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Sample records for nasa terra eos

  1. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  2. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Mission Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomnson, Vincent V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it and "first light" observations occurred on June 24,2002. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems for both MODIS instruments are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations.

  3. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  4. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  5. Multi-Sensor Approach to Mapping Snow Cover Using Data From NASA's EOS Aqua and Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Over the past several decades both optical and passive microwave satellite data have been utilized for snow mapping at the regional to global scale. For the period 1978 to 2002, we have shown earlier that both passive microwave and visible data sets indicate a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are, depending on season, less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. Snow mapping using optical data is based on the magnitude of the surface reflectance while microwave data can be used to identify snow cover because the microwave energy emitted by the underlying soil is scattered by the snow grains resulting in a sharp decrease in brightness temperature and a characteristic negative spectral gradient. Our previous work has defined the respective advantages and disadvantages of these two types of satellite data for snow cover mapping and it is clear that a blended product is optimal. We present a multi-sensor approach to snow mapping based both on historical data as well as data from current NASA EOS sensors. For the period 1978 to 2002 we combine data from the NOAA weekly snow charts with passive microwave data from the SMMR and SSM/I brightness temperature record. For the current and future time period we blend MODIS and AMSR-E data sets. An example of validation at the brightness temperature level is provided through the comparison of AMSR-E with data from the well-calibrated heritage SSM/I sensor over a large homogeneous snow-covered surface (Dome C, Antarctica). Prototype snow cover maps from AMSR-E compare well with maps derived from SSM/I. Our current blended product is being developed in the 25 km EASE-Grid while the MODIS data being used are in the Climate Modelers Grid (CMG) at approximately 5 km

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  7. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  8. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  9. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  10. From Soup to Nuts: How Terra has enabled the growth of NASA Earth science communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Allen, J.; Voiland, A.; Przyborski, P.

    2014-12-01

    The birth of NASA's Earth Observatory website in 1999 closely mirrored the launch of Terra and over the years its growth has paralleled that of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. With the launch of Terra, NASA gained an extraordinary platform that not only promised new science capabilities but gave us the data and imagery for telling the stories behind the science. The Earth Observatory Group was founded to communicate these stories to the public. We will present how we have used the capabilities of all the Terra instruments over the past 15 years to expand the public's knowledge of NASA Earth science. The ever-increasing quantity and quality of Terra data, combined with technological improvements to data availability and services has allowed the Earth Observatory and, as a result, the greater science-aware media, to greatly expand the visibility of NASA data and imagery. We will offer thoughts on best practices in using these multi-faceted instruments for public communication and we will share how we have worked with Terra science teams and affiliated systems to see the potential stories in their data and the value of providing the data in a timely fashion. Terra has allowed us to tell the stories of our Earth today like never before.

  11. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  12. The NASA EOS User Services Offices: Supporting Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E.; Schumacher, J.; Harrison, S.; Jones, C.; Klaassen, A.; Morris, K.; Sandoval, M.; Scott, D.; Wolf, V.; Farnham, J.

    2004-12-01

    The primary goal for NASA's Sun-Earth System Division is to use satellite remote sensing to examine the Sun and Earth as a single connected system. Within the Sun-Earth System Division, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of a series of satellites, scientific research, and a data collection and management system known as EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS has nine discipline-specific data centers that manage, document, archive, and distribute a variety of Earth system science data. The data centers provide an assortment of services to their data users via their User Services Offices (USO). The nine USOs communicate regularly by email, phone, and teleconference, and have meetings twice a year during which they analyze, discuss, and determine how to better serve the Earth science community. The sharing of information among USO representatives within the User Services Working Group (USWG) results in an understanding of user needs and problems with data sets within EOS. By identifying these needs, we can improve our services and data distribution methods for users, and advocate solutions on behalf of the user community to the EOS project. Each User Services Office provides timely assistance answering a variety of user questions about its data and services, assists users with their data orders, provides referrals to other data centers, and establishes data subscriptions when applicable. USO troubleshoots problems with data sets and data distribution, recommends and supports tools for data subsetting, searching and ordering, handling, and manipulation, and communicates user needs to data and software developers. The USO is each data center's interface to the public, and has many resources available to assist the user, including data set guide documents, science team members, and programmers. Additionally, the USWG represents the nine data centers in the OneNASA outreach effort. Users will always find ready support for NASA Earth science data

  13. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  14. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  15. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, showing extensive, brownish smoke. The imaged area ... Center. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image Credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team ...

  16. Global Retrieval of Roughness Length from EOS-Terra Satellite Products and Limited Field Study Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaudt, K. J.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    Global and regional retrievals, which illustrate the seasonality, of roughness length will be presented. Roughness length is a key factor in estimating the sensible and latent heat fluxes in climate models. In the past the lack of observations made it necessary for most climate models to use relatively crude estimates for roughness length. Typically the roughness length was assigned a constant value for each of the land cover classifications. In reality roughness length depends upon the average height, shape, density and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the vegetation present. The retrievals presented here depend on these four variables, and they represent a significant improvement over past approaches. The parameterization of roughness length in terms of the four variables (average height, shape, density and LAI) is based on the work of Raupach and Lindroth. The roughness length is formulated in such a way that roughness length can be found either by remote sensing or by variables used in climate models with interactive canopies. The EOS-Terra satellite products used are the overstory plant density and LAI for the seven treed IGBP land cover classes (evergreen and deciduous needle-leaf, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf and mixed forests, savannah and woody savannah). The tree crown shape (the canopy height-to-width ratio) is based on field studies; it depends on the tree's basic shape (conical or elliptical) and on latitude. At present, the height is of all the vegetation is the average height for the various land cover classifications found in numerous field studies. Limitations of the current retrieval and future improvements will be discussed.

  17. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  18. Recent Results From The Nasa Earth Science Terra Mission and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Earth Sciences Enterprise has made some remarkable strides in recent times in using developing, implementing, and utilizing spaceborne observations to better understand how the Earth works as a coupled, interactive system of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Notable examples include the Upper Atmosphere Research (UARS) Satellite, the Topology Ocean Experiment (TOPEX) mission, Landsat-7, SeaWiFS, the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), Quickscatt, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and, quite recently, the Terra'/Earth Observing System-1 mission. The Terra mission, for example, represents a major step forward in providing sensors that offer considerable advantages and progress over heritage instruments. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflections (ASTER) radiometer, and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometer are the instruments involved. Early indications in March indicate that each of these instruments are working well and will be augmenting data bases from heritage instruments as well as producing new, unprecedented observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features. Several missions will follow the Terra mission as the Earth Observing mission systems complete development and go into operation. These missions include EOS PM-1/'Aqua', Icesat, Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL), Jason/TOPEX Follow-on, the Chemistry mission, etc. As the Earth Observing systems completes its first phase in about 2004 a wealth of data enabling better understanding of the Earth and the management of its resources will have been provided. Considerable thought is beginning to be placed on what advances in technology can be implemented that will enable further advances in the early part of the 21st century; e.g., in the time from of 2020. Concepts such as

  19. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): An opportunity for mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Donohoe, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a suite of instruments joined by a common data information system and will carry out multidisciplinary Earth science studies using a variety of remote sensing techniques. The mission is planned for the 1990's and will focus on the Earth as a system requiring measurements in the areas of hydrology, geology, forestry, meteorology, oceanography, and agriculture. Two platforms are envisioned on the U.S. side each carrying a payload of between 3500 and 4000 kgs. The European Space Agency and Japan are integrating plans for their own programs with EOS and will provide a third and fourth platform. The results of the EOS program will be applied to biogeochemistry and climate studies, and to environment management.

  20. EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Dozier, Jeff

    Market: Students and researchers in geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics. This book reports on the timely Earth Observing System (EOS) Program's wide range of scientific investigations, observational capabilities, vast data and information system, and educational activities. Because its primary goal is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change, this program provides the scientific knowledge needed by world leaders to formulate sound and equitable environmental policies.

  1. TERRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsty

    1997-01-01

    TERRA (Teaching Ecological Responsibility, Recreation, and Adventure) is an integrated, one-semester, four-course program in environmental science, environmental English, independent geography, and outdoor education for grades 11 and 12 in New Liskeard, Ontario. Program activities include outdoor adventure, environmental research projects,…

  2. Enhancement to Hitran to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1998-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  3. Enhancement to HITRAN to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1999-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  4. The Transition of NASA EOS Datasets to WFO Operations: A Model for Future Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C.; Burks, J.; Jedlovec, G.; Haines, S.

    2007-01-01

    The collocation of a National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Office with atmospheric scientists from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama has afforded a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. Specifically, the NWS office in Huntsville has interacted closely with research scientists within the SPORT (Short-term Prediction and Research and Transition) Center at MSFC. One significant technology transfer that has reaped dividends is the transition of unique NASA EOS polar orbiting datasets into NWS field operations. NWS forecasters primarily rely on the AWIPS (Advanced Weather Information and Processing System) decision support system for their day to day forecast and warning decision making. Unfortunately, the transition of data from operational polar orbiters or low inclination orbiting satellites into AWIPS has been relatively slow due to a variety of reasons. The ability to integrate these high resolution NASA datasets into operations has yielded several benefits. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer ) instrument flying on the Aqua and Terra satellites provides a broad spectrum of multispectral observations at resolutions as fine as 250m. Forecasters routinely utilize these datasets to locate fine lines, boundaries, smoke plumes, locations of fog or haze fields, and other mesoscale features. In addition, these important datasets have been transitioned to other WFOs for a variety of local uses. For instance, WFO Great Falls Montana utilizes the MODIS snow cover product for hydrologic planning purposes while several coastal offices utilize the output from the MODIS and AMSR-E instruments to supplement observations in the data sparse regions of the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic. In the short term, these datasets have benefited local WFOs in a variety of ways. In the longer term, the process by which these unique datasets were successfully transitioned to operations will benefit the planning and

  5. Using NASA EOS in the Arabian and Saharan Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Spectral Signature of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Keeton, T.; Barrick, B.; Cowart, K.; Cooksey, K.; Florence, V.; Herdy, C.; Luvall, J. C.; Vasquez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of airborne particulate matter can have adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. Given the relatively high incidence of new-onset respiratory disorders experienced by US service members deployed to Iraq, this research offers a new glimpse into how satellite remote sensing can be applied to questions related to human health. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles, the depth of dust plumes, as well as dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angström exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the distribution of particle sizes, the area of the dust storm, and whether silicate minerals were present in the dust. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Minimal research has been conducted on the spectral characteristics of airborne dust in the Arabian and Sahara Deserts. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  6. Vegetation Canopy Structure from NASA EOS Multiangle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopping, M.; Martonchik, J. V.; Bull, M.; Rango, A.; Schaaf, C. B.; Zhao, F.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    We used red band bidirectional reflectance data from the NASA Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mapped onto a 250 m grid in a multiangle approach to obtain estimates of woody plant fractional cover and crown height through adjustment of the mean radius and mean crown aspect ratio parameters of an hybrid geometric-optical (GO) model. We used a technique to rapidly obtain MISR surface reflectance estimates at 275 m resolution through regression on 1 km MISR land surface estimates previously corrected for atmospheric attenuation using MISR aerosol estimates. MISR data were used to make end of dry season maps from 2000-2007 for parts of southern New Mexico, while MODIS data were used to replicate previous results obtained using MISR for June 2002 over large parts of New Mexico and Arizona. We also examined the applicability of this method in Alaskan tundra and forest by adjusting the GO model against MISR data for winter (March 2000) and summer (August 2008) scenes. We found that the GO model crown aspect ratio from MISR followed dominant shrub species distributions in the USDA, ARS Jornada Experimental Range, enabling differentiation of the more spherical crowns of creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) from the more prolate crowns of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). The measurement limits determined from 2000-2007 maps for a large part of southern New Mexico are ~0.1 in fractional shrub crown cover and ~3 m in mean canopy height (results obtained using data acquired shortly after precipitation events that radically darkened and altered the structure and angular response of the background). Typical standard deviations over the period for 12 sites covering a range of cover types are on the order of 0.05 in crown cover and 2 m in mean canopy height. We found that the GO model can be inverted to retrieve reasonable distributions of canopy parameters in southwestern environments using MODIS V005 red

  7. Use of EO-1 Hyperion data to calculate spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) between the L7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Mishra, N.; Helder, Dennis L.; Aaron, D.; Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Xiong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Different applications and technology developments in Earth observations necessarily require different spectral coverage. Thus, even for the spectral bands designed to look at the same region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the relative spectral responses (RSR) of different sensors may be different. In this study, spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are derived using hyperspectral Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion measurements to adjust for the spectral band differences between the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measurements from 2000 to 2009 over the pseudo-invariant Libya 4 reference standard test site.

  8. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  9. Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

  10. Middle East Health and Air Quality Utilizing NASA EOS in the Saharan and Arabian Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Mineralogy of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, Tiffany; Barrick, Bradley; Cooksey, Kirstin; Cowart, Kevin; Florence, Victoria; Herdy, Claire; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Luvall, Jeffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5micron (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. NASA fs Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles and dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angstrom Exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the area of the dust storm. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodele Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  11. Report from the School of Experience: Lessons-Learned on NASA's EOS/ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselm, William

    2003-01-01

    Abstract-NASA s Earth Observing System EOS) Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was one of the first missions under Goddard Space Flight Center s (then-) new Rapid Spacecraft Development Office. This paper explores the lessons-learned under the ICESat successful implementation and launch, focusing on four areas: Procurement., Management, Technical, and Launch and Early Operations. Each of these areas is explored in a practical perspective of communication, the viewpoint of the players, and the interactions among the organizations. Conclusions and lessons-learned are summarized in the final section.

  12. Development and test of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Bates, Jerry C.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1999-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program for a scheduled launch on the EOS PM-1 spacecraft in December 2000. AIRS, working in concert with complementary microwave instrumentation on EOS PM-1, is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere, humidity profiles to 10% accuracy and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.4 micrometer region. The instrument concept uses a passively cooled array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plan and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve high performance in a practical long life configuration. The AIRS instrument has successfully completed a comprehensive performance verification program conducted at the Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems (LMIRIS) AIRS Test and Calibration Facility (ATCF), which was specially designed for precise spectroradiometric testing of space instrumentation. This paper provides a brief overview of the AIRS mission and instrument design, ATCF test capabilities, along with key results.

  13. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  14. Overview of NASA Earth Observing Systems Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Instrument Calibration Algorithms and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Barnes, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Since launch, the Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated on-orbit for more than 9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Iv1ODIS, a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage earth-observing sensors. In addition to frequent global coverage, MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering both solar reflective and thermal emissive spectral regions. Nearly 40 data products are routinely generated from MODIS' observations and publicly distributed for a broad range of applications. Both instruments have produced an unprecedented amount of data in support of the science community. As a general reference for understanding sensor operation and calibration, and thus science data quality, we ;provide an overview of the MODIS instruments and their pre-launch calibration and characterization, and describe their on-orbit calibration algorithms and performance. On-orbit results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS radiometric, spectral, and "spatial calibration are discussed. Currently, both instruments, including their on-board calibration devices, are healthy and are expected to continue operation for several }rears to come.

  15. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  16. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  17. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  18. NASA's Autonomous Formation Flying Technology Demonstration, Earth Observing-1(EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bristow, John; Hawkins, Albin; Dell, Greg

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission, the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, recently completed its principal goal of demonstrating advanced formation control technology. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of an onboard system that was developed originally as a ground mission planning and operations tool. We discuss the Goddard Space Flight Center s formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and its implementation, the interface and functionality of the onboard system, and the implementation of a Kalman filter based GPS data smoother. A number of safeguards that allow the incremental phasing in of autonomy and alleviate the potential for mission-impacting anomalies from the on- board autonomous system are discussed. A comparison of the maneuvers planned onboard using the EO-1 autonomous control system to those from the operational ground-based maneuver planning system is presented to quantify our success. The maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary and routine formation maintenance. Definitive orbital data is presented that verifies all formation flying requirements.

  19. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and

  20. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-3) Range Biases and Momentum Unload Modeling for Terra (EOS-AMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) reports its performance in meeting Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) predicted ephemeris accuracy requirements with TDRS-3. The Terra (Earth Observing System AM-1) satellite has 3-sigma TDRS requirements of 75 m for total position accuracy predicted over one day onboard. The study sample includes selected cases over 21 months after Guam Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) support started in June 1998. For daily solutions with a 1.5-day prediction span, predicted results of the study were below the Terra requirement by at least 12 m. Refined range bias estimation and modeled momentum unloads are needed to meet Terra's requirements for TDRS-3. Maintained at 275 W longitude over the zone of exclusion, TDRS-3 is analyzed separately from other TDRSs because of its unique tracking data. Only the Bilateration Ranging Transponder (BRT) at Alice Springs (ALS), Australia, and the Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) system at Guam are used for routine operational tracking data for TDRS-3. Simultaneous batch orbit solutions with three TDRSs and either the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) or Terra were done with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) to periodically refine the TT&C and BRT System (BRTS) range biases. As new biases were determined, significant changes were made in estimating the absolute position. FDF achieved similar results using a sequential filter with all operational TDRSs and four user satellites. Definitive accuracy (3-sigma) is expected to be below 50 m. The White Sands Complex (WSC) performs momentum unloads to maintain three-axis stabilized attitude of TDRSs. The relationship between velocity changes (delta-V) and reaction wheel speed changes was empirically determined for roll/yaw unloads. A theoretical relationship was verified and used for pitch unloads. Modeling both pitch and roll/yaw momentum unloads is necessary to meet the 75-m requirement. Moving the orbit solution epoch an hour before a

  1. Science Writers' Guide to TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of NASA's Terra spacecraft marks a new era of comprehensive monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents from a single space-based platform. Data from the five Terra instruments will create continuous, long-term records of the state of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. The science objectives of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) program are to provide global observations and scientific understanding of land cover change and global productivity, climate variability and change, natural hazards, and atmospheric ozone. Observations by the Terra instruments will: provide the first global and seasonal measurements of the Earth system, including such critical functions as biological productivity of the land and oceans, snow and ice, surface temperature, clouds, water vapor, and land cover; improve our ability to detect human impacts on the Earth system and climate, identify the "fingerprint" of human activity on climate, and predict climate change by using the new global observations in climate models; help develop technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wildfires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts, and start long-term monitoring of global climate change and environmental change.

  2. NASA A-Train and Terra Observations of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; DaSilva, A.; Torres, O.; Levy, R.; Duncan, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires raged throughout western Russia and parts of Eastern Europe during a persistent heat wave in the summer of 2010. Anomalously high surface temperatures (35 - 41 C) and low relative humidity (9 - 25 %) from mid- June to mid-August 2010 shown by analysis of radiosonde data from multiple sites in western Russia were ideal conditions for the wildfires to thrive. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over western Russian indicate persistent subsidence during the heat wave. Daily three-day back-trajectories initiated over Moscow reveal a persistent anticyclonic circulation for 18 days in August, coincident with the most intense period of fire activity observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This unfortunate meteorological coincidence allowed transport of polluted air from the region of intense fires to Moscow and the surrounding area. We demonstrate that the 2010 Russian wildfires are unique in the record of observations obtained by remote-sensing instruments on-board NASA satellites: Aura and Aqua (part of the A-Train Constellation) and Terra. Analysis of the distribution of MODIS fire products and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), UV aerosol index (AI) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and total column carbon monoxide (CO) from Aqua s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) show that the region in the center of western Russia surrounding Moscow (52-58 deg N, 33 -43 deg E) is most severely impacted by wildfire emissions. Over this area, AIRS CO, OMI AI, and MODIS AOT are significantly enhanced relative to the historical satellite record during the first 18 days in August when the anti-cyclonic circulation persisted. By mid-August, the anti-cyclonic circulation was replaced with westerly transport over Moscow and vicinity. The heat wave

  3. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View Larger Image ... This unique design allows it to measure the height of smoke plumes using stereoscopic techniques. This MISR image, acquired Aug. 23, ...

  4. Radiometric Measurement Comparisons Using Transfer Radiometers in Support of the Calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    1999-01-01

    EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the +/- 3% to +/- 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres

  5. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables

  6. Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  7. A Summary of NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Work in the E.O. Office and in the Educator Resources Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, H. Wendell, Sr.

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Equal Opportunity supports a number of summer programs which are designed to: 1.) Increase the number of elementary and secondary students and teachers who are involved in NASA-related education opportunities; and 2.) Support higher education research capability and opportunities that attract and prepare increasing numbers of students and faculty for NASA-related careers. A part of my work in the E.O. office involved the evaluation of several of the programs in order to determine their level of success and to make recommendations for the improvement of those programs where necessary. As a part of the involvement with one of the programs, the PSTI, I had the great opportunity to interact with the students in a number of their sessions which involved problem-based learning in science, mathematics and technology. A summary of the evaluation of those programs is included in this report. The second part of my work involved assisting the coordinator of the Educator Resource Center at the Space and Rocket Center. I participated in space science workshops for in-service and pre-service teachers. There educational resources were made available to the participants including many hands-on activities that hey could take back to their classes. I participated in the three hour workshops that were offered on Tuesdays and Thursdays of each week, although there were workshops on other days. On Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, I worked in the E.O. office. As a result of my work in the ERC, I developed a Directed Reading PowerPoint Lesson Plan Guide involving remote sensing entitled, Echo the Bat. This was based on a NASA published children's book entitled Echo The Bat, written by Ginger Butcher. I have included a description of the lesson in this report. A summary of the evaluations of several of the summer programs supported by the Equal Opportunity office are included in this report.

  8. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  9. NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE): Changing patterns in the use of NRT satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Michael, K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Harrison, S.; Ding, F.; Durbin, P. B.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Rinsland, P. L.; Ye, G.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery approximately 3 hours from satellite observation, to monitor natural events globally and to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE, and how the use of NRT data and imagery has evolved. Since 2010 there has been a four-fold increase in both the volume of data and the number of files downloaded. Over the last year there has been a marked shift in the way in which users are accessing NRT imagery; users are gravitating towards Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and away from MODIS Rapid Response, in part due to the increased exposure through social media. In turn this is leading to a broader range of users viewing NASA NRT imagery. This article also describes new, and planned, product enhancements to LANCE. Over the last year, LANCE has expanded to support NRT products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). LANCE elements are also planning to ingest and process NRT data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the advanced Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite in the near future.

  10. Using Ncl to Visualize and Analyse of NASA/NOAA Satellite Data in Format of Netcdf, Hdf, Hdf-Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Command Language (NCL, http://www.ncl.ucar.edu), a product of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a free interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data processing and visualization. NCL has robust file input of NetCDF, HDF, HDF-EOS, and can be OPenDAP-enabled. NCL team has developed examples to handle some of NASA data and posted at: http://www.ncl.ucar.edu/Applications/HDF.shtml. The HDF group has used developed more examples at:http://hdfeos.org/zoo. In order to serve the community better, and to handle future NASA/NOAA data, such as: AIRS, TRMM, MERRA, TOMS, OMI, HIRDLS, BUV, SWDB, GSSTF, GOSAT/ACOS, MOD, MYD, NPP, VIIRS, MCD, VIP, WELD, GED, CALIPSO, CERES, MISR, MOPITT, etc., better, the NCL team is willing to share source code, and examples used to visualize and analyze the above data, and want to hear from the community to improve our work.

  11. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): Data Products for the High Spatial Resolution Imager on NASA's EOS-AMI Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high spatial resolution, multispectral imager with along-track stereo capabilities scheduled for launch on the first NASA spacecraft of the Earth Observing System (EOS AM-1) in mid-1999.

  12. Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires

  13. Cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensors using near-simultaneous surface observation over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Meyer, D.J.; Xiong, X.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-calibration methodology has been developed using coincident image pairs from the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Earth Observing EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) to verify the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of these sensors with respect to each other. To quantify the effects due to different spectral responses, the Relative Spectral Responses (RSR) of these sensors were studied and compared by developing a set of "figures-of-merit." Seven cloud-free scenes collected over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN), test site were used to conduct the cross-calibration study. This cross-calibration approach was based on image statistics from near-simultaneous observations made by different satellite sensors. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the image pairs, and the mean target statistics were converted to absolute units of at-sensor reflectance. Using these reflectances, a set of cross-calibration equations were developed giving a relative gain and bias between the sensor pair.

  14. Using Microwave and Infrared Radiances from Off-Nadir Pixels: Application of Radiative Transfer to Slanted Line-of-Sight and Comparisons with NASA EOS Aqua Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The passive infrared and microwave nadir sounders such as (A)TOVS observe the atmosphere from a polar orbit by directing their scan pointed at the ground up to about 49 degrees from nadir. Except for the pixels located right on the satellite ground track, the radiance measurements collected by these instruments characterize hence atmospheric emission paths which are slanted with respect to the zenithal direction at the ground. At the outer swath edges, the deviations from nadir reach about 60 degrees in terms of Satellite Zenith Angle (SZA). The radiative transfer codes used in operational Numerical Weather Prediction applications make the appropriate corrections to account for the extra path induced by the non-zero SZA. However, no corrections are made to account for the fact that the atmospheric profiles along the slanted line-of-sight (LOS) are different from the vertical because of horizontal gradients in the atmosphere. Using NASA EOS Aqua satellite's orbits, zenith and azimuth angles, as well as three-dimensional fields of temperature, water vapor, and ozone produced by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, we extracted slanted atmospheric profiles for actual soundings performed by the AIRS and AMSU-A instruments onboard EOS Aqua. We will present the results of our study comparing the calculated brightness temperatures along slanted LOS and vertical LOS with AIRS and AMSU-A observations.

  15. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data to Determine Ideal Planting Locations for Wetland Tree Species in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reahard, Ross; Arguelles, Maria; Strong, Emma; Ewing, Michael; Kelly, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    St. Bernard Parish, in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have worked not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for coastal forests. Using NASA EOS, NRCS soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of wetland trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using LIDAR data and classifying existing land cover in the study area from ASTER multispectral satellite data. Low altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the intersection of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou la Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was mapped using aerial photos from USGS collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated the utility of combining NASA EOS with other geospatial data in assessing, monitoring, and restoring of coastal ecosystems in Louisiana. This methodology also provides a useful template for other ecological forecasting and coastal restoration applications.

  17. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  18. Using NASA EOS to Assess Air Quality and Health Risks Associated with the Virginia Dismal Swamp Fires of 2011 for Improved Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbar, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp has always experienced recurring wildfires that are part of a natural cycle of ecological growth and succession. However, the Lateral West Fire in 2011 was the product of two factors; an ongoing regional drought and a lightning strike. The fire burned from August to late November and was a challenge to extinguish because of the highly organic peat ecosystem. The fire released smoke that was reported over 200 miles north of the origin. The combustion of organic peat content augmented PM2.5, PM10, and carbon monoxide levels enough to exceed federal air quality limits. In order to analyze the effects, MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Aqua and Terra and Aqua's AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) were used. The satellites were used to discern aerosol distribution and chemical content of the fire's smoke plumes. In addition, data taken from NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution LiDAR from flights conducted during the time period in conjunction with CALIPSO's CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LiDAR with Orthogonal Polarization) sensor offered vertical cross sections of aerosol tracking and air quality analysis. Finally, Meteorology-based trajectories and concentration plots from NOAA's HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model added theoretical smoke plume direction and distribution information to compare with observed data. With the utilization of NASA Earth and airborne observing systems in conjunction with models were able to analyze the spread of smoke, aerosols, and its effects on air quality to provide a method that can be used by concerned agencies in an effort to protect regional environment and public health in the case of future exceptional and wildfire events.; MODIS AOD and CALIPSO 532nm attenuated backscatter along with NOAA HYSPLIT Frequency model on August 22nd, indicating smoke direction and particles in the atmosphere.

