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Sample records for nasa white sands

  1. NASA White Sands Test Facility Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Tour the NASA White Sands Test Facility's Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory in Las Cruces, New Mexico. To learn more about White Sands Test Facility, go to http://www.nasa.gov/centers/wstf/home/...

  2. NASA 947 and NASA 904 during training flight over White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA 947 and NASA 904 during a training and familiarization flight over White Sands, New Mexico. The Gulfstream aircraft on the left is NASA's Space Shuttle Training aircraft (STA) and the T-38 jet serves as a chase plane.

  3. NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging s...

  4. NASA Johnson Space Center: White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Kowalski, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing facilities and laboratories available at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The mission of WSTF is to provide the expertise and infrastructure to test and evaluate spacecraft materials, components and propulsion systems that enable the safe exploration and use of space. There are nine rocket test stands in two major test areas, six altitude test stands, three ambient test stands,

  5. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  6. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  7. Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Alfred Paul

    2004-01-01

    The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

  8. Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Alfred Paul

    2004-01-01

    The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

  9. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  10. Rescue Simulation - NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

  11. NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

  12. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  13. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  14. Overview of NASA White Sands Test Facility Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines the White Sands Test Facility testing of Composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). A COPV is typically a metallic liner overwrapped with a fiber epoxy matrix. There is a weight advantage over the traditional all metal design. The presentation shows pictures of the facilities at White Sands, and then examines some of the testing performed. The tests include fluids compatibility, and Kevlar COPV. Data for the Kevlar tests are given, and an analysis is reviewed. There is also a comparison between Carbon COPVs and the Kevlar COPVs.

  15. Techniques employed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility to ensure oxygen system component safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stradling, J. S.; Pippen, D. L.; Frye, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of ascertaining the safety and suitability of a variety of oxygen system components are discussed. Additionally, qualification and batch control requirements for soft goods in oxygen systems are presented. Current oxygen system component qualification test activities in progress at White Sands Test Facility are described.

  16. Hydrogen and Storage Initiatives at the NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel; Woods, Stephen S.

    2006-01-01

    NASA WSTF Hydrogen Activities: a) Aerospace Test; b) System Certification & Verification; c) Component, System, & Facility Hazard Assessment; d) Safety Training Technical Transfer: a) Development of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Practices; b) Support of National Hydrogen Infrastructure Development.

  17. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-10-613 (22-30 March 1982) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Space shuttle Columbia (STS-3), this mission, landed at the White Sands alternate landing site because of bad weather at Edwards AFB, CA. Photo credit: NASA

  18. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-04-288 (22 June 1973) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast New Mexico (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Analysis of the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Test System for Friction-Ignition of Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoffstall, Michael S.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Friction is a known ignition source for metals in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. The test system developed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility in response to ASTM G-94 has been used successfully to determine the relative ignition from friction of numerous metallic materials and metallic materials pairs. These results have been ranked in terms of a pressure-velocity product (PV) as measured under the prescribed test conditions. A high value of 4.1(exp 8) watts per square meter for Inconel MA 754 is used to imply resistance to friction ignition, whereas a low value of 1.04(exp 8) watts per square meter for stainless steel 304 is taken as indicating material susceptible to friction ignition. No attempt has been made to relate PV values to other material properties. This work reports the analysis of the WSTF friction-ignition test system for producing fundamental properties of metallic materials relating to ignition through friction. Three materials, aluminum, titanium, and nickel were tested in the WSTF frictional ignition instrument system under atmospheres of oxygen or nitrogen. Test conditions were modified to reach a steady state of operation, that is applied, the force was reduced and the rotational speed was reduced. Additional temperature measurements were made on the stator sample. The aluminum immediately galled on contact (reproducible) and the test was stopped. Titanium immediately ignited as a result of non-uniform contact of the stator and rotor. This was reproducible. A portion of the stator sampled burned, but the test continued. Temperature measurements on the stator were used to validate the mathematical model used for estimating the interface (stator/rotor) temperature. These interface temperature measurements and the associate thermal flux into the stator were used to distinguish material-phase transitions, chemical reaction, and mechanical work. The mechanical work was used to analyze surface asperities in the materials and to estimate a

  20. Analysis of the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Test System for Friction-Ignition of Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoffstall, Michael S.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Friction is a known ignition source for metals in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. The test system developed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility in response to ASTM G-94 has been used successfully to determine the relative ignition from friction of numerous metallic materials and metallic materials pairs. These results have been ranked in terms of a pressure-velocity product (PV) as measured under the prescribed test conditions. A high value of 4.1(exp 8) watts per square meter for Inconel MA 754 is used to imply resistance to friction ignition, whereas a low value of 1.04(exp 8) watts per square meter for stainless steel 304 is taken as indicating material susceptible to friction ignition. No attempt has been made to relate PV values to other material properties. This work reports the analysis of the WSTF friction-ignition test system for producing fundamental properties of metallic materials relating to ignition through friction. Three materials, aluminum, titanium, and nickel were tested in the WSTF frictional ignition instrument system under atmospheres of oxygen or nitrogen. Test conditions were modified to reach a steady state of operation, that is applied, the force was reduced and the rotational speed was reduced. Additional temperature measurements were made on the stator sample. The aluminum immediately galled on contact (reproducible) and the test was stopped. Titanium immediately ignited as a result of non-uniform contact of the stator and rotor. This was reproducible. A portion of the stator sampled burned, but the test continued. Temperature measurements on the stator were used to validate the mathematical model used for estimating the interface (stator/rotor) temperature. These interface temperature measurements and the associate thermal flux into the stator were used to distinguish material-phase transitions, chemical reaction, and mechanical work. The mechanical work was used to analyze surface asperities in the materials and to estimate a

  1. V-2 at White Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Results from COPV Accelerated Stress Rupture Testing, NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry Regor

    2010-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate NDE techniques for real-time characterization of CPVs and, where possible, identification of NDE capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation and/or making vessel life predictions (structural health monitoring or periodic inspection modes). Secondary: Provide the COPV user and materials community with quality carbon/epoxy (C/Ep) COPV stress rupture progression rate data. Aid in modeling, manufacturing, and application of COPVs for NASA spacecraft.

  3. Infrared Camera Characterization of Bi-Propellant Reaction Control Engines during Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Sharp, David; Sheller, Richard; Styron, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a FUR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the use of ThermoCouples (TC) for this type of thermal monitoring due to the variability of constraints required to accurately map rapidly changing temperatures from ambient to glowing hot chamber material. Obtaining accurate real-time temperatures in the JR spectrum is made even more elusive by the changing emissivity of the chamber material as it begins to glow. The parameters evaluated prior to APS testing included: (1) remote operation of the A40M camera using fiber optic Firewire signal sender and receiver units; (2) operation of the camera inside a Pelco explosion proof enclosure with a germanium window; (3) remote analog signal display for real-time monitoring; (4) remote digital data acquisition of the A40M's sensor information using FUR's ThermaCAM Researcher Pro 2.8 software; and (5) overall reliability of the system. An initial characterization report was prepared after the A40M characterization tests at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to document controlled heat source comparisons to calibrated TCs. Summary IR digital data recorded from WSTF's APS testing is included within this document along with findings, lessons learned, and recommendations for further usage as a monitoring tool for the development of rocket engines.

  4. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Summary of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the RS18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA s Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propellant systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to approx.120,000 ft (approx.37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis-style mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9-9.5 lbm/sec (2.7-4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0-4.4 lbm/sec (1.4-2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Data was obtained at multiple chamber pressures, and calculations were performed for specific impulse, C* combustion efficiency, and thrust vector alignment. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes.

