, is briefly described.

  4. [Vaccine application of recombinant herpesviruses].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Xuan, X; Mikami, T

    2000-04-01

    Recently, genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques has been applied to design new viral vaccines in order to reduce some problems which the present viral vaccines have. Up to now, many viruses have been investigated for development of recombinant attenuated vaccines or live viral vectors for delivery of foreign genes coding immunogenic antigens. In this article, we introduced the new vaccine strategy using genetically engineered herpesviruses.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NARROW SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-28

    NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA by Caitlin M. Barrows Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer...From - To) October 2015 – September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZATION OF A NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ...objective of the work described in this report is to identify a narrow-spectrum antimicrobial that exhibits targeted activity against uropathogenic

  6. A search for evidence of below threshold dielectronic recombination in low temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, Ahmad; Loch, Stuart; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Raymond, John C.

    2018-06-01

    There are two main types of photoionized gaseous nebulae that exist in the universe, H II regions and Planetary Nebulae (PNe), that mark the endpoints of stellar evolution, and understanding their composition will lead to better understanding of stellar evolution processes, and galactic chemical nucleosynthesis. Determination of heavy elements’ abundances is essential in the analysis of these nebulae. In addition, lines emitted from these heavy elements are typically used for nebular condition deduction. There has been a long-standing problem regarding discrepancy of temperatures and abundances resolved from optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. One of the reasons suggested to explain the discrepancy is Dielectronic Recombination (DR). DR is thought to necessarily occur through continuum states overlapping with autoionizing states that are above the ionization threshold. Robicheaux et al. (2010) proposed that DR to below threshold states is possible through ‘negative’ energy electrons recombining to below threshold doubly excited states. The spectral lines emitted from this process could provide an efficient mechanism to cool off plasma in addition to having satellite lines blended with collisionally excited lines related to plasma diagnostics. Furthermore, this phenomenon would occur significantly in low temperature plasmas which makes it challenging to prepare an experiment for testing it in a lab. In this research we present a spectroscopic study into this process through observed optical spectra from seven PNe that suffer from abundance discrepancy problem. A code was developed that produces a synthetic spectrum for 2 cases; namely, C IV recombining to C III and C III to C II. There is faint emission in the optical for these cases. Other possible mechismas to activiate these lines were included in the model and found insignificant. The Auger rates were calculated using the atomic physics code AUTOSTRUCTURE, and the lines were

  7. Atomic Data for Nebular Abundance Determinations: Photoionization and Recombination Properties of Xenon Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Nicholas C.; Kerlin, Austin B.

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study of the photoionization (PI) and recombination properties of low-charge Xe ions. The abundances of neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z > 30) are of interest in planetary nebulae (PNe) since they can be enriched by slow n-capture nucleosynthesis (the ``s-process'') in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Xe is particularly valuable, because it is the most widely-observed ``heavy-s'' species (Z > 40) in PNe. Its abundance relative to lighter n-capture elements can be used to determine s-process neutron exposures, and constrain s-process enrichment patterns as a function of progenitor metallicity. Using the atomic structure code AUTOSTRUCTURE (Badnell 2011, Comp. Phys. Comm., 182, 1528), we have computed multi-configuration Breit-Pauli distorted-wave PI cross sections and radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for neutral through six-times ionized Xe, data which are critically needed for accurate Xe abundance determinations in ionized nebulae. We find good agreement between our computed direct PI cross sections and experimental measurements. Internal uncertainties are estimated for our calculations by using three different configuration interaction expansions for each ion, and by testing the sensitivity of our results to the radial orbital scaling parameters. As found for other n-capture elements (Sterling & Witthoeft 2011, A&A, 529, A147; Sterling 2011, A&A, 533, A62), DR is the dominant recombination mechanism for Xe ions at nebular temperatures (~104 K). Following Sterling et al. (2015, ApJS, 218, 25), these data will be added to nebular modeling codes to compute ionization correction factors for unobserved Xe ions in PNe, which will enable elemental Xe abundances to be determined with much higher accuracy than is currently possible. This work is supported by NSF award AST-1412928.

  8. Design, Construction, Demonstration and Delivery of an Automated Narrow Gap Welding System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-31

    evaluated on the Narrow Gap welding system. By using the combinational qas shielding assembly, it is now possible to reduce the gas flow rates to a value...AD-A145 496 DESIGN CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATION AND DE IVER OF AN AUTOMATED NARROW GAP WELDING SYSTEM(U) CRC AUTOMATIC WELDING CO HODSTON SX 31 MAR 83...STANDARDS-963 - A CRC REPORT NO. NAV A/W 7 0PHASE 3 REPORT ON SDESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, DEMONSTRATION AND DELIVERY OF AN AUTOMATED NARROW GAP WELDING

  9. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  10. Evidence of reduced recombination rate in human regulatory domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaping; Sarkar, Abhishek; Kheradpour, Pouya; Ernst, Jason; Kellis, Manolis

    2017-10-20

    Recombination rate is non-uniformly distributed across the human genome. The variation of recombination rate at both fine and large scales cannot be fully explained by DNA sequences alone. Epigenetic factors, particularly DNA methylation, have recently been proposed to influence the variation in recombination rate. We study the relationship between recombination rate and gene regulatory domains, defined by a gene and its linked control elements. We define these links using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs), chromatin conformation from publicly available datasets (Hi-C and ChIA-PET), and correlated activity links that we infer across cell types. Each link type shows a "recombination rate valley" of significantly reduced recombination rate compared to matched control regions. This recombination rate valley is most pronounced for gene regulatory domains of early embryonic development genes, housekeeping genes, and constitutive regulatory elements, which are known to show increased evolutionary constraint across species. Recombination rate valleys show increased DNA methylation, reduced doublestranded break initiation, and increased repair efficiency, specifically in the lineage leading to the germ line. Moreover, by using only the overlap of functional links and DNA methylation in germ cells, we are able to predict the recombination rate with high accuracy. Our results suggest the existence of a recombination rate valley at regulatory domains and provide a potential molecular mechanism to interpret the interplay between genetic and epigenetic variations.