  19. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  20. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  1. EOS Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Earth Observing System (EOS) directory is divided into two main sections: white and yellow pages. The white pages list alphabetically the names and addresses -- including e-mail, phone, and fax when available -- of all individuals involved with EOS, from graduate students to panel members to program management and more. The yellow pages list the names, affiliation, and phone number of participants divided by project management, program management, individual project participants, interdisciplinary investigations (listed alphabetically by PI), the Science Executive Committee, various panels, platforms, working groups, fellowships, and contractors.

  2. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  3. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  4. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  5. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 28 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image illustrates the complex terrains within Terra Meridiani. This general region is one of the more complex on Mars, with a rich array of sedimentary, volcanic, and impact surfaces that span a wide range of martian history. This image lies at the eastern edge of a unique geologic unit that was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Science Team to have high concentrations of a unique mineral called grey (crystalline) hematite. As discussed by the TES Science Team, this mineral typically forms by processes associated with water, and this region appears to have undergone alteration by hydrothermal (hot water) or other water-related processes. As a result of this evidence for water activity, this region is a leading candidate for further exploration by one of NASA's upcoming Mars Exploration Rovers. The brightness and texture of the surface varies remarkably throughout this image. These differences are associated with different rock layers or ?units?, and can be used to map the occurrence of these layers. The number of layers indicates that extensive deposition by volcanic and sedimentary processes has occurred in this region. Since that time, however, extensive erosion has occurred to produce the patchwork of different layers exposed across the surface. Several distinct layers can be seen within the 20 km diameter crater at the bottom (south) of the image, indicating that this crater once contained layers of sedimentary material that has since been removed. THEMIS infrared images of this region show that many of these rock layers have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that the physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment and the conditions under which these layers were deposited or solidified varied through time as these layers were formed. The Story Mars exploration

  6. HDF-EOS Dump Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, U.; Rahabi, A.

    2001-05-01

    The following utilities developed for HDF-EOS format data dump are of special use for Earth science data for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS). This poster demonstrates their use and application. The first four tools take HDF-EOS data files as input. HDF-EOS Metadata Dumper - metadmp Metadata dumper extracts metadata from EOS data granules. It operates by simply copying blocks of metadata from the file to the standard output. It does not process the metadata in any way. Since all metadata in EOS granules is encoded in the Object Description Language (ODL), the output of metadmp will be in the form of complete ODL statements. EOS data granules may contain up to three different sets of metadata (Core, Archive, and Structural Metadata). HDF-EOS Contents Dumper - heosls Heosls dumper displays the contents of HDF-EOS files. This utility provides detailed information on the POINT, SWATH, and GRID data sets. in the files. For example: it will list, the Geo-location fields, Data fields and objects. HDF-EOS ASCII Dumper - asciidmp The ASCII dump utility extracts fields from EOS data granules into plain ASCII text. The output from asciidmp should be easily human readable. With minor editing, asciidmp's output can be made ingestible by any application with ASCII import capabilities. HDF-EOS Binary Dumper - bindmp The binary dumper utility dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format. This is useful for feeding the output of it into existing program, which does not understand HDF, for example: custom software and COTS products. HDF-EOS User Friendly Metadata - UFM The UFM utility tool is useful for viewing ECS metadata. UFM takes an EOSDIS ODL metadata file and produces an HTML report of the metadata for display using a web browser. HDF-EOS METCHECK - METCHECK METCHECK can be invoked from either Unix or Dos environment with a set of command line options that a user might use to direct the tool inputs and output . METCHECK validates the inventory metadata in (.met file) using The

  7. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  8. Data Information for Global Change Studies: NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers and Cooperating Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE is a long-term global change research program designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's interrelated processes involving the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and polar regions. Data from EOS instruments and other Earth science measurement systems are useful in understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a structure for data management and user services for products derived from EOS satellite instruments and other NASA Earth science data. Within the EOSDIS framework, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have been established to provide expertise in one or more Earth science disciplines. The DAACs and cooperating data centers provide data and information services to support the global change research community. Much of the development of the DAACs has been in anticipation of the enormous amount of data expected from EOS instruments to be launched within the next two decades. Terra, the EOS flagship launched in December 1999, is the first of a series of EOS satellites to carry several instruments with multispectral capabilities. Some data products from these instruments are now available from several of the DAACs. These and other data products can be ordered through the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) and DAAC-specific online ordering systems.

  9. TerraSAR-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  10. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  11. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  12. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  13. Vector Data Model: A New Model of HDF-EOS to Support GIS Applications in EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, E.; Edmonds, R d

    2001-05-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) project has an active program of research and development of systems for the storage and management of Earth science data for Earth Observation System (EOS) mission, a key program of NASA Earth Science Enterprise. EOS has adopted an extension of the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) as the format of choice for standard product distribution. Three new EOS specific datatypes - point, swath and grid - have been defined within the HDF framework. The enhanced data format is named HDF-EOS. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by Earth scientists in EOS data product generation, visualization, and analysis. There are two major data types in GIS applications, raster and vector. The current HDF-EOS handles only raster type in the swath data model. The vector data model is identified and developed as a new HDFEOS format to meet the requirements of scientists working with EOS data products in vector format. The vector model is designed using a topological data structure, which defines the spatial relationships among points, lines, and polygons. The three major topological concepts that the vector model adopts are: a) lines connect to each other at nodes (connectivity), b) lines that connect to surround an area define a polygon (area definition), and c) lines have direction and left and right sides (contiguity). The vector model is implemented in HDF by mapping the conceptual model to HDF internal data models and structures, viz. Vdata, Vgroup, and their associated attribute structures. The point, line, and polygon geometry and attribute data are stored in similar tables. Further, the vector model utilizes the structure and product metadata, which characterize the HDF-EOS. Both types of metadata are stored as attributes in HDF-EOS files, and are encoded in text format by using Object Description Language (ODL) and stored as global attributes in HDF-EOS files. EOS has developed a series of routines for storing

  14. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  15. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5-micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  16. Earth Observing System (EOS) Snow and Ice Products for Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Kaminski, M.; Cavalieri, D.; Dickinson, R.; Marquis, M.; Riggs, G.; Robinson, D.; VanWoert, M.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Snow and ice are the key components of the Earth's cryosphere, and their influence on the Earth's energy balance is very significant due at least in part to the large areal extent and high albedo characterizing these features. Large changes in the cryosphere have been measured over the last century and especially over the past decade, and remote sensing plays a pivotal role in documenting these changes. Many of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products derived from instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites are useful for measuring changes in features that are associated with climate change. The utility of the products is continually enhanced as the length of the time series increases. To gain a more coherent view of the cryosphere and its historical and recent changes, the EOS products may be employed together, in conjunction with other sources of data, and in models. To further this goal, the first EOS Snow and Ice Products Workshop was convened. The specific goals of the workshop were to provide current and prospective users of EOS snow and ice products up-to-date information on the products, their validation status and future enhancements, to help users utilize the data products through hands-on demonstrations, and to facilitate the integration of EOS products into models. Oral and poster sessions representing a wide variety of snow and ice topics were held; three panels were also convened to discuss workshop themes. Panel discussions focused on data fusion and assimilation of the products into models. Approximately 110 people attended, representing a wide array of interests and organizations in the cryospheric community.

  17. Eos Chasma Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows several landslides within Eos Chasma. Many very large landslides have occurred within different portions of Valles Marineris. Note where the northern wall has failed in a upside-down bowl shape, releasing the material that formed the landslide deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 318.6 East (41.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  19. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Sensor to User - NASA/EOS Data for Coastal Zone Management Applications Developed from Integrated Analyses: Verification, Validation and Benchmark Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Callie; Arnone, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program seeks to transfer NASA data, models, and knowledge into the hands of end-users by forming links with partner agencies and associated decision support tools (DSTs). Through the NASA REASoN (Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network) Cooperative Agreement, the Oceanography Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRLSSC) is developing new products through the integration of data from NASA Earth-Sun System assets with coastal ocean forecast models and other available data to enhance coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. The recipient federal agency for this research effort is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The contents of this report detail the effort to further the goals of the NASA Applied Sciences Program by demonstrating the use of NASA satellite products combined with data-assimilating ocean models to provide near real-time information to maritime users and coastal managers of the Gulf of Mexico. This effort provides new and improved capabilities for monitoring, assessing, and predicting the coastal environment. Coastal managers can exploit these capabilities through enhanced DSTs at federal, state and local agencies. The project addresses three major issues facing coastal managers: 1) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs); 2) hypoxia; and 3) freshwater fluxes to the coastal ocean. A suite of ocean products capable of describing Ocean Weather is assembled on a daily basis as the foundation for this semi-operational multiyear effort. This continuous realtime capability brings decision makers a new ability to monitor both normal and anomalous coastal ocean conditions with a steady flow of satellite and ocean model conditions. Furthermore, as the baseline data sets are used more extensively and the customer list increased, customer feedback is obtained and additional customized products are developed and provided to decision makers. Continual customer feedback and response with new improved

  1. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  2. Large Scale Variability of Mid-Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide as Observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Olsen, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 microns to 15.4 microns and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy, water vapor profiles (20%/2km), infrared cloud height and fraction, and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4 in the mid to upper troposphere. AIRS wide swath(cedilla) +/-49.5 deg , enables daily global daily coverage for over 95% of the Earth's surface. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, validating climate model distribution and processes, and observing long-range transport of greenhouse gases. In this study, we examine the large scale and regional horizontal variability in the AIRS Mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide product as a function of season and associate the observed variability with known atmospheric transport processes, and sources and sinks of CO2.

  3. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends fiom NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approximately 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS- Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  4. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  5. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  6. Visualization, Analysis and Subsetting Tools for EOS Aura Data Products in HDF-EOS5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J.; Ahmad, S.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aura data products are among the first to use the new version 5 of the Hierarchical Data Format for the Earth Observing System, or HDF-EOS5. This presentation discusses the common HDF-EOS5 file layout that is adopted for most of the EOS Aura standard data products. Details of the various tools that can be used to access, visualize and subset these data will also be provided. Aura, the NASA Earth Observing System's atmospheric chemistry mission, was successfully launched July 15, 2004. The Aura spacecraft includes four instruments: the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Data from the HIRDLS, MLS and OMI will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while TES data will be archived at the NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. For more information see http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  7. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  8. Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) tool for MODIS data from Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, M. S.; Eaton, P.; Leptoukh, G.; McCrimmon, N.; Zhou, B.

    2001-05-01

    At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), we have substantially enhanced the popular Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) to include data from the Earth Observing System (EOS). The GES DAAC archives unprecedented volumes of remotely sensed data and large number of geophysical products derived from the MODIS instrument on board Terra satellite, and distributes them to the world scientific and applications user community. These products are currently divided into three groups: Radiometric and Geolocation, Atmosphere, and Ocean data products. The so-called Terra-WHOM (http://acdisx.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataset/MODIS/index.html) is a GES DAAC developed search and order user interface which is a smaller segment of the WHOM interface that provides access to all other GES DAAC data holdings. Terra-WHOM specifically provides user access to MODIS data archived at the GES DAAC. It allows users to navigate through all the available data products and submit a data request with minimal effort. The WHOM modular design and hierarchical architecture makes this tool unique, user-friendly, and very efficient to complete the search and order. The main principle of WHOM is that it advertises the available data products, so, users always know what they can get. The WHOM design includes: simple point & click, flexible, web pages generated from templates, consistent look and feel throughout interface, and easy configuration management due to contents being encapsulated and separated from software. Modular search algorithms provide dynamic Spatial and Temporal search capability and return the search results as html pages using CGI scripts. In Terra-WHOM, calendar pages show the actual number of data granules archived for each day for high-resolution local scenes, and from there the user can go to a page showing the geo-coverage for every granule for a given day. This feature significantly optimizes user's effort for selecting data. The

  9. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  10. EOS mapping accuracy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, R. B.; Eppes, T. A.; Ouellette, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate various image positioning methods for possible use in the earth observatory satellite (EOS) program and other earth resource imaging satellite programs. The primary goal is the generation of geometrically corrected and registered images, positioned with respect to the earth's surface. The EOS sensors which were considered were the thematic mapper, the return beam vidicon camera, and the high resolution pointable imager. The image positioning methods evaluated consisted of various combinations of satellite data and ground control points. It was concluded that EOS attitude control system design must be considered as a part of the image positioning problem for EOS, along with image sensor design and ground image processing system design. Study results show that, with suitable efficiency for ground control point selection and matching activities during data processing, extensive reliance should be placed on use of ground control points for positioning the images obtained from EOS and similar programs.

  11. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  12. EOS Laser Atmosphere Wind Sounder (LAWS) investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, George D.

    1991-01-01

    The related activities of the contract are outlined for the first year. These include: (1) attend team member meetings; (2) support EOS Project with science related activities; (3) prepare and Execution Phase plan; and (4) support LAWS and EOSDIS related work. Attached to the report is an appendix, 'LAWS Algorithm Development and Evaluation Laboratory (LADEL)'. Also attached is a copy of a proposal to the NASA EOS for 'LAWS Sampling Strategies and Wind Computation Algorithms -- Storm-Top Divergence Studies. Volume I: Investigation and Technical Plan, Data Plan, Computer Facilities Plan, Management Plan.'

  13. Early-EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.; Hunolt, Gregory W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), an integral part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, will provide simultaneous observations from a suite of instruments in low-earth orbit. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will handle the data from those instruments, as well as provide access to observations and related information from other earth science missions. The Early-EOSDIS Program will provide initial improved support for global change research by building upon present capabilities and data, and will establish a working prototype EOSDIS for selected archiving, distribution, and information management functions by mid-1994.

  14. MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Andrew S.; Nichitiu, Florian; Caldwell, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA's Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems

  15. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  16. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  17. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  18. The EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is proposed as a 1991 new initiative by NASA as part of the Mission to Planet Earth. One of the key components of the EOS program is the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Two independent Phase B studies of EOSDIS were conducted from January 1989 through April 1990. Some of the key challenges faced by EOSDIS are: satisfying the data and information needs of a diverse multidisciplinary scientific community integrating product generation algorithms for over two dozen instruments, keeping up with an orbital average data rate of over 50 Mb/sec and assuring prompt generation of standard products, reprocessing data as product generation algorithms change, and storing, and managing information about tens of Petabytes of data over the 15-year life of the mission.

  19. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is the centerpiece of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It is a pivotal part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and hence of the international effort to understand global change and the increasing demands of human activity. EOS consists of a space-based observing system, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and a scientific research program. The space component consists of two series of polar-orbiting spacecraft, the first scheduled for launch in 1998, that will collect data for 15 years. EOS is completing its conceptual design phase and is preparing to enter the design phase with the selection and construction of the instruments for the first platform. EOSDIS will allow researchers to quickly and easily access data about the Earth system. Development of EOSDIS has already begun; it will support research and analysis with existing data. Geophysical and biological products will be created from the satellite data to be used to a broad range of the scientific community. NASA has also committed to providing smaller missions - called Earth Probes - dedicated to near-term observations of specific Earth processes. The scientific research program was initiated in 1990, with funding for 28 interdisciplinary teams, to begin development of models that will use EOS data and define the data requirements from the instruments, nine facility instruments and their science teams, 23 instrument investigations and definition studies for a synthetic-aperture radar.

  20. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  1. The Evolution of Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilhaus, Fred

    2007-01-01

    As you hold in your hands, or perhaps read on a screen, the first 2007 issue of Eos>, I would like to tell you a bit about how this, AGU's first publication, got to be what it is today. It is and has always been a publication for all the members.

  2. The 1991 EOS reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokken, David (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are covered: (1) The Global Change Research Program; (2) The Earth Observing System (EOS) goal and objectives; (3) primary EOS mission requirements; (4) EOS science; (5) EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) architecture; (6) data policy; (7) international cooperation; (8) plans and status; (9) the role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; (10) The Global Fellowship Program; (11) management of EOS; (12) mission elements; (13) EOS instruments; (14) interdisciplinary science investigations; (15) points of contact; and (16) acronyms and abbreviations.

  3. The development of the EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Dozier, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    The architecture of the Earth Observing System (EOS), a major component of NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, is described with emphasis on its development strategy. It is noted that the EOS is comprised of a scientific research program, a space measurement system, and an EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Details are presented concerning the EOS program and its candidate instruments. Major components of EOS include Version 0 (V0) built on existing Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the EOSDIS core system (ECS), DAAC-unique functions, science computing facilities (SCF), and independent verification validation of the ECS. Requirements for EODIS are also reviewed noting that, among other requirements, it must keep up with an orbital average data rate of more than 30 Mbps as well as store, distribute, and manage information about tens of Petabytes of data during and after the 15-year mission.

  4. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Toward a complete EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Based on NASA EOS data panel analyses, an architectural concept is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. This concept has been evaluated through the use of realistic user-generated scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s and the Space Station. Developmental approaches for the requisite EOS data and information system are presented and a hybrid methodology for implementing this system is discussed.

  6. Extremely low-temperature properties of silicone compound used for thermal coupling in cryostat of SWIR/ASTER on TERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Akao, Hiroshi; Akagi, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Kawada, Masakuni

    2014-07-01

    The SWIR(Short Wave-length Infrared Radiometer) is one of the optical sensors in ASTER(Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). ASTER is installed in the EOS(Earth Observing System) TERRA spacecraft of NASA. TERRA was launched on December18, 1999, and is employed still on the orbit for 14 years in January, 2014, The detector of SWIR is cooled at temperature 77K by cryocooler with the optimum sensitivity. SWIR had continued to take the numerous image data for more than five years of the mission period on orbit, and the cryocooler is still operating normally. However, a gradual rise in temperature of the detector has been seen after launch. Silicone compound have been used in order to achieve heat transfer between the detector and the cryocooler. On investigation, we have found that thermal conductivity of the silicone compound has been gradually reduced. We evaluated the low temperature properties (such as thermal conductivity, strength etc.) of the silicone compound. In addition, we analyzed the temperature conditions and the thermal stress values of cryostat in the orbit. As a result, the silicone compound solidified at low temperature shows a behavior similar to adhesive. Depending on the thermal stress generated at a low temperature, there is a possibility that destruction such as peeling occurs.

  7. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  8. WebGasEOS

    2005-10-01

    WebGasEOS provides quick, user-friendly access to real gas physical properties. Using the real gas properties modules of the TOUGH-Fx project, WebGasEOS allows any user, though a web- based application, to define a multicornponent system, specify temperature and pressure, select an equation of state, and compute volumetric, thermodynamic, and fluid properties. Additional functions allow the inclusion of gaseous or liquid water, with or without added salts. The user may choose the format of the results, performmore » repeat calculations or calculations over a range of temperature and pressure, or vary compositions by simply changing form parameters, The application is publicly available on the internet and can be used at any time by anyone with a standards-compliant web browser.« less

  9. Archiving tools for EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin-Alin; Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Duellmann, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Archiving data to tape is a critical operation for any storage system, especially for the EOS system at CERN which holds production data for all major LHC experiments. Each collaboration has an allocated quota it can use at any given time therefore, a mechanism for archiving "stale" data is needed so that storage space is reclaimed for online analysis operations. The archiving tool that we propose for EOS aims to provide a robust client interface for moving data between EOS and CASTOR (tape backed storage system) while enforcing best practices when it comes to data integrity and verification. All data transfers are done using a third-party copy mechanism which ensures point-to- point communication between the source and destination, thus providing maximum aggregate throughput. Using ZMQ message-passing paradigm and a process-based approach enabled us to achieve optimal utilisation of the resources and a stateless architecture which can easily be tuned during operation. The modular design and the implementation done in a high-level language like Python, has enabled us to easily extended the code base to address new demands like offering full and incremental backup capabilities.

  10. Overview of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science

  11. Terra Harvest software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  12. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, M.; Mathews, T. J.; Tisdale, B.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Lee, H.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and to make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting the

  13. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  14. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  15. Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from

  16. EOS image data processing system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, J.; Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Image Processing System (IPS) requirements and configuration are defined for NASA-sponsored advanced technology Earth Observatory System (EOS). The scope included investigation and definition of IPS operational, functional, and product requirements considering overall system constraints and interfaces (sensor, etc.) The scope also included investigation of the technical feasibility and definition of a point design reflecting system requirements. The design phase required a survey of present and projected technology related to general and special-purpose processors, high-density digital tape recorders, and image recorders.

  17. Comparing Crustal Magnetism of Terra Meridiani and Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terra Meridiani displays remanent crustal magnetization, roughly symmetric and coherent over long distances, that has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from seafloor spreading. A detailed magnetization map of this region, located at 0º, 0º ±20º, will be compared with that of Terra Cimmeria (-40º, 180º) which hosts Mars' most intense and continuous magnetization. Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer (MGS MAG) data from mapping altitude (~400km) was downward continued to the surface. Data from the MGS aerobraking phase contains tracks in Terra Meridiani at altitudes between 110-190 km, revealing localized persistent Br signatures between -268 and 278 nT, with standard deviations of 24 and 17 nT, respectively. These signatures coincide with areas of strongest magnetization on the downward continued map at corresponding altitudes. However, several uncorrelated small-scale pockets of magnetization that appear in the aerobraking dataset may be attributed to shorter wavelength signals or noise. Positive and negative sources in Terra Meridiani show comparable decay with altitude. Similarly, sources in Terra Cimmeria resemble this decay. By extrapolating into the subsurface, we estimate the source depths for both regions and observe that Terra Meridiani has shallower sources than Terra Cimmeria. The strongest magnetization in Terra Meridiani lies along the 4,600 km diameter outer ring of the Chryse basin. A similar association occurs in Terra Cimmeria along the outer rings of the Sirenum basin. The decay of magnetization intensity with altitude, crustal composition, and crustal thickness estimates will be used to create simple models of magnetic sources for Terra Meridiani.

  18. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, E. G.; King, M. D.; Platnick, S.; Schaaf, C. B.; Gao, F.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. The availability of global albedo data over a large range of spectral channels and at high spatial resolution has dramatically improved with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in December 1999. However, lack of spatial and temporal coverage due to cloud and snow effects can preclude utilization of official products in production and research studies. We report on a technique used to fill incomplete MOD43 albedo data sets with the intention of providing complete value-added maps. The technique is influenced by the phenological concept that within a certain area, a pixel s ecosystem class should exhibit similar growth cycle events over the same time period. The shape of an area s phenological temporal curve can be imposed upon existing pixel-level data to fill missing temporal points. The methodology will be reviewed by showcasing 2001 global and regional results of complete albedo and NDVl data sets.

  20. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  1. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. Thermal Performance of Capillary Pumped Loops Onboard Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Charles D.; Swanson, Theodore; Thies, Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the state of atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport System (CPHTS) for temperature control: Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.

  3. NASA Surfs the Skies Above Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyover of the Hawaiian island of Oahu was made by draping Jan. 13, 2010, image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra ...

  4. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  5. On-orbit performance and calibration improvements for the reflective solar bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 μm to 2.2 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of +/-55° off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper also discusses in

  6. An Overview of the EOS Data Dissemination Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H.K.; Pfister, Robin; Weinstein, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the primary data system serving the broad-scope of NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program and a significant portion of the "heritage" Earth science data. EOSDIS was designed to support the Earth sciences within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (previously the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and Mission to Planet Earth). The EOS Program was NASA s contribution to the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) enacted by Congress in 1990 as part of the Global Change Act. ESE s objective was to launch a series of missions to help answer fundamental global change questions such as "How is Earth changing?" and "What are the consequences for life on Earth?" resulting support of this objective, EOSDIS distributes a wide variety of data to a diverse community.

  7. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  8. Follow That Satellite: EO-1 Maneuvers Into Close Formation With Landsat-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFazio, Robert L.; Owens, Skip; Good, Susan; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As the Landsat-7 (LS-7) spacecraft continued NASA's historic program of earth imaging begun over three decades ago, NASA launched the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft carrying examples of the next generation of LS instruments. The validation method for these instruments was to have EO-1 fly in a close formation behind LS-7 on the same World Reference System (WRS) path. From that formation hundreds of near-coincident images would be taken by each spacecraft and compared to evaluate improvements in the EO-1 instruments. This paper will address the mission analysis required to launch and maneuver EO-1 into the formation with LS-7 where instrument validation was to occur plus a summary of completing the formation acquisition. Each EO-1 launch opportunity that occurred on a different day of a LS-7 16-day repeat cycle required a separate and distinct maneuver profile.

  9. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  10. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  11. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  12. Complete EOS for PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S

    2009-10-08

    PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic-bonded explosive based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB). A complete equation of state (EOS) is constructed for unreacted PBX 9502 suitable for reactive burn models, i.e., high pressure regime in which material strength is unimportant. The PBX EOS is composed of two parts: a complete EOS for TATB and a porosity model which allows for variations in the initial PBX density. The TATB EOS is based on a cold curve and a thermal model for lattice vibrations. The heat capacity, and hence thermal model, is determined by the vibrational spectrum from Raman scattering. The cold curve is calibrated to diamond anvil cell data for isothermal compression using a two-piece Keane fitting form. Hugoniot data for PBX 9502 is used as a consistency check.

  13. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  14. Ocean Data from MODIS at the NASA Goddard DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Wharton, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Terra satellite carrying the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was successfully launched on December 18, 1999. Some of the 36 different wavelengths that MODIS samples have never before been measured from space. New ocean data products, which have not been derived on a global scale before, are made available for research to the scientific community. For example, MODIS uses a new split window in the four-micron region for the better measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and provides the unprecedented ability (683 nm band) to measure chlorophyll fluorescence. At full ocean production, more than a thousand different ocean products in three major categories (ocean color, sea surface temperature, and ocean primary production) are archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the rate of approx. 230GB/day. The challenge is to distribute such large volumes of data to the ocean community. It is achieved through a combination of public and restricted EOS Data Gateways, the GES DAAC Search and Order WWW interface, and an FTP site that contains samples of MODIS data. A new Search and Order WWW interface at http://acdisx.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/ developed at the GES DAAC is based on a hierarchical organization of data, will always return non-zero results. It has a very convenient geographical representation of five-minute data granule coverage for each day MODIS Data Support Team (MDST) continues the tradition of quality support at the GES DAAC for the ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and the Sea Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) by providing expert assistance to users in accessing data products, information on visualization tools, documentation for data products and formats (Hierarchical Data Format-Earth Observing System (HDF-EOS)), information on the scientific content of products and metadata. Visit the MDST website at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/CAMPAIGN DOCS/MODIS/index.html

  15. Discoveries from EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Aura, the third and final of three large observatories that are part of NASA s Earth Observing System, was launched July 15,2004. Aura carries four instruments - the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), all of which measure atmospheric constituents. Aura measurements provide information to address broad questions about the Earth atmosphere, particularly concerning the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric air quality, and climate change. TES has made the simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the lower and upper troposphere. OM1 continues to observe the total ozone column and measures columns of important pollutants like NO2 at unprecedented horizontal resolution and coverage. MLS measures profiles of stratospheric ozone and constituents that affect ozone from the mesosphere into the upper troposphere. This talk will highlight results from Aura s first years in orbit, and will emphasize the way information from Aura and other satellites has contributed to the development, evaluation, and application of global chemistry climate models.