  5. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Results of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the RS-18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propulsion systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to 122,000 ft (37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9 - 9.5 lbm/sec (2.7 - 4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0 - 4.4 lbm/sec (1.4 - 2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup due to two-phase flow effects. Subsequent cold-flow testing demonstrated that the propellant manifolds must be adequately flushed in order for the coriolis flow meters to give accurate data. The coriolis flow meters were later shown to provide accurate steady-state data, but the turbine flow meter data should be used in transient phases of operation. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel, which also provides the capability to calculate thrust vector alignment. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes. All of these objectives were

  6. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  7. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  8. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    PubMed Central

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  9. V-2 Rocket at White Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    A V-2 rocket takes flight at White Sands, New Mexico, in 1946. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  10. Trends in Gypsiferous Aerosol Downwind of White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Yatkin, S.; Gill, T. E.; Jin, L.

    2013-12-01

    White Sands is a known 'hotspot' of dust emissions in southwestern North America where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the northeast. The U.S. Forest Service operates an aerosol sampler at White Mountain in the lee of the Sacramento range as part of the IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at White Mountain, eclipsing the regional summer peak attributed to atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with clearly increased concentrations of calcium, strontium, and chloride. The increase in these species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and White Mountain thus provide an unusually well-defined natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiably distinct at a long-term observatory ~100 km downwind. This paper examines the routine PM2.5 (fine-particle, Dp < 2.5 um) composition data available from White Mountain and other regional IMPROVE sites (e.g. Bosque del Apache), supplemented by some elemental analysis of collocated PM10 samples. The ambient data are compared with chemical analyses of surface samples from White Sands, bulk dry dustfall and soil surface composition at White Mountain, satellite observations of dust plumes, and available meteorological records. Together, the observations document significant, episodic aeolian transport of gypsum and other salts across the Sacramento Mountains. Figure 1. Left: Monthly average concentrations of every-third-day 24h samples. Top right: MODIS image, 2

  11. Learning Design at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotewiel, Shane

    2010-01-01

    During the Fall of 2010, I spent my time at NASA White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, NM as an Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP) Intern. During that time, I was given three projects to work on: Large Altitude Simulation System (LASS) basket strainer, log books, and the design of a case for touch screen monitors used for simulations. I spent most of my time on the LASS basket strainer. The LASS system has a water feed line with a basket strainer that filters out rust. In 2009, there were three misfires which cost approximately $27,000 and about 8% of the allotted time. The strainer was getting a large change in pressure that would result in a shutdown of the system. I have designed a new basket that will eliminate the large pressure change and it can be used with the old basket strainer housing. The LASS system has three steam generators (modules). Documents pertaining to these modules are stored electronically, and the majority of the documents are not able to be searched with keywords, so they have to be gone through one by one. I have come up with an idea on how to organize these files so that the Propulsion Department may efficiently search through the documents needed. Propulsion also has a LASS simulator that incorporates two touch screen monitors. Currently these monitors are in six foot by two foot metal cabinet on wheels. During simulation these monitors are used in the block house and need to be taken out of the block house when not in use. I have designed different options for hand held cases for storing and transporting the monitors in and out of the block house. The three projects previously mentioned demonstrate my contributions to the Propulsion Department and have taught me real world experience that is essential in becoming a productive engineer.

  12. Techniques for analyzing and utilizing the rain gauges at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. [Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ground station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalagher, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Ten tipping bucket rain gauges have been installed at the NASA WSTF for the purpose of determining rainfall characteristics in this area which may affect the performance of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. A plan is presented for analyzing and utilizing the data which will be obtained during the course of this experiment. Also included is a description of a computer program which has been written to aid in the analysis.

  13. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  14. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  15. Standards Development Activities at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Saulsberry, R. L.; Julien, H. L.; Woods, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of standards and standard activities at the JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has been expanded to include the transfer of technology and standards to voluntary consensus organizations in five technical areas of importance to NASA. This effort is in direct response to the National Technology Transfer Act designed to accelerate transfer of technology to industry and promote government-industry partnerships. Technology transfer is especially important for WSTF, whose longterm mission has been to develop and provide vital propellant safety and hazards information to aerospace designers, operations personnel, and safety personnel. Meeting this mission is being accomplished through the preparation of consensus guidelines and standards, propellant hazards analysis protocols, and safety courses for the propellant use of hydrogen, oxygen, and hypergols, as well as the design and inspection of spacecraft pressure vessels and the use of pyrovalves in spacecraft propulsion systems. The overall WSTF technology transfer program is described and the current status of technology transfer activities are summarized.

  16. Early diagenesis of eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Fryberger, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The degree of early diagenesis in eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico, is largely a function of the relationship between sand location and the water table. Most active and vegetation-stabilized dune sands are in the vadose zone, whereas interdune sands are in the capillary fringe and phreatic zones. Crystallographically controlled dissolution of the framework gypsum grains results in elongate, prismatic etch pits on sand grains from the capillary fringe and phreatic zones, whereas dissolution of sand grains in the vadose zone is slight, causing minute irregularities on grain surfaces. Vadose water percolating through the sand is manifest as meniscus layers. Consequently, dune sands in the vadose zone are cemented mainly by meniscus-shaped gypsum at grain contacts. Pendant cements formed on the lower margins of some sand grains. Cementation in the capillary fringe and the phreatic zone is more extensive than the vadose regardless of strata type. Typically, well-developed gypsum overgrowths form along the entire edge of a grain, or may encompass the entire grain. Complex diagenetic histories are suggested by multiple overgrowths and several episodes of dissolution on single grains, attesting to changing saturation levels with respect to gypsum in the shallow ground water. These changes in saturation are possibly due to periods of dilution by meteoric recharge, alternating with periods of concentration of ions and the formation of cement due to evaporation through the capillary fringe. ?? 1988.

  17. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range: 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents water-resource information that was collected at White Sands Missile Range during 1971 and early 1972 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality, percipitation, and surface-water runoff are summarized in the report. The data were obtained as a result of the continuing water-resources basic-data collection program sponsored by the Facilities Engineering Directorate, White Sands Missile Range.

  18. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  19. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    acerca de su agua potable. Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable. Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  20. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-83-016 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. The National Park Service has the responsibility to preserve this unique feature, allowing the dune world to unfold in its natural environment, but without interference from humans. White Sands lies within a spectacular, oblong geological depression called the Tularosa Basin bounded by the Sacramento Mountains on the east and the San Andres Mountains on the west. Climatically the basin is a true desert, averaging less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. In terms of topographic relief the Sacramento Mountains attain elevations greater than 9,000 feet above sea level, while the San Andres Mountains on the west exceed altitudes of 8,000 feet. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. This lake is the lowest point in the Tularosa Basin at 3,900 feet. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo (over 20,000 population) and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph. The area is accessible by highways U.S.70 & 82 from Las Cruces, New Mexico, and U.S.54 from El Paso, Texas.

  1. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  2. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 feet north from Range Road 10, beginning approximately 4.2 miles northeast of intersection with Range Road 7, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  3. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  4. NASA at the 2014 White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA joined President Obama at the White House for the 2014 White House Science Fair on May 27, recognizing the student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) ...