  11. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  12. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  13. Microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  14. Multichordal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on Doublet III (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraydarian, R. P.; Burrell, K. H.; Kahn, C.

    1985-05-01

    Single shot, multipoint ion temperature and plasma rotation profiles have been routinely obtained on the Doublet III tokamak for 32 consecutive time slices with 20-ms resolution. A six-chord tangentially viewing spectroscopic diagnostic has been built to look at radiation emitted by fully stripped low-Z impurity ions (He, C, O) that have undergone charge exchange recombination with hydrogen atoms from a 3-MW heating beam. The main components of the instrument are a single monochromator for wavelength dispersion, a single image intensifier tube for photon gain, and a pair of 1024-element linear photodiode arrays for detection. A special arrangement of fiber optics allows simultaneous data acquisition from all chords without the use of scanning mirrors or other moving parts. Ion temperature profiles taken under a variety of plasma conditions will be presented.

  15. RNA Recombination In Vivo in the Absence of Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gallei, Andreas; Pankraz, Alexander; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Becher, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To study fundamental aspects of RNA recombination, an in vivo RNA recombination system was established. This system allowed the efficient generation of recombinant cytopathogenic pestiviruses after transfection of synthetic, nonreplicatable, subgenomic transcripts in cells infected with a replicating noncytopathogenic virus. Studies addressing the interplay between RNA recombination and replication revealed that cotransfection of noninfected cells with various pairs of nonreplicatable RNA derivatives also led to the emergence of recombinant viral genomes. Remarkably, homologous and nonhomologous recombination occurred between two overlapping transcripts, each lacking different essential parts of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Apart from the generally accepted viral replicative copy choice recombination, our results prove the existence of a viral RdRp-independent mechanism of RNA recombination that occurs in vivo. It appears likely that such a mechanism not only contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses but also leads to the generation of recombinant cellular RNAs. PMID:15163720

  16. Incident wave run-up into narrow sloping bays and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinan Özeren, M.; Postacioglu, Nazmi; Canlı, Umut

    2015-04-01

    The problem is investigated using Carrier Greenspan hodograph transformations.We perform a quasi-one-dimensional solution well into the bay, far enough of the mouth of the bay. The linearized boundary conditions at the mouth of the bay lead to an integral equation for 2-D geometry. A semi analytical optimization method has been developed to solve this integral equation. When the wavelength of the incident wave is much larger than the width of the bay, the conformalmapping of the bay and the semi infinite sea onto upper complex plane provides a solution of the integral equation in closed form. Particular emphasis is placed on the case where the frequency of the incident waves matches the real-part of the natural frequency of the oscillation of the bay. These natural frequencies are complex because of the radiation conditions imposed at the mouth of the bay. It is found that the complex part of these natural frequencies decreases with decreasing width of the bay. Thus the trapping of the waves in narrower bays leads to a strong resonance phenomenon when the frequency of the incident wave is equal to the real part of the natural frequency.

  17. Narrow-line magneto-optical cooling and trapping of strongly magnetic atoms.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Andrew J; Hanssen, James L; McClelland, Jabez J

    2008-03-21

    Laser cooling on weak transitions is a useful technique for reaching ultracold temperatures in atoms with multiple valence electrons. However, for strongly magnetic atoms a conventional narrow-line magneto-optical trap (MOT) is destabilized by competition between optical and magnetic forces. We overcome this difficulty in Er by developing an unusual narrow-line MOT that balances optical and magnetic forces using laser light tuned to the blue side of a narrow (8 kHz) transition. The trap population is spin polarized with temperatures reaching below 2 muK. Our results constitute an alternative method for laser cooling on weak transitions, applicable to rare-earth-metal and metastable alkaline earth elements.

  18. Theoretical studies of dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of dissociative recombination rates and cross sections over a wide temperature range by theoretical quantum chemical techniques is described. Model calculations on electron capture by diatomic ions are reported which illustrate the dependence of the rates and cross sections on electron energy, electron temperature, and vibrational temperature for three model crossings of neutral and ionic potential curves. It is shown that cross sections for recombination to the lowest vibrational level of the ion can vary by several orders of magnitude depending upon the position of the neutral and ionic potential curve crossing within the turning points of the v = 1 vibrational level. A new approach for calculating electron capture widths is reported. Ab initio calculations are described for recombination of O2(+) leading to excited O atoms.

  19. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. PMID:24119078

  20. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point...