  16. HDF-EOS Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A shell script has been written as a means of automatically making HDF-EOS-formatted data sets available via the World Wide Web. ("HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles.) The shell script chains together some software tools developed by the Data Usability Group at Goddard Space Flight Center to perform the following actions: Extract metadata in Object Definition Language (ODL) from an HDF-EOS file, Convert the metadata from ODL to Extensible Markup Language (XML), Reformat the XML metadata into human-readable Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Publish the HTML metadata and the original HDF-EOS file to a Web server and an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeN-DAP) server computer, and Reformat the XML metadata and submit the resulting file to the EOS Clearinghouse, which is a Web-based metadata clearinghouse that facilitates searching for, and exchange of, Earth-Science data.

  17. Assessment of the Collection 6 Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 calibration performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A.; Chen, X.; Angal, A.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.

    2015-09-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key sensor aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands and generates over 40 data products for land, atmosphere, cryosphere and oceans. MODIS bands 1 and 2 have nadir spatial resolution of 250 m, compared with 500 m for bands 3 to 7 and 1000 m for all the remaining bands, and their measurements are crucial to derive key land surface products. This study evaluates the calibration performance of the Collection-6 L1B for both Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 using three vicarious approaches. The first and second approaches focus on stability assessment using data collected from two pseudo-invariant sites, Libya 4 desert and Antarctic Dome C snow surface. The third approach examines the relative stability between Terra and Aqua in reference to a third sensor from a series of NOAA 15-19 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The comparison is based on measurements from MODIS and AVHRR Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNO) over a thirteen-year period from 2002 to 2015. Results from this study provide a quantitative assessment of Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 calibration stability and the relative calibration differences between the two sensors.

  18. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km

  19. Follow That Satellite: EO-1 Maneuvers into Closed Formation With Landsat-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFazio, Robert; Owens, Skip; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As the Landsat-7 spacecraft continued NASA's historic program of earth imaging, begun over three decades ago, NASA launched the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft carrying examples of the next generation of Landsat-7 instruments. The validation method for these instruments was to have EO-1 fly in a close formation behind Landsat-7 on the same World Reference System path. From that formation hundreds of near coincident images would be taken by each spacecraft and compared to evaluate improvements in the EO-1 instruments. This paper will address the mission analysis required to launch and maneuver EO-1 into the formation with Landsat-7 where instrument validation was to occur plus a summary of completing the formation acquisition. EO-1 is required to operate one minute +/- 6 seconds behind Landsat-7 during the period of co-fly imaging with a cross track separation of within + 3 kilometers. This separation time can also be stated as a one minute +/- 6 seconds time difference in the Mean Local Time (MLT) at the descending nodes. Achieving the required MLT is heavily dependent on the time of launch. The EO-1 launch window, which had to accommodate the dual payloads of EO-1 and SAC-C, was very limited ranging from 0 to 22 seconds over the 16 day Landsat-7 WRS repeat cycle during which EO-1 was launched. Each EO-1 launch opportunity that occurred on a different day of a Landsat-7 16 day repeat cycle required a separate and distinct maneuver profile. These profiles varied significantly in duration and amount of onboard propellant required to achieve them. EO-1 launched on a day judged to have "medium" resource requirements for achieving the formation with Landsat-7. To phase EO-1 one minute behind Landsat-7 in the along track direction, a series of altitude adjusts separated by specific drift intervals were executed. Additional maneuvers slightly changed the EO-1 inclination to maintain the MLT requirements. Orbit maneuvers were planned and executed within errors of less

  20. TERRA and the state of the telomere.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Karsten; Luke, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been implicated in telomere maintenance in a telomerase-dependent and a telomerase-independent manner during replicative senescence and cancer. TERRA's proposed activities are diverse, thus making it difficult to pinpoint the critical roles that TERRA may have. We propose that TERRA orchestrates different activities at chromosome ends in a manner that depends on the state of the telomere.

  1. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  2. Lidar instruments proposed for Eos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.

    1990-01-01

    Lidar, an acronym for light detection and ranging, represents a class of instruments that utilize lasers to send probe beams into the atmosphere or onto the surface of the Earth and detect the backscattered return in order to measure properties of the atmosphere or surface. The associated technology has matured to the point where two lidar facilities, Geodynamics Laser Ranging System (GLRS), and Laser Atmospheric Wind Sensor (LAWS) were accepted for Phase 2 studies for Eos. A third lidar facility Laser Atmospheric Sounder and Altimeter (LASA), with the lidar experiment EAGLE (Eos Atmospheric Global Lidar Experiment) was proposed for Eos. The generic lidar system has a number of components. They include controlling electronics, laser transmitters, collimating optics, a receiving telescope, spectral filters, detectors, signal chain electronics, and a data system. Lidar systems that measure atmospheric constituents or meteorological parameters record the signal versus time as the beam propagates through the atmosphere. The backscatter arises from molecular (Rayleigh) and aerosol (Mie) scattering, while attenuation arises from molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption. Lidar systems that measure distance to the Earth's surface or retroreflectors in a ranging mode record signals with high temporal resolution over a short time period. The overall characteristics and measurements objectives of the three lidar systems proposed for Eos are given.

  3. The EducEO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; Dias, Eduardo; Zeug, Guenther; Vescovi, Fabio; See, Linda; Sturn, Tobias; McCallum, Ian; Stammes, Piet; Snik, Frans; Hendriks, Elise

    2015-04-01

    The ESA funded EducEO project is aimed at demonstrating the potential of citizen science and crowdsourcing for Earth Observation (EO), where citizen science and crowdsourcing refer to the involvement of citizens in tasks such as data collection. The potential for using citizens in the calibration and validation of satellite imagery through in-situ measurements and image recognition is largely untapped. The EducEO project will aim to achieve good integration with networks such as GLOBE (primary and secondary education) and COST (higher education) to involve students in four different applications that will be piloted as part of the EducEO project. The presentation will provide a brief overview and initial results of these applications, which include: the iSpex tool for measuring air pollution using an iPhone; a game to classify cropland and deforested areas from high resolution satellite imagery; an application to monitor areas of forest change using radar data from Sentinel-1; and the collection of in-situ yield and production data from both farmers (using high-tech farming equipment) and students. In particular initial results and future potential of the serious game on land cover and forest change monitoring will be discussed.

  4. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  5. Collision Avoidance: Coordination of Predicted Conjunctions between NASA Satellites and Satellites of other Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, A.; Watson, W.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes one of the challenges facing the flight operations teams of the International Earth Observing constellation satellites at the 705 km orbit, including NASAs satellites. The NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project has been dealing with predicted conjunctions (close approach) between operational/non-operational space objects and the satellites in the International Earth observing constellations for several years. Constellation satellites include: NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, Aqua, and Aura, CloudSat, the joint NASA/CNES CALIPSO mission, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1 (GCOM-W1) mission, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, and until 2013, Argentinas SAC-C mission and the CNES PARASOL mission. The NASA Conjunction Analysis and Risk Assessment (CARA) team provides daily reports to the ESMO Project regarding any high interest close approach events (HIEs) involving the constellation satellites. The daily CARA reports provide risk assessment results that help the operations teams to determine if there is a need to perform a risk mitigation action. If the conjuncting space object is an operational satellite that is capable of maneuvering, the affected satellite team needs to coordinate their action plan with the owner operator of the conjuncting satellite. It is absolutely critical for the two teams to communicate as soon as possible. The goal is to minimize the collision risk; this can happen if both satellite operators do not coordinate their maneuver plans. The constellation teams have established guidelines for coordinating HIEs. This coordination process has worked successfully for several years for satellites that are operated by other organizations in the United States and by NASAs international partners, all with whom NASA has a cooperative agreement. However, the situation is different for HIEs with

  6. Implementation of electronic crosstalk correction for terra MODIS PV LWIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xu; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the fleet of NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS) in space. Terra MODIS has completed 15 years of operation far exceeding its design lifetime of 6 years. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) processing is the first in the process chain for deriving various higher level science products. These products are used mainly in understanding the geophysical changes occurring in the Earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The L1B code is designed to carefully calibrate the responses of all the detectors of the 36 spectral bands of MODIS and provide accurate L1B radiances (also reflectances in the case of Reflective Solar Bands). To fulfill this purpose, Look Up Tables (LUTs), that contain calibration coefficients derived from both on-board calibrators and Earth-view characterized responses, are used in the L1B processing. In this paper, we present the implementation mechanism of the electronic crosstalk correction in the Photo Voltaic (PV) Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) bands (Bands 27-30). The crosstalk correction involves two vital components. First, a crosstalk correction modular is implemented in the L1B code to correct the on-board Blackbody and Earth-View (EV) digital number (dn) responses using a linear correction model. Second, the correction coefficients, derived from the EV observations, are supplied in the form of LUTs. Further, the LUTs contain time stamps reflecting to the change in the coefficients assessed using the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature (NEdT) trending. With the algorithms applied in the MODIS L1B processing it is demonstrated that these corrections indeed restore the radiometric balance for each of the affected bands and substantially reduce the striping noise in the processed images.

  7. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  8. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  9. Libraries and Tools for Efficiently Computing and Analyzing NASA Earth Science Data With HDF and HDF5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, M.; McGrath, R. E.; Folk, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Application (NCSA) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has become the primary standard file format for storing data from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). Data from Landsat 7 and Terra (including the CERES, MODIS and MISR instruments) are all stored in HDF and/or HDF-EOS. The original HDF format and library had inherent limitations. For example HDF Version 4 has difficulty supporting huge datasets and does not support parallel computing environments. Since 1999, NCSA has developed a more general and robust data format, called HDF 5, which will support the future demands of Earth Science HDF5 is a new format and library which can support files larger than 2 Gigabytes and a much larger number of number of objects in one file. Moreover, HDF5 supports the Message Passing Interface (MPI-I/O) standard, which is capable of performing I/O efficiently in parallel computing environments. Future NASA EOS missions, beginning with the Aura platform (to be launched in 2003) will use HDF5 and HDF-EOS5. HDF5 is a new data format and is not compatible with earlier versions of HDF. To help smooth transition from HDF to HDF5, NCSA provides a freely distributed toolkit for converting data from HDF4 into HDF5. Users can choose to convert one object or even one attribute of this object to a new HDF5 file. This library is designed to be easily understood and used. The primary language is chosen to be C while Fortran 90 and other APIs will be added. Several experiments with the h4toh5 utility show the conversion time is very minimal, even for realistic NASA datasets. NCSA is also developing a Java tool called HDF View to help users to browse and edit both HDF and HDF5 file in a user-friendly visualization environment. This poster will emphasize on introduction of HDF5 and the conversion and visualization tools from HDF4 to HDF5. NCSA seeks to get feedback from Earth Scientists, especially

  10. Hurricane Matthew over Haiti seen by NASA's MISR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Hurricane Matthew over Haiti seen by NASA's MISR Tuesday, October 4, 2016 On the ... Terra orbit 89345. Other MISR data are available through the NASA Langley Research Center. For more MISR information, visit https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/misr_table .   Read more ...

  11. Future NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    With the launch of the last Earth Observation System (EOS) Missions, Aura, NASA now has a new fleet of 13+ highly capable remote sensing spacecraft orbiting the earth. Results from these missions are showing us the earth system as never seen before. But, what are the new challenges in understanding the Earth in an era of rapid change? In this talk I will outline some of the exciting results from the EOS missions and pull back the curtain on NASA's future earth science missions.

  12. Interferometric SAR to EO image registration problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, George W.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rais, Houra

    2000-08-01

    Historically, SAR to EO registration accuracy has been at the multiple pixel level compared to sub-pixel EO to EO registration accuracies. This is due to a variety of factors including the different scattering characteristics of the ground for EO and SAR, SAR speckle, and terrain induced geometric distortion. One approach to improving the SAR to EO registration accuracy is to utilize the full information from multiple SAR surveys using interferometric techniques. In this paper we will examine this problem in detail with an example using ERS SAR imagery. Estimates of the resulting accuracy based on ERS are included.

  13. Transitioning NPOESS Data to Weather Offices: The SPoRT Paradigm with EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Real-time satellite information provides one of many data sources used by NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs) to diagnose current weather conditions and to assist in short-term forecast preparation. While GOES satellite data provides relatively coarse spatial resolution coverage of the continental U.S. on a 10-15 minute repeat cycle, polar orbiting imagery has the potential to provide snapshots of weather conditions at high-resolution in many spectral channels. Additionally, polar orbiting sounding data can provide additional information on the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere in data sparse regions of at asynoptic observation times. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project has demonstrated the utility of polar orbiting MODIS and AIRS data on the Terra and Aqua satellites to improve weather diagnostics and short-term forecasting on the regional and local scales. SPoRT scientists work directly forecasters at selected WFOS in the Southern Region (SR) to help them ingest these unique data streams into their AWIPS system, understand how to use the data (through on-site and distance learn techniques), and demonstrate the utility of these products to address significant forecast problems. This process also prepares forecasters for the use of similar observational capabilities from NPOESS operational sensors. NPOESS environmental data records (EDRs) from the Visible 1 Infrared Imager I Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrlS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments and additional value-added products produced by NESDIS will be available in near real-time and made available to WFOs to extend their use of NASA EOS data into the NPOESS era. These new data streams will be integrated into the NWs's new AWIPS II decision support tools. The AWIPS I1 system to be unveiled in WFOs in 2009 will be a JAVA-based decision support system which preserves the functionality of the existing systems and

  14. HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    The HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library contains C-language functions that provide uniform access to HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 files through one set of application programming interface (API) calls. ("HDFEOS 2" and "HDF-EOS 5" are defined in the immediately preceding article.) Without this library, differences between the APIs of HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 would necessitate writing of different programs to cover HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5. The API associated with this library is denoted "he25." For nearly every HDF-EOS 5 API call, there is a corresponding he25 API call. If a file in question is in the HDF-EOS 5 format, the code reverts to the corresponding HDF-EOS 5 call; if the file is in the HDF-EOS 2 format, the code translates the arguments to HDF-EOS 2 equivalents (if necessary), calls the HDFEOS 2 call, and retranslates the results back to HDF-EOS 5 (if necessary).

  15. Geologic Validation of EO-1 Hyperion using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Boardman, J. W.; Huntington, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, the field of imaging spectrometry has grown rapidly as new instruments and analysis techniques have been developed. The launch of Hyperion as part of NASA's EO-1 program represents a significant landmark in the progression of the technology; the first spaceborne imaging spectrometry system. AIG, in cooperation with CSIRO, is evaluating, validating, and demonstrating use of EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data for geologic applications. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) plays a pivotal role in this effort. This manuscript describes the geologic test sites being used and progress on preparing 'ground truth' for anticipated Hyperion data collects using AVIRIS data. Preliminary findings are extrapolated to predict the effect of instrument characteristics and performance on geologic mapping using Hyperion.

  16. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data (GEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying[MI1] an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting

  17. Breaking new ground: digging into TERRA function.

    PubMed

    Maicher, André; Lockhart, Arianna; Luke, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fact that telomeres carry chromatin marks typically associated with silent heterochromatin, they are actively transcribed into TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA transcription is conserved from yeast to man, initiates in the subtelomeric region and proceeds through the telomeric tract of presumably each individual telomere. TERRA levels are increased in yeast survivors and in cancer cells employing ALT as a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM). Thus, TERRA may be a promising biomarker and potential target in anti-cancer therapy. Interestingly, several recent publications implicate TERRA in regulatory processes including telomere end protection and the establishment of the heterochromatic state at telomeres. A picture is emerging whereby TERRA acts as a regulator of telomere length and hence the associated onset of replicative senescence in a cell. In this review we will summarize the latest results regarding TERRA transcription, localization and related function. A special focus will be set on the potential role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length and replicative senescence. Possible implications of increased TERRA levels in yeast survivors and in ALT cancer cells will be discussed.

  18. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Orbit determination and orbit control for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herberg, Joseph R.; Folta, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Future NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Spacecraft will make measurements of the earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land and radiation balance. These EOS Spacecraft will be part of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth. This paper specifically addresses the EOS AM Spacecraft, referred to as 'AM' because it has a sun-synchronous orbit with a 10:30 AM descending node. This paper describes the EOS AM Spacecraft mission orbit requirements, orbit determination, orbit control, and navigation system impact on earth based pointing. The EOS AM Spacecraft will be the first spacecraft to use the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) as the primary means of navigation. TONS flight software will process one-way forward Doppler measurements taken during scheduled TDRSS contacts. An extended Kalman filter will estimate spacecraft position, velocity, drag coefficient correction, and ultrastable master oscillator frequency bias and drift. The TONS baseline algorithms, software, and hardware implementation are described in this paper. TONS integration into the EOS AM Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System; TONS assisted onboard time maintenance; and the TONS Ground Support System (TGSS) are also addressed.

  20. Current and Future Perspectives of Aerosol Research at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Ichoku, Charles; Randles, Cynthia; Yuan, Tianle; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.; Kim, Dongchul; Levy, Robert; Sayer, Andrew; Chin, Mian; Giles, David; Holben, Brent; Welton, Ellsworth; Eck, Thomas; Remer, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols are tiny atmospheric particles that are emitted from various natural and anthropogenic sources. They affect climate through direct and indirect interactions with solar and thermal radiation, clouds, and atmospheric circulation (Solomon et al. 2007). The launch of a variety of sophisticated satellite-based observing systems aboard the Terra, Aqua, Aura, SeaWiFS (see appendix for all acronym expansions), CALIPSO, and other satellites in the late 1990s to mid-2000s through the NASA EOS and other U.S. and non-U.S. programs ushered in a golden era in aerosol research. NASA has been a leader in providing global aerosol characterizations through observations from satellites, ground networks, and field campaigns, as well as from global and regional modeling. AeroCenter (http://aerocenter.gsfc.nasa.gov/), which was formed in 2002 to address the many facets of aerosol research in a collaborative manner, is an interdisciplinary union of researchers (200 members) at NASA GSFC and other nearby institutions, including NOAA, several universities, and research laboratories. AeroCenter hosts a web-accessible regular seminar series and an annual meeting to present up-to-date aerosol research, including measurement techniques; remote sensing algorithms; modeling development; field campaigns; and aerosol interactions with radiation, clouds, precipitation, climate, biosphere, atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and human health. The 2013 annual meeting was held at the NASA GSFC Visitor Center on 31 May 2013, which coincided with the seventh anniversary of the passing of Yoram Kaufman, a modern pioneer in satellite-based aerosol science and the founder of AeroCenter. The central theme of this year's meeting was "current and future perspectives" of NASA's aerosol science and satellite missions.

  1. It Security and EO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, M.

    2010-12-01

    One topic that is beginning to influence the systems that support these goals is that of Information Technology (IT) Security. Unsecure systems are vulnerable to increasing attacks and other negative consequences; sponsoring agencies are correspondingly responding with more refined policies and more stringent security requirements. These affect how EO systems can meet the goals of data and service interoperability and harmonization through open access, transformation and visualization services. Contemporary systems, including the vision of a system-of-systems (such as GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), utilize technologies that support a distributed, global, net-centric environment. These types of systems have a high reliance on the open systems, web services, shared infrastructure and data standards. The broader IT industry has developed and used these technologies in their business and mission critical systems for many years. Unfortunately, the IT industry, and their customers have learned the importance of protecting their assets and resources (computing and information) as they have been forced to respond to an ever increasing number and more complex illegitimate “attackers”. This presentation will offer an overview of work done by the CEOS WGISS organization in summarizing security threats, the challenges to responding to them and capturing the current state of the practice within the EO community.

  2. Earth observing system. Data and information system. Volume 2A: Report of the EOS Data Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (Eos), defined by the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the Earth as a system. The Eos data and information system is conceived as a complete research information system that would transcend the traditional mission data system, and include additional capabilties such as maintaining long-term, time-series data bases and providing access by Eos researchers to relevant non-Eos data. The Working Group recommends that the Eos data and information system be initiated now, with existing data, and that the system evolve into one that can meet the intensive research and data needs that will exist when Eos spacecraft are returning data in the 1990s.

  3. NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The House of Representatives has authorized $161.7 million more than President Ronald Reagan proposed for the fiscal 1984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget. The House NASA authorization bill (H.R. 2065) passed by voice vote on April 26. Five days earlier, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Technology Committee marked up S. 1096, the Senate's NASA authorization bill, and recommended $171.6 million more than the Reagan proposal. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in mid May, after which time a conference committee will iron out the differences between the House and Senate versions.President Reagan requested a total NASA budget of $7.1065 billion: $5.7085 billion for research and development, $150.5 million for construction of facilities, and $1.2475 billion for research and program management (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).

  4. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  5. Telomere functions grounding on TERRA firma.

    PubMed

    Azzalin, Claus M; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs - TERRAs - are transcribed in a regulated manner from telomeres throughout eukaryotes. TERRA molecules consist of chromosome end-specific subtelomeric sequences and telomeric repeats at their 3' ends. Recent work suggests that TERRA sustains several important functions at chromosome ends. TERRA can regulate telomere length through modulation of exonuclease 1 and telomerase, it may promote recruitment of chromatin modifiers to damaged telomeres and thereby enable DNA end-processing, and it may promote telomere protein composition changes during cell cycle progression. Furthermore, telomere transcription regulates chromosome-end mobility within the nucleus. We review how TERRA, by regulated expression and by providing a molecular scaffold for various protein enzymes, can support a large variety of vital functions.

  6. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  7. 78 FR 5116 - NASA Information Security Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Executive Order of 13132 E.O. 13132, ``Federalism,'' 64 FR 43255 (August 4, 1999) requires regulations be... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1203 RIN 2700-AD61 NASA Information Security Protection AGENCY..., Classified National Security Information, and appropriately to correspond with NASA's internal...

  8. Experiences with Testing the Largest Ground System NASA Has Ever Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtonen, Ken; Messerly, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked upon a major Earth-focused program called Mission to Planet Earth. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was selected to manage and develop a key component - the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS consisted of four major missions designed to monitor the Earth. The missions included 4 spacecraft. Terra (launched December 1999), Aqua (launched May 2002), ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite, launched January 2003), and Aura (scheduled for launch January 2004). The purpose of these missions was to provide support for NASA s long-term research effort for determining how human-induced and natural changes affect our global environment. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a globally distributed, large-scale scientific system, was built to support EOS. Its primary function is to capture, collect, process, and distribute the most voluminous set of remotely sensed scientific data to date estimated to be 350 Gbytes per day. The EOSDIS is composed of a diverse set of elements with functional capabilities that require the implementation of a complex set of computers, high-speed networks, mission-unique equipment, and associated Information Technology (IT) software along with mission-specific software. All missions are constrained by schedule, budget, and staffing resources, and rigorous testing has been shown to be critical to the success of each mission. This paper addresses the challenges associated with the planning, test definition. resource scheduling, execution, and discrepancy reporting involved in the mission readiness testing of a ground system on the scale of EOSDIS. The size and complexity of the mission systems supporting the Aqua flight operations, for example, combined with the limited resources available, prompted the project to challenge the prevailing testing culture. The resulting success of the Aqua Mission Readiness Testing (MRT) program was due in no

  9. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System, which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5 micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  10. TerraLook: GIS-Ready Time-Series of Satellite Imagery for Monitoring Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    TerraLook is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a goal of providing satellite images that anyone can use to see changes in the Earth's surface over time. Each TerraLook product is a user-specified collection of satellite images selected from imagery archived at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Images are bundled with standards-compliant metadata, a world file, and an outline of each image's ground footprint, enabling their use in geographic information systems (GIS), image processing software, and Web mapping applications. TerraLook images are available through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://glovis.usgs.gov).

  11. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  12. Philosophy and Architecture of the EOS Data and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Martha

    In 2009, NASA's EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the world's largest distributed data and information system infrastructure principally supporting science, a coupled, complex network of production capabilities and data systems. Data and information are easily available through the World Wide Web from searchable, on-line data stores with sophisticated metadata schema, data dictionaries, and comprehensive scientific and technical documentation of its holdings. NASA is moving towards adoption of a service-oriented approach deploying Web services, which enable users to make connections between distributed and heterogeneous elements of environmental data and services internal to and external from EOSDIS as needed. Pertinent Web services are accessible via EOSDIS. Examples of data services include subsetting, data reformatting, and search services such as a thesaurus. The principal subject matter of this book, the MODIS and ASTER instruments, and their derived data, products and applications owe their existence and success to EOSDIS.

  13. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental allergies to substances such as dust mites, animals, pollen and molds can play a role in EoE. For some patients, it may seem like their EoE is worse during pollen seasons. Allergy testing for these common environmental allergies is often part ...

  15. Rail gun development for EOS research

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The status of a railgun program for EOS research in progress at Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories is described. The operating principle of rail guns, the power supplies used to drive them, diagnostic techniques used to monitor their performance and initial efforts to develop projectiles suitable for EOS research are discussed. (WHK)

  16. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed in March 2003. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4,2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The primary instrument on the P-3B aircraft was the NOAA ETL Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) covering the same frequencies and polarizations as the AMSR-E. This paper describes the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound. Comparisons among the satellite and aircraft PSR data sets are presented.

  17. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  18. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Lau, G. K.; Pickett, H. M.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.; Boyles, M. A.; Burke, J. R.; Lay, R. R.; Loo, M. S.; Livesey, N. J.; Lungu, T. A.; Manney, G. L.; Nakamura, L. L.;  Perun, V. S.;  Ridenoure, B. P.;  Shippony, Z.;  Siegel, P. H.;  Thurstans, R. P.;  Harwood, R. S.;  Pumphrey, H. C.;  Filipiak, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view is scanned through the atmospheric limb. Features of the measurement technique include the ability to measure many atmospheric gases as well as temperature and pressure, to obtain measurements even in the presence of dense aerosol and cirrus, and to provide near-global coverage on a daily basis at all times of day and night from an orbiting platform. The composition measurements are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature. An accurate spectroscopic database is available, and the instrument calibration is also very accurate and stable. The first MLS experiment in space, launched on the (NASA) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in September 1991, was designed primarily to measure stratospheric profiles of ClO, O3, H2O, and atmospheric pressure as a vertical reference. Global measurement of ClO, the predominant radical in chlorine destruction of ozone, was an especially important objective of UARS MLS. All objectives of UARS MLS have been accomplished and additional geophysical products beyond those for which the experiment was designed have been obtained, including measurement of upper-tropospheric water vapor, which is important for climate change studies. A follow-on MLS experiment is being developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled to be launched on the EOS CHEMISTRY platform in late 2002. EOS MLS is designed for many stratospheric measurements, including HOx radicals, which could not be measured by UARS because adequate technology was not available, and better and more extensive upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements.