  5. NASA MISR Studies Smoke Plumes from California Sand Fire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-02

    39,000 acres (60 square miles, or 160 square kilometers). Thousands of residents were evacuated, and the fire claimed the life of one person. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite passed over the region on July 23 around 11:50 a.m. PDT. At left is an image acquired by MISR's 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The oblique view angle makes the smoke more apparent than it would be in a more conventional vertical view. This cropped image is about 185 miles (300 kilometers) wide. Smoke from the Sand Fire is visible on the right-hand side of the image. Stereoscopic analysis of MISR's multiple camera angles is used to compute the height of the smoke plume from the Sand Fire. In the right-hand image, these heights are superimposed on the underlying image. The color scale shows that the plume extends up to about 4 miles (6 kilometers) above its source in Santa Clarita, but rapidly diminishes in height as winds push it to the southwest. The data compare well with a pilot report issued at Los Angeles International Airport on the evening of July 22, which reported smoke at 15,000-18,000 feet altitude (4.5 to 5.5 kilometers). Air quality warnings were issued for the San Fernando Valley and the western portion of Los Angeles due to this low-hanging smoke. However, data from air quality monitoring instruments seem to indicate that the smoke did not actually reach the ground. These data were captured during Terra orbit 88284. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20724

  6. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  7. Injecting polyacrylamide into Gulf Coast sands: The White Castle Q sand polymer-injectivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, G.T.; Thigpen, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    A polymer-injectivity test designed to control mobility in cosurfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding was performed in the Q sand of the White Castle field, LA. Analysis of test data indicates that a polymer bank with an average viscosity of 4 cp was propagated as far as 90 ft into the reservoir with no measurable sign of degradation. It is estimated from pilot and laboratory data that injection of 500 ppm polyacrylamide through perforations at a rate of at least 32 B-D/in{sup 2} of perforation into gulf coast sands is feasible. Monitoring of backproduced reservoir samples indicates that, to date, no detectable change in viscosity has occurred over a 2-year period.

  8. Controls on Dune Deformation Patterns in White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. B.; Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Eolian dune fields exhibit a variety of pattern transitions, including: the ab initio appearance of dunes from no dunes; transverse to barchan and unvegetated barchan to vegetated parabolic. Recent model predictions offer some insight into the mechanisms underlying some of these transitions. However, there are few direct observations, and tests providing empirical verification are sparse. The White Sands dune field exhibits all three of the aforementioned transitions in sequence, from the upwind to downwind margin, and has the potential to be a testing ground for these predictions. Repeat LiDAR data at White Sands provide an excellent opportunity to study not only dune structure, but also dune dynamics, which can provide insight into how dunes destabilize from one dune morphology into another. We employ a recently developed method for decomposing dune migration into two components: "translation" of a dune, and changes in dune shape referred to as "deformation". We find that the fastest moving dunes (i.e. the dunes translating most quickly) have the largest amount of deformation. Patterns of deformation also vary depending on dune type: transverse dunes experience coherent deformation, while parabolic dunes exhibit highly localized and apparently random deformation. Only a fraction of the deformation can be explained by the migration rate. A significant amount of deformation appears to be attributable to dune-dune interactions, which destabilize dune patterns in locations where dune density is high. At the interface between the transverse to barchan dune patterns, we describe how transverse dunes break up into barchans and compare it to published model results. Regarding the barchan to parabolic transition, we find that the onset of vegetation drives a gradual slowdown in migration rates, while the magnitude of deformation drops and becomes localized to dune crests as the arms are stabilized by plants.

  9. NASA's White Charger to the Rescue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Landing an ER-2, NASA's long-winged, high-altitude Earth science aircraft, can be tricky. Its wings give the aircraft glider-like qualities, the aircraft is sensitive to crosswinds, and its ascent ...

  10. Wagon loads of sand blows in White County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Bilham, R.; Mueller, K.; Stephenson, W.; Williams, R.; Odum, J.

    2005-01-01

    Several anecdotal accounts provide compelling evidence that liquefaction occurred at several sites in Illinois during the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence, as much as 250 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). At one Wabash Valley location, sand blows are still evident near Big Prairie, Illinois, a location described in a particularly detailed and precise historic account. This account includes descriptions of substantial liquefaction (sand blows) as well as a two-mile-long east-west-trending "crack" along which two feet of south-side-down displacement occurred. An offset can no longer be seen at this location, which has been extensively farmed and plowed for decades. Field reconnaissance verifies many of the details provided in the account, however. We conducted a seismic-reflection experiment at this location and observed a modest offset in the Paleozoic strata at this location. The offset is opposite to that described in the historic account, consistent with the hypothesis that large midcontinent earthquakes occur on faults reactivated in a Holocene stress regime different from the one in which they were formed. Only two explanations can account for these observations: Either large NMSZ events triggered substantial liquefaction at distances greater than hitherto realized, or at least one large "New Madrid" event occurred significantly north of the NMSZ. We explore these possibilities and conclude that, while neither one can be ruled out, several disparate lines of evidence suggest that the 23 January 1812 "New Madrid mainshock" occurred in White County, Illinois, near the location of the mb 5.5 1968 southern Illinois earthquake and recent microearthquake activity.

  11. Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.; Person, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dunefield in the world. Water table geometry and elevation play a critical role in controlling dune thickness, spatial extent, and migration rates. The White Sands National Monument (WHSA) is concerned that lowering the water table may lead to increased scour and migration of the dune field, which could be unfavorable to the preservation of the flora and fauna that have adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune aquifer. We have collected hydrological, geochemical, and geophysical data in order to identify the sources of recharge that contribute to the shallow dune aquifer and to assess interactions between this water table aquifer and the basin-scale, regional system. Vertical head gradients, temperature, and water quality data strongly suggest that local precipitation is the primary source of recharge to the dune aquifer today. This suggests that the modern dune system is relatively isolated from the deeper regional system. However, geochemical and electrical resistivity data indicates that the deeper basin groundwater system does contribute to the shallow system and suggests that hydrologic conditions have changed on geologic time scales. We have constructed a preliminary cross-sectional hydrologic model to attempt to characterize the interaction of the shallow dune aquifer with the deeper basin groundwater. The model cross-section extends about 80 km across the Tularosa Basin in a NW-SE direction parallel to the primary flow path. We represented 6 km of Precambrian crystalline basement, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as well as Pleistocene

  12. Annual water resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1980 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. The total water pumped at White Sands Missile Range in 1980 was 725,053,000 gallons, which was 32.5 million gallons more than in 1979. The Post Headquarters well field, which produces more than 98 percent of the water used at White Sands Missile Range, pumped 712,909,000 gallons, which was 31.1 million gallons more in 1980 than in 1979. Data were collected for specific Range areas north of the Post Headquarters area that might have potential for future water-supply development. (USGS)

  13. A white paper: NASA virtual environment research, applications, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Null, Cynthia H. (Editor); Jenkins, James P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Research support for Virtual Environment technology development has been a part of NASA's human factors research program since 1985. Under the auspices of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST), initial funding was provided to the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division, Ames Research Center, which resulted in the origination of this technology. Since 1985, other Centers have begun using and developing this technology. At each research and space flight center, NASA missions have been major drivers of the technology. This White Paper was the joint effort of all the Centers which have been involved in the development of technology and its applications to their unique missions. Appendix A is the list of those who have worked to prepare the document, directed by Dr. Cynthia H. Null, Ames Research Center, and Dr. James P. Jenkins, NASA Headquarters. This White Paper describes the technology and its applications in NASA Centers (Chapters 1, 2 and 3), the potential roles it can take in NASA (Chapters 4 and 5), and a roadmap of the next 5 years (FY 1994-1998). The audience for this White Paper consists of managers, engineers, scientists and the general public with an interest in Virtual Environment technology. Those who read the paper will determine whether this roadmap, or others, are to be followed.