  1. Different mechanisms of radiation-induced loss of heterozygosity in two human lymphoid cell lines from a single donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, C.; Gauny, S. S.; Liu, W. C.; Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C. L.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allelic loss is an important mutational mechanism in human carcinogenesis. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at an autosomal locus is one outcome of the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and can occur by deletion or by mitotic recombination. We report that mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes occurred in human lymphoid cells exposed to densely ionizing radiation. We used cells derived from the same donor that express either normal TP53 (TK6 cells) or homozygous mutant TP53 (WTK1 cells) to assess the influence of TP53 on radiation-induced mutagenesis. Expression of mutant TP53 (Met 237 Ile) was associated with a small increase in mutation frequencies at the hemizygous HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase) locus, but the mutation spectra were unaffected at this locus. In contrast, WTK1 cells (mutant TP53) were 30-fold more susceptible than TK6 cells (wild-type TP53) to radiation-induced mutagenesis at the TK1 (thymidine kinase) locus. Gene dosage analysis combined with microsatellite marker analysis showed that the increase in TK1 mutagenesis in WTK1 cells could be attributed, in part, to mitotic recombination. The microsatellite marker analysis over a 64-cM region on chromosome 17q indicated that the recombinational events could initiate at different positions between the TK1 locus and the centromere. Virtually all of the recombinational LOH events extended beyond the TK1 locus to the most telomeric marker. In general, longer LOH tracts were observed in mutants from WTK1 cells than in mutants from TK6 cells. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the incidence of radi-ation-induced mutations is dependent on the genetic background of the cell at risk, on the locus examined, and on the mechanisms for mutation available at the locus of interest.

  2. Ultra-narrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Chenyu; Wang, Jianfei; Luo, Hong; Meng, Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers are of great interest in many applications, such as precise spectroscopy, optical communications, and sensors. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as one of the main nonlinear effects in fibers, is capable of generating narrow-linewidth light emission. We establish a compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) utilizing 4-m erbium-doped fiber as both the Brillouin gain and linear media. A 360-kHz-linewidth laser diode is injected into the cavity as the Brillouin pump (BP) light and generates Brillouin Stokes lasing light. Both of the phase noise of the BP and BEFL output are measured by a high-accuracy unbalanced Michelson interferometer. It is demonstrated that 53- dB phase noise reduction is achieved after the BP is transferred into Brillouin Stokes emission. The linewidth of the BEFL is indicated at Hz-range by both calculation and experiment.

  3. A technique for production of nanocrystalline cellulose with a narrow size distribution

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bai, Wen; Holbery, James D.; Li, Kaichang

    2009-02-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. A differential centrifugation technique was studied to obtain NCC whiskers with a narrow size distribution. It was shown that the volume of NCC in different fractions had an inverse relationship with relative centrifugal force (RCF). The length of NCC whiskers was also fractionized by differential RCF. The aspect ratio of NCC in different fractions had a relatively narrow range. This technique provides an easy way of producing NCC whiskers with a narrow size distribution.

  4. Ischemic Ventricular Tachycardia Presenting as a Narrow Complex Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen P; Watts, Troy; Yeo, Wee Tiong; Mehul, Dhinoja

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a patient presenting with a narrow complex tachycardia in the context of prior myocardial infarction and impaired ventricular function. Electrophysiological studies confirmed ventricular tachycardia and activation and entrainment mapping demonstrated a critical isthmus within an area of scar involving the His-Purkinje system accounting for the narrow QRS morphology. This very rare case shares some similarities with upper septal ventricular tachycardia seen in patients with structurally normal hearts, but to our knowledge has not been seen previously in patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:25057222

  5. Micro-Bunched Beam Production at FAST for Narrow Band THz Generation Using a Slit-Mask

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hyun, J.; Crawford, D.; Edstrom Jr, D.

    We discuss simulations and experiments on creating micro-bunch beams for generating narrow band THz radiation at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. The low-energy electron beamline at FAST consists of a photoinjector-based RF gun, two Lband superconducting accelerating cavities, a chicane, and a beam dump. The electron bunches are lengthened with cavity phases set off-crest for better longitudinal separation and then micro-bunched with a slit-mask installed in the chicane. We carried out the experiments with 30 MeV electron beams and detected signals of the micro-bunching using a skew quadrupole magnet in the chicane. In this paper, the detailsmore » of micro-bunch beam production, the detection of micro-bunching and comparison with simulations are described.« less

  6. Adverse effects of prohibiting narrow provider networks.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2014-08-14

    Many insurers participating in the new insurance exchanges are controlling costs by offering plans with narrow provider networks. Proposed regulations would promote network adequacy, but a pro-provider stance may not be inherently pro-consumer or even pro-patient.

  7. Same-period emission and recombination in nonsequential double-recombination high-order-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Kenneth K.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    Nonsequential double-recombination (NSDR) high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) is studied in a molecular model system. We observe a unique molecular two-electron effect with a characteristic cutoff in the HHG spectrum at higher energies than what was previously seen for NSDR HHG in atoms. The effect is corroborated with a classical model where it is found that the effect is sensitive to the molecular potential and originates from same-period emission and recombination (SPEAR) of two electrons. The effect persists for intermediate nuclear distances of R ≳8.0 a.u.

  8. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  9. Explanation of low efficiency droop in semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN LEDs through evaluation of carrier recombination coefficients.

    PubMed

    Monavarian, Morteza; Rashidi, Arman; Aragon, Andrew; Oh, Sang H; Nami, Mohsen; DenBaars, Steve P; Feezell, Daniel

    2017-08-07

    We report the carrier dynamics and recombination coefficients in single-quantum-well semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes emitting at 440 nm with 93% peak internal quantum efficiency. The differential carrier lifetime is analyzed for various injection current densities from 5 A/cm 2 to 10 kA/cm 2 , and the corresponding carrier densities are obtained. The coupling of internal quantum efficiency and differential carrier lifetime vs injected carrier density (n) enables the separation of the radiative and nonradiative recombination lifetimes and the extraction of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) nonradiative (A), radiative (B), and Auger (C) recombination coefficients and their n-dependency considering the saturation of the SRH recombination rate and phase-space filling. The results indicate a three to four-fold higher A and a nearly two-fold higher B0 for this semipolar orientation compared to that of c-plane reported using a similar approach [A. David and M. J. Grundmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010)]. In addition, the carrier density in semipolar (202¯1¯) is found to be lower than the carrier density in c-plane for a given current density, which is important for suppressing efficiency droop. The semipolar LED also shows a two-fold lower C0 compared to c-plane, which is consistent with the lower relative efficiency droop for the semipolar LED (57% vs. 69%). The lower carrier density, higher B 0 coefficient, and lower C 0 (Auger) coefficient are directly responsible for the high efficiency and low efficiency droop reported in semipolar (202¯1¯) LEDs.