  19. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  20. NASA Science Budget Choices Criticized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    NASA's decision to focus its science efforts on large missions at the expense of smaller missions and research is misguided and will have a long-term negative impact on attracting and retaining scientists and engineers to NASA-related science, several scientists testified at a 2 March hearing. Witnesses at the hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee included NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Mary Cleave and members or chairs of four U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) decadal surveys of various aspects of NASA science. The witnesses discussed cuts and delays to NASA projects proposed in the agency's Fiscal Year 2007 budget request. NASA's science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007, and then by just one percent per year in 2008-2011 (see Eos 87(9), 2006).

  1. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  2. Global Warming: Discussion for EOS Science Writers Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E

    1999-01-01

    The existence of global warming this century is no longer an issue of scientific debate. But there are many important questions about the nature and causes of long-term climate change, th roles of nature and human-made climate forcings and unforced (chaotic) climate variability, the practical impacts of climate change, and what, if anything, should be done to reduce global warming, Global warming is not a uniform increase of temperature, but rather involves at complex geographically varying climate change. Understanding of global warming will require improved observations of climate change itself and the forcing factors that can lead to climate change. The NASA Terra mission and other NASA Earth Science missions will provide key measurement of climate change and climate forcings. The strategy to develop an understanding of the causes and predictability of long-term climate change must be based on combination of observations with models and analysis. The upcoming NASA missions will make important contributions to the required observations.

  3. ES4 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-12

    ... Temporal Resolution:  Monthly, Daily, Monthly Hourly File Format:  HDF Tools:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications.  Additional Info:  b SCAR-B ...

  4. The Evolving Earth Observing System (EOS) mission operations concept: Then and now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) mission, a component of NASA's mission to planet earth program, is considered with emphasis on its evolution. The restructuration, re-scoping, re-baselining and re-shaping of the EOS mission are reviewed. The spacecraft and the ground system concepts were re-examined and adjusted in response to the need of identifying better and more cost-effective ways of conducting earth observations while fulfilling the objective of providing comprehensive data for climate change studies. The original mission concept is compared with the current configuration, considering the operation profile and the changes in the ground system.

  5. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  6. Design considerations for EOS direct broadcast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, Charles H.; Chan, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    The critical issues associated with EOS direct broadcast are investigated, and design approaches are recommended for the EOS direct broadcast transmission and ground receiving. In particular, the discussion covers the choice of data subsets for direct broadcast; the mode of transmission; impact of power, mass, and cost; design of ground stations; and the feasibility of on-board processing for direct broadcast. Data acquisition considerations for stations with data rates of 100 and 10 Mbps are examined.

  7. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  8. New class of hybrid EoS and Bayesian M - R data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Ayriyan, A.; Benic, S.; Blaschke, D.; Grigorian, H.; Typel, S.

    2016-03-01

    We explore systematically a new class of two-phase equations of state (EoS) for hybrid stars that is characterized by three main features: 1) stiffening of the nuclear EoS at supersaturation densities due to quark exchange effects (Pauli blocking) between hadrons, modelled by an excluded volume correction; 2) stiffening of the quark matter EoS at high densities due to multiquark interactions; and 3) possibility for a strong first-order phase transition with an early onset and large density jump. The third feature results from a Maxwell construction for the possible transition from the nuclear to a quark matter phase and its properties depend on the two parameters used for 1) and 2), respectively. Varying these two parameters, one obtains a class of hybrid EoS that yields solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for sequences of hadronic and hybrid stars in the mass-radius diagram which cover the full range of patterns according to the Alford-Han-Prakash classification following which a hybrid star branch can be either absent, connected or disconnected with the hadronic one. The latter case often includes a tiny connected branch. The disconnected hybrid star branch, also called "third family", corresponds to high-mass twin stars characterized by the same gravitational mass but different radii. We perform a Bayesian analysis and demonstrate that the observation of such a pair of high-mass twin stars would have a sufficient discriminating power to favor hybrid EoS with a strong first-order phase transition over alternative EoS.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  10. The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

  11. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  12. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  13. Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activiy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Vishal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activity performed by Code 540 in support of the Ecom project. Ecom is the ground-to-ground data transport system for operational EOS traffic. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Communications (Nascom) Division, Code 540, is responsible for implementing Ecom. Ecom interfaces with various systems to transport EOS forward link commands, return link telemetry, and science payload data. To understand the complexities surrounding the design and implementation of Ecom, it is necessary that sufficient testbedding, modeling, and analysis be conducted prior to the design phase. These activities, when grouped, are referred to as the EMAT activity. This paper describes work accomplished to date in each of the three major EMAT activities: modeling, analysis, and testbedding.

  14. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  15. Enabling the Continuous EOS-SNPP Satellite Data Record thru EOSDIS Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Behnke, J.; Ho, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Following Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) launch of October 2011, the role of the NASA Science Data Segment (SDS) focused primarily on evaluation of the sensor data records (SDRs) and environmental data records (EDRs) produced by the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) Program as to their suitability for Earth system science. The evaluation has been completed for Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir instruments. Since launch, the SDS has also been processing, archiving and distributing data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb instruments and this work is planned to continue through the life of the mission. As NASA transitions to the production of standard, Earth Observing System (EOS)-like science products for all instruments aboard Suomi NPP, the Suomi NPP Science Team (ST) will need data processing and production facilities to produce the new science products they develop. The five Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS): Land, Ocean. Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder will produce the NASA SNPP standard Level 1, Level 2, and global Level 3 products and provide the products to the NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for distribution to the user community. The SIPS will ingest EOS compatible Level 0 data from EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) for their data processing. A key feature is the use of Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) services for the continuous EOS-SNPP satellite data record. This allows users to use the same tools and interfaces on SNPP as they would on the entire NASA Earth Science data collection in EOSDIS.

  16. Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; vanderA, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boersma, F.; Brinksma, E.; Carpay, J.; Chance, K.; deHaan, J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Isaksen, I.

    2000-01-01

    A Dutch-Finnish scientific and industrial consortium is supplying the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Earth Observing System-Aura (EOS-Aura). EOS-Aura is the next NASA mission to study the Earth's atmosphere extensively, and successor to the highly successful UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) mission. The 'Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS' presents an overview of the Aura and OMI mission objectives. It describes how OMI fits into the Aura mission and it reviews the synergy with the other instruments onboard Aura to fulfill the mission. This evolves in the Scientific Requirements for OMI (Chapter 3), stating which trace gases have to be measured with what necessary accuracy, in order for OMI to meet Aura's objectives. The most important data product of OMI, the ozone vertical column, densities shall have a better accuracy and an improved global coverage than the predecessor instruments TOMS (Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), which is a.o. achieved by a better signal to noise ratio, improved calibration and a wide field-of-view. Moreover, in order to meet its role on Aura, OMI shall measure trace gases, such as NO2, OClO, BrO, HCHO and SO2, aerosols, cloud top height and cloud coverage. Improved accuracy, better coverage, and finer ground grid than has been done in the past are goals for OMI. After the scientific requirements are defined, three sets of subordinate requirements are derived. These are: the algorithm requirements, i.e. what do the algorithms need in order to meet the scientific requirements; the instrument and calibration requirements, i.e. what has to be measured and how accurately in order to provide the quality of data necessary for deriving the data products; and the validation requirements, i.e. a strategy of how the OMI program will assure that its data products are valid in the atmosphere, at least to the required accuracy.

  17. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  18. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  19. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  20. Eos Interviews John Holdren, President Obama's Science Advisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-12-01

    With the Obama administration about to face a Republican-led House of Representatives in January, presidential science advisor John Holdren sat down with Eos for an exclusive and wide-ranging interview following a policy speech he delivered on 13 December at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. During the interview, Holdren, who also is director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), focused on the challenging congressional and budgetary environment, the administration's priorities related to the Earth sciences, and the responsibility of scientists in helping to communicate the societal benefits of science, educate the public, and improve science education and literacy. Holdren said the Obama administration's top priorities related to the Earth sciences include improving observations of the Earth, making progress in dealing with climate change, and rebalancing NASA's focus.

  1. The Impact of Maneuver Failures on the EOS Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The first four satellites, Aqua, CloudSat, Calipso, and Parasol, in NASA's EOS Afternoon constellation will fly in similar orbits within 4 minutes of each other. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of one or more missions failing to perform a scheduled orbit maintenance maneuver. Tools were developed to rapidly calculate the initial orbital elements for the satellites that established the formation. Baseline maneuver strategies were implemented to maintain the desired spacing of the satellites. Maneuver failures were examined and close approach opportunities were identified. It was found that close-approaches between CloudSat and Calipso could occur in less than one day after a missed maneuver if close coordination between the missions is not achieved.

  2. TERRA: Building New Communities for Advanced Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch

    2016-07-12

    ARPA-E’s Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines – agriculture, robotics and data analytics – to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-E’s model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projects—Donald Danforth Center and Purdue University—that are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.

  3. Web-based Dissemination of TRMM Data via TerraFly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rishe, N. D.; Teng, B.; Rui, H.; Graham, S. C.; Gutierrez, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Florida International University's High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) is collaborating with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center's Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) to provide an easy-to-use and powerful Web-based interface to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellite data from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The collaboration uses FIU's TerraFly data dissemination tools to make TRMM and other data available to a wider audience of users. TerraFly is a Web-enabled system (http://terrafly.fiu.edu) designed to aid in the visualization of spatial and remote sensed imagery. This system allows one to "fly" over the Earth's surface and explore spatial data such as aerial photography, satellite imagery, street maps, and locale information. Internet capability allows the system to access numerous data sets without the installation of any specialized GIS programs. Designed for users of all levels and unlike other geographic information systems, TerraFly runs via standard Web browsers, with no need to download software or data prior to visualization. TerraFly can be delivered as a standalone application or a Web-based tool. FIU's technology of streaming incremental tiles to a Java applet allows the user to "fly" even via modem connections. While "flying" over imagery in TerraFly, the user can see various overlays, such as road names, application-relevant points that are hyperlinked to more information, and shaded zones that depict thematic map layers. The user can also view multi-spectral data by assigning bands to the RGB display and by visualizing the application of various algorithms and filters on multiple spectral bands or multiple data sets. The user can thus compare imagery of the same area acquired at different times or different imagery of the same area acquired concurrently and apply advanced visualization algorithms to the data. The FIU-GES DISC DAAC project aims to make TRMM

  4. NASA Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

  5. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Terra Nova breaks new ground for alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of alliances to help develop the Terra Nova oil and gas field in the offshore Atlantic areas of Canada. Largely attributed to BP, the strategic alliance concept got its start in the North Sea and on the North Slope of Alaska. BP saw it as the best way to take advantage of economy-of-scale, mitigate risk, and achieve outsourcing goals while retaining their core competencies. This paper reviews the methods of developing the alliances, the developing of a development plan for the Terra Nova field, and how the alliance plans to maximize the profittability of the operation for all involved.

  7. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  8. EO-1 Prototyping for Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. K.; Middleton, E.; Ungar, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ong, L.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) Mission, launched in November, 2000 as part of NASA’s New Millennium Program, is in it’s eight year of operation. From the start it was recognized that a key criteria for evaluating the EO-1 technology and outlining future Earth science mission needs is the ability of the technology to characterize terrestrial surface state and processes. EO-1 is participating in a broad range of investigations, demonstrating the utility of imaging spectroscopy in applications relating to forestry, agriculture, species discrimination, invasive species, desertification, land-use, vulcanization, fire management, homeland security, natural and anthropogenic hazards and disaster assessments and has provided characterization for a variety of instruments on EOS platforms. By generating a high spectral and spatial resolution data set for the corral reefs and islands, it is contributing for realizing the goals of the National Decadal survey and providing an excellent platform for testing strategies to be employed in the HyspIRI mission. The EO1 Mission Science Office (MSO) is developing tools and prototypes for new science products, addressing the HyspIRI goals to assess vegetation status and health and provide vegetation spectral bio-indicators and biophysical parameters such as LAI and fAPAR at <100 m spatial resolution. These are being used to resolve variability in heterogeneous areas (e.g. agriculture, narrow shapes, urban and developed lands) and for managed ecosystems less than 10 km2. A set of invariable reference targets (e.g. sun, moon, deserts, Antarctica) are being characterised to allow cross-calibration of current and future EO sensors, comparison of land products generated by multiple sensors and retroactive processing of time series data. Such products are needed to develop Science Requirements for the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors and to address global societal needs.

  9. Compressive sensing in the EO/IR.

    PubMed

    Gehm, M E; Brady, D J

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We introduce the field through a discussion of historical antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework. Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.

  10. Autonomous Volcanic Activity Detection with ASE on EO-1 Hyperion: Applications for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J.; Greeley, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.; ASE Project Team

    2003-05-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 6 (ST-6) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly two scene classifiers on the Earth Orbiting 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in the fall of 2003, and will demonstrate autonomous, onboard processing of Hyperion imager 0.4-2.4 micron hyperspectral data, and autonomous, science-driven planning and acquisition of subsequent observations. ASE is an experiment to meet NASA's call for systems with reduced downlink and onboard data processing to enable autonomous missions. ASE software is divided into three classes: (1) spacecraft command and control; (2) an onboard planner (CASPER); and (3) modular science algorithms, which are used to process raw data to search out specific features and spectral signatures. The ASE Science Team has developed scene classifiers to detect thermal emission in both day and nighttime Hyperion data, and are continuing to develop other scene classifiers for ice, snow, water and land for future release and flight on EO-1. Once uploaded, the thermal scene classifier effectively turns the EO-1 spacecraft into an autonomously operating and reacting volcanic activity detector. It is possible to envision such a capability on spacecraft observing volcanism on Io and Triton, autonomously identifying and classifying activity, identifying sites deserving of closer scrutiny, and retasking the spacecraft to observe them, thus fulfilling NASA's goal of fully-autonomous, science-driven spacecraft. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Daniel A.; Guerrero Bustamante, Carlos A.; Garlena, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612, also known by the strain designations ATCC 25594, NRRL B-16283, and NBRC 100016. The genome sequence reveals it to be free of prophage and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and it is an effective host for the isolation and characterization of Gordonia bacteriophages. PMID:27688316

  12. Terra--A School's Venture into Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashjian, Michi; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To create a feeling of school unity and to reinforce the concept of human interdependence, the teachers of Friends' Central School planned Project Terra, a six-week school-wide activity. With the school viewed as a mythical planet, classes designed their own cultures and interacted as nations. (SJL)

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel A; Guerrero Bustamante, Carlos A; Garlena, Rebecca A; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612, also known by the strain designations ATCC 25594, NRRL B-16283, and NBRC 100016. The genome sequence reveals it to be free of prophage and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and it is an effective host for the isolation and characterization of Gordonia bacteriophages. PMID:27688316

  14. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  15. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  16. Extensive phyllosilicate-bearing layer identified in northwestern Noachis Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S. L.; Seelos, F. P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2009-12-01

    Noachis Terra is a highland cratered plain on Mars, extending from 20°S to 80°S latitude and 55°W to 30°E longitude. Evidence for a widespread phyllosilicate-bearing layer has been identified in a distinct region in northwest Noachis Terra, bound by Coprates and Eos Chasma to the north, Thaumasia Planum to the west and the Argyre basin to the south. Uzboi Vallis, a major Martian valley system, cuts through Noachis Terra and is the eastern boundary of our region of interest. In northwest Argyre a laterally extensive phyllosilicate-bearing deposit has been identified directly below a thin cap-rock. A layer of similar composition has been identified in the walls of eastern Coprates Chasma, although at significantly greater depth. It has been suggested that these outcrops represent the same material unit. If so, then the same phyllosilicate-bearing layer should be observable in the walls of valley systems and craters in the intervening Noachis Terra region, increasing with depth towards the north. Two small valley systems incise NW Noachis: Her Desher Vallis and Nirgal Vallis. Nirgal Vallis is a tributary of Uzboi Vallis, joining the larger system to the south of Holden crater. Her Desher Vallis is an isolated valley that does not seem to connect to any craters or larger valleys. CRISM multispectral mapping observations (mosaicked at ~230 m/pixel) indicate that a phyllosilicate-bearing layer is exposed along the length of both valley systems and in the interior rims of many craters in the region. Phyllosilicates have been positively identified in 20-40 m/pixel resolution CRISM hyperspectral targeted observations of the walls of Her Desher Valles and Nirgal Vallis; as indicated by the mapping data, there is a distinct phyllosilicate-bearing layer located only a few meters below the surface volcanics and extending laterally along the walls. A similar phyllosilicate-bearing layer is also identified running laterally in the interior walls of some nearby craters

  17. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.

  18. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds as Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24,2000 for Terra and June 24,2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Over the last year, extensive improvements and enhancements in the global cloud products have been implemented, and reprocessing of all MODIS data on Terra has commenced since first light in February 2000. In the cloud mask algorithm, the most extensive improvements were in distinguishing clouds at nighttime, including the challenging polar darkness regions of the world. Additional improvements have been made to properly distinguish sunglint from clouds in the tropical ocean regions, and to improve the identification of clouds from snow during daytime in Polar Regions. We will show global monthly mean cloud fraction for both Terra and Aqua, and show how similar the global daytime cloud fraction is from these morning and afternoon orbits, respectively. We will also show the zonal distribution of cloud fraction over land and ocean regions for both Terra and Aqua, and show the time series of global cloud fraction from July 2002 through June 2006.

  20. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  1. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  2. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  3. ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Dini, L.

    2009-04-01

    shows good technical characteristics for the prevention phase is the ASTER sensor (90 m pixel) on NASA satellite TERRA. The product regarding the Crisis phase is mainly finalized to the estimation of the effusion rate for active lava flows, the algorithms for this product are well consolidated and could be applied to the low spatial resolution space sensors (eg. AVHRR, MODIS) and to high spatial resolution space sensors (eg. Hyperion, ASTER). A further class of products regards the analysis of degassing plumes and eruptive clouds. The analysis of the emitted gas species from degassing plume is usually performed trough ground networks of instruments based on the spectral behaviour of the gas species, although many volcanoes in the world do not have such permanent networks. The SRV system will produce information on the concentration and flux of sulphur dioxide (SO2) water vapour and volcanic aerosol optical thickness by means of ASTER, MODIS and HYPERION data on Etna test site. The analysis of ash clouds will be made by means of already consolidated procedures which uses low spatial resolution sensors with an high revisit time (eg. AVHRR, MSG, MODIS). For the Post Crisis phase the required products will be obtained through classification algorithms and spectral analysis operated by the scientific personnel of INGV and introduced in the system repository after the use of modules. The processing modules for EO RADAR sensors data for ground deformation measurement via Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques is performed by IREA-CNR. The selected test sites are Etna, Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei caldera. In particular, ground deformation time series will be generated by using ERS and ENVISAT SAR data and via the application of the Small BAeline Subset (SBAS) technique. This algorithm has the advantage of being both simple and very effective; moreover, it allows an easy combination of multiplatform data, provided that the acquisition geometries of both platform are

  4. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, using unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Palo, Scott; Knuth, Shelley L.; Bradley, Alice C.; Herrman, Paul D.; Kernebone, Peter A.; Logan, Nick J.

    2016-03-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air-sea ice-ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on 5 different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low-level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A data set containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657" target="_blank">http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  5. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica using unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.; Palo, S.; Knuth, S. L.; Bradley, A. C.; Herrman, P. D.; Kernebone, P. A.; Logan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air - sea ice - ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on five different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A dataset containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657" target="_blank">http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  6. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System (EOS) - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Space-borne remote sensing observations, however, are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. Through numerous participations, particularly but not limited to the EOS remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, NASA/GSFC has developed and continuously refined ground-based networks and mobile observatories that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement and enrich the satellite observations. These are: the AERO NET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) a federation of ground-based globally distributed network of spectral sun-sky photometers; the MPLNET (Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork, a similarly organized network of micro-pulse lidar systems measuring aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously; and the SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere, mobile observatories, a suite of spectral radiometers and in-situ probes acquiring supersite measurements. Most MPLNET sites are collocated with those of AERONET, and both networks always support the deployment of SMART-COMMIT worldwide. These data products follow the data structure of EOS conventions: Level-0, instrument archived raw data; Level-1 (or 1.5), real-time data with no (or limited) quality assurance; Level-2, not real high temporal and spectral resolutions. In this talk, we will present NASA/GSFC groundbased facilities, serving

  7. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  8. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  9. Supporting Research at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Through Focused Education and Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Closs, J.

    2003-12-01

    NASA research scientists work closely with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI) personnel at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on a large variety of education and public outreach (E/PO) initiatives. This work includes assistance in conceptualizing E/PO plans, then carrying through in the development of materials, publication, cataloging, warehousing, and product distribution. For instance, outreach efforts on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura-still in development-EOS missions, as well as planetary and visualization programs, have been coordinated by SSAI employees. E/PO support includes convening and taking part in sessions at professional meetings and workshops. Also included is the coordination of exhibits at professional meetings such as the AGU, AAAS, AMS and educational meetings such as the National Science Teachers Association. Other E/PO efforts include the development and staffing of booths; arranges for booth space and furnishings; shipping of exhibition materials and products; assembling, stocking, and disassembling of booths. E/PO personnel work with organizations external to NASA such as the Smithsonian museum, Library of Congress, U.S. Geological Survey, and associations or societies such as the AGU, American Chemical Society, and National Science Teachers Association to develop products and programs that enhance NASA mission E/PO efforts or to provide NASA information for use in their programs. At GSFC, E/PO personnel coordinate the efforts of the education and public outreach sub-committees in support of the Space and Earth Sciences Data Analysis (SESDA) contract within the GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate. The committee acts as a forum for improving communication and coordination among related Earth science education projects, and strives to unify the representation of these programs among the science and education communities. To facilitate these goals a Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate Education and Outreach Portal has been developed to provide

  10. Effects of Real-Time NASA Vegetation Data on Model Forecasts of Severe Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bell, Jordan R.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA-EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT started generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States beginning 1 June 2010. A companion poster presentation (Bell et al.) primarily focuses on impact results in an offline configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) for the 2010 warm season, comparing the SPoRT/MODIS GVF dataset to the current operational monthly climatology GVF available within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. This paper/presentation primarily focuses on individual case studies of severe weather events to determine the impacts and possible improvements by using the real-time, high-resolution SPoRT-MODIS GVFs in place of the coarser-resolution NCEP climatological GVFs in model simulations. The NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF) modeling system is employed to conduct the sensitivity simulations of individual events. The NU-WRF is an integrated modeling system based on the Advanced Research WRF dynamical core that is designed to represents aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and land processes at satellite-resolved scales in a coupled simulation environment. For this experiment, the coupling between the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and the WRF model is utilized to measure the impacts of the daily SPoRT/MODIS versus the monthly NCEP climatology GVFs. First, a spin-up run of the LIS is integrated for two years using the Noah LSM to ensure that the land surface fields reach an equilibrium state on the 4-km grid mesh used. Next, the spin-up LIS is run in two separate modes beginning on 1 June 2010, one continuing with the climatology GVFs while the

  11. Novel EO/IR sensor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-10-01

    The requirements for advanced EO/IR sensor technologies are discussed in the context of evolving military operations, with significant emphasis on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. The Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing (EMRS DTC) was established in 2003 to provide a centre of excellence in sensor research and development, supporting new capabilities in key military areas such as precision attack, battlespace manoeuvre and information superiority. In the area of advanced electro-optic technology, the DTC has supported work on discriminative imaging, advanced detectors, laser components/technologies, and novel optical techniques. This paper provides a summary of some of the EO/IR technologies explored by the DTC.

  12. A watershed model to integrate EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Carina, Almeida; Brito, David; Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    MOHID LAND is a open source watershed model developed by MARETEC and is part of the MOHID Framework. It integrates four mediums (or compartments): porous media, surface, rivers and atmosphere. The movement of water between these mediums are based on mass and momentum balance equations. The atmosphere medium is not explicity simulated. Instead, it's used as boundary condition to the model through meteorological properties: precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity and air temperature. The surface medium includes the overland runoff and vegetation growth processes and is simulated using a 2D grid. The porous media includes both the unsaturated (soil) and saturated zones (aquifer) and is simulated using a 3D grid. The river flow is simulated through a 1D drainage network. All these mediums are linked through evapotranspiration and flow exchanges (infiltration, river-soil growndwater flow, surface-river overland flow). Besides the water movement, it is also possible to simulate water quality processes and solute/sediment transport. Model setup include the definition of the geometry and the properties of each one of its compartments. After the setup of the model, the only continuous input data that MOHID LAND requires are the atmosphere properties (boundary conditions) that can be provided as timeseries or spacial data. MOHID LAND has been adapted the last 4 years under FP7 and ESA projects to integrate Earth Observation (EO) data, both variable in time and in space. EO data can be used to calibrate/validate or as input/assimilation data to the model. The currently EO data used include LULC (Land Use Land Cover) maps, LAI (Leaf Area Index) maps, EVTP (Evapotranspiration) maps and SWC (Soil Water Content) maps. Model results are improved by the EO data, but the advantage of this integration is that the model can still run without the EO data. This means that model do not stop due to unavailability of EO data and can run on a forecast mode

  13. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of {Lambda}`s produced in 2 GeV/nucleon {sup 5}8Ni + {sup nat}Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y{sub cm} and extends down to P{sub T} = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A`s. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made.

  14. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In accordance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13563, ``Improving... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011, the President issued E.O. 13563, ``Improving Regulation...

  15. The EOS CERES Global Cloud Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendes, T. A.; Welch, R. M.; Trepte, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Baum, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    To detect long-term climate trends, it is essential to produce long-term and consistent data sets from a variety of different satellite platforms. With current global cloud climatology data sets, such as the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Experiment (ISCCP) or CLAVR (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), one of the first processing steps is to determine whether an imager pixel is obstructed between the satellite and the surface, i.e., determine a cloud 'mask.' A cloud mask is essential to studies monitoring changes over ocean, land, or snow-covered surfaces. As part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, a series of platforms will be flown beginning in 1997 with the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and subsequently the EOS-AM and EOS-PM platforms in following years. The cloud imager on TRMM is the Visible/Infrared Sensor (VIRS), while the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the imager on the EOS platforms. To be useful for long term studies, a cloud masking algorithm should produce consistent results between existing (AVHRR) data, and future VIRS and MODIS data. The present work outlines both existing and proposed approaches to detecting cloud using multispectral narrowband radiance data. Clouds generally are characterized by higher albedos and lower temperatures than the underlying surface. However, there are numerous conditions when this characterization is inappropriate, most notably over snow and ice of the cloud types, cirrus, stratocumulus and cumulus are the most difficult to detect. Other problems arise when analyzing data from sun-glint areas over oceans or lakes over deserts or over regions containing numerous fires and smoke. The cloud mask effort builds upon operational experience of several groups that will now be discussed.

  16. New Editors, Editorial Advisory Board for Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2010-11-01

    Eos has two new editors and, with this issue, a revitalized Editorial Advisory Board. Christina M. S. Cohen, of the California Institute of Technology, is the new editor for space sciences. She succeeds Manuel Grande, who had served since 2006. Carol A. Stein, of the University of Illinois at Chicago, is the new editor for solid Earth. She succeeds John W. Geissman, who has been solid Earth editor since 2001; he will continue through the end of 2010.

  17. Radar E-O image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, William F.

    1993-01-01

    The fusion of radar and electro-optic (E-O) sensor images presents unique challenges. The two sensors measure different properties of the real three-dimensional (3-D) world. Forming the sensor outputs into a common format does not mask these differences. In this paper, the conditions under which fusion of the two sensor signals is possible are explored. The program currently planned to investigate this problem is briefly discussed.