  14. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  15. Historic Properties Report: White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and Subinstallation Utah Launch Complex, Green River, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    July 13, 1945, as White Sands Proving Ground, the name of the reservation was changed to White Sands Missile Range in 1958. White Sands supports missile...performance. Specil facilities, including nuel _-: environ- ments, weapons systems simulation labs, and guidance and climate control laboratories provide...Air Force Base) at Alamogordo, New Mexico. The local climate and geography of the region were conducive to rocket testing - the arid land was almost

  16. Ka-Band Atmospheric Phase Stability Measurements in Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    As spacecraft communication links are driven to higher frequencies (e.g. Ka-band) both by spectrum congestion and the appeal of higher data rates, the propagation phenomena at these frequencies must be well characterized for effective system design. In particular, the phase stability of a site at a given frequency will govern whether or not the site is a practical location for an antenna array, particularly if uplink capabilities are desired. Propagation studies to characterize such phenomena must be done on a site-by-site basis due to the wide variety of climates and weather conditions at each ground terminal. Accordingly, in order to statistically characterize the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA's operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability. Using three years of results from these experiments, this paper will statistically characterize the simultaneous atmospheric phase noise measurements recorded by the STIs deployed at the following ground station sites: the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, CA; the White Sands Ground Terminal near Las Cruces, NM; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam.

  17. Aqueous Cleaning and Validation for Space Shuttle Propulsion Hardware at the White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Biesinger, Paul; Kirsch, Mike; Beeson, Harold; Leuders, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed an entirely aqueous final cleaning and verification process to replace the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 based process. This process has been accepted for final cleaning and cleanliness verification of WSTF ground support equipment. The aqueous process relies on ultrapure water at 50 C (323 K) and ultrasonic agitation for removal of organic compounds and particulate. The cleanliness is verified bv determining the total organic carbon (TOC) content and filtration with particulate counting. The effectiveness of the aqueous methods for detecting hydrocarbon contamination and particulate was compared to the accepted CFC 113 sampling procedures. Testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and cutting and lubricating oils, to establish a correlation between aqueous TOC and CFC 113 nonvolatile residue (NVR) was performed. Particulate sampling on cleaned batches of hardware that were randomly separated and sampled by the two methods was performed. This paper presents the approach and results, and discusses the issues in establishing the equivalence of aqueous sampling to CFC 113 sampling, while describing the approach for implementing aqueous techniques on Space Shuttle Propulsion hardware.

  18. Annual water-resources review White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1979 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage from the Post Headquarters well field, which produces more than 98% of the water used at White Sands Missile Range, was 1.4 million gallons more in 1979 than in 1978. The most significant seasonal water-level declines observed in 1979 were in supply well 22 (36.35 feet) and test well T-7 (15.98 feet). The chemical quality of water samples collected in 1979 was similar to that collected at comparable depths and periods in 1978. (USGS)

  19. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected at White Sands Missile Range in 1984. The total groundwater withdrawal in 1984 was 685,275,000 gallons. The Post Headquarters well field produced 650,821,000 gallons in 1984. Six new wells were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in 1984. Nineteen water samples were collected for major chemical-constituent, trace-element, or radiochemical analysis in 1984. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells showed seasonal fluctuations as well as continued long-term declines. (USGS)

  20. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1982 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells continued to show seasonal declines. Test wells east of the Headquarters well field continue to show long-term declines as well as seasonal fluctuations. The total amount of water pumped from White Sands Missile Range supply wells was 66,226,600 gallons more in 1982 than in 1981. The difference in the specific-conductance values of the water samples collected from the Post Headquarters supply wells in the winter and summer increased in 1982. (USGS)

  1. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1981 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. The total amount of water pumped at White Sands Missile Range was approximately 59 million gallons less than in 1980; however the five supply wells in the Range areas adjacent to the Post Headquarters area produced approximately 16.2 million gallons more in 1981 than in 1980. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells continued to show seasonal declines. (USGS)

  2. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  3. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  4. Space radiation studies at the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapaz, A.

    1972-01-01

    The operation of the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor is discussed. Space radiation studies in radiobiology, dosimetry, and transient radiation effects on electronic systems and components are described. Proposed modifications to increase the capability of the facility are discussed.

  5. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  6. Survival by genotype: patterns at Mc1r are not black and white at the White Sands ecotone.

    PubMed

    Des Roches, S; Sollmann, R; Calhoun, K; Rothstein, A P; Rosenblum, E B

    2017-01-01

    Measuring links among genotype, phenotype and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a 4-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched coloration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S. cowlesi showed minimal association between colour phenotype and Mc1r genotype. Second, the frequency of the derived Mc1r allele in ecotonal S. cowlesi appeared to decrease over time. Third, our capture-recapture data revealed a lower survival rate for S. cowlesi individuals with the derived Mc1r allele. Thus, our results suggest that selection at the ecotone may have favoured the wild-type allele in recent years. Even in a system where a genotype-phenotype association appeared to be black and white, our study suggests that additional factors - including phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, pleiotropy and gene flow - may play important roles at the White Sands ecotone. Our study highlights the importance of linking molecular, genomic and organismal approaches for understanding adaptation in the wild. Furthermore, our findings indicate that dynamics of natural selection can be particularly complex in transitional habitats like ecotones and emphasize the need for future research that examines the patterns of ongoing selection in other ecological 'grey' zones.

  7. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected at White Sands Missile Range in 1983. The total amount of water pumped from White Sands Missile Range supply wells in 1983 was 713,557,500 gallons. The Post Headquarters well field accounted for 686,499,200 gallons of the total. Seasonal water-level fluctuations in the supply wells ranged from a 3.00-foot rise in Stallion Range Well-2 (SRC-2) to a 51.00 foot decline in Post headquarters supply well 11 (SW-11). All of the test wells and observation wells up to 2 miles east of the Post Headquarters well field showed a decline for the period 1973-1983. Only one test well and one borehole west of the Post Headquarters well field showed a decline in water level; the other five showed a rise in water level for the period 1973-1983. (USGS)

  8. Mapping Playa Evaporite Minerals, White Sands, New Mexico Using Landsat ETM+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrefat, H. A.; Goodell, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    Evaporite minerals are the main source of several industrial and agricultural minerals important to the U.S. and world economy. Landsat ETM+ data covering the White Sands, New Mexico have been used in this study. The White Sands Dune Field, Lake Lucero, and Alkali Flat have been chosen as target sites. The study aims to determine the number of evaporite mineral endmembers that can be detected and mapped using Landsat ETM+. Furthermore, the study also aims to determine the spatial distribution of fractional abundances of evaporite mineral endmembers assuming a linear mixing model. The Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transform and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed to determine a reduced set of noise-free spectral bands. The Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and n-D Visualization (nDV) were conducted on the reduced set of spectral bands to identify spectrally pure evaporite mineral endmembers in the image. Mineral maps of the spatial distribution and relative abundance of evaporite minerals were performed using two different algorithms: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU). Four evaporite mineral endmembers have been identified using Spectral Angle Mapper. These minerals are gypsum, halite, calcite, and thenardite. The results of Linear Spectral Unmixing showed that the most common and abundant evaporite mineral in the White Sands is gypsum. The results of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) are validated by collecting field samples from different locations within the White Sands. A good match has been determined between results of Landsat ETM+ data and field and laboratory work. Mapping of playa evaporite minerals is of potential importance for the goal of saline soil characterization, regional groundwater hydrology and quality, and mineral resource development.