  10. Explanation of low efficiency droop in semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN LEDs through evaluation of carrier recombination coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Rashidi, Arman; Aragon, Andrew; Oh, Sang H.; Nami, Mohsen; DenBaars, Steve P.; Feezell, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We report the carrier dynamics and recombination coefficients in single-quantum-well semipolar $(20\\bar 2\\bar 1)$ InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes emitting at 440 nm with 93% peak internal quantum efficiency. The differential carrier lifetime is analyzed for various injection current densities from 5 $A/cm^2$ to 10 $kA/cm^2$, and the corresponding carrier densities are obtained. The coupling of internal quantum efficiency and differential carrier lifetime vs injected carrier density ($n$) enables the separation of the radiative and nonradiative recombination lifetimes and the extraction of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) nonradiative ($A$), radiative ($B$), and Auger ($C$) recombination coefficients and their $n$-dependency considering the saturation of the SRH recombination rate and phase-space filling. The results indicate a three to four-fold higher $A$ and a nearly two-fold higher $B_0$ for this semipolar orientation compared to that of $c$-plane reported using a similar approach [A. David and M. J. Grundmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010)]. In addition, the carrier density in semipolar $(20\\bar 2\\bar 1)$ is found to be lower than the carrier density in $c$-plane for a given current density, which is important for suppressing efficiency droop. The semipolar LED also shows a two-fold lower $C_0$ compared to $c$-plane, which is consistent with the lower relative efficiency droop for the semipolar LED (57% vs. 69%). The lower carrier density, higher $B_0$ coefficient, and lower $C_0$ (Auger) coefficient are directly responsible for the high efficiency and low efficiency droop reported in semipolar $(20\\bar 2\\bar 1)$ LEDs.

  11. Recombination rate variation in mice from an isolated island.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard J; Gray, Melissa M; Parmenter, Michelle D; Broman, Karl W; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-01-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. Despite the major impact of recombination rate on patterns of genetic diversity and the efficacy of selection, natural variation in this phenotype remains poorly characterized. We present a comparison of genetic maps, sampling 1212 meioses, from a unique population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that recently colonized remote Gough Island. Crosses to a mainland reference strain (WSB/EiJ) reveal pervasive variation in recombination rate among Gough Island mice, including subchromosomal intervals spanning up to 28% of the genome. In spite of this high level of polymorphism, the genomewide recombination rate does not significantly vary. In general, we find that recombination rate varies more when measured in smaller genomic intervals. Using the current standard genetic map of the laboratory mouse to polarize intervals with divergent recombination rates, we infer that the majority of evolutionary change occurred in one of the two tested lines of Gough Island mice. Our results confirm that natural populations harbour a high level of recombination rate polymorphism and highlight the disparities in recombination rate evolution across genomic scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recombination rate variation in mice from an isolated island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard J.; Gray, Melissa M.; Parmenter, Michelle D.; Broman, Karl W.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. Despite the major impact of recombination rate on patterns of genetic diversity and the efficacy of selection, natural variation in this phenotype remains poorly characterized. We present a comparison of genetic maps, sampling 1,212 meioses, from a unique population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that recently colonized remote Gough Island. Crosses to a mainland reference strain (WSB/EiJ) reveal pervasive variation in recombination rate among Gough Island mice, including sub-chromosomal intervals spanning up to 28% of the genome. In spite of this high level of polymorphism, the genome-wide recombination rate does not significantly vary. In general, we find that recombination rate varies more when measured in smaller genomic intervals. Using the current standard genetic map of the laboratory mouse to polarize intervals with divergent recombination rates, we infer that the majority of evolutionary change occurred in one of the two tested lines of Gough Island mice. Our results confirm that natural populations harbor a high level of recombination rate polymorphism and highlight the disparities in recombination rate evolution across genomic scales. PMID:27864900

  13. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  14. Magnetospheric ray tracing studies. [Jupiter's decametric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    Using a model of Jupiter's magnetized plasma environment, radiation raypaths were calculated with a three-dimension ray tracing program. It is assumed that energetic particles produce the emission in the planet's auroral zone at frequencies just above the electron gyrofrequencies. This radiation is generated in narrow sheets defined by the angle of a ray with respect to the magnetic field line. By specifying the source position: latitude, longitude, and radial distance from the planet, signatures in the spectrum of frequency versus time seen by Voyager 1 and 2 were duplicated. The frequency range and the curvature of the decametric arcs in these dynamic spectra are the result of the geometry of the radiation sheets (imposed by the plasma and by the B-field) and illumination of Voyager 1 and 2 as the rotating magnetosphere mimics a pulsar.

  15. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    PubMed

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants.