  18. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  19. Resurfacing history of Tempe Terra and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.V. ); Grant, T.D. )

    1990-08-30

    The resurfacing history of the Tempe Terra region is determined using the Neukum and Hiller technique of breaking cumulative frequency curves into separate branches where the curves depart from a standard production curve. We find four surfaces recorded in the heavily cratered portions of Tempe Terra, with crater retention ages N(1) = (242,100), (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). This is interpreted to indicate three major resurfacing events occurred in this region, ending at N(1) = (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). The ridged plains on the Tempe Terra plateau have an oldest recorded surface age of (20,400), identical to that of the second resurfacing event recorded in the heavily cratered areas. A single resurfacing of the ridged plains (which may have been a second episode of ridged plains volcanism) occurred at N(1) = (7,800). The knobby plains to the north west and east of Tempe Terra also show a resurfacing at (20,000) and additional events at (5,400) and perhaps (1,600). Mottled plains to the northeast record surfaces with crater retention age (7,500), (5,000), and (3,900), where the first age is determined by a single surviving crater. It appears that the Lunae Planum Age (LPA) (at N(1) = (20,000)) resurfacing event seen elsewhere on mars was widespread and effective in this region. A second widespread event appears to have ended at N(1) = (5,000). The authors estimate the thickness of the resurfacing materials corresponding to the LPA event to be less than 90 m in the heavily cratered areas but 300-500 m in the ridged plains themselves. Later resurfacing materials were generally thicker farther north in the mottled plains (300 m) than in the knobby plains (200 m).

  20. Measurement of the EOS of WDM aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John; Watt, Robert; Montgomery, David; Gamboa, Eliseo

    2011-10-01

    The warm dense matter (WDM) regime is one of the most uncertain in terms of our knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of materials. This is not only because it is difficult to calculate the properties of WDM, but also because we have so little data from that parameter regime. To address this need, we are developing an experimental platform to measure the EOS of WDM. This platform relies on using the shock and release technique with the addition of non-traditional diagnostic capabilities. Our experiment platform utilizes the Omega laser to drive a very strong shock into an aluminum sample. The shock is then released into 0.2 g/cm3 aerogel foam which is used as a pressure standard. A shock breakout measurement is used to determine the shock velocity and pressure in the foam and released sample. We have also developed an imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer to measure Compton scattered x-rays from the released aluminum sample. This information can be used to determine the temperature and density of the released aluminum, providing the necessary measurements to determine the EOS. Simulations predict the conditions of the released aluminum will be ~ solid density at 10-15 eV. We will present our experimental results of pressure measurements along with preliminary data from the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer. Work performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy.

  1. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  2. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet

  3. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  4. NASA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffner, Edwin J.

    2007-01-01

    The Earth Science Division supports research projects that exploit the observations and measurements acquired by NASA Earth Observing missions and Applied Sciences projects that extend NASA research to the broader user community and address societal needs.

  5. Land Surface Temperature Measurements from EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments made by the MODIS LST (Land-Surface Temperature) group at University of California, Santa Barbara, under NASA Contract. Version 1 of the MODIS Land-Surface Temperature Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) was reviewed in June 1994, version 2 reviewed in November 1994, version 3.1 in August 1996, and version 3.3 updated in April 1999. Based on the ATBD, two LST algorithms were developed, one is the generalized split-window algorithm and another is the physics-based day/night LST algorithm. These two LST algorithms were implemented into the production generation executive code (PGE 16) for the daily standard MODIS LST products at level-2 (MODII-L2) and level-3 (MODIIA1 at 1 km resolution and MODIIB1 at 5km resolution). PGE codes for 8-day 1 km LST product (MODIIA2) and the daily, 8-day and monthly LST products at 0.05 degree latitude/longitude climate model grids (CMG) were also delivered. Four to six field campaigns were conducted each year since 2000 to validate the daily LST products generated by PGE16 and the calibration accuracies of the MODIS TIR bands used for the LST/emissivity retrieval from versions 2-4 of Terra MODIS data and versions 3-4 of Aqua MODIS data. Validation results from temperature-based and radiance-based methods indicate that the MODIS LST accuracy is better than 1 C in most clear-sky cases in the range from -10 to 58 C. One of the major lessons learn from multi- year temporal analysis of the consistent V4 daily Terra MODIS LST products in 2000-2003 over some selected target areas including lakes, snow/ice fields, and semi-arid sites is that there are variable numbers of cloud-contaminated LSTs in the MODIS LST products depending on surface elevation, land cover types, and atmospheric conditions. A cloud-screen scheme with constraints on spatial and temporal variations in LSTs was developed to remove cloud-contaminated LSTs. The 5km LST product was indirectly validated through comparisons to

  6. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Liu, Yang; Marchand, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Nolin, Anne W.; Pinty, Bernard; Verstraete, Michel M.; Wu, Dong L.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Davis, Anthony B.; Davis, Edgar S.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  8. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  9. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  10. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  11. Bigplate: an oblique angle explosive EOS test

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S; Avara, R; Fried, L; Janzen, J; McGuire, E; Souers, P C; Wu, B

    1998-04-16

    Bigplate is an advanced explosive equation of state (EOS) test. It consists of a point detonator driving a large disc (100 mm radius) of explosive, which pushes a 0.5 mm thick copper or tantalum plate. The plate is observed by a five-beam Fabry-Perot interferometer, which has beams at 0, 10, 20,40 and 80 mm on the plate. A short Fabry gives the jump-off to high accuracy; a long Fabry runs out to I0-15 microsec. A detailed error analysis is given, with the final velocity measurements considered good to ±0.066 mm/microsec. Jump-offs are measured to 0.01-0.02 microsec. Spall is seen in all shots, which creates a time delay on both the first and second velocity plateaus. A 0.1 microsec delay in jump-off of unknown origin is also seen at 80 mm. In order of decreasing explosive ideality, the explosives tired have been LX-14, LX-04 and LX-17. To partially negate the time delays, the data and code runs are overlaid at each radial position between the first and second plateaus. Traditional JWL's model LX-14 and LX-04 within accuracy, but not so for LX-17. The spall may be partly modeled using the pmin model but high resolution zoning is required. At longer times, spall does not appear to affect the explosive energetics. Because it includes diagonal zone crossing, Bigplate occupies a location between simple plate and cylinder tests and truly complex geometries. Hence, an EOS that fails Bigplate is not likely to move on to more complex issues. Bigplate is an excellent test bed for radically new EOS's, and the initial LX-17 runs done with Equilibrium and KINETIC CHEETAH are promising.

  12. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary of a study on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) was presented. It was concluded that the overall costs of space systems could be reduced significantly by the development of a modular shuttle compatible standard spacecraft, and the use of that spacecraft with the Shuttle Transportation System. It was also demonstrated that the development of the standard spacecraft is feasible, desirable, and cost effective if applied to a series of missions. The ability to initially retrieve, refurbish, and reuse the spacecraft and its payload, and ultimately to perform in-orbit servicing, would result in significant cost savings. A number of specific conclusions and recommendations were also suggested.

  13. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  14. Mars Express OMEGA Observations over Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Wolff, M.; Gendrin, A.; Morris, R. V.; Freeman, J. J.; Bellucci, G.

    2005-01-01

    The OMEGA hyperspectral imager (0.35 to 5.08 micrometers) covered the hematite-bearing plains and underlying etched terrains of Terra Meridiani during several orbits with spatial resolutions ranging from several hundred meters to approximately 2 km. We extracted and analyzed surface reflectance spectra from OMEGA data for the approximately 864,000 square kilometers surrounding the Opportunity site. In this paper we focus on analysis of OMEGA orbit 485 data for the plains and etched terrains located to the northeast of the Opportunity landing site.

  15. Volcanism in Northwest Ishtar Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, L.R.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously undocumented volcanic complex in the highlands of NW Ishtar Terra (74 deg N, 313 deg E). The proposed valcanic center is in mountainous banded terrain thought to have been formed by regional compression. Data used include Soviet Venera 15/16 radar images and topography (Fotokarta Veneri B-4, 1987). An attempt is made to assess the place of this feature in the framework of known volcanic landforms of the Lakshmi Planum and to examine the relationships between volcanism and tectonism in this region. 38 refs.

  16. Radar Scattering Properties of Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    A series of fourteen radar observations of Mars were made during the 2001 opposition. Four of these observation tracks passed over Terra Meridiani, a prime candidate landing site for one of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover missions. Observations were conducted using X-band (3.5 centimeter wavelength) radar transmitted with a pseudo-random binary phase encoding which, combined with the frequency resolution of the processing FFT, yields a maximum spatial resolution of approximately five kilometers. Actual spatial resolution is coarser than this (between five and twenty kilometers) due to signal-to-noise considerations that predicated longer integration times as well as greater planetary ranges for the off-opposition observations. We have processed the Terra Meridiani data in stages, beginning with one-dimensional sub-radar track profiles and culminating with four-station interferometry. Not all observations were amendable to the full four-station interferometry, due to technical issues, but were processed with a minimum of two stations to remove the spatial ambiguities inherent to radar observations. Our processing yields one- and two-dimensional maps of the surface reflectivity along the radar track. We extract scattering data for points along the sub-radar track, where the angle in incidence varies most, and model the scattering function. The multi-station reflectivity data is also modeled according to the Hagfors scattering model to extract two-dimensional maps of RMS roughness and dielectric constant. The RMS roughness data for the Terra Meridiani landing sites shows the local surface slopes to be less than 3 degrees, on the scale of tens of wavelengths. An enhanced dielectric constant is apparent over Terra Meridiani that is spatially correlated with the MGS detected hematite deposits. The level of the enhancement is consistent with the inclusion of 10-15 percent hematite, according to a weighted dielectric or PVL model. Integral to our processing, and new to

  17. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  18. Converting EOS Data from HDF-EOS to netCDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bame. Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A C-language computer program accepts, as input, a set of scientific data and metadata from an Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite and converts the set from (1) the format in which it was created and delivered to (2) another format for processing and exchange of data on Earth.

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS) advanced altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the post-TOPEX era, satellite radar altimeters will be developed with the capability of measuring the earth's surface topography over a wide swath of coverage, rather than just at the satellite's nadir. The identification of potential spacecraft flight missions in the future was studied. The best opportunity was found to be the Earth Observing System (EOS). It is felt that an instrument system that has a broad appeal to the earth sciences community stands a much better chance of being selected as an EOS instrument. Consequently, the Topography and Rain Radar Imager (TARRI) will be proposed as a system that has the capability to profile the Earth's topography regardless of the surface type. The horizontal and height resolutions of interest are obviously significantly different over land, ice, and water; but, the use of radar to provide an all-weather observation capability is applicable to the whole earth. The scientific guidance for the design and development of this instrument and the eventual scientific utilization of the data produced by the TARRI will be provided by seven science teams. The teams are formed around scientific disciplines and are titled: Geology/Geophysics, Hydrology/Rain, Oceanography, Ice/Snow, Geodesy/Orbit/Attitude, Cartography, and Surface Properties/Techniques.

  20. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  1. NASA Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

  2. Sizing the science data processing requirements for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, Stephen W.; Chang, Hyo D.; Krupp, Brian; Lu, Yun-Chi

    1991-01-01

    The methodology used in the compilation and synthesis of baseline science requirements associated with the 30 + EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments and over 2,400 EOS data products (both output and required input) proposed by EOS investigators is discussed. A brief background on EOS and the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, and the approach is outlined in terms of a multilayer model. The methodology used to compile, synthesize, and tabulate requirements within the model is described. The principal benefit of this approach is the reduction of effort needed to update the analysis and maintain the accuracy of the science data processing requirements in response to changes in EOS platforms, instruments, data products, processing center allocations, or other model input parameters. The spreadsheets used in the model provide a compact representation, thereby facilitating review and presentation of the information content.

  3. Results of Statewide TerraNova Testing, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This summary provides key findings about state, district, and school level performance on the TerraNova examinations (CTB/McGraw Hill) in Nevada in 1998-1999. The TerraNova tests are used to assess students in grades 4, 8, and 10 as stipulated by Nevada law. Within this summary, a description of performance as measured by national percentile…

  4. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  5. NASA Solve

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Solve lists opportunities available to the general public to contribute to solving tough problems related to NASA’s mission through challenges, prize competitions, and crowdsourcing activities...

  6. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http

  7. Realtime Decision Making on EO-1 Using Onboard Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu

    2004-01-01

    Recent autonomy experiments conducted on Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) using the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) flight software has been used to classify key features in hyperspectral images captured by EO-1. Furthermore, analysis is performed by this software onboard EO-1 and then used to modify the operational plan without interaction from the ground. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and provide some details and examples of the onboard science processing, science analysis, and replanning.

  8. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  9. Remote sensing of tropospheric constituents by OMI on the EOS Aura satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched on NASA's EOS Aura satellite in July 2004. This instrument was built in the Netherlands with collaboration with Finland. The science data products are being developed jointly by scientists from the three countries. OMI is the first instrument to combine the high spatial resolution daily global mapping capability of TOMS with high spectral resolution measurements necessary for retrieving a number of trace gases of relevance to atmospheric chemistry, using techniques pioneered by GOME. In this talk I will show what our planet looks like at UV wavelengths and what these data can tell us about the effects of human activities on global air quality and climate.

  10. Role of TERRA in the Regulation of Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases. PMID:25678850

  11. Role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases.

  12. Evaluation of Incremental Releases of ECS User Interfaces and the Development of HDF/HDF-EOS Tutorials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Greco, S.

    2001-01-01

    During the reporting period, the PI has continued to serve on numerous review panels, task forces, and committees with the goal of providing input and guidance for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program at NASA Headquarters and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, the PI has worked together with personnel at Simpson Weather Associates (SWA) to help create an on-line HDF/HDF-EOS tutorial for beginning and non-expert users of both the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) and HDF-EOS data format and software libraries. Finally, the PI has worked together with personnel at SWA and the Information Technology and Systems Center (ITSC) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on a feasibility study regarding the use of data mining software to ascertain features from the gridded output from numerical meteorological forecast models. A summary of these activities is provided.

  13. Detailed Analysis of the EOS-MODIS Instrument's Fire Radiative Power Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fire emissions account for a significant amount of the earth's radiation budget, yet this process is still not well understood. The most practical way to gain a global perspective on biomass burning and its effects on the environment and climate is through spaceborne measurements, such as with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua. Analysis of airborne measurements over active fires allowed the MODIS fire science team to develop a semi-empirical algorithm for deriving the fire radiative power (FRP) product. Though this product has made its way into the scientific community, it has only been used tentatively due in part to the fact that it has not yet been validated. The algorithm itself has undergone dramatic changes in its latest update, but this has only resulted in more uncertainty especially due to the effects that MODIS' scanning characteristics have on FRP measurements. This poster will present the work done insofar to characterize the uncertainty and gain an accepted, standard FRP product that can be used confidently within the scientific community. For instance, one of the error sources quantified and corrected for was the duplication of pixels for certain fires measured at a scan angle greater than about 15° due to MODIS' ‘bow-tie’ effect. Comparisons between near-coincident FRP measurements from Terra and Aqua at high latitudes where the two satellite overpass times are close, with one observing a specific fire near nadir and the other off nadir, has shown that, in addition to its scan angle dependency, differences also exist based on the fire strength. A brief illustration of fire visualization tools, specializing in the use of the FRP product, developed for both the scientific and public community will also be shown.

  14. EO system concepts in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  15. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  16. Validation of CERES/TERRA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wieliski, Bruce A.; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Kratz, David P.

    2000-01-01

    There are 2 CERES scanning radiometer instruments aboard the TERRA spacecraft, one for mapping the solar radiation reflected from the Earth and the outgoing longwave radiation and the other for measuring the anisotropy of the radiation. Each CERES instrument has on-board calibration devices, which have demonstrated that from ground to orbit the broadband total and shortwave sensor responses maintained their ties to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 at precisions approaching radiances have been validated in orbit to +/- 0.3 % (0.3 W/sq m sr). Top of atmosphere fluxes are produced by use of the CERES data alone. By including data from other instruments, surface radiation fluxes and radiant fluxes within the atmosphere and at its top, shortwave and longwave, for both up and down components, are derived. Validation of these data products requires ground and aircraft measurements of fluxes and of cloud properties.

  17. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  18. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  19. HDF-EOS HDFLook Data Processing and Visualization Applications at GES DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Ouzounov, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Savtchenko, A.; Deroo, C.; Li, J.; Teng, B.

    2003-12-01

    HDFLook is a new multifunctional data processing and visualization tool developed to work with MODIS Land, Ocean and Atmosphere, and AIRS HDF-EOS products. Features include: (1) accessing and visualization of all swath (Levels l and 2) MODIS and AIRS products, and gridded (Levels 3 and 4) MODIS products; (2) re-mapping of swath data to a world map; (3) geo-projection conversion; (4) interactive, batch mode and operational processing capabilities; (5) subsetting and multi-granule processing; and (6) data conversion from HDF-EOS to ASCII, binary, JPEG, GeoTIFF. The versatility of HDFLook resulted in the integration of the tool in several Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) subsystems for data distribution and production. HDFLook is the backend engine for the GES DAAC MODIS Ocean Level 2 on-demand parameter subset system. Further, the tool is used for the on-the-fly spatial subsetting of the MODIS Ocean Level 3 gridded data from the GES DAAC Data Pool. The MODIS browse images (Level 1B true-color for daytime, and brightness temperature for nighttime), available for quick review under EOS Data Gateway and GES DAAC Search and Order, are routinely generated by HDFLook as part of the GES DAAC production system. HDFLook future applications include generating daily global MODIS images and backend engine for MODIS L3 Atmospheric products Online Visualization System (MOVAS). HDFLook for AIRS and MODIS is the result of a joint collaboration between the GES DAAC, Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique (LOA), University of Lille, France and University of Maryland/ MODIS Land team.It is based on the Motif Satellite Process Handling Images under XWindows (MSPHINX) system, and works on all major Unix/Linux/Mac/Win platforms. It is free and available from the NASA GES DAAC web-site http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/HDFLook and LOA http://www-loa.univ-lille1.fr/Hdflook/hdflook_gb.html

  20. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  1. Supporting the planning for the evolution of the EOSDIS through an in-depth understanding of user requirements for NASA's world-class Earth science data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, V. L.; Behnke, J.; Maiden, M.; Fontaine, K.

    2004-12-01

    NASA is planning for the evolution of the Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for the evolution planning is developing thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS users and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research and or applications endeavors. This paper provides charts and tables of results from NASA studies that characterized our users, data and techniques. Using these metrics, other projects can apply NASA's 'lessons learned' to the development and operations of their data systems. In 2004, NASA undertook an intensive study of the users and usage of EOSDIS data. The study considered trends in the types and levels of EOS data products being ordered, the expanding number of users requesting products, and the "domains" of those users. The study showed that increasing numbers of users are using the validated, geophysical products produced from the radiance measurements recorded by the EOS instruments; while there remains a steady demand for the radiance products themselves. In 2003, over 2.1 million individuals contacted EOSDIS (as identified by unique email and/or URL) with just over 10% requesting a product or service. The users came from all sectors including 40% from more than 125 countries outside the U.S. University researchers and students (.edu) received over 40% of the some 29 million data and information products disseminated by EOSDIS. The trend in method of delivery for EOSDIS data has been away from receiving data on hard media (tapes, CD-ROM, etc.) to receiving the data over the network. Over 75% of the EOSDIS data products were disseminated via electronic means in 2003 contrasted with just under 30% in 2000. To plan for system-wide evolution you need to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA

  2. EOS Aura's Education and Public Outreach Program - A Lesson for a Scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's EOS Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is designed to answer three basic questions about the Earth's atmosphere: a) Is the Earth's ozone layer recovering? b) Is air quality changing? c) How is the Earth's climate changing? The Aura Project agreed to support an ambitious EPO program early in the mission to establish an Aura presence with the public prior to and after launch. The Aura EPO program's overarching objectives is to inform students, our peers, the general public, policy makers and industry. One of my roles as Aura Deputy Project Scientist was to develop a plan, cost, and schedule through launch with these objectives. Our goal was to have the maximum number of outreach contacts for the least cost. This meant taking advantage of well established and proven EPO enterprises. The selected Aura EPO partners include GLOBE, the American Chemical Society, the Smithsonian Institution, Environmental Defense, and NASA's Earth Observatory websites. Managing these tools to convey the Aura message through launch became an over arching task. A Project Scientist's role for a large NASA space mission has many facets and running an EPO program has several challenges. The first success came with bringing on-board experienced Outreach personnel familiar with NASA missions. This step was invaluable in launching Outreach projects since they did not necessarily conform to the NASA way of conducting research and flight missions. "Leveraging" is key element in Outreach programming and we found many avenues among our partners to put this to full use particularly since atmospheric chemistry is an important and sometimes controversial environmental issue. It was gratifying to see, as a scientist, our Outreach contacts get excited about the subject when explained in a personal way. Another important challenge for a scientist is the balance of time spent between research and Outreach. Each requires creativity and dedication of time and both have rewards that are very

  3. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  4. Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. Van; Wu, Dong; Read, William; Jiang, Jonathan; Wagner, Paul; Livesey, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Michael; Filipiak, Mark; Pumphrey, Hugh; Shippony, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    A computer program performs level-2 processing of thermal-microwave-radiance data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The purpose of the processing is to estimate the composition and temperature of the atmosphere versus altitude from .8 to .90 km. "Level-2" as used here is a specialists f term signifying both vertical profiles of geophysical parameters along the measurement track of the instrument and processing performed by this or other software to generate such profiles. Designed to be flexible, the program is controlled via a configuration file that defines all aspects of processing, including contents of state and measurement vectors, configurations of forward models, measurement and calibration data to be read, and the manner of inverting the models to obtain the desired estimates. The program can operate in a parallel form in which one instance of the program acts a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each slave operating on a portion of the data. Optionally, the configuration file can be made to instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on state vectors formed from sets of geophysical data-product files taken as input.

  5. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres.

  6. Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first story. Photograph taken 1973. - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  7. 3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST BELOW SECOND FLOOR ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  8. Detail of secondstory bay with terra cotta ornament on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second-story bay with terra cotta ornament on east façade. Photograph taken April 1973 - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  9. Completion and Submission of the Terra Sirenum Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-06-01

    We have completed and plan to submit a detailed 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map of the Terra Sirenum region, which includes mapping stratigraphic units and identifying tectonic, erosional, depositional, and impact structures.

  10. 4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST ABOVE FOURTH FLOOR WINDOWS ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  11. 4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL SHOWING TERRA COTTA ROUND ARCH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL SHOWING TERRA COTTA ROUND ARCH AND STRING COURSE AT FOURTH FLOOR LEVEL AND FRIEZE AT FIFTH FLOOR LEVEL - West Lexington Street, Number 308 (Commercial Building), 308 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. Identification of chromatin marks at TERRA promoter and encoding region.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Yutaka; Kawaji, Hideya; Minoda, Aki; Usui, Kengo

    2015-11-27

    TERRA is a long non-coding RNA that is essential for telomere integrity. Although it is transcribed from subtelomeres and telomeres, how it is expressed in heterochromatic region is currently unknown. In this study, we focused our analysis on TERRA-encoding region TelBam3.4 and TelBam3.4-like sequences, and determined their transcription start sites, as well as enrichment of RNA polymerase II and histone modifications. We found that H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 are present at TERRA promoters, whereas H3K27ac and H3K9me3 are present at telomeric repeats. Consistently, we show that presence of active histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27ac are correlated to TERRA expression. These results mark an important step towards understanding telomere maintenance and transcription.

  13. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Progress Toward a Global, EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    The MISR and MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite have been collecting data containing information about the state of Earth's atmosphere and surface for over eleven years. Data from these instruments have been used to develop a global, monthly climatology of aerosol amount that is widely used as a constraint on climate models, including those used for the 2007 IPCC assessment report. The next frontier in assessing aerosol radiative forcing of climate is aerosol type, and in particular, the absorption properties of major aerosol air masses. This presentation will focus on the prospects for constraining aerosol type globally, and the steps we are taking to apply a combination of satellite and suborbital data to this challenge.

  15. Implementation of the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Karen; Murphy, Kevin; Lowe, Dawn; Masuoka, Edward; Vollmer, Bruce; Tilmes, Curt; Teague, Michael; Ye, Gang; Maiden, Martha; Goodman, H. Michael; Justice, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from satellite sensors. Applications have demonstrated the utility of timely data in a number of areas ranging from numerical weather prediction and forecasting, to monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. As applications mature, the need to transition from prototypes to operational capabilities presents an opportunity to improve current near real-time systems and inform future capabilities. This paper presents NASA s effort to implement a near real-time capability for land and atmosphere data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites. Index Terms- Real time systems, Satellite applications

  16. Functional characterization of the TERRA transcriptome at damaged telomeres.

    PubMed

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Delafontaine, Julien; Riethman, Harold; Rougemont, Jacques; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-10-31

    Telomere deprotection occurs during tumorigenesis and aging upon telomere shortening or loss of the telomeric shelterin component TRF2. Deprotected telomeres undergo changes in chromatin structure and elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) that leads to cellular senescence. The telomeric long noncoding RNA TERRA has been implicated in modulating the structure and processing of deprotected telomeres. Here, we characterize the human TERRA transcriptome at normal and TRF2-depleted telomeres and demonstrate that TERRA upregulation is occurring upon depletion of TRF2 at all transcribed telomeres. TRF2 represses TERRA transcription through its homodimerization domain, which was previously shown to induce chromatin compaction and to prevent the early steps of DDR activation. We show that TERRA associates with SUV39H1 H3K9 histone methyltransferase, which promotes accumulation of H3K9me3 at damaged telomeres and end-to-end fusions. Altogether our data elucidate the TERRA landscape and defines critical roles for this RNA in the telomeric DNA damage response.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  9. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  10. 221 Eos: a remnant of a partially differentiated parent body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.

    2005-11-01

    The asteroid 221 Eos and the objects belonging to its associated family - most of which belong to the K taxonomic class, have been traditionally associated with CO3/CV3 meteorites. The 52 color spectrum and the SMASSIR spectrum of 221 Eos in the NIR region, combined with the SMASSII spectrum in the visible, has now been compared to the whole RELAB meteorites database updated in July 2003. In this paper we present the first observational evidence that 221 Eos is analogous to a differentiated meteorite: the anomalous stone Divnoe. This link suggests that the the parent body of the Eos dynamical family was partially differentiated, with a thermal history quite different from what is currently accepted.

  11. Important change in service for international Eos delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treby, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In direct response to member feedback about delays in delivery time and an overwhelming preference to read Eos online, print issues of Eos will no longer be mailed to members who have a delivery address outside the United States, effective with the 10 January 2012 issue. Our international members will continue to have access to the Eos electronic edition as well as recently introduced Web-only content. In addition, members who no longer receive a print copy of Eos will receive weekly e-alerts telling them when the newest issue is available online (several days before the cover date). Members with a mailing address in the United States also have the choice to opt out of the printed copy. Not only will this change allow us to better serve the needs of our international members, but also the cost savings will permit AGU to significantly increase investment in the other programs, products, and services that members value.