  9. Energy Savings Opportunity Survey (ESOS), White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of selected Energy Conservation Opportunities ( ECOs ) to designated buildings and systems at...the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The study has nine elements: (1) Perform, a field survey of designated buildings. (2) Evaluate ten ECOs applied...selectively to 45 buildings in the Main Post Area. (General ECOs ). (3) Evaluate six specified ECOs at Building P300. (4) Perform complete energy

  10. Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

  11. When Field Experiments Yield Unexpected Results: Lessons Learned from Measuring Selection in White Sands Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Kayla M.; Harmon, Luke J.; Hardwick, Scott D.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adaptive significance of phenotypic traits is key for understanding evolution and diversification in natural populations. However, evolutionary biologists have an incomplete understanding of how specific traits affect fitness in most populations. The White Sands system provides an opportunity to study the adaptive significance of traits in an experimental context. Blanched color evolved recently in three species of lizards inhabiting the gypsum dunes of White Sands and is likely an adaptation to avoid predation. To determine whether there is a relationship between color and susceptibility to predation in White Sands lizards, we conducted enclosure experiments, quantifying survivorship of Holbrookia maculate exhibiting substrate-matched and substrate-mismatched phenotypes. Lizards in our study experienced strong predation. Color did not have a significant effect on survival, but we found several unexpected relationships including variation in predation over small spatial and temporal scales. In addition, we detected a marginally significant interaction between sex and color, suggesting selection for substrate matching may be stronger for males than females. We use our results as a case study to examine six major challenges frequently encountered in field-based studies of natural selection, and suggest that insight into the complexities of selection often results when experiments turn out differently than expected. PMID:25714838

  12. When field experiments yield unexpected results: lessons learned from measuring selection in White Sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Kayla M; Harmon, Luke J; Hardwick, Scott D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adaptive significance of phenotypic traits is key for understanding evolution and diversification in natural populations. However, evolutionary biologists have an incomplete understanding of how specific traits affect fitness in most populations. The White Sands system provides an opportunity to study the adaptive significance of traits in an experimental context. Blanched color evolved recently in three species of lizards inhabiting the gypsum dunes of White Sands and is likely an adaptation to avoid predation. To determine whether there is a relationship between color and susceptibility to predation in White Sands lizards, we conducted enclosure experiments, quantifying survivorship of Holbrookia maculate exhibiting substrate-matched and substrate-mismatched phenotypes. Lizards in our study experienced strong predation. Color did not have a significant effect on survival, but we found several unexpected relationships including variation in predation over small spatial and temporal scales. In addition, we detected a marginally significant interaction between sex and color, suggesting selection for substrate matching may be stronger for males than females. We use our results as a case study to examine six major challenges frequently encountered in field-based studies of natural selection, and suggest that insight into the complexities of selection often results when experiments turn out differently than expected.

  13. The population genomics of rapid adaptation: disentangling signatures of selection and demography in white sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stefan; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Settles, Matthew L; Hunter, Samuel S; Hardwick, Kayla M; Ormond, Louise; Sousa, Vitor C; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process of adaptation during rapid environmental change remains one of the central focal points of evolutionary biology. The recently formed White Sands system of southern New Mexico offers an outstanding example of rapid adaptation, with a variety of species having rapidly evolved blanched forms on the dunes that contrast with their close relatives in the surrounding dark soil habitat. In this study, we focus on two of the White Sands lizard species, Sceloporus cowlesi and Aspidoscelis inornata, for which previous research has linked mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to blanched coloration. We sampled populations both on and off the dunes and used a custom sequence capture assay based on probed fosmid libraries to obtain >50 kb of sequence around Mc1r and hundreds of other random genomic locations. We then used model-based statistical inference methods to describe the demographic and adaptive history characterizing the colonization of White Sands. We identified a number of similarities between the two focal species, including strong evidence of selection in the blanched populations in the Mc1r region. We also found important differences between the species, suggesting different colonization times, different genetic architecture underlying the blanched phenotype and different ages of the beneficial alleles. Finally, the beneficial allele is dominant in S. cowlesi and recessive in A. inornata, allowing for a rare empirical test of theoretically expected patterns of selective sweeps under these differing models.

  14. Morphology and formation of the upwind margin at White Sands Dune Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.; Reitz, M. D.; Phillips, C. B.; Falcini, F.; Masteller, C.

    2012-12-01

    A remarkable transitional landscape occurs at the upwind margin of White Sands Dune Field. Over the course a few hundred meters the landscape changes from an flat, sand availability-limited playa, to a sand sheet with strong spatial grain-size sorting, to meter high slipfaceless proto-dunes and finally to several meter high dunes with angle-of-repose slip faces. Within one wavelength of the first dune, dunes rise to nearly 10 meters in height above Alkali Flat, the upwind playa that extends for 13 km westward from the dune field. This abrupt rise in topography may perturb the dominant southwesterly wind flow and trigger an internal boundary layer, which causes a spatial decrease in surface wind stress and decline sediment flux, thereby altering the dune dynamics and dune field morphology downwind. Though the emergence of this upwind transition may play a key role in the morphodynamics of the dune field, what are the morphodynamics of the transition? What are the feedbacks between the emerging topography and the wind within the transition? This presentation uses high-resolution aerial photos, time-series airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning to characterize the transitional morphology the upwind margin of White Sands and discusses these morphologies in the context of the interplay between wind flow and dune field topography. Alkali Flat playa is sparsely sand covered, the amount of which varies temporally. The sparse sand cover occurs as sand patches that form in the lee of bushes or within topographic lows generated by deflated gypsum crust. Adjacent and downwind of the playa is a sand sheet composed of variable wavelength, coarse grained ripples. Ten to thirty meter wide ripple patches organized into a repeating sequence of coarse-grained, > 15 cm wavelength ripples to fine-grained, < 15 cm wavelength ripples occur across the sand sheet. Downwind the ripple patches organize into low-relief protodune hummocks. The protodunes are covered by a range of ripple

  15. Smoke from California Sand and Soberanes Fires Observed by NASA MISR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-26

    The Sand Fire in the Santa Clarita Valley area of Southern California erupted on Friday, July 22, 2016, and rapidly grew to more than 37,000 acres (58 square miles, or 150 square kilometers) over the weekend. As of Tuesday, July 26, hundreds of residents still remain under evacuation orders, and the fire claimed the life of a local resident. The fire is currently 25 percent contained. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite passed over the region on July 23 around 11:50 a.m. PDT. At left is an image acquired by MISR's 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The oblique view angle makes the smoke more apparent than it would be in a more conventional vertical view. Smoke from the Sand Fire is visible on the right-hand side of the image, and a long streamer of smoke from the Soberanes Fire near Big Sur in Central California is visible over the ocean near the left-hand side of the image. Like the Sand Fire, the Soberanes Fire also broke out on July 22, and quickly grew to more than 19,000 acres (30 square miles, or 77 square kilometers), causing the evacuation of hundreds of people and closure of several state parks. The Soberanes Fire is currently only 10 percent contained. The swath width of the MISR image is 257 miles (414 kilometers). At right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a quantitative measure of the smoke abundance in the atmosphere, derived from the images acquired by MISR's nine differently angled cameras. The thick smoke from both fires is apparent. Individual squares making up this map measure 2.7 miles (4.4 kilometers) on a side. The product shown here is a prototype of a new version of the MISR aerosol product to be publicly released in the near future, and increases the spatial resolution of the aerosol information by a factor of 16 compared to the currently available product, making it possible to discern finer details in the distribution of the smoke. These data were captured during Terra orbit 88284