  16. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    PubMed Central

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  17. Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzoli, Fabio; Giorgioni, Anna; Gallacher, Kevin; Isa, Fabio; Biagioni, Paolo; Millar, Ross W.; Gatti, Eleonora; Grilli, Emanuele; Bonera, Emiliano; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Miglio, Leo

    2016-06-01

    We address nonradiative recombination pathways by leveraging surface passivation and dislocation management in μm-scale arrays of Ge crystals grown on deeply patterned Si substrates. The time decay photoluminescence (PL) at cryogenic temperatures discloses carrier lifetimes approaching 45 ns in band-gap engineered Ge micro-crystals. This investigation provides compelling information about the competitive interplay between the radiative band-edge transitions and the trapping of carriers by dislocations and free surfaces. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL, combined with capacitance data and finite difference time domain modeling, demonstrates the effectiveness of GeO2 in passivating the surface of Ge and thus in enhancing the room temperature PL emission.

  18. Would Dissociative Recombination of DNA+ be a Possible Pathway of DNA Damage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, H. C.; Chen, Z. P.; Strom, R. A.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-05-01

    It is known that dissociative recombination (DR) is one of the very efficient processes of destruction of molecular cations into neutral particles. During the past few years, the focus of DR has been expanded from small inorganic molecules to macromolecular cation. We are probing the possibility of the DR of DNA+ after ionization of DNA, for example due to ionizing radiation. Therefore we are investigating the existence of autoionization states within nucleotide bases (Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Thymine). Our results from computational analysis using the modern electronic structure program ORCA will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate for their financial support.

  19. A theory of the n-i-p silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, C.; Weinberg, I.; Baraona, C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model has been developed, based on an analytical theory of the high base resistivity BSF n(+)(pi)p(+) or p(+)(nu)n(+) silicon solar cell. The model makes very few assumptions and accounts for nonuniform optical generation, generation and recombination in the junction space charge region, and bandgap narrowing in the heavily doped regions. The paper presents calculated results based on this model and compares them to available experimental data. Also discussed is radiation damage in high base resistivity n(+)(pi)p(+) space solar cells.

  20. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  1. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  2. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  3. Ultrafast Radiation Detection by Modulation of an Optical Probe Beam

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E

    2006-02-22

    We describe a new class of radiation sensor that utilizes optical interferometry to measure radiation-induced changes in the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium. Radiation absorption in the sensor material produces a transient, non-equilibrium, electron-hole pair distribution that locally modifies the complex, optical refractive index of the sensor medium. Changes in the real (imaginary) part of the local refractive index produce a differential phase shift (absorption) of an optical probe used to interrogate the sensor material. In contrast to conventional radiation detectors where signal levels are proportional to the incident energy, signal levels in these optical sensors aremore » proportional to the incident radiation energy flux. This allows for reduction of the sensor form factor with no degradation in detection sensitivity. Furthermore, since the radiation induced, non-equilibrium electron-hole pair distribution is effectively measured ''in place'' there is no requirement to spatially separate and collect the generated charges; consequently, the sensor risetime is of the order of the hot-electron thermalization time {le} 10 fs and the duration of the index perturbation is determined by the carrier recombination time which is of order {approx} 600 fs in, direct-bandgap semiconductors, with a high density of recombination defects; consequently, the optical sensors can be engineered with sub-ps temporal response. A series of detectors were designed, and incorporated into Mach Zehnder and Fabry-Perot interferometer-based detection systems: proof of concept, lower detection sensitivity, Mach-Zehnder detectors were characterized at beamline 6.3 at SSRL; three generations of high sensitivity single element and imaging Fabry-Perot detectors were measured at the LLNL Europa facility. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to provide x-ray detectors and x-ray imaging systems with single x-ray sensitivity and S/N {approx} 30 at x

  4. Bayesian Inference of Shared Recombination Hotspots Between Humans and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. PMID:25261696

  5. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-16

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  7. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping in Domestic Dog Breeds Narrows the Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (prcd) Interval and Identifies Ancestral Disease Transmitting Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J.; Kijas, James W.; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the ∼6.4 Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5 Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed which reduced the LD interval to 106 Kb, and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds, and demonstrate the power of LD approach in the canine model. PMID:16859891

  9. Experimental study on occupant evacuation in narrow seat aisle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shenshi; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Li, Changhai; Guo, Yafei

    2018-07-01

    Narrow seat aisle is an important area in the train car interior due to the large passenger population, however evacuation therein has not gained enough concerns. In this experimental study, the occupant evacuation of the narrow seat aisle area is investigated, with the aisle width of 0.4-0.6 m and the evacuation direction of forward and backward. The evacuation behaviors are analyzed based on the video record, and the discussion is carried out in the aspect of evacuation time, crowdedness, evacuation order, and aisle conflicts. The result shows that with the increasing aisle width, total evacuation time and the average specific evacuation rate decrease. The aisle is crowded for some time, with a large linear occupant densities. The evacuation order of each occupant is mainly related to the seat position. Moreover, it is found that the aisle conflicts can be well described by Burstedde's model. This study gives a useful benchmark for evacuation simulation of narrow seat aisle, and provides reference to safety design of seat area in train cars.

  10. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Graded recombination layers for multijunction photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-06-13

    Multijunction devices consist of a stack of semiconductor junctions having bandgaps tuned across a broad spectrum. In solar cells this concept is used to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic harvesting, while light emitters and detectors use it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We recently reported a tandem solar cell in which the recombination layer was implemented using a progression of n-type oxides whose doping densities and work functions serve to connect, with negligible resistive loss at solar current densities, the constituent cells. Here we present the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We report the number of interlayers and the requirements on work function and doping of each interlayer, to bridge an work function difference as high as 1.6 eV. We also find solutions that minimize the doping required of the interlayers in order to minimize optical absorption due to free carriers in the graded recombination layer (GRL). We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the interlayers.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 4038/4039 broad and /narrow band photometry (Mengel+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, S.; Lehnert, M. D.; Thatte, N.; Genzel, R.