  12. ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, F.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, B.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a prototype floodwater detection algorithm for Hyperion imagery. It will be run autonomously onboard the EO-1 spacecraft under the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  13. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  14. SAM II Data and Information (HDF-EOS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-01

    SAM II Data and Information (HDF-EOS) Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Set Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) ...

  15. Cross-calibration of the reflective solar bands of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus over PICS using different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Mishra, Nischal; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Helder, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Both Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) have been successfully operating for over 15 years to collect valuable measurements of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The land-viewing bands of both sensors are widely used in several scientific products such as surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index etc. A synergistic use of the multi-temporal measurements from both sensors can greatly benefit the science community. Previous effort from the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) was focused on comparing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the two sensors over Libya 4 desert target. Uncertainties caused by the site/atmospheric BRDF, spectral response mismatch, and atmospheric water-vapor were also characterized. In parallel, an absolute calibration approach based on empirical observation was also developed for the Libya 4 site by the South Dakota State University's (SDSU) Image Processing Lab. Observations from Terra MODIS and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion were used to model the Landsat ETM+ TOA reflectance. Recently, there has been an update to the MODIS calibration algorithm, which has resulted in the newly reprocessed Collection 6 Level 1B calibrated products. Similarly, a calibration update to some ETM+ bands has also resulted in long-term improvements of its calibration accuracy. With these updates, calibration differences between the spectrally matching bands of Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ over the Libya 4 site are evaluated using both approaches.

  16. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Showe, Louise C; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R; Lieberman, Paul M

    2015-11-17

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments.

  17. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Showe, Louise C.; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments. PMID:26578789

  18. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  20. Consistency of Global Modis Aerosol Optical Depths over Ocean on Terra and Aqua Ceres SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Miller, Walter F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Remer, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals over ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side-by-side. The primary M product is generated by sub-setting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.47-2.1 micrometer) MODIS produced oceanic aerosol (MOD04/MYD04 for Terra/Aqua) onto CERES footprints. M*D04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary AVHRR-like A product is generated in only two MODIS bands 1 and 6 (on Aqua, bands 1 and 7). The A processing uses the CERES cloud screening algorithm, and NOAA/NESDIS glint identification, and single-channel aerosol retrieval algorithms. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using 2 weeks of global Terra CERES SSF Edition 1A data in which the M product was based on MOD04 collection 3. In this study, the comparisons between the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 (0.64 micrometers), tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) are re-examined using 9 days of global CERES SSF Terra Edition 2A and Aqua Edition 1B data from 13 - 21 October 2002, and extended to include cross-platform comparisons. The M and A products on the new CERES SSF release are generated using the same aerosol algorithms as before, but with different preprocessing and sampling procedures, lending themselves to a simple sensitivity check to non-aerosol factors. Both tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) generally compare well across platforms. However, the M product shows some differences, which increase with ambient cloud amount and towards the solar side of the orbit. Three types of comparisons conducted in this study - cross-platform, cross-product, and cross-release confirm the previously made observation that the major area for

  1. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  2. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation, and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

    2012-06-01

    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  3. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  5. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  6. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  7. Welcome to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    There are strong scientific indications that natural change in the Earth system is being accelerated by human intervention. As a result, planet Earth faces the possibility of rapid environmental changes that would have a profound impact on all nations. However, we do not fully understand either the short-term effects of our activities, or their long-term implications - many important scientific questions remain unanswered. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with the national and international scientific communities to establish a sound scientific basis for addressing these critical issues through research efforts coordinated under the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the World Climate Research Program. The Earth Science Enterprise is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise will use space- and surface-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. A major component of the Earth Science Enterprise is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The overall objective of the EOS Program is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. EOS will provide sustained space-based observations that will allow researchers to monitor climate variables over time to determine trends. A constellation of EOS satellites will acquire global data, beginning in 1998 and extending well into the 21st century.

  8. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  9. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  10. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  11. The NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    I would like to make the members of AGU aware of the recent happenings in Congress with regard to the fiscal year (FY) 1986 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was scheduled for modest increases from FY 1985 levels in the President's budget (Eos, February 19, 1985, p. 73), which was approved by the House Science and Technology Committee. However, when the authorization bill (H.R. 1714) “hit the floor” on April 3, amendments were offered and overwhelmingly passed to freeze funding at FY 1985 levels. (A similar fate met the National Science Foundation bill, H.R. 1210, on April 17.) The process is under way in the Senate, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, which is the authorizing committee (under the chairmanship of Slade Gorton), plans to mark up its NASA bill in the next few days; the full committee—the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee—will then offer it to the floor.

  12. Identification of New Genomospecies in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wong, Yan Ling; Tan, Joon Liang; Hong, Kar Wai; Ng, Hien Fuh; Ong, Bee Lee; Chan, Kok Gan

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium terrae complex are slow-growing, non-chromogenic acid-fast bacilli found in the natural environment and occasionally in clinical material. These genetically closely-related members are difficult to differentiate by conventional phenotypic and molecular tests. In this paper we describe the use of whole genome data for the identification of four strains genetically similar to Mycobacterium sp. JDM601, a newly identified member of the M. terrae complex. Phylogenetic information from the alignment of genome-wide orthologous genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms show consistent clustering of the four strains together with M. sp. JDM601 into a distinct clade separate from other rapid and slow growing mycobacterial species. More detailed inter-strain comparisons using average nucleotide identity, tetra-nucleotide frequencies and analysis of synteny indicate that our strains are closely related to but not of the same species as M. sp. JDM601. Besides the 16S rRNA signature described previously for the M. terrae complex, five more hypothetical proteins were found that are potentially useful for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species belonging to the M. terrae complex. This paper illustrates the versatile utilization of whole genome data for the delineation of new bacterial species and introduces four new genomospecies to add to current members in the M. terrae complex. PMID:25830768

  13. NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools.

  14. NASA Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, Glenn; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Freeman, Ken; Gambrel, Dave; Green, Bryan; Henze, Chris; Hinke, Thomas; Hood, Robert; Kiris, Cetin; Moran, Patrick; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A series of NASA presentations for the Supercomputing 2001 conference are summarized. The topics include: (1) Mars Surveyor Landing Sites "Collaboratory"; (2) Parallel and Distributed CFD for Unsteady Flows with Moving Overset Grids; (3) IP Multicast for Seamless Support of Remote Science; (4) Consolidated Supercomputing Management Office; (5) Growler: A Component-Based Framework for Distributed/Collaborative Scientific Visualization and Computational Steering; (6) Data Mining on the Information Power Grid (IPG); (7) Debugging on the IPG; (8) Debakey Heart Assist Device: (9) Unsteady Turbopump for Reusable Launch Vehicle; (10) Exploratory Computing Environments Component Framework; (11) OVERSET Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools; (12) Control and Observation in Distributed Environments; (13) Multi-Level Parallelism Scaling on NASA's Origin 1024 CPU System; (14) Computing, Information, & Communications Technology; (15) NAS Grid Benchmarks; (16) IPG: A Large-Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management System; and (17) ILab: Parameter Study Creation and Submission on the IPG.

  15. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  16. Telecommunications issues of intelligent database management for ground processing systems in the EOS era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touch, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    Future NASA earth science missions, including the Earth Observing System (EOS), will be generating vast amounts of data that must be processed and stored at various locations around the world. Here we present a stepwise-refinement of the intelligent database management (IDM) of the distributed active archive center (DAAC - one of seven regionally-located EOSDIS archive sites) architecture, to showcase the telecommunications issues involved. We develop this architecture into a general overall design. We show that the current evolution of protocols is sufficient to support IDM at Gbps rates over large distances. We also show that network design can accommodate a flexible data ingestion storage pipeline and a user extraction and visualization engine, without interference between the two.

  17. Development of practical multiband algorithms for estimating land-surface temperature from EOS/MODIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Wan, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A practical multiband, hierarchical algorithm for estimating land-surface temperature from NASA's future Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is developed through comprehensive, accurate, radiative transfer simulations at moderate spectral steps of 1-5/cm for wide ranges of atmospheric and surface conditions. The algorithm will accept empirical or estimated information about the surface emissivity and reflectivity and the atmospheric temperature and water-vapor profiles. Ground-based and aircraft measurements are necessary to validate and improve the algorithm and to establish its quality. Its accuracy depends on the calibration accuracy of thermal infrared data, uncertainties in surface heterogeneity, and temperature-dependent atmospheric absorption coefficients. Better knowledge of land-surface spectral emissivities and more accurate coefficients for atmospheric molecular band absorption and water vapor continuum absorption are needed to develop global land-surface temperature algorithms accurate to 1-2 K.

  18. The Stratospheric Wind Ingrared Limb Sounder: Investigation of atmospheric dynamics and transport from Eos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccleese, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Infrared Limb Sounder (SWIRLS) is one of the instruments in the atmospheric sounder package to be flown by NASA on the Earth Observing System (EOS) B platform in the late 1990's. SWIRLS is designed to measure the horizontal vector wind field, atmospheric temperature, and the abundances and distributions of ozone and nitrous oxide in the middle atmosphere. These measurements will constitute a dynamical climatology of the stratosphere covering time scales ranging from diurnal to interannual. In addition, the SWIRLS investigation will quantify the physical mechanisms responsible for the structure and variations of stratospheric circulation and temperature fields, including the transport of species, particularly ozone, heat and momentum. Existing data sets lack the combination of accuracy, global and temporal coverage, spatial resoultion and simultaneity required to distinguish unambiguosly between the roles of dynamical and chemical processes in determining the current distribution of ozone and its evolution in the future. The measurement objectives, measurement approach, and instrumentation of SWIRLS is described.

  19. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  20. The Integration, Testing and Flight of the EO-1 GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David A.; Sanneman, Paul A.; Shulman, Seth E.; Sager, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System has long been hailed as the wave of the future for autonomous on-board navigation of low Earth orbiting spacecraft despite the fact that relatively few spacecraft have actually employed it for this purpose. While several missions operated out of the Goddard Space Flight Center have flown GPS receivers on board, the New Millenium Program (NMP) Earth Orbiting-1 (EO-1) spacecraft is the first to employ GPS for active, autonomous on-board navigation. Since EO-1 was designed to employ GPS as its primary source of the navigation ephemeris, special care had to be taken during the integration phase of spacecraft construction to assure proper performance. This paper is a discussion of that process: a brief overview of how the GPS works, how it fits into the design of the EO-1 Attitude Control System (ACS), the steps taken to integrate the system into the EO-1 spacecraft, the ultimate on-orbit performance during launch and early operations of the EO-1 mission and the performance of the on-board GPS ephemeris versus the ground based ephemeris. Conclusions will include a discussion of the lessons learned.

  1. Pacific Ocean Disasters - Enhanced Detection and Monitoring of Pumice Rafts Using NASA EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Chojnacki, P. R.; Coady, C.; Geddes, Q.; Honaker, L. B.; Lyddane, W.; McGilloway, J.; Scott, J.

    2011-12-01

    Pumice rafts are an occasional byproduct of explosive volcanic eruptions that occur near bodies of water. Though these rafts may be infrequent, their substantial size, typically tens of kilometers across, means they pose a serious hazard to shipping interests by blocking the seawater intake valves for ships' engine cooling systems. The focus of this research is on the pumice raft events associated with Tonga 2006, Yemen 2007, and Chile-Argentina border 2011 eruptions. False-color composite images were created with remotely sensed data from the Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, and MODIS instruments to facilitate visual identification of pumice rafts in high resolution imagery. Additionally, a Material-Of-Interest subpixel classification was implemented to automatically demarcate the extent of the pumice rafts. MODIS was found to be the most useful sensor for tracking larger rafts in the open ocean, while Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, and ALI were more effective in tracking smaller rafts in lakes and rivers. The pumice rafts generally took on a temperature between that of the ambient air and water temperatures, and this is theorized to be potentially related to characteristics unique to each raft like thickness. That data collected for this study has been compiled to provide an effective tool for further investigation of pumice rafts.

  2. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Leslie L.

    1990-01-01

    MODIS is intended to provide daily global surveys for the oceans, the atmosphere, and land. To achieve this capability, this instrument requires at least a 1700 km swath width and provides geometric-instantaneous-fields-of-view that are either 214 m, 428 m, or 856 m in size with reference to a 705 km satellite altitude. The range of products to be supported by MODIS includes ocean chlorophyll concentration, ocean primary productivity, dissolved organic matter in the oceans, global SST, total suspended solids, land cover type, land surface temperatures, vegetation indices, and volcanic and fire events. Details of the MODIS-N and MODIS-T instrument concepts are discussed.

  3. HIRIS: NASA's high-resolution imaging spectrometer for the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Herring, M.

    1988-01-01

    The HIRIS design includes 10 nm spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 micron at 30 m spatial resolution over a 24 or 30 km swath. This resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland water and spectral changes in land canopy. In the 824 km orbit altitude proposed, the cross track pointing capability allows 4 to 5 views during a 16 day revisit cycle.

  4. Sol-Terra - AN Operational Space Weather Forecasting Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Lawrence, G.; Pidgeon, A.; Reid, S.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bogdanova, Y.; Byrne, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Jackson, D.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SOL-TERRA project is a collaboration between RHEA Tech, the Met Office, and RAL Space funded by the UK Space Agency. The goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to produce a Roadmap for a future coupled Sun-to-Earth operational space weather forecasting system covering domains from the Sun down to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere and neutral atmosphere. The first stage of SOL-TERRA is underway and involves reviewing current models that could potentially contribute to such a system. Within a given domain, the various space weather models will be assessed how they could contribute to such a coupled system. This will be done both by reviewing peer reviewed papers, and via direct input from the model developers to provide further insight. Once the models have been reviewed then the optimal set of models for use in support of forecast-based SWE modelling will be selected, and a Roadmap for the implementation of an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework will be prepared. The Roadmap will address the current modelling capability, knowledge gaps and further work required, and also the implementation and maintenance of the overall architecture and environment that the models will operate within. The SOL-TERRA project will engage with external stakeholders in order to ensure independently that the project remains on track to meet its original objectives. A group of key external stakeholders have been invited to provide their domain-specific expertise in reviewing the SOL-TERRA project at critical stages of Roadmap preparation; namely at the Mid-Term Review, and prior to submission of the Final Report. This stakeholder input will ensure that the SOL-TERRA Roadmap will be enhanced directly through the input of modellers and end-users. The overall goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to develop a Roadmap for an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework with can be implemented within a larger subsequent activity. The SOL-TERRA project is supported within

  5. Terra firma-forme dermatosis: Case Series and dermoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razek, Moheb M; Fathy, Hanan

    2015-10-16

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is characterized by dirt-like skin lesions that disappear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe the dermoscopic features of TFFD before and after alcohol swabbing in six patients. All patients showed similar dermoscopic appearance with large polygonal plate-like brown scales arranged together giving a mosaic pattern. These features disappear completely after isopropyl alcohol swabbing of the lesions. In conclusion dermoscopy can assist in the evaluation of terra firma-forme dermatosis and the dermoscopic evaluation of other dirty dermatoses is recommended in the future to compare findings with TFFD.

  6. Atypical presentations of terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard Scott; Collins, Jeffrey; Young, Russel John; Bohlke, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a benign dermatologic condition that presents as dirt-colored patches and plaques, mainly affecting children and adolescents. It is resistant to conventional washing with soap and water but is easily treated with isopropyl alcohol. Clinical awareness of this condition provides a quick, simple resolution. Here we present two cases involving 14-year-old girls with uncommon presentations of terra firma-forme dermatosis. One case involved an upper extremity and the other presented with a history of knee brace occlusion. After diagnosis, both patients were successfully treated with weekly isopropyl alcohol applications.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. The possible effects of the natural and induced space environment on the optical and thermal properties of EOS surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Heppner, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Space missions, including that of EOS (Earth Observing System), will continue to be subjected to both the natural and induced space environment. The concerns associated with this fact will not go away. The NASA and DoD have recognized the need for long-life stability of materials and structures to the space environment. The major areas of interest include: thermal cycling, UV degradation, space radiation exposure, orbital debris, atomic oxygen erosion, and contamination control. Having flown a number of space environmental effects monitors, SAIC has developed both a data base to understand the magnitude of this problem and mitigation techniques to reduce the impact.

  14. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Developer derating policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciel, Roberto M.

    1994-01-01

    The derating requirements/factors tabulated in Appendix B of the Goddard Space Flight Center Preferred Parts List (GSFC PPL) and Appendix A of MIL-STD-975 (NASA Standard Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts List) should be used. Where differences occur, the PPL derating factors should have precedence over the derating factors of MIL-STD-975. When a derating factor is not provided in either the PPL or MIL-STD-975, the GSFC EOS Parts Branch Specialist should be consulted. In addition, the Performance Assurance Requirement (PAR) stipulates that all piece parts shall function at or above twice the expected ionizing radiation dose.

  15. CERNBox + EOS: end-user storage for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Gonzalez Labrador, H.; Lamanna, M.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ

    2015-12-01

    CERNBox is a cloud synchronisation service for end-users: it allows syncing and sharing files on all major mobile and desktop platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOSX, Android, iOS) aiming to provide offline availability to any data stored in the CERN EOS infrastructure. The successful beta phase of the service confirmed the high demand in the community for an easily accessible cloud storage solution such as CERNBox. Integration of the CERNBox service with the EOS storage back-end is the next step towards providing “sync and share” capabilities for scientific and engineering use-cases. In this report we will present lessons learnt in offering the CERNBox service, key technical aspects of CERNBox/EOS integration and new, emerging usage possibilities. The latter includes the ongoing integration of “sync and share” capabilities with the LHC data analysis tools and transfer services.

  16. Quantitative interaction screen of telomeric repeat-containing RNA reveals novel TERRA regulators.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Marion; Arnoult, Nausica; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Decottignies, Anabelle; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are actively transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which has been implicated in the regulation of telomere length and heterochromatin formation. Here, we applied quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to obtain a high-confidence interactome of TERRA. Using SILAC-labeled nuclear cell lysates in an RNA pull-down experiment and two different salt conditions, we distinguished 115 proteins binding specifically to TERRA out of a large set of background binders. While TERRA binders identified in two previous studies showed little overlap, using quantitative mass spectrometry we obtained many candidates reported in these two studies. To test whether novel candidates found here are involved in TERRA regulation, we performed an esiRNA-based interference analysis for 15 of them. Knockdown of 10 genes encoding candidate proteins significantly affected total cellular levels of TERRA, and RNAi of five candidates perturbed TERRA recruitment to telomeres. Notably, depletion of SRRT/ARS2, involved in miRNA processing, up-regulated both total and telomere-bound TERRA. Conversely, knockdown of MORF4L2, a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, reduced TERRA levels both globally and for telomere-bound TERRA. We thus identified new proteins involved in the homeostasis and telomeric abundance of TERRA, extending our knowledge of TERRA regulation.

  17. Knobby terrain in Northern Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Arabia Terra near 44o N, 322o W (38o E). Knobby or 'scabby' plains units that mantle and modify a pre-existing cratered surface dominate the unusual landscape in this region. Several large (5-8 km diameter) impact craters seen in the upper left of the image have been extensively modified since their initial formation. The rims of these craters can still be seen, but the ejecta deposits and the surrounding plains have been buried by a layer of material. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. Circular depressions of all sizes, presumably the remnants of impact craters, are filled with smooth deposits. In some places large regions have been covered by this smooth material; an example can be seen in the lower right portion of this image. In many cases the impact craters have been extensively modified prior to their being filled. This modification indicates an erosion process that has removed material from the walls to produce shapes that vary from circular with crisp rims, to circular with no rims, to oblong and elliptical forms, and finally to irregular shapes whose initial circular outline can barely be detected. The slope of the channel at the top of the image has an unusual deposit of material that occurs preferentially on the cold, north-facing slope. Similar deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes on Mars, and have a characteristic, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the cold north-facing slopes. The presence and removal of ground ice may play an important role in the formation of this layer, as well as the knobby terrain and unusual features seen in this image. The StoryThere's no way these impact craters are in their original

  18. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  19. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  20. Report of the EOS oceans panel to the payload panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Freilich, Michael H.

    1992-11-01

    The atmosphere and the ocean are the two great fluids of the earth system. Changes in the coupling of these two fluids will have a profound impact on the Earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. Although changes in atmospheric composition and dynamics are the usual focus of global climate models, it is apparent that the ocean plays a critical role in modulating the magnitude and rate of these changes. The ocean is responsible for nearly half of the poleward heat flux as well as for a significant portion of the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the processes governing the flux of materials and energy between the ocean atmosphere are poorly understood. Such processes include not only physical and chemical dynamics, but also biological processes which act to modify the chemical composition of the ocean as well as the trapping of solar energy as heat in the upper water column. Thus it is essential that the ocean be studied as a complete system of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Overlapping measurements must be made for at least 10-15 years to resolve critical low frequency fluctuations. The present EOS plan relies heavily on non-EOS entities to provide critical data sets for ocean studies. Although such partnerships are usually beneficial, there are risks that must be considered in terms of data coverage, quality, resolution, and availability. A simple replacement of an EOS sensor with a non-EOS sensor based on the fact that they both measure the same quantities will not guarantee that critical measurements will be made to address IPCC priorities in the area of ocean processes. EOS must continue to pursue appropriate methods to ensure that such partner — provided measurements meet scientific requirements. Such methods are analogous to contigencies applied in the area of schedules, cost, and performance for instrument projects. EOS must foster strong ties between US scientists and their foreign counterparts, in order to develop

  1. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  2. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  3. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-08-18

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions.

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  5. Telomeric Repeat Containing RNA (TERRA): Aging and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Shukla, Samriddhi; Khan, Sajid; Farhan, Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat containing RNAs (TERRA) are small RNA molecules synthesized from telomeric regions which were previously considered as silent genomic domains. In normal cells, these RNAs are transcribed in a direction from subtelomeric region towards the chromosome ends, but in case of cancer cells, their expression remains limited or absent. Telomerase is a rate limiting enzyme for cellular senescence, cancer and aging. Most of the studies deal with the manipulation of telomerase enzyme in cancer and aging either by synthetic oligonucleotide or by natural phytochemicals. Here, we collected evidences and discussed intensely about the bio-molecular structure of TERRA, naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, and their genetic and epigenetic regulations in aging associated diseases. Due to their capability to act as naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, these RNAs can overcome the limitations possessed by synthetic oligonucleotides, which are aimed against telomerase. Drugs specifically targeting TERRA molecules could modulate telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening. Thus, targeting TERRA-mediated regulation of telomerase would be a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer and age-associated diseases.

  6. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpler, L.S.; Head, J.W.

    1988-01-10

    Western Aphrodite Terra, Venus, is characterized by a series of parallel linear structural discontinuities 2000--4000 km in length and 100--200 km wide, which strike at high angles to the general topographic trend of the Aphrodite Terra highlands. The broad chracteristics of the cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs) are similar to both strike-slip fault zones and terrestrial oceanic fracture zones. In an effort to distinguish between these two hypotheses, topographic profiles were taken across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on Earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is observed within domains between linear discontinuities in directions generally parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. In addition, within a domain the centers of symmetry of several profiles define a linear rise crest that is oriented normal to the bounding CSDs and terminates against them.

  7. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Benczkowski, Matthew S; Green, Daryn E; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L; Onelangsy, Faith L; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A; Toner, Chelsea L; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  8. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  9. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  10. LP DAAC MEaSUREs Project Artifact Tracking Via the NASA Earthdata Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC that supports selected EOS Community non-standard data products such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED), and also supports NASA Earth Science programs such as Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. As described in The LP DAAC Project Lifecycle Plan (Daucsavage, J.; Bennett, S., 2014), key elements within the Project Inception Phase fuse knowledge between NASA stakeholders, data producers, and NASA data providers. To support and deliver excellence for NASA data stewardship, and to accommodate long-tail data preservation with Community and MEaSUREs products, the LP DAAC is utilizing NASA's own Earthdata Collaboration Environment to bridge stakeholder communication divides. By leveraging a NASA supported platform, this poster describes how the Atlassian Confluence software combined with a NASA URS/Earthdata support can maintain each project's members, status, documentation, and artifact checklist. Furthermore, this solution provides a gateway for project communities to become familiar with NASA clients, as well as educating the project's NASA DAAC Scientists for NASA client distribution.

  11. Terra@15, S'Cool@18: A Long-Running Student and Citizen Science Campaign for Validating Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    As Terra marks its 15th anniversary, the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project celebrates an 18 year milestone. S'COOL is the education and public outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, which has two instruments on Terra. It developed from an initial conversation between scientists and educators in December 1996 before the launch of the first CERES instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Since January 1997, S'COOL has engaged students and citizen scientists with this NASA research by inviting them to make ground truth observations of clouds and related Earth system parameters. Since the project began, more than 127,000 cloud observations have been reported from more than 70 countries around the world. While observations are accepted at any time, more than half of those reported correspond to a CERES satellite retrieval matched in time (+/-15 minutes) and space. Nearly 1% of the reports, from locations at higher latitudes, can be compared to both Terra and Aqua to shed light on view angle effects. More than 3% of observations are for Terra night-time overpasses. About 10% of reports are for locations with snow on the ground - an ongoing challenge for cloud detection from space. S'COOL draws very loyal and unique participants: a school in Pennsylvania alone has reported more than 11,000 observations (including more than 2,500 night-time reports for Terra). In Central and South America, 3 schools in Colombia and one in Nicaragua have each reported more than 2,500 observations. The addition of the S'COOL Rover program, added in 2007 to simplify participation for citizen scientists, enabled reports from the Around the Americas sailing ship that circumnavigated North and South America in 2009-10, Roz Savage, a UK woman who has rowed solo across all the world's oceans, and a few observations from the MAGIC campaign of instrumented cargo ships transiting from Long Beach to Hawaii. A middle

  12. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Locating outcrops of sedimentary rock on Mars is an important step toward deciphering the planet's geologic and climatologic record. Sedimentary rock representing the earliest martian environments, are of particular interest in this context. This is a report about a vast exposure of material proposed to be martian sedimentary rock. The outcrops cover an area (approximately sq 300,000 km) roughly the size of the Colorado Plateau in North America (approximately 260,000 sq km). The materials occur in northern Terra Meridiani, near of one of the four sites being considered for a 2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing. The landing ellipse, centered at deg S, deg W, lies in a region exhibiting smooth and rough (at meter scale) dark-toned surfaces, with scattered light-toned patches. Stratigraphically, the dark-toned materials at the MER site lie unconformably on top of a previously-eroded, light-toned surface; the light-toned patches in the landing ellipse are geologic windows down to this lower stratigraphic unit. North of the landing ellipse, the light-toned materials are well-exposed because the darker materials have been removed, stranding outlier remnants in a few locations. The light-toned materials are layered, vertically heterogeneous, and exhibit lateral continuity over hundreds of kilometers. Eroded layers produce cliffs; some outcrops are expressed as mesas, buttes, and spires; and impact craters ranging in diameter from a few meters to tens of kilometers are interbedded with the layers. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of greater than 6 years of photogeologic investigation into the nature of the light-toned outcrops of northern Terra Meridiani. The work is a 'snapshot' of progress made toward eventual geologic mapping and establishment of the stratigraphic sequence for the materials through 30 September 2002, a day prior to the first release of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to the NASA Planetary Data

  13. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  14. EOS Aura and Future Satellite Studies of the Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The EOS Aura mission, launched in 2004, provides a comprehensive assessment of the stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. This talk will focus on results from Aura including the chemistry of polar ozone depletion. The data from Aura can be directly linked to UARS data to produce long term trends in stratospheric trace gases.