  16. Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe Temperature Algorithm for White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaQuay, Ryan Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30

  17. Definition and origin of the dune-field pattern at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitis, Elke; Kocurek, Gary; Smith, Virginia; Mohrig, David; Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, A.-P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of a representative portion of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, allows for characterization of an unprecedented range of dune-field parameters and serves as a basis for pattern analysis. Dune-field parameters were measured and statistically analyzed for populations of dunes selected at random and occurring along transects. Populations sampled by these two different methods are comparable, but highlight the sensitivity of transect placement in a dune field that has pattern heterogeneity. Based upon coefficients of variation, pattern emerges at White Sands primarily because of a strong fabric of crestline orientation, and secondarily because of the regularity of spacing between dunes of similar shape as defined by sinuosity, height and length. Linear regression of dune parameters shows that dune geometric relationships vary primarily with crestline length, but there is little correlation between other parameters, including dune spacing and height. This result highlights the sensitivity of identifying topographic heterogeneity in a LiDAR-derived DEM, given that mean ratios conform to global averages. Stripping off the dunes in Matlab shows a terraced surface, which is interpreted to represent paleo-shorelines formed during relative still stands in the overall retreat of Lake Otero. Elevated bands of higher, more closely spaced dunes occur just leeward of the paleo-shorelines. A revised model for the White Sands Dune Field consists of the basinward progradation of successive dune-field segments. Each segment is associated with a paleo-shoreline, and consists of an upwind dune ridge, represented by the elevated bands, and a leeward dune field.

  18. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, 1976: a basic-data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented on the water resources of the White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex., that was collected during the period December 1975 to December 1976 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality and precipitation, and miscellaneous items of interest are summarized. Water-level observations were made in 63 borehole, supply, test, and observation wells on the Range. Water samples were collected and analyzed for chemical quality from 8 test wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1978 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage in 1978 was 692,045,700 gallons or 7,248,300 less than in 1977. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 98 percent of the total volume. Water levels in test wells around the Post Headquarters well field show seasonal declines ranging from 14.78 feet to 0.71 feet. The water samples collected from the supply wells show that the chemical quality of the water is slightly better during the period of greatest declines. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Summary of ground-water data, Post Headquarters and adjacent areas, White Sands Missile Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.

    1973-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been obtained from more than 100 wells and test holes that have been drilled in the Post Headquarters and adjacent areas of White Sands Missile Range. Observation-well data show that, in general, a continuous decline of the water table has occurred in the vicinity of the well field since production began in 1949. Approximately 40,000 acre-feet of water has been produced from the aquifer to date (1972). A series of maps are presented which show the changes that have occurred in the well field as the result of development.

  1. Investigation of earth's albedo using Skylab data. [White Sands, New Mexico and Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Specific test sites in the White Sands, New Mexico and Lake Michigan areas were chosen because of their stability and known reflectances. Skylab S192 multispectral data and ERIM aircraft multispectral data were collected for these sites and were compared with results of atmospheric radiative transfer calculations in order to determine the aerosol content of the atmosphere. The spectral shape of the Skylab data compared quite favorably with the nearly simultaneous spectral character of the aircraft data. Although there were difficulties in the calibration of the S192 instrument which remain unresolved, interesting mathematical and physical relationships were discovered.

  2. Morphology and stratigraphic evolution of aeolian protodunes at White Sands Dune Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Weymer, B. A.; Barrineaux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Protodunes are low-relief, slipfaceless migrating bed forms thought to represent fundamental emergent bed forms that develop from a flat bed of sand and evolve into dunes. Protodunes at White Sands Dune Field in New Mexico are found at the upwind margin of the field, on dune stoss slopes and in interdune areas. Here we used time-series aerial photos from 1996, 2003, 2005 and 2012 and digital elevation models from 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 in conjunction with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to characterize the morphodynamics of protodunes and the stratigraphy generated by protodune migration. Protodunes at the upwind margin of the dune field are larger in wavelength and amplitude and coarser grained than those in the interior of the field. Wind ripples cover protodunes in all areas of the field, but the protodunes at the upwind margin are covered by coarse grained ripples. A consistent progression of ripple patterns occurs over protodunes in which ripples coarsen in wavelength and grain size toward the protodune crest and then decrease in wavelength and grain size toward the troughs. Ripple migration across the protodunes appears to the primary mode by which the protodunes migrate. Trenching and GPR data show low-angle cross-stratification generated by wind ripples migrating down the protodune lee slope of the protodunes. Internal bounding surfaces within the protodunes likely arise from laterally migration and lee slope reactivation in response to the complex wind regime and dune-modified secondary flow within the dune field at White Sands. Understanding the morphology, distribution and genesis of protodunes in dune fields provides a basis to evaluate the significance of protodune strata in the rock record.

  3. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1977; a hydrologic-data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1977 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Near the Post Headquarters water-level declines for the period 1968-77 declined about 20 feet. Total ground-water pumpage at White Sands Missile Range for 1977 was 2,146 acre-feet, 93 acre-feet more than in 1976. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 2,112 acre-feet of the total volume. Specific conductance of ground water ranged from 277 to 2,410 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius for wells T-4 and T-14 respectively at Post Headquarters. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Test wells TW1 and TW2, and TW3, White Sands Missile Range, Otero County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three test wells, TW1, TW2, and TW3, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico in July, August, and October 1983 as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army in July, August, and October 1983. The test wells were drilled as exploratory and monitoring wells for the toxic waste storage facility at White Sands Missile Range. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs for the cased wells. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Multi-scale Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the arid to semi-arid Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dune is saturated throughout nearly its entire accumulation thickness, resulting in a shallow water table (< 3 ft bgs) in the inter-dunal areas. Water table elevation influences the spatial extent of the dune field and accumulation thickness. The White Sands National Monument (WHSA) is concerned that lowering the water table may lead to increased scour and migration of the dune field, which could be unfavorable to the preservation of the flora and fauna that have adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune field aquifer. Mathematical modeling techniques on varying spatial and temporal scales are used to characterize the relative importance of the sources of water (local vs. regional) to the dune aquifer, and to quantify the timescales on which changes may affect the water table in the dune field. A 2-dimensional, dune-scale heat and fluid flow model uses the seasonal temperature fluctuations to estimate the vertical and horizontal flow of water from the regional system to the dune field aquifer. We have also constructed a 2-dimensional, hydrologic model to characterize the regional groundwater flow regime near to the dune aquifer system, as well as across the Tularosa Basin to a depth of 6 km. Additionally, a 3-dimensional, hydrologic model of the Tularosa Basin and the White Sands dune field quantifies hydrologic characteristics, sources and sinks of groundwater in the basin and at the dune field. Computed and observed salinity, groundwater residence times, and water level data are the primary

  6. ICESat Calibration and Validation Experiments at White Sands, New Mexico, 2003-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Urban, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) at the University of Texas at Austin has operated a primary site for ICESat cal/val activities near the White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH) area of the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This site was chosen for both geophysical (flat, reflective) and logistical (domestic, secure site) reasons. Before launch in 2003, a several-hundred-meter-scale grid comprised of hundreds of numbered PVC base-plates was installed at the chosen site to permanently mark the locations of various pieces of experiment hardware. In summary, CSR has supported four primary types of experiments at the cal/val site: (1) a permanent grid of laser retro-reflectors (corner cube reflectors) placed on top of poles of various known heights and collocated with 25 of the base plates, in use for the duration of the mission, (2) a set of computer-monitored position and timing detectors utilized for cal/val during the first three years of the project, (3) several camera-equipped aircraft flyovers of the area designed to capture images of the green and infrared footprints on the surface at the precise time of ICESat overflights, (4) elevation comparisons between the ICESat data and a high-resolution (1 m) DEM derived via small-footprint airborne lidar collections in 2003 and 2007. The experiments at WSSH were targeted by the ICESat spacecraft approximately four times per campaign, making this cal/val site one of the most sampled locations in the world. This presentation will chronicle the extensive collection of ICESat and experimental data collected at WSSH from 2003 to 2010.