    2005-06-01

    The Ks-band image which was used for the 3{sigma}-detection was obtained with ISAAC on VLT-ANTU as part of programme 65.N-0577, and has a FWHM of ~0.38". 1072 point-like objects were detected. For the multi-band photometry, we also used the HST archival images obtained by Whitmore et al. (see Whitmore et al., 1999AJ....118.1551W), which we rebinned to the same pixel size as the ISAAC image (0.1484"/pix). The CO narrow band image was also obtained with ISAAC, while the Br{gamma} image was obtained with SOFI at the NTT (programme number 63.N-0528). The Br{gamma} image had a lower image quality than the other two images (FWHM=0.7"). The photometry data were used to simultaneously fit age and extinction for each individual cluster in comparison to an evolutionary synthesis model. Where possible, the visual extinction was determined from an average of the extinction from the broadband fit and from the Hydrogen recombination line ratios (in comparison to the expected Case B line ratio). The age estimate from the fit was, where possible, averaged with the aged determined from equivalent widths and CO index. (1 data file).

  13. Epstein-Barr virus recombinants from overlapping cosmid fragments.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, B; Robertson, E; Yalamanchili, R; Longnecker, R; Kieff, E

    1993-12-01

    Five overlapping type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA fragments constituting a complete replication- and transformation-competent genome were cloned into cosmids and transfected together into P3HR-1 cells, along with a plasmid encoding the Z immediate-early activator of EBV replication. P3HR-1 cells harbor a type 2 EBV which is unable to transform primary B lymphocytes because of a deletion of DNA encoding EBNA LP and EBNA 2, but the P3HR-1 EBV can provide replication functions in trans and can recombine with the transfected cosmids. EBV recombinants which have the type 1 EBNA LP and 2 genes from the transfected EcoRI-A cosmid DNA were selectively and clonally recovered by exploiting the unique ability of the recombinants to transform primary B lymphocytes into lymphoblastoid cell lines. PCR and immunoblot analyses for seven distinguishing markers of the type 1 transfected DNAs identified cell lines infected with EBV recombinants which had incorporated EBV DNA fragments beyond the transformation marker-rescuing EcoRI-A fragment. Approximately 10% of the transforming virus recombinants had markers mapping at 7, 46 to 52, 93 to 100, 108 to 110, 122, and 152 kbp from the 172-kbp transfected genome. These recombinants probably result from recombination among the transfected cosmid-cloned EBV DNA fragments. The one recombinant virus examined in detail by Southern blot analysis has all the polymorphisms characteristic of the transfected type 1 cosmid DNA and none characteristic of the type 2 P3HR-1 EBV DNA. This recombinant was wild type in primary B-lymphocyte infection, growth transformation, and lytic replication. Overall, the type 1 EBNA 3A gene was incorporated into 26% of the transformation marker-rescued recombinants, a frequency which was considerably higher than that observed in previous experiments with two-cosmid EBV DNA cotransfections into P3HR-1 cells (B. Tomkinson and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 66:780-789, 1992). Of the recombinants which had incorporated the

  14. Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs through Topological Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, Pablo G.; Levine, Arnold J.; Rabadán, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species. Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes. Recently, Topological Data Analysis (TDA) methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations. We implement this framework in a software package, called TARGet, and apply it to several examples, including small migration between different populations, human recombination, and horizontal evolution in finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands. PMID:27532298

  15. Solvation suppression of ion recombination in gas discharge afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Lankin, A. V.; Norman, G. E.

    2018-03-01

    An effect which suppresses recombination in ion plasmas is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results are presented for the ion recombination rate in fluorine plasma, which are obtained from data for the gas discharge afterglow. To interpret them, a suppression factor is considered: ion solvation in weakly ionized plasma. It is shown that the recombination process has a two-stage character with the formation of intermediate metastable ion pairs. The pairs consist of negative and positive ion-molecular clusters. A theoretical explanation is given for the slowing down of the ion recombination with the increase of the Coulomb coupling compared to the ion recombination rate calculated in the ideal plasma approximation. The approximate similarity of the recombination rate of the ion temperature and concentration and reasons for the slight deviation from the similarity are elucidated.

  16. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  17. Rapid water transportation through narrow one-dimensional channels by restricted hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Tomonori; Kaneko, Katsumi; Endo, Morinobu; Hata, Kenji; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2013-01-29

    Water plays an important role in controlling chemical reactions and bioactivities. For example, water transportation through water channels in a biomembrane is a key factor in bioactivities. However, molecular-level mechanisms of water transportation are as yet unknown. Here, we investigate water transportation through narrow and wide one-dimensional (1D) channels on the basis of water-vapor adsorption rates and those determined by molecular dynamics simulations. We observed that water in narrow 1D channels was transported 3-5 times faster than that in wide 1D channels, although the narrow 1D channels provide fewer free nanospaces for water transportation. This rapid transportation is attributed to the formation of fewer hydrogen bonds between water molecules adsorbed in narrow 1D channels. The water-transportation mechanism provides the possibility of rapid communication through 1D channels and will be useful in controlling reactions and activities in water systems.