  15. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  16. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  17. Potential commercial uses of EOS remote sensing products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Leslie L.

    1991-01-01

    The instrument complement of the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite system will generate data sets with potential interest to a variety of users who are now just beginning to develop geographic information systems tailored to their special applications and/or jurisdictions. Other users may be looking for a unique product that enhances competitive position. The generally distributed products from EOS will require additional value added processing to derive the unique products desired by specific users. Entrepreneurs have an opportunity to create these proprietary level 4 products from the EOS data sets. Specific instruments or collections of instruments could provide information for crop futures trading, mineral exploration, television and printed medium news products, regional and local government land management and planning, digital map directories, products for third world users, ocean fishing fleet probability of harvest forecasts, and other areas not even imagined at this time. The projected level 3 product are examined that will be available at launch from EOS instruments and commercial uses of the data after value added processing is estimated.

  18. Downlink Probability Density Functions for EOS-McMurdo Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, P.; Jackson, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The visibility times and communication link dynamics for the Earth Observations Satellite (EOS)-McMurdo Sound direct downlinks have been studied. The 16 day EOS periodicity may be shown with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and the entire 16 day period should be simulated for representative link statistics. We desire many attributes of the downlink, however, and a faster orbital determination method is desirable. We use the method of osculating elements for speed and accuracy in simulating the EOS orbit. The accuracy of the method of osculating elements is demonstrated by closely reproducing the observed 16 day Landsat periodicity. An autocorrelation function method is used to show the correlation spike at 16 days. The entire 16 day record of passes over McMurdo Sound is then used to generate statistics for innage time, outage time, elevation angle, antenna angle rates, and propagation loss. The levation angle probability density function is compared with 1967 analytic approximation which has been used for medium to high altitude satellites. One practical result of this comparison is seen to be the rare occurrence of zenith passes. The new result is functionally different than the earlier result, with a heavy emphasis on low elevation angles. EOS is one of a large class of sun synchronous satellites which may be downlinked to McMurdo Sound. We examine delay statistics for an entire group of sun synchronous satellites ranging from 400 km to 1000 km altitude. Outage probability density function results are presented three dimensionally.

  19. A Collaboration in Support of LBA Science and Data Exchange: Beija-flor and EOS-WEBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, A. L.; Gentry, M. J.; Keller, M.; Rhyne, T.; Moore, B.

    2001-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire (UNH) has developed a Web-based tool that makes data, information, products, and services concerning terrestrial ecological and hydrological processes available to the Earth Science community. Our WEB-based System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (EOS-WEBSTER) provides a GIS-oriented interface to select, subset, reformat and download three main types of data: selected NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) remotely sensed data products, results from a suite of ecosystem and hydrological models, and geographic reference data. The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Project (LBA) has implemented a search engine, Beija-flor, that provides a centralized access point to data sets acquired for and produced by LBA researchers. The metadata in the Beija-flor index describe the content of the data sets and contain links to data distributed around the world. The query system returns a list of data sets that meet the search criteria of the user. A common problem when a user of a system like Beija-flor wants data products located within another system is that users are required to re-specify information, such as spatial coordinates, in the other system. This poster describes methodology by which Beija-flor generates a unique URL containing the requested search parameters and passes the information to EOS-WEBSTER, thus making the interactive services and large diverse data holdings in EOS-WEBSTER directly available to Beija-flor users. This "Calling Card" is used by EOS-WEBSTER to generate on-demand custom products tailored to each Beija-flor request. Through a collaborative effort, we have demonstrated the ability to integrate project-specific search engines such as Beija-flor with the products and services of large data systems such as EOS-WEBSTER, to provide very specific information products with a minimal amount of additional programming. This methodology has the potential to greatly facilitate research data exchange by

  20. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  1. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

  2. NASA Science Data Processing for SNPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D. R.; Ho, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's ESDIS Project has been operating the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) since the launch in October 2011. The science data processing system includes a Science Data Depository and Distribution Element (SD3E) and five Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Elements (PEATEs): Land, Ocean, Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder. The SDS has been responsible for assessing Environmental Data Records (EDRs) for climate quality, providing and demonstrating algorithm improvements/enhancements and supporting the calibration/validation activities as well as instrument calibration and sensor table uploads for mission planning. The SNPP also flies two NASA instruments: OMPS Limb and CERES. The SNPP SDS has been responsible for producing, archiving and distributing the standard products for those instruments in close association with their NASA science teams. The PEATEs leveraged existing science data processing techniques developed under the EOSDIS Program. This enabled he PEATEs to do an excellent job in supporting Science Team analysis for SNPP. The SDS acquires data from three sources: NESDIS IDPS (Raw Data Records (RDRs)), GRAVITE (Retained Intermediate Products (RIPs)), and the NOAA/CLASS (higher level products). The SD3E component aggregates the RDRs, and distributes them to each of the PEATEs for further analysis and processing. It provides a ~32 day rolling storage of data, available for pickup by the PEATEs. The current system used by NASA will be presented along with plans for streamlining the system in support of continuing the NASA's EOS measurements.

  3. 221 Eos: A remnant of a partially differentiated parent body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    The asteroid 221 Eos (K class), has been traditionally associated to CO/CV meteorites (Bell 1988). This association is based solely on spectral similarities with meteorites, and previously the best spectral analog to Eos was found to be the CO3 Warrenton (Burbine et al. 2001). The 52-color spectrum (http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/) and the SMASSIR spectrum (Burbine and Binzel 2001) of 221 Eos in the NIR region, combined with the SMASSII spectrum (Bus and Binzel 2001) in the visible, has now been compared to the whole RELAB meteorites database (http://www.planetary.brown.edu/relab/rel_pub/) updated on July 31, 2003. This comparison revealed a better spectral analog to Eos: the anomalous stone Divnoe, a primitive achondrite meteorite. Problems and implications of such match for the composition of Eos and its dynamical family will be discussed. This work has been supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq/Brasil. References: Bell, J.F. 1988. A Probable Asteroidal Parent Body for the CV or CO Chondrites. Meteoritics 23, 256. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. Bus, S.J. and Clark, B.E. 2001. K asteroids and CO3/CV3 chondrites. Icarus 36, 245. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey in the Near-Infrared. Icarus 159, 468. Bus, S.J. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey: The Observations. Icarus 158, 106.

  4. NASA #801 and NASA 7 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA N801NA and NASA 7 together on the NASA Dryden ramp. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  5. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  6. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  7. NSF, NASA budgets approved by Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The final fiscal year 1991 appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation contained both good news and bad for geophysical research in the year ahead. On the positive side, the House/Senate conference committee report on H.R. 5158, the VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies appropriations bill, provided new start funding for NASA's Earth Observing System program, more than doubled the allocation for NASA's Earth Probes, and restored most of the requested funding for the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, which the Senate version of the bill had deleted.The Earth Observing System received $67 million and a separate budget line was created for the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS), which will be funded at $36 million this year. The Earth Probes received an additional $31 million to its $25 million request, and the CRAF/Cassini project received $145 million, $3 million less than its full request.

  8. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group.

  10. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Thirumazhisai; Prabhakar, Gautham; Schwartz, Alan; Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep; Berman, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  12. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  13. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea-Ice Validation Program: Arctic2006 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a coordinated Arctic sea-ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was the second Alaskan Arctic field campaign for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea-ice products. The first campaign was completed in March 2003. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese Space Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea-ice products to be validated include sea-ice concentration, sea-ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The focus of this campaign was on the validation of snow depth on sea ice and sea-ice temperature. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the six flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements.

  14. NASA Earth Science Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center was established in the early 1990s to develop and maintain a core collection of NASA’s critical earth science data. Its mission was to provide an archive and distribution system for the huge volume of data and products from the major EOS missions. We have encountered and addressed engineering, scientific and organizational challenges that show stewardship is more than preserving the bits. Engineering - including petabyte scale archives that appeared daunting when we got started, but not so anymore, thanks to advances in hardware and information systems technology. Scientific - having knowledgeable people familiar with data being archived responsible for data in their respective disciplines; understanding what needs to be preserved; defining appropriate metadata; preserving usability; determining active research period vs. “inactive” preservation for potential future use, and the value of peer review processes. Organizational - setting up DAACs, getting them to work together, interoperability, enforcing standards and the producer’s point view as well as the end users’ point of view. This presentation will highlight organizational and technical aspects of being good data stewards for the data and information from the EOS missions. A timeline of key events, activities and accomplishments illustrate the fundamental elements of Earth science data stewardship over the course of the 15 year program. These range from the backup of raw instrument datasets at the onset to extending a common data model across a broad and diverse Earth science community. The relative advantages of standard and unique data formats, standard and extended metadata and data representation, and documentation continue to be specific to each Earth science discipline community practices. Best practices for sizing and technology refresh vary by data center but have application in planning future

  15. Working at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the author's educational and work background prior to working at NASA. It then presents an overview of NASA Dryden, a brief review of the author's projects while working at NASA, and some closing thoughts.

  16. NASA - Beyond Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Courtenay

    2016-01-01

    NASA is able to achieve human spaceflight goals in partnership with international and commercial teams by establishing common goals and building connections. Presentation includes photographs from NASA missions - on orbit, in Mission Control, and at other NASA facilities.

  17. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  18. EO-199, a specific antagonist of antiarrhythmic drugs: Assessment by binding experiments and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, E.; Harel, G.; Lipinsky, D.; Sarne, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    EO-199, a demethylated analog of the novel class I antiarrhythmic drug EO-122 was found to antagonize the antiarrhythmic activity of EO-122 and that of procainamide (Class I{sub A}). EO-199 did not block significantly the activity of a class I{sub B} antiarrhythmic agent, lidocaine. EO-199 also displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)EO-122 to rate heart membranes similarly to procainamide whereas lidocaine did not. The correlation between binding experiments and pharmacological effects points to a possible subclassification of these drugs; the two chemical analogs EO-199 and EO-122, as well as procainamide (I{sub A}) but not lidocaine (I{sub B}), compete at the same site or the same state of the sodium channel. The availability of a specific antagonist might be useful for studying the mechanism of action of antiarrhythmic drugs as well as an antidote in cases of antiarrhythmics overdose intoxication.

  19. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  20. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  1. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  2. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  3. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  4. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  5. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  6. Use of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite for the Namibia SensorWeb Flood Early Warning Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Handy, Matthew; Policelli, Fritz; Katjizeu, McCloud; Van Langenhove, Guido; Aube, Guy; Saulnier, Jean-Francois; Sohlberg, Rob; Silva, Julie; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Ungar, Stephen; Grossman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, it was used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. Disasters are the perfect arena to use SensorWebs. One SensorWeb pilot project that has been active since 2009 is the Namibia Early Flood Warning SensorWeb pilot project. The Pilot Project was established under the auspices of the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF)/Department of Water Affairs, the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS)/Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) and moderated by the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). The effort began by identifying and prototyping technologies which enabled the rapid gathering and dissemination of both space-based and ground sensor data and data products for the purpose of flood disaster management and water-borne disease management. This was followed by an international collaboration to build small portions of the identified system which was prototyped during that past few years during the flood seasons which occurred in the February through May timeframe of 2010 and 2011 with further prototyping to occur in 2012. The SensorWeb system features EO-1 data along with other data sets from such satellites as Radarsat, Terra and Aqua. Finally, the SensorWeb team also began to examine the socioeconomic component to determine the impact of the SensorWeb technology and how best to assist in the infusion of this technology in lesser affluent areas with low levels of basic

  7. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  8. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  9. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kaitlyn C.; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E.; Burnet, George; Conover, David H.; D’Incau, Gina M.; Ghobrial, Jonathan A.; Jonas, Audrey L.; Migdal, Emily J.; Rote, Nicole L.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  10. Eastern Ishtar Terra: Tectonic evolution derived from recognized features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses have recognized several styles and orientations of compressional deformation, crustal convergence, and crustal thickening in Eastern Ishtar Terra. An east to west sense of crustal convergence through small scale folding, thrusting, and buckling is reflected in the high topography and ridge-and-valley morphology of Maxwell Montes and the adjacent portion of Fortuna Tessera. This east to west convergence was accompanied by up to 1000 km of lateral motion and large scale strike-slip faulting within two converging shear zones which has resulted in the present morphology of Maxwell Montes. A more northeast to southwest sense of convergence through large scale buckling and imbrication is reflected in large, northwest-trending scarps along the entire northern boundary of Ishtar Terra, with up to 2 km of relief present at many of the scarps. It was previously suggested that both styles of compression have occurred at the expense of pre-existing tessera regions which have then been overprinted by the latest convergence event. The difference in style is attributed mostly to differences in the properties of the crust converging with the tessera blocks. If one, presumably thick, tessera block converges with another tessera region, then the widespread, distributed style of deformation occurs, as observed in western Fortuna Tessera. However, if relatively thin crust (such as suggested for the North Polar Plains converges with thicker tessera regions, then localized deformation occurs, as reflected in the scarps along Northern Ishtar Terra. The purpose is to identify the types of features observed in Eastern Ishtar Terra. Their potential temporal and spatial relationships, is described, possible origins for them is suggested, and how the interpretation of some of these features has led to the multiple-style tectonic evolution model described is shown.

  11. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  12. MISR Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-03-17

    ... into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, on December 18, 1999. MISR ... are designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's environment and climate. Viewing the sunlit Earth simultaneously at nine ...

  13. Total Column NO2 from the OMI Instrument on EOS Aura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Celarier, E.; de Haan, J. F.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    OMI-EOS is a Dutch-Finnish nadir pointing spaceborne imaging spectrometer that will fly on NASA's Aura Mission, which is part of the Earth Observation System (EOS). OMI measures the reflected solar radiation in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum between 270 and 500 nm, using two channels with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI data products include ozone columns and profiles, aerosols, clouds, surface UV irradiance, and the trace gases NO_2, SO_2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. Total column NO_2 will be measured using data from the visible channel, range, 365 - 500 nm; resolution, 0.63 nm; sampling, 0.21 nm/pixel. The NO_2 algorithm will compute vertical column densities (VCD) from spectrally fitted NO_2 slant column densities (SCD). The method to determine NO_2 slant column densities is Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), which uses a linear decomposition of a measured Earth reflectance spectrum into its component spectra, including NO_2, O_3, O_2-O_2, H_2O, Ring and a third order polynomial. Calculation of the air mass factor in regions of enhanced tropospheric NO_2 will be accomplished by designating two components of the column density: an unpolluted component, which includes stratospheric and free tropospheric NO_2, and a polluted component, containing boundary layer NO_2. The two parts will be separated through spatial filtering of the geographic NO_2 field. Polluted NO_2 is assumed to show the greatest small-scale variation and will be isolated and corrected for air mass factor and temperature.

  14. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  15. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  16. 76 FR 10526 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    .... Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: February 18... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O....

  17. 76 FR 34177 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... made available to the public on http://dolregs.ideascale.com . Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: June 7, 2011. e. christi cunningham... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor....

  18. 76 FR 18104 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. William E. Spriggs...: The comment period for the Request for Information published on March 21, 2011, at 76 FR 15224, is... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor....

  19. 76 FR 40645 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. David J. Hayes, Deputy Secretary. BILLING CODE 4310-10-P ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O....

  20. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Definition Phase Report, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    System definition studies were conducted of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS). The studies show that the concept of an Earth Observatory Satellite in a near-earth, sun-synchronous orbit would make a unique contribution to the goals of a coordinated program for acquisition of data for environmental research with applications to earth resource inventory and management. The technical details for the proposed development of sensors, spacecraft, and a ground data processing system are presented.

  1. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  2. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  3. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem formore » sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.« less

  4. EOS calculations for hydrothermal diamond anvil cell operation.

    PubMed

    Presser, Volker; Heiss, Martin; Nickel, Klaus G

    2008-08-01

    The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) is an excellent tool for high-temperature, high-pressure (hydrothermal) experiments. For an accurate determination of pressure induced by a certain temperature in an isochoric sample chamber volume, an equation of state (EOS) of water can be used instead of direct measurement. This paper reviews the theoretic background and provides all needed equations for the application of EOS of water to HDAC experiments summarizing state-of-the-art knowledge and incorporating up-to-date thermodynamic data. The p-T conditions determined using the IAPWS-95 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water are in agreement with values obtained from direct methods or other established EOS formulations. In particular, (1) the calculation of density through the (a) melting point or (b) homogenization method along with determining (2) pressure as a function of density and temperature or (3) density as a function of pressure and temperature is explained. As a new aspect in the context of HDAC operations, the critical influence of nucleation and a strategy to overcome this problem are discussed. Furthermore, we have derived new polynomial equations, which allow the direct calculation of the fluid phase's density from the melting temperature. These are implemented in a spreadsheet program, which is freely available for interested users. PMID:19044377

  5. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem for sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.

  6. Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.

  7. Eos is out of this world—literally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2011-07-01

    When the space shuttle Endeavour launched on its 25th and final flight, AGU member and astronaut Andrew J. Feustel took with him a special bit of cargo: an issue of Eos. The accompanying photograph with the image of Eos, taken on 23 May 2011, shows the 15 February issue of Eos floating in front of one of the International Space Station windows. Below and left of the issue is the wing of Endeavour; also visible is the radiator panel on the shuttle's payload bay door. The thin blue line to the right of the issue is Earth's atmosphere. The STS-134 mission, the second to last space shuttle mission, launched on 16 May and returned to Earth on 1 June. It delivered the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (a particle physics experiment module) to the International Space Station along with two communications antennas, a high-pressure gas tank, and parts for the two-armed Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre) robot. The final shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on 8 July.

  8. Development of a PPT for the EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Meckel, Nicole J.

    2000-01-01

    A Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) has been developed for use in a technology demonstration flight experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) New Millennium Program mission. The thruster replaces the spacecraft pitch axis momentum wheel for control and momentum management during an experiment of a minimum three-day duration. The EO-1 PPT configuration is a combination of new technology and design heritage from similar systems flown in the 1970's and 1980's. Acceptance testing of the protoflight unit has validated readiness for flight, and integration with the spacecraft, including initial combined testing, has been completed. The thruster provides a range of capability from 90 microN-sec impulse bit at 650 sec specific impulse for 12 W input power, through 860 microN-sec impulse bit at 1400 see specific impulse for 70 W input power. Development of this thruster reinitiates technology research and development and re-establishes an industry base for production of flight hardware. This paper reviews the EO-1 PPT development, including technology selection, design and fabrication, acceptance testing, and initial spacecraft integration and test.

  9. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  10. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Measuring the Body Temperature of the Intertidal Mussel Species, Mytilus californianus using NASA MODIS Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is an ecologically important species in the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific coast. During low tides, times of emersion, Mytilus californianus is exposed to aerial conditions and its body temperature can vary drastically depending on the amount of solar radiation they experience. Thermal stress from high temperatures during emersion sometimes can lead to mortality of individuals. Conversely, during high tides, times of submersion, body temperatures depend on the temperature of the water that surrounds them. This study used remotely sensed surface temperature observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra to predict the body temperatures of Mytilus californianus. Mussel body temperatures were provided by the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and de-tided. This technique divided the mussel body temperatures into times of emersion and times of submersion. During times of emersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LST) and in-situ air temperatures. During times of submersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SST) and in-situ water temperatures. To identify spatial variation in temperatures, eight different study sites ranging in latitude along the coast of Oregon were analyzed. Additionally, to better understand the temporal variation in temperatures, fourteen years (2000-2013) were analyzed for each study site. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass and Terra overpass were strongly correlated with mussel body temperatures but varied by study site. Our results show that remotely sensed temperature could predict average daily mussel temperature within 1°C on average during times of submersion. Being able to use remotely sensed surface temperatures to predict the body

  11. Remotely Sensed and In Situ Data Availability for Validation of EOS Land Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J.; Morisette, J.

    2003-12-01

    In support of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Land Product Validation investigations, numerous remotely sensed data and field measurements are being collected at core validation sites around the world. These `core sites' represent different biomes and include locations at which in situ measurements are routinely collected. The types of remotely sensed data that are being acquired and analyzed over these sites include Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, MODIS, and SPOT VEGETATION. The data being collected over these sites are being used to monitor ecosystem status, compile time-series records of biophysical and geophysical parameters, and to validate the suite of land products being derived from MODIS data. In order to facilitate easy access to the remotely sensed data being collected over these core sites, the data are stored online under FTP directories established by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the USGS EROS Data Center. In situ measurements and data collected through field campaigns are being coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) and being made accessible through the Mercury system, which is a web-based search engine (http://mercury.ornl.gov/ornldaac/). Access to many of the remotely sensed and in situ data sets collected over the EOS Land Validation `core sites' can be accessed through Mercury or the MODIS Land Validation web page (http://modarch.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/LAND/VAL/). We are hoping to stimulate interest and participation by the Validation of Land European Remote Sensing Instruments (VALERI, http://147.100.0.5/valeri//) to extend the network and diversity of sites as well as increase collaborative research. We have developed a web portal that enables investigators to select a particular site of interest, determine what data are available for that site, and select datasets for ftp download. Certain services may be requested to be applied to the data prior to download

  12. Initial Scientific Assessment of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Crucial to the success of the Earth Observing System (Eos) is the Eos Data and Information System (EosDIS). The goals of Eos depend not only on its instruments and science investigations, but also on how well EosDlS helps scientists integrate reliable, large-scale data sets of geophysical and biological measurements made from Eos data, and on how successfully Eos scientists interact with other investigations in Earth System Science. Current progress in the use of remote sensing for science is hampered by requirements that the scientist understand in detail the instrument, the electromagnetic properties of the surface, and a suite of arcane tape formats, and by the immaturity of some of the techniques for estimating geophysical and biological variables from remote sensing data. These shortcomings must be transcended if remote sensing data are to be used by a much wider population of scientists who study environmental change at regional and global scales.

  13. Estimating different eruptive style volcanic areas of Mars from NASA Martian Meteorites Compendium data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Nicola; Verrino, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    The geomorphological characteristics of the Martian surface suggest that both effusive and explosive eruptive behaviour occurred. We investigated whether data about magma viscosity could be extrapolated from Mars SNCs (Shergotty, Nakhla, and Chassigny classes) meteorites, by using available geochemical and petrographic data from the NASA Martian Meteorites Compendium. Viscosity was used to characterize how eruptive style could change in different volcanic regions of planet Mars. Data about composition and crystallinity of 41 SNCs meteorites were used and classified, avoiding meteorites with poor/incomplete database. We assumed Mars as a one-plate planet, fO2 = QFM, and H2O wt% = 0 for each sample. Collected data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) identified the source regions for almost all the studied SNCs meteorites. As input for thermodynamic simulations we first needed to find the depth and pressure of the magmatic source for each meteorite sample through available Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Data about average surface temperatures was used to establish whether a magmatic source is shallow or deep. Successively, we found the magma source depth (and pressure) by using the relationship with the heights of the volcanic edifice. The subsolidus equilibration temperatures found through petrologic softwares were used to calculate viscosity. Results indicate a crystallization temperature in a range from 1,120°C to 843°C, follow by a variation in viscosity from 101,43 to 105,97 Pa s. Viscosity seems to be higher in Tharsis, Elysium, Amazonis, and Syrtis Major regions than the remnant areas. According to past experimental studies about magma viscosity, we classified the eruptive style into effusive (101-103,5 Pa s), intermediate (103,5-104,5 Pa s), and explosive (104,5-106 Pa s). The Hellas Basin, Argyre Basin, Ganges Chasma, Eos Chasma, and Nili Fossae regions show an eruptive behaviour between effusive and intermediate

  14. The extremely faint quiescent NS SXT 1H 1905+00: constrainst on the NS EoS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Peter G.

    Observations of black hole and neutron star Soft X-ray Transients (SXTs) with Chandra and XMM-Newton turned out to have a profound impact on two important areas of high energy astrophysics. First of all, comparing the quiescent luminosity of neutron star SXTs with that of black hole SXTs it was found that black hole (BH) SXTs are systematically fainter in quiescence than neutron stars (e.g. Narayan, Garcia, & McClintock 1997, Garcia et al. 2001). This has been interpreted as evidence for advection of energy across a BH event horizon. Despite many objections to this interpretation, alternative explanations for the difference in quiescent luminosity, and neutron stars which turned out to be fainter than initially found to be rule, none of the neutron star SXTs is as faint as the BH SXT A 0620-00 in quiescence. Secondly, in observations of neutron star SXTs in quiescence which allow for a spectral study, the spectrum was found to be well-fit by a neutron star atmosphere model (NSA) sometimes supplemented with a power-law component. Well established theories about the time averaged mass accretion rates in neutron star SXTs, the pycnonuclear reactions taking place in the neutron star crust combined with neutron star cooling theory predictions, yield a neutron star core temperature. This hot neutron star core, moderated by the neutron star atmosphere, is thought to be observed during the quiescent phase of neutron star SXTs. In theory, a NSA-fit provides means to measure the mass and radius of the neutron star and hence constrain the equation of state (EoS) of matter at supranuclear densities. The description of the relations between pressure and density of matter (the EoS) under the extreme conditions encountered in neutron stars is one of the ultimate goals of the study of neutron stars. We recently observed the neutron star SXT 1H1905+000 in quiescence with ACIS-S. However, the source was not detected even though the distance and interstellar extinction are well known

  15. Terra and Aqua moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer collection 6 level 1B algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, Gary; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian N.; Geng, Xu; Kuyper, James; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng

    2013-01-01

    The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was launched on the Terra spacecraft on Dec.18, 1999 and on Aquaon May 4, 2002. The data acquired by these instruments have contributed to the long-term climate data record for more than a decade and represent a key component of NASA's Earth observing system. Each MODIS instrument observes nearly the whole Earth each day, enabling the scientific characterization of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) algorithms input uncalibrated geo-located observations and convert instrument response into calibrated reflectance and radiance, which are used to generate science data products. The instrument characterization needed to run the L1B code is currently implemented using time-dependent lookup tables. The MODIS characterization support team, working closely with the MODIS Science Team, has improved the product quality with each data reprocessing. We provide an overview of the new L1B algorithm release, designated collection 6. Recent improvements made as a consequence of on-orbit calibration, on-orbit analyses, and operational considerations are described. Instrument performance and the expected impact of L1B changes on the collection 6 L1B products are discussed.

  16. Venus surface views provided by Magellan probe's radar data and NASA's JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Venus surface views provided by Magellan probe's radar data and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), 01/25/91. JPL photo caption information describes the imagery as follows: Three-dimensional perspective view of the southern scarp and basin province of western Ishtar Terra in the northern hemisphere of Venus (27672 alternate JPL number (P-37431)). False-color view of the volcano Sif Mons made by superimposing Magellan radar image data on altimetry data (27673 alternate JPL number (P-37342)).