  7. Numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of fully developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high-momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics have received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: At approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer (shear length L(s) and vortex spacing Λ(x)) and show that Λ(x)=m(dune)L(s), where m(dune)≈7.2 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7

  8. Modeling grain size variations of aeolian gypsum deposits at White Sands, New Mexico, using AVIRIS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghrefat, H.A.; Goodell, P.C.; Hubbard, B.E.; Langford, R.P.; Aldouri, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) through Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) (0.4-2.5????m) AVIRIS data, along with laboratory spectral measurements and analyses of field samples, were used to characterize grain size variations in aeolian gypsum deposits across barchan-transverse, parabolic, and barchan dunes at White Sands, New Mexico, USA. All field samples contained a mineralogy of ?????100% gypsum. In order to document grain size variations at White Sands, surficial gypsum samples were collected along three Transects parallel to the prevailing downwind direction. Grain size analyses were carried out on the samples by sieving them into seven size fractions ranging from 45 to 621????m, which were subjected to spectral measurements. Absorption band depths of the size fractions were determined after applying an automated continuum-removal procedure to each spectrum. Then, the relationship between absorption band depth and gypsum size fraction was established using a linear regression. Three software processing steps were carried out to measure the grain size variations of gypsum in the Dune Area using AVIRIS data. AVIRIS mapping results, field work and laboratory analysis all show that the interdune areas have lower absorption band depth values and consist of finer grained gypsum deposits. In contrast, the dune crest areas have higher absorption band depth values and consist of coarser grained gypsum deposits. Based on laboratory estimates, a representative barchan-transverse dune (Transect 1) has a mean grain size of 1.16 ??{symbol} (449????m). The error bar results show that the error ranges from - 50 to + 50????m. Mean grain size for a representative parabolic dune (Transect 2) is 1.51 ??{symbol} (352????m), and 1.52 ??{symbol} (347????m) for a representative barchan dune (Transect 3). T-test results confirm that there are differences in the grain size distributions between barchan and parabolic dunes and between interdune and dune crest areas. The t-test results

  9. The coupling of gravity waves and turbulence at White Sands, New Mexico, from VHF radar observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nastrom, G.D. ); Eaton, F.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Doppler spectra taken with the VHF Doppler radar at White Sands Missile Range are used to describe the winds and turbulence for 10 days in March-April 1991. The large power aperture product of this radar provides excellent data coverage in 150-m layers over the entire height range used, about 5-20 km. The results show that gravity-wave activity and small-scale turbulence are significantly enhanced at all levels during times when wind speeds in the troposphere, near 5.6 km (about 500 hPa), are strong. Largest enhancements are found in the lower stratosphere, near 16-18 km, where the mean log C[sub n][sup 2] is increased by over 10 dB during times of strong winds at low levels. Mean winds, wind shears, and static stability in the lower stratosphere were found to be nearly the same, regardless of wind speeds at low levels. The authors conclude that the enhanced turbulence is due to an effect not described by the local background wind and static stability, and suggest that this effect is upward-propagating gravity waves launched in the troposphere during the periods of strong winds. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  11. Narrowband Angular Reflectance Properties of the Alkali Flats at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; LeCroy, Stuart R.; Wheeler, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from helicopter measurements of the angular properties of surface reflectance for the alkali flats regions of the White Sands Missile Range are presented for the wavelength interval of 0.4 to 0.85 microns. This work was performed to allow accurate radiative transfer calculations over the region. Detailed tables and interpolation equations are given that permit other investigators to perform satellite calibrations over the alkali flats site. The effects of wavelength and soil moisture on narrowband angular reflectance are also investigated. Although there is a spectral variation in surface albedo, there is little spectral effect in Anisotropic Factor except in the forward scattering peak at solar zenith angles greater than 60 deg. The magnitude of the forward-scattering peak is also sensitive to soil moisture, with wet conditions causing a larger peak. The significance of this result is that angular reflectance properties at the center of the alkali flats usually will be different than those at the flats edge because moisture differences typically exist.

  12. A laboratory study of subjective response to sonic booms measured at White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    The Sonic Boom Simulator of the Langley Research Center was used to quantify subjective loudness response to boom signatures consisting of: (1) simulator reproductions of booms recently recorded at White Sands Missile Range; (2) idealized N-waves; and (3) idealized booms having intermediate shocks. The booms with intermediate shocks represented signatures derived from CFD predictions. The recorded booms represented those generated by F15 and T38 aircraft flyovers and represented a variety of waveforms reflecting the effects of propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. These waveforms included the following shape categories: N-waves, peaked, rounded, and U-shaped. Results showed that Perceived Level and Zwicker Loudness Level were good estimators of the loudness of turbulence modified sonic booms. No significant differences were observed between loudness responses for the several shape categories when expressed in terms of Perceived Level. Thus, Perceived Level effectively accounted for waveform differences due to turbulence. Idealized booms with intermediate shocks, however, were rated as being approximately 2.7 dB(PL) less loud than the recorded signatures. This difference was not accounted for by PL.

  13. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 10. A remarkable new white species of Chionodes Hübner (Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Landry, Jean-François

    2016-05-09

    The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study, in late 2006, of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Chionodes bustosorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2010, during the third year of the study. The male imago and male genitalia are illustrated, and its DNA barcode is compared to that of seven other species of Chionodes from western North America.

  14. Groundwater salinity as a control on development of eolian landscape: An example from the White Sands of New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Richard P.; Rose, Jessica M.; White, Diane E.

    2009-04-01

    The White Sands of southern New Mexico form the largest field of gypsum dunes in the world. The juxtaposition of several different types of dunes within the field has long been recognized and has generally been attributed to changes in the rate of sand transport across the dune field. However, Steven Fryberger [Fryberger, S.G., 2003. Geology of White Sands National Monument, web page www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/whsa/] recently hypothesized, however, that a primary control is groundwater salinity. The White Sands dune field is underlain by saline waters. Fryberger proposed that parabolic dunes could form in topographic highs that accumulated a lens of fresher water derived from precipitation. Water with lower salinity allowed vegetation to grow, and stabilized the sand except for the active noses of the parabolic dunes. This study is a test of that hypothesis. A study transect was established across the boundary between parabolic and barchan dunes. Groundwater and soil at six sites were sampled during December, 2004 and March, May, and June of 2005. Two sites were established in the parabolic field, two in the barchans, and two in the transition zone between them. Groundwater was found to be three times more saline in the barchan area. Conductivity and chloride decreased across the transition zone. A GPS topographic survey revealed two abrupt topographic steps, one at the boundary between the barchans and the transition zone and a second at the edge of the parabolic field. A second, larger topographic step was found outside the study area defining a higher parabolic dune field. These data indicate that Fryberger's (2003) hypothesis is correct and groundwater is controlling the dune field morphology. The dune field did not begin to form until the Mid-Holocene (6500 years ago). A compilation of dates shows that the parabolic dune field has probably been stable for the last 3500 years. In contrast, the barchan area has been recently deflated and exposed 2000 year