  18. A novel pathogenic aviadenovirus from red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) unveils deep recombination events among avian host lineages

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Das, Shubhagata, E-mail: sdas@csu.edu.au

    Competing roles of coevolution, selective pressure and recombination are an emerging interest in virus evolution. We report a novel aviadenovirus from captive red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) that uncovers evidence of deep recombination among aviadenoviruses. The sequence identity of the virus was most closely related to Turkey adenovirus D (42% similarity) and other adenoviruses in chickens, turkeys and pigeons. Sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the genome comprised 40,930 nucleotides containing 42 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) 19 of which had strong similarity with genes from other adenovirus species. The new genome unveiled a lineage that likely participated in deep recombinationmore » events across the genus Aviadenovirus accounting for an ancient evolutionary relationship. We hypothesize frequent host switch events and recombination among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts caused the radiation of extant aviadenoviruses and the newly assembled Poicephalus adenovirus genome points to a potentially broader host range of these viruses among birds. - Highlights: •Shows how a single new genome can change overall phylogeny. •Reveals host switch events among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts. •Points to a potentially broader host range of adenoviruses among birds and wildlife .« less

  19. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI Survey of the Kepler Field. I. A Search for Narrow-band Emission from Select Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Demorest, Paul; Korpela, Eric; Maddalena, Ron J.; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Howard, Andrew W.; Langston, Glen; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Tarter, Jill

    2013-04-01

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T eq > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R p < 3 R ⊕) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than ~1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of ~1.5 × 1021 erg s-1, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be {<}10^{-6}\\ M^{-1}_\\odot. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  20. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levelsmore » were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.« less

  1. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  2. Recombination Processes and Nonlinear Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, Sergey; Rybko, Alexander; Kalinina, Anastasia; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are known to exchange genetic information by horizontal gene transfer. Since the frequency of homologous recombination depends on the similarity between the recombining segments, several studies examined whether this could lead to the emergence of subspecies. Most of them simulated fixed-size Wright-Fisher populations, in which the genetic drift should be taken into account. Here, we use nonlinear Markov processes to describe a bacterial population evolving under mutation and recombination. We consider a population structure as a probability measure on the space of genomes. This approach implies the infinite population size limit, and thus, the genetic drift is not assumed. We prove that under these conditions, the emergence of subspecies is impossible.

  3. An EGSnrc Monte Carlo study of the microionization chamber for reference dosimetry of narrow irregular IMRT beamlets.

    PubMed

    Capote, Roberto; Sánchez-Doblado, Francisco; Leal, Antonio; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Arráns, Rafael; Hartmann, Günther H

    2004-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has evolved toward the use of many small radiation fields, or "beamlets," to increase the resolution of the intensity map. The size of smaller beamlets can be typically about 1-5 cm2. Therefore small ionization chambers (IC) with sensitive volumes < or = 0.1 cm3 are generally used for dose verification of IMRT treatment. The dosimetry of these narrow photon beams pertains to the so-called nonreference conditions for beam calibration. The use of ion chambers for such narrow beams remains questionable due to the lack of electron equilibrium in most of the field. The present contribution aims to estimate, by the Monte Carlo (MC) method, the total correction needed to convert the IBA-Wellhöfer NAC007 micro IC measured charge in such radiation field to the absolute dose to water. Detailed geometrical simulation of the microionization chamber was performed. The ion chamber was always positioned at a 10 cm depth in water, parallel to the beam axis. The delivered doses to air and water cavity were calculated using the CAVRZ EGSnrc user code. The 6 MV phase-spaces for Primus Clinac (Siemens) used as an input to the CAVRZnrc code were derived by BEAM/EGS4 modeling of the treatment head of the machine along with the multileaf collimator [Sánchez-Doblado et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2081-2099 (2003)] and contrasted with experimental measurements. Dose calculations were carried out for two irradiation geometries, namely, the reference 10x10 cm2 field and an irregular (approximately 2x2 cm2) IMRT beamlet. The dose measured by the ion chamber is estimated by MC simulation as a dose averaged over the air cavity inside the ion-chamber (Dair). The absorbed dose to water is derived as the dose deposited inside the same volume, in the same geometrical position, filled and surrounded by water (Dwater) in the absence of the ionization chamber. Therefore, the Dwater/Dair dose ratio is a MC direct estimation of the total correction factor

  4. [Construction and expression of a recombinant adenovirus with LZP3].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-dang; Zhang, Fu-chun; Sun, Mei-yu; Li, Yi-jie; Ma, Zheng-hai

    2007-08-01

    To explore a new immunocontraceptive vaccine and construct an attenuated recombinant adenoviral vaccine against Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3(LZP3). LZP3 gene was subcloned into the shuttle vector pShuttle-CMV, and then a two-step transformation procedure was employed to construct a recombinant adenoviral plasmid with LZP3, which was digested with Pac I and transfected into HEK293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus particles. Finally, HeLa cells were infected by the recombinant adenovirus. LZP3 gene was detected from the recombinant virus by PCR, and its transcription and expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Recombinant adenovirus vector pAd-LZP3 with LZP3 gene was constructed by homologous recombination in E.coli, and a recombinant adenovirus was obtained by transfecting HEK293 cells with pAd-LZP3. PCR test indicated that LZP3 gene was successfully integrated into the adenoviral genome, and the titer of the recombinant adenovirus reached 1.2x10(10) pfu/L. The transcription and expression of LZP3 gene in the infected HeLa cells were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The recombinant adenovirus RAd-LZP3 can be successfully expressed in the infected HeLa cells, which lays the foundation for further researches into immunizing animals with RAd-LZP3.