  17. AIRS Data Distribution at NASA GES DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J. C.; Cho, S.; Li, J. Y.; Phelps, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data product suite is now available at the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (atmdyn-dst@daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) is providing user services to help with understanding, accessing and utilizing AIRS data. These services include assistance with product ordering and distribution, access to online technical documentation and HDF-EOS format information, development of online data analysis tools, data mining, and educational resources. The AIRS data is available via the DAAC Search and Order interface (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/), the EOS Data Gateway (http://eos.nasa.gov/imswelcome/) or the EOS Core System Datapool (ftp://g0dps01u.ecs.nasa.gov/). The AIRS data support website is located at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/. AIRS data products are a combination of AIRS, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) measurements. Global coverage by the instruments is obtained twice daily (day and night) and the data along the orbit is processed into 6-minute granules. AIRS alone has 2,378 channels measuring in the infrared range 3.74-15.4 mm and four channels measuring in the visible/near-infrared range 0.4-1.1mm. A web-based AIRS data subsetter is among the tools available to perform channel subsetting for geolocated calibrated radiances (Level 1B) as well as variable subsetting for atmospheric final retrievals (Level 2). Also useful is AIRS QuickLook, a data visualization application which allows users to view AIRS Level 1B data online for a specific channel prior to ordering or downloading data. Global map is also provided along with image to show geographic coverage of the granule and flight direction of the Aqua spacecraft. AIRS Level 1B data was released in March 2003 and Level 2 products are available May 2003.

  18. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  19. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A: EOS program WBS dictionary. Appendix B: EOS mission functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is defined. The various elements of the EOS program are examined to include the aggregate of hardware, computer software, services, and data required to develop, produce, test, support, and operate the space vehicle and the companion ground data management system. A functional analysis of the EOS mission is developed. The operations for three typical EOS missions, Delta, Titan, and Shuttle launched are considered. The functions were determined for the top program elements, and the mission operations, function 2.0, was expanded to level one functions. Selection of ten level one functions for further analysis to level two and three functions were based on concern for the EOS operations and associated interfaces.

  20. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  1. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  2. Development of graphene based detectors for EO/ IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Lund, Isaac; Zeller, John W.; Puri, Yash R.; Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Dhar, Nibir K.; Lewis, Jay; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal

    2016-05-01

    Graphene has amazing abilities due to its unique band structure characteristics defining its enhanced electrical capabilities for a material with the highest characteristic mobility known to exist at room temperature. The high mobility of graphene occurs due to electron delocalization and weak electron phonon interaction making graphene an ideal material for electrical applications requiring high mobility and fast response times. In this paper, we are going to focus on the benefits along with some of the limitations with using graphene in infrared (IR) devices, electro-optic (EO) devices, and field effect transistors (FET) for radio frequency (RF) applications.

  3. EOS radiometer concepts for soil moisture remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, J.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work with aperture synthesis concepts for EOS is reported. The effects of nonvanishing bandwidths on image reconstruction in aperture synthesis system was studied. It is found that nonvanishing bandwidths introduce errors in off-axis pixels when naive Fourier processing is used. The net effect is for bandwidth to limit sensor field-of-view. To quantify this effect a computer program was written which is documented. Example runs are included which illustrate the resultant radiometric errors and effective fields-of-view for a plausible simple sensor.

  4. AIRS Data Support at NASA Goddard Earth Science DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Qin, J.; Sharma, A.

    2002-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is selected by NASA to fly on the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar orbiting platform, EOS Aqua, which is launched in April 2002. AIRS, together with Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), is designed to meet the requirements of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise climate research program and the NOAA operational weather forecasting The data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB will be archived and distributed at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) located in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DAAC) in later 2002. This new dataset consists of radiances, geo-locations and atmospheric products, such as, temperature, humidity, cloud and ozone, providing measurements for temperature at an accuracy of 1 o C in layers 1 km thick and humidity with an accuracy of 20 % in layers 2 km thick in the troposphere. The data will be freely available via WWW interfaces, or an FTP containing subsetted and reformatted data products. The GES DISC DAAC Search and Order allows users to search for data by following particular paths down the hierarchy. This simple point-and- click navigational web interface shows temporal and spatial coverage, item size, description and browse images for AIRS data and one can customize search using spatial,temporal, attribute and parameter search. The EOS Data Gateway (EDG) is another user interface for searching and ordering the AIRS data together with other data products obtained from EOS instruments. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (ADDST) at the GES DISC/DAAC will provide various services to assist users in understanding, accessing, and using AIRS data product. The ADDST has been developing tools to read, visualize and analyze the AIRS data, channel/parameter subsetting of AIRS HDF-EOS data products and supplying documentation and readme et al. Other services provided by the ADDST will contain assistance

  5. Improving the Accessibility of EOS Data Products for Consumption by GIS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, C. P.; Tisdale, B.; Mathews, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The content and format of ASDC data products are defined by their respective Science Teams, stretching back over the past 25 years. Many of these data models are ancient are difficult to consume with mother geospatial tools. Specifically, these tools are, in some cases, unable to read the files and/or unable to interpret properly the data organization inside them so they cannot be visualized or analyzed. This problem extends to other data products held by the various NASA data centers. A solution that can apply to all these data products across NASA data centers would be valuable. GDAL is an open source library used by many GIS software (e.g. ArcGIS and QGIS) to access EOS data products. One possible approach to solve the interoperability problem on data access is to revise the data structure and interpretation interface from the GDAL-level. We will develop a plug-in framework based on GDAL to interpret the non-compliant data. The framework will contain data interpretation functions that are useful for solving the common problems across data products and the plug-ins (an XML file) will handle the product specific issues. With testing on multiple GIS software, we will propose a generic way to integrate the design framework into those software, ensuring the feasibility and flexibility of using our design. The framework would be an open-source package with sufficient stability and demonstration. This will allow the other data centers extend the framework and construct their own plug-ins to adjust more data products.

  6. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  7. Validation of On-board Cloud Cover Assessment Using EO-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Miller, Jerry; Griffin, Michael; Burke, Hsiao-hua

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Earth Science Technology Office funded effort was to flight validate an on-board cloud detection algorithm and to determine the performance that can be achieved with a Mongoose V flight computer. This validation was performed on the EO-1 satellite, which is operational, by uploading new flight code to perform the cloud detection. The algorithm was developed by MIT/Lincoln Lab and is based on the use of the Hyperion hyperspectral instrument using selected spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this technology at the beginning of the task was level 5 and was TRL 6 upon completion. In the final validation, an 8 second (0.75 Gbytes) Hyperion image was processed on-board and assessed for percentage cloud cover within 30 minutes. It was expected to take many hours and perhaps a day considering that the Mongoose V is only a 6-8 MIP machine in performance. To accomplish this test, the image taken had to have level 0 and level 1 processing performed on-board before the cloud algorithm was applied. For almost all of the ground test cases and all of the flight cases, the cloud assessment was within 5% of the correct value and in most cases within 1-2%.

  8. Regional scale net radiation estimation by means of Landsat and TERRA/AQUA imagery and GIS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.

    2009-04-01

    Net radiation (Rn) is one of the most important variables for the estimation of surface energy budget and is used for various applications including agricultural meteorology, climate monitoring and weather prediction. Moreover, net radiation is an essential input variable for potential as well as actual evapotranspiration modeling. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute net radiation at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a regional scale estimation of the daily Rn on clear days, (Catalonia, NE of the Iberian Peninsula), using a set of 22 Landsat images (17 Landsat-5 TM and 5 Landsat-7 ETM+) and 171 TERRA/AQUA images MODIS from 2000 to 2007 period. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected three different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily Rn: daily LST product, daily calibrated reflectances product and daily atmospheric water vapour product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Rn has been estimated through the

  9. Forest Species Differentiation and Mapping Using EO-1 Hyperion Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galidaki, G.; Gitas, I.; Katagis, T.

    2012-04-01

    This study addresses the problem of forest species differentiation and mapping using satellite EO-1 Hyperion imagery (30m, 196 bands). The study area is a part of the Greek island of Thassos which is covered with two conifer species, namely Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra. Two techniques were evaluated, namely Spectral Angle Mapper and Support Vector Machines while extensive field work provided reference data for the accuracy assessment of the maps produced by the classifications. Image preprocessing included the Cross Track Illumination Correction to account for the Smile effect, atmospheric correction using the FLAASH model and Lambertian topographic correction. The Minimum Noise Fraction transformation was used to separate the strong component of data noise and reduce data dimensionality. Both classification techniques, gave very promising results; SAM technique resulted in an overall accuracy (OA) of 94.3% and SVM technique yielded OA of 93.2%. This study showed that EO-1 Hyperion imagery can be used to differentiate and map the two main pine species, existing in Thassos.

  10. Love and Eos make the world go round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2012-02-01

    After 15 years of teaching environmental science, health, and safety at the College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma (not far from the Holocene Meers Fault), it was time for a change. I took a deep breath, gave up a tenured faculty position, and moved to Boulder, Colo., to work for a well-known geological society, where my office looked out on steep slabs of Pennsylvanian sandstone at the edge of the Rocky Mountains. Seven months later, I realized there was a new neighbor next door—literally on the other side of the wall of my condo. Remembering my Oklahoma manners, I went next door to welcome the new neighbor. Alan Nelson answered the door and was momentarily speechless when I introduced myself as Deborah Nelson. He quickly recovered and invited me in. We began one of those halting conversations that proceeded until I spied a copy of Eos on the coffee table. "You must be a geologist!" I proudly exclaimed, since I knew that Eos is the weekly publication of AGU. Once again, Alan, who is indeed a geologist, was at a loss for words—but with this happy discovery, the conversation was off and running.

  11. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  12. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  13. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  14. Mechanochemical properties of individual human telomeric RNA (TERRA) G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Yangyuoru, Philip M; Zhang, Amy Y Q; Shi, Zhe; Koirala, Deepak; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2013-10-11

    Potential functions: By following the unfolding and refolding of individual human RNA telomeric (TERRA) G-quadruplexes (GQs) in laser tweezers, the mechanical stability and transition kinetics of RNA GQs are obtained. Comparison between TERRA and DNA GQs suggests their different regulatory capacities for processes associated with human telomeres.

  15. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease. PMID:27351774

  16. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease.

  17. Identification of TERRA locus unveils a telomere protection role through association to nearly all chromosomes.

    PubMed

    López de Silanes, Isabel; Graña, Osvaldo; De Bonis, Maria Luigia; Dominguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Blasco, Maria A

    2014-09-03

    Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, that resemble TERRA in several key aspects. Those transcripts contain UUAGGG-repeats and are heterogeneous in size, fluctuate in abundance in a TERRA-like manner during the cell cycle, are bound by TERRA RNA-binding proteins and are regulated in a manner similar to TERRA in response to stress and the induction of pluripotency. These transcripts are also found to associate with nearly all chromosome ends and downregulation of the transcripts that originate from chromosome 18 causes a reduction in TERRA abundance. Interestingly, downregulation of either chromosome 18 transcripts or TERRA results in increased number of telomere dysfunction-induced foci, suggesting a protective role at telomeres.

  18. Two MODIS Aerosol Products Over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2004-01-01

    Over ocean, two aerosol products are reported on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSFs. Both are derived from MODIS, but using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. This study briefly summarizes these products, and compares using 2 weeks of global Terra data from 15-21 December 2000, and 1-7 June 2001.

  19. Seasonal Surface Spectral Emissivity Derived from Terra MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Young, DavidF.; Smith, William J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Project is measuring broadband shortwave and longwave radiances and deriving cloud properties form various images to produce a combined global radiation and cloud property data set. In this paper, simultaneous data from Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 11.0, and 12.0 m are used to derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of clear sky temperature in each channel determined by scene classification during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7- m radiances. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global monthly emissivity maps are derived from Terra MODIS data while numerical weather analyses provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These maps are used by CERES and other cloud retrieval algorithms.

  20. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  1. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  2. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  3. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  4. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  5. NASA Now: Rocket Engineering

    NASA Video Gallery

    What’s the difference between fission and fusion? What are the applications & benefits of nuclear power & propulsion at NASA? How can NASA gain nuclear energy’s benefits for space exploration? ...

  6. NASA Now: Balloon Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law a...

  7. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  8. The NASA Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook, effective 13 September 1994, documents the NASA organization, defines terms, and sets forth the policy and requirements for establishing, modifying, and documenting the NASA organizational structure and for assigning organizational responsibilities.

  9. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  10. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  11. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  12. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  13. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed embedded operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, R. B.; Grass, J.; Johnston, G.; Kenny, K.; Russo, V.

    1986-01-01

    The EOS project is investigating the design and construction of a family of real-time distributed embedded operating systems for reliable, distributed aerospace applications. Using the real-time programming techniques developed in co-operation with NASA in earlier research, the project staff is building a kernel for a multiple processor networked system. The first six months of the grant included a study of scheduling in an object-oriented system, the design philosophy of the kernel, and the architectural overview of the operating system. In this report, the operating system and kernel concepts are described. An environment for the experiments has been built and several of the key concepts of the system have been prototyped. The kernel and operating system is intended to support future experimental studies in multiprocessing, load-balancing, routing, software fault-tolerance, distributed data base design, and real-time processing.

  14. NASA fills key positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe has named Shannon Lucid, a NASA astronaut and veteran of five Space Shuttle flights, to serve as the agency's chief scientist. Lucid replaces Kathie Olsen, whom President Bush has said he intends to nominate as associate administrator for science in the White Office of Science and Technology Policy.President Bush also has announced his intention to nominate former NASA astronaut and Assistant Deputy Administrator Major General Charles F. Bolden as NASA Deputy Administrator.

  15. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA propagation studies objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite communication systems and services by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals through the intervening environment and to support NASA missions. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages unique NASA assets (currently Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through referred journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  16. The NASA Clinic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care

  17. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  18. NASA's educational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  19. SOT project cut from NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    About a decade ago, the solar physics community decided that its next major project should be the building of a Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) that would be flown on the space shuttle as a Spacelab payload. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) deemed the project “facility class instrumentation,” issued an announcement of opportunity, chose investigators, contractors, and a science working group, and began funding SOT planning efforts. After what one source involved with the project called “a long and lusty history,” SOT was cut out of the agency's budget request for fiscal year (FY) 1987, released last month (Eos, February 25, 1986, p. 95). The project may be revived, planners say, but in a scaled-down, renamed form.

  20. A European Collaborative EO Summer School for the Education of Undergraduate and Masters Level Students- FORMAT-EO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Remedios, John; Tramutoli, Valerio; Gil, Artur; Cuca, Branka

    2014-05-01

    An Erasmus intensive programme has been successfully funded to run a Europe-lead summer school in Earth Observation for the years 2013 and 2014. The summer school, FORMAT-EO (FORmation of Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Training in Earth Observation) has been proposed and implemented by a consortium of eight partner institutions from five European countries. The consortium was facilitated through the NEREUS network. In the summer of 2013, 21 students from seven European institutions took part in the two week intensive course which involved a total of 28 teachers from six institutions. Students were from a variety of backgrounds including aeronautical engineering MSc students and PhD students in the areas of marine biology, earthquake engineering and measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. The aims of FORMAT-EO were: To give students exposure to the wider applications of Earth Observation To highlight the interdisciplinary, collaborative and international nature of Earth Observation To offer an intensive course to better equip students with specialist skills required for a career in this field To provide expert advice on the development of careers in the EO market Partners were invited not only to recruit students for the course but to also teach at the school based on their specific area of expertise. This approach to the teaching provided a timetable which was wide-ranging and covered topics from EU policies for Earth Observation to fire detection from space and an introduction to interaction between radiation and matter. An important aspect of the course was the interactive nature of much of the teaching. A topic was introduced to the students through a lecture followed by an interactive tutorial providing students with hands-on experience of working with EO data and specialist software. The final days of the summer school were spent on group project work which required students to use all of the skills that they acquired during the course to challenge a

  1. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of realistic size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial conditions for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level conditions in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta

  2. NASA Pocket Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Pocket Statistics is published for the use of NASA managers and their staff. Included herein is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, and NASA Procurement, Financial, and Manpower data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  3. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  4. EOS--AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell. 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three. 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operatina at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements throuch the first 18

  5. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-l cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 13000 LEO cycles completed as of September 2, 1996. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 ampercs (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battely, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +3 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 13

  6. NASA Now: Microbes @ NASA: Early Earth Ecosystems

    NASA Video Gallery

    What may look like green slime growing on a pond is what scientists call a microbial mat! Why does NASA care about slime? Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communiti...

  7. NASA's Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's current education programs, which will be examined under its Strategic Plan for Education are presented. It is NASA's first goal to maintain this base - revising, expanding, or eliminating programs as necessary. Through NASA's second goal, new education reform initiatives will be added which specifically address NASA mission requirements, national educational reform, and Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) priorities. The chapters in this publication are divided by educational levels, with additional sections on programs to improve the technological competence of students and on an array of NASA published materials to supplement programs. The resource section lists NASA's national and regional Teacher Resource Centers and introduces the reader to NASA's Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), which distributes materials in audiovisual format.

  8. Technology's Role in NASA's Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

  9. Calibration for the SAGE III/EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    The calibration plan for the SAGE III instruments for maintaining instrument performance during the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission lifetime is described. The SAGE III calibration plan consists of detailed preflight and inflight calibration on the instrument performance together with the correlative measurement program to validate the data products from the inverted satellite measurements. Since the measurement technique is primarily solar/lunar occultation, the instrument will be self-calibrating by using the sun as the calibration source during the routine operation of the instrument in flight. The instrument is designed to perform radiometric calibration of throughput, spectral, and spatial response in flight during routine operation. Spectral calibration can be performed in-flight from observation of the solar Fraunhofer lines within the spectral region from 290 to 1030 nm wavelength.

  10. Efficient Spectral Endmember Detection Onboard the EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, Ben; Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel; Bue, Brian; Chien, Steve; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight and planetary exploration place severe constraints on the available bandwidth for downlinking large hyperspectral images. In addition, communications with spacecraft often occur intermittently, so mission-relevant hyperspectral data must wait for analysis on the ground before it can inform spacecraft activity planning. Onboard endmember detection can help alleviate these problems. It enables novelty detection and target identification for scheduling follow-up activities such as additional observation by narrow field of view instruments. Additionally, endmember analysis can facilitate data summary for downlink. This work describes a planned experiment of selective downlink by the EO-1 autonomous spacecraft. Here an efficient superpixel endmember detection algorithm keeps to the limited computational constraints of the flight processor. Tests suggest the procedure could enable significant improvements in downlink efficiency.

  11. The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Herring, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) designed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is designed to acquire images in 192 spectral bands simultaneously in the 0.4-2.5-micron wavelength region. HIRIS is a targeting rather than a continuous acquisition instrument and obtains high-spatial- and spectral-resolution images in a 30-km swath with a 30-m ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) in vertical viewing. Pointing will allow image acquisition at -30 to +60 deg along-track and +/-24 deg cross-track. The raw data rate of the instrument is 512 Mbs. The high spectral resolution will make it possible to identify many surficial materials such as rocks, soils, and suspended matter in water directly. HIRIS also offers the possibility of studying biochemical process in vegetation canopies.

  12. Terrestrial Environmental Variables Derived From EOS Platform Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Stephen J.; Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Goward, Samuel N.; Xue, Yongkang

    2001-01-01

    The three main objectives of the overall project were: 1. Adaptation of environmental constraint methods to take advantage of EOS sensors, specifically, MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7, in addition to the PM AVHRR observations 2. Refinement of environmental constraint methods based on fundamental scientific knowledge. 3. Assessment of spatial scaling patterns in environmental constraint measurements to evaluate the potential biases and errors that occur when estimating regional and global-scale NPP patterns with moderate to coarse satellite observations. These goals were modified because, on one hand, MODIS data did not become available until after the first year of the project and because of project staffing issues at the University of Maryland., The OSU portion of the project contained a modest amount of funding and responsibility compared to the University of Maryland and the University of Toledo.

  13. Naval target classification by fusion of IR and EO sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giompapa, S.; Croci, R.; Di Stefano, R.; Farina, A.; Gini, F.; Graziano, A.; Lapierre, F.

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the classification function of naval targets performed by an infrared camera (IR) and an electro-optical camera (EO) that operate in a more complex multisensor system for the surveillance of a coastal region. The following naval targets are considered: high speed dinghy, motor boat, fishing boat, oil tanker. Target classification is automatically performed by exploiting the knowledge of the sensor confusion matrix (CM). The CM is analytically computed as a function of the sensor noise features, the sensor resolution, and the dimension of the involved image database. For both the sensors, a database of images is generated exploiting a three-dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD) of the target, for the four types of ship mentioned above. For the EO camera, the image generation is simply obtained by the projection of the 3D CAD on the camera focal plane. For the IR images simulation, firstly the surface temperatures are computed using an Open-source Software for Modelling and Simulation of Infrared Signatures (OSMOSIS) that efficiently integrates the dependence of the emissivity upon the surface temperature, the wavelength, and the elevation angle. The software is applicable to realistic ship geometries. Secondly, these temperatures and the environment features are used to predict realistic IR images. The local decisions on the class are made using the elements of the confusion matrix of each sensor and they are fused according to a maximum likelihood (ML) rule. The global performance of the classification process is measured in terms of the global confusion matrix of the integrated system. This analytical approach can effectively reduce the computational load of a Monte Carlo simulation, when the sensors described here are introduced in a more complex multisensor system for the maritime surveillance.

  14. The origin of Phoxinus eos-neogaeus unisexual hybrids.

    PubMed

    Angers, Bernard; Schlosser, Isaac J

    2007-11-01

    Phoxinus eos-neogaeus unisexual hybrids (Cyprinidae, Pisces) are among the few vertebrate taxa known to reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. These taxa have a broad distribution in North America, mostly located in regions previously covered by the last Pleistocene ice sheet. To assess whether asexual hybrids dispersed from glacial refuges at the end of the Pleistocene or they originated from current hybridization events, genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and microsatellite loci was determined in populations from 16 different sites in the Mississippi-Missouri River (Nebraska and Montana), Rainy River-Hudson Bay (Minnesota), and St Lawrence River (Quebec) drainages. The maternal species (P. neogaeus) occurred in Minnesota and Nebraska but was absent from Montana sites and was restricted to only two of 11 lakes sampled in Quebec, although hybrids were present at all sites. The genetic survey revealed a total of 49 clones, originating from 14 hybridization events. Several of the lineages were characterized by mtDNA haplotypes not detected in the maternal ancestor. Lineages as well as clones frequently displayed a large geographical distribution at a regional scale. Dating of hybridization events suggested a relatively recent origin (<50,000 years ago) from the Mississippi glacial refuge, even in regions not covered by the last Pleistocene glacier. Altogether, these results indicate P. eos-neogaeus hybrids are not the result of current hybridization events, but display a pattern predicted by postglacial dispersal. Our findings have considerable implications for the nature of selection processes affecting the diversity of these asexual taxa and their coexistence with sexual ancestors.

  15. Karst rocky desertification information extraction with EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuemin; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Yu, Yizun

    2008-12-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a special kind of land desertification developed under violent human impacts on the vulnerable eco-geo-environment of karst ecosystem. The process of karst rocky desertification results in simultaneous and complex variations of many interrelated soil, rock and vegetation biogeophysical parameters, rendering it difficult to develop simple and robust remote sensing mapping and monitoring approaches. In this study, we aimed to use Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion hyperspectral data to extract the karst rocky desertification information. A spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach, was employed to quantify the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare substrates. The results showed that SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) portions of the spectrum were significantly different in PV, NPV and bare rock spectral properties. It has limitations in using full optical range or only SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) region of Hyperion to decompose image into PV, NPV and bare substrates covers. However, when use the tied-SWIR, the sub-pixel fractional covers of PV, NPV and bare substrates were accurately estimated. Our study indicates that the "tied-spectrum" method effectively accentuate the spectral characteristics of materials, while the spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach is a useful tool to automatically extract mixed ground objects in karst ecosystem. Karst rocky desertification information can be accurately extracted with EO-1 Hyperion. Imaging spectroscopy can provide a powerful methodology toward understanding the extent and spatial pattern of land degradation in karst ecosystem.

  16. Explanation of Change (EoC) Study: Approach and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitten, Robert E.; Emmons, Debra L.; Bordi, Francesco; Scolese, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated thirty historical NASA science missions to explain the cost change experienced. The study included investigation of historical milestone and monthly status report documentation followed by interviews with key project personnel. Based on the information collected, the reasons for cost change were binned, at the highest level, into four separate categories: NASA External, Project External, Internal Planning, and Internal Execution. The results identified that roughly a third of the change is outside of the project's control, a third is due to assumptions made in project planning, and a third is due to the inherent difficulty of building highly complex, one-of-a-kind, cutting edge, Earth and space science missions.

  17. Summary of Aqua, Aura, and Terra High Interest Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Single-obs tracking Sparsely tracked objects are an unfortunate reality of CARA operations Terra vs. 32081: new track with bad data was included in OD solution for secondary object and risk became high CARA and JSpOC discussed tracking and OSAs threw out the bad data. Event no longer presented high risk based on new OD Improvement: CARA now sends JSpOC a flag indicating when a single obs is included, so OSAs can evaluate if manual update to OD is required. Missing ASW OCMsAura vs. 87178, TCA: 317 at 08:04 UTC. Post-maneuver risk (conjunction was identified in OO results)CARA confirmed with JSpOC that ASW OCMs should have been received in addition to OO OCMsJSpOC corrected the manual error in their script that prevented the data from being delivered to CARAJSpOC QAd their other scripts to ensure this error did not exist in other places.

  18. Tests of crustal divergence models for Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of Aphrodite Terra, the highland region of Venus which is considered to be a likely site of mantle upwelling, active volcanism, and extensional tectonics, and examines the relation of these features to three alternative kinematic models for the interaction of mantle convection with the surface. These the 'vertical tectonics' model, in which little horizontal surface displacement results from mantle flow; the 'plate divergence' model, in which shear strain from large horizontal displacements is accommodated only in narrow zones of deformation; and the 'distributed deformation' model, in which strain from large horizontal motions is broadly accommodated. No convincing observational evidence was found to support the rigid-plate divergence, while the evidence of large-scale horizontal motions of Aphrodite argues against purely vertical tectonics. A model is proposed, involving a broad disruption of a thin lithosphere. In such a model, lineaments are considered to be surface manifestations of mantle convective flow.

  19. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance. PMID:19093802

  20. Atlantis basin, Sirenum Terrae, Mars: geological setting and astrobiological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2004-07-01

    The accomplishment of detailed geomorphological studies is a prerequisite for the location of regions in which the prevailing conditions in the past, or at present, may allow the development of possible life forms. The Atlantis basin, located in Sirenum Terrae, Southern hemisphere of Mars, is one of these astrobiologically interesting regions, where the existence of geological features such as ancient volcanic edifices, sedimentary deposits of an ancient lake and recent gullies seem to indicate the long-term presence of a thermal source and a water reservoir deep and stable enough to sustain biological processes. Here we describe the most relevant topographic and geomorphologic features in the region, highlighting the possibility for liquid water to have been present in the basin and outskirts in different moments of Mars' history. We also apply this analysis to an initial discussion of the influence of the hydrogeological evolution of the region in the putative development and/or survival of life forms in Atlantis basin.