  5. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of an Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Rosalinda

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to identify the cultural norms, practices, and programs of an urban school that narrowed the achievement gap. The reason for identifying these factors in a successful school was to add to the body of literature regarding the achievement gap and what a struggling school was able to do to narrow the gap. This case…

  6. Recombination in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Sarah R.; Roy, Anshuman; Heeger, Alan J.

    2010-12-01

    Recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells reduces the short circuit current (Jsc) and the fill factor (FF). Identifying the mechanism of recombination is, therefore, fundamentally important for increasing the power conversion efficiency. Light intensity and temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements on polymer BHJ cells made from a variety of different semiconducting polymers and fullerenes show that the recombination kinetics are voltage dependent and evolve from first-order recombination at short circuit to bimolecular recombination at open circuit as a result of increasing the voltage-dependent charge carrier density in the cell. The “missing 0.3 V” inferred from comparison of the band gaps of the bulk heterojunction materials and the measured open-circuit voltage at room-temperature results from the temperature dependence of the quasi-Fermi levels in the polymer and fullerene domains—a conclusion based on the fundamental statistics of fermions.

  7. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  8. Free-Free Radiation Cannot Make the UV/Soft-X-Ray Excess in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, G. A.

    1994-05-01

    Thermal gas always has associated atomic spectral features either in absorption or in emission. In optically thin gas the emission spectrum is dominated by line radiation and recombination continua. An example of radiation from optically thin material in accreting systems is the emission-line-dominated spectrum of a cataclysmic variable in its low state. Barvainis (1993, ApJ, 412, 513) and others have proposed that the UV/soft-X-ray excess prominent in the spectra of many AGN is due to free-free emission from gas at temperatures of 10(5) - 10(6) K. Simple arguments using only atomic data show that the recombination radiation from emission lines would produce UV, optical, and soft X-ray spectral features orders of magnitude stronger than observed. Collisional excitation produces even more line radiation under most physical conditions. As a particular example I take the Astro-1 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335 by HUT and BBXRT. Depending on the ionization state of the gas (which may be photoionized by the central source), the emission measure of the free-free radiation necessary to produce the UV continuum (3 times 10(68) cm(-3) at 8.2 times 10(5) K for H_o = 75 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) ) implies line emission from O VI, O VII, or O VIII more than a factor of 10 stronger than any features observed by HUT or BBXRT.

  9. Variation in Recombination Rate and Its Genetic Determinism in Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Morgane; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Sarry, Julien; Drouilhet, Laurence; Fabre, Stéphane; Moreno, Carole R.; Servin, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is a complex biological process that results from a cascade of multiple events during meiosis. Understanding the genetic determinism of recombination can help to understand if and how these events are interacting. To tackle this question, we studied the patterns of recombination in sheep, using multiple approaches and data sets. We constructed male recombination maps in a dairy breed from the south of France (the Lacaune breed) at a fine scale by combining meiotic recombination rates from a large pedigree genotyped with a 50K SNP array and historical recombination rates from a sample of unrelated individuals genotyped with a 600K SNP array. This analysis revealed recombination patterns in sheep similar to other mammals but also genome regions that have likely been affected by directional and diversifying selection. We estimated the average recombination rate of Lacaune sheep at 1.5 cM/Mb, identified ∼50,000 crossover hotspots on the genome, and found a high correlation between historical and meiotic recombination rate estimates. A genome-wide association study revealed two major loci affecting interindividual variation in recombination rate in Lacaune, including the RNF212 and HEI10 genes and possibly two other loci of smaller effects including the KCNJ15 and FSHR genes. The comparison of these new results to those obtained previously in a distantly related population of domestic sheep (the Soay) revealed that Soay and Lacaune males have a very similar distribution of recombination along the genome. The two data sets were thus combined to create more precise male meiotic recombination maps in Sheep. However, despite their similar recombination maps, Soay and Lacaune males were found to exhibit different heritabilities and QTL effects for interindividual variation in genome-wide recombination rates. This highlights the robustness of recombination patterns to underlying variation in their genetic determinism. PMID:28978774

  10. Variation in Recombination Rate and Its Genetic Determinism in Sheep Populations.

    PubMed

    Petit, Morgane; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Sarry, Julien; Drouilhet, Laurence; Fabre, Stéphane; Moreno, Carole R; Servin, Bertrand

    2017-10-01

    Recombination is a complex biological process that results from a cascade of multiple events during meiosis. Understanding the genetic determinism of recombination can help to understand if and how these events are interacting. To tackle this question, we studied the patterns of recombination in sheep, using multiple approaches and data sets. We constructed male recombination maps in a dairy breed from the south of France (the Lacaune breed) at a fine scale by combining meiotic recombination rates from a large pedigree genotyped with a 50K SNP array and historical recombination rates from a sample of unrelated individuals genotyped with a 600K SNP array. This analysis revealed recombination patterns in sheep similar to other mammals but also genome regions that have likely been affected by directional and diversifying selection. We estimated the average recombination rate of Lacaune sheep at 1.5 cM/Mb, identified ∼50,000 crossover hotspots on the genome, and found a high correlation between historical and meiotic recombination rate estimates. A genome-wide association study revealed two major loci affecting interindividual variation in recombination rate in Lacaune, including the RNF212 and HEI10 genes and possibly two other loci of smaller effects including the KCNJ15 and FSHR genes. The comparison of these new results to those obtained previously in a distantly related population of domestic sheep (the Soay) revealed that Soay and Lacaune males have a very similar distribution of recombination along the genome. The two data sets were thus combined to create more precise male meiotic recombination maps in Sheep. However, despite their similar recombination maps, Soay and Lacaune males were found to exhibit different heritabilities and QTL effects for interindividual variation in genome-wide recombination rates. This highlights the robustness of recombination patterns to underlying variation in their genetic determinism. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society