  15. A numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Chamecki, M.; Kocurek, G.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and dynamics of fully-developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics has received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: at approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer -- shear length, Ls, and vortex spacing, Lambda_x -- and show that Ls = m Lambda_x, where m is approximately 8 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7 < m < 10, Rogers and Moser, 1994: Phys. Fluids A, 6, 903-922). These results guide discussion on the statistics of aerodynamic drag across the dunes; probability density functions of time-series of aerodynamic drag for the dunes are shown to exhibit skewness and variance much greater than values reported for turbulent boundary layer flow over an homogeneous roughness distribution. Thus, we propose that

  16. Site-Specific Seismic Evaluation of the Ground Based Free Electron - Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE) Project White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    network during this period was a magnitude 4.29 event on January 23, 1966 at Dulce , NM, located near the New Mexico -Colorado border. 21. The data from...WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NEW MEXICO AD-A242 999 by Ronald E. Wahl, Mary E. Hynes Michael K. Sharp, Joseph P. Koester Geotechnical Laboratory...FUNDING NUMBERS Based Free Electron - Technology Integration Experiment I Ord (GBFEL-TIE) Project, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico Reabable

  17. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (<∼1 mm) at all sample sites, displaying no spatial variation. Estimates of sediment fluxes indicate that, although mineralogical differentiation of wind-transported grains occurs gradually in creep, the process is much more rapid when winds are strong enough to saltate the ⩾1 mm grains. The observed grain

  18. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    PubMed

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  19. Recent processed results from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner. [rock mapping and mineral exploration of White Sands area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Nalepta, R. F.; Vincent, R. K.; Salmon, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of mapping of rock types from the White Sands, New Mexico area using digital tape data from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner are presented. Spectral recognition techniques were used to process the geological data and signatures were extracted from the training sets using a set of promising ratio features defined by analysis of ERSIS (Earth Resources Spectral Information System). An analysis of ERSIS spectra of rock types yielded 24 promising spectral channel ratio features for separating the rock types into precambrian, calcareous, and clay materials and those containing ferric iron.

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron environment produced by the White Sands missile range fast burst reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, T.M.; Sparks, M.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the leakage neutron spectrum of the White Sands missile range fast burst reactor. The leakage spectrum is used as the source spectrum for further calculations, which are directly compared to experimental data. The calculated spectrum differs somewhat from the experimentally measured shape, particularly in the 3- to 6- MeV region. The calculated spectra have a higher spectral index (fluence{gt}10 keV/fluence{gt}3 MeV) than the experimentally determined spectra. Generally, the two methods of determining the spectra appear to be in reasonable agreement.

  1. Test wells T21, T22, and T25, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Three test wells, T21, T22, and T25, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military program sponsored by the U.S. Army in September 1982. T21 and T22 were drilled as observation wells for two old landfills. T25 was drilled as an exploratory hole to obtain lithologic and borehole-geophysical data in the vicinity of the proposed replacement well for Supply Well 15. Information obtained from these wells includes borehole-geophysical and driller's logs.

  2. Recent processed results from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner. [rock mapping and mineral exploration of White Sands area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Nalepta, R. F.; Vincent, R. K.; Salmon, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of mapping of rock types from the White Sands, New Mexico area using digital tape data from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner are presented. Spectral recognition techniques were used to process the geological data and signatures were extracted from the training sets using a set of promising ratio features defined by analysis of ERSIS (Earth Resources Spectral Information System). An analysis of ERSIS spectra of rock types yielded 24 promising spectral channel ratio features for separating the rock types into precambrian, calcareous, and clay materials and those containing ferric iron.

  3. Dust Plume Modeling from Ranges and Maneuver Areas on Fort Bliss and the White Sands Missile Range: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Barnard, James C.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Shaw, William J.

    2009-05-04

    The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating on and between the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile Range was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical move-out activities occurring on the installations were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing the modeling scenarios are summarized and results of simulations conducted under these assumptions are presented for four representative meteorological periods.

  4. Astronomy Night at the White House on This Week @NASA – October 23, 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    The stars were out for the second-ever White House Astronomy Night on Oct. 19. Attendees included NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, Deputy Administrator Dava Newman and Associate Administrator for Science, John Grunsfeld – as well as NASA’s commercial crew astronauts, who are training for future spaceflights from American soil on commercial spacecraft. President Obama hosted the event to give students an opportunity to stargaze and to promote Science, Technology, Engineering and Math or (STEM) education. Also, Social chat with Commercial Crew astronauts, Space station spacewalks previewed, SLS Critical Design Review completed, Heat shield testing completed and Exoplanet Week!

  5. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  6. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Wind blown landscapes are a default geomorphic and sedimentary environment in our solar system. Wind sand dunes are ubiquitous features on the surfaces of Earth, Mars and Titan and prevalent within the aeolian rock records of Earth and Mars. Dunes are sensitive to environmental and climatic changes and a complete understanding of this system promises a unique, robust and quantitative record of paleoclimate extending to the early histories of these worlds. However, our understanding of how aeolian dune landscapes evolve and how the details of the wind are recorded in cross-strata is limited by our lack of understanding of three-dimensional dune morphodynamics related to changing boundary conditions such as wind direction and magnitude and sediment source area. We use airborne LiDAR datasets over 40 km2 of White Sands Dune Field collected from June 2007, June 2008, January 2009, September 2009 and June 2010 to quantify 1) three-dimensional dune geometries, 2) annual and seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition across dune topography, 3) spatial changes in sediment flux related to position within the field, 4) spatial changes in sediment flux across sinuous crestlines and 5) morphologic changes through dune-dune interactions. In addition to measurements, we use the LiDAR data along with wind data from two near-by weather stations to develop a simple model that predicts depositional and stratigraphic patterns on dune lee slopes. Several challenges emerged using time series LiDAR data sets at White Sands Dune Field. The topography upon which the dunes sit is variable and rises by 16 meters over the length of the dune field. In order to compare individual dune geometries across the field and between data sets a base surface was interpolated from local minima and subtracted from the dune topography. Co-registration and error calculation between datasets was done manually using permanent vegetated features within the active dune field and structures built by the

  7. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  8. Response of vegetation stability and groundwater depth to spatial variability in sediment transport; White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masteller, C.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Bhattachan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial variability in sediment transport can drive changes in dune morphology and vegetation cover across desert dunefields. Due to the complex interaction of vegetation with both water table dynamics and the soil-salt balance a discontinuous ecosystem response may exist. A theoretical model predicts that salt-vegetation feedback can lead to two stable states; one with sparse or no vegetation cover and a shallow brackish water table, and another with dense vegetation and a deep, fresh water table (Runyan and D'Odorico, 2010). Results presented here suggest that both stable states are present at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico - a gypsum dune field with a shallow, saline groundwater table - as actively-migrating barchan dunes abruptly transition to stable, vegetated parabolic forms. Vertical profiles of soil salinity, soil moisture, and depth to groundwater table were measured across the barchan-parabolic transition. Groundwater depth drops from ~0.5 m to ~1 m across this transition, likely a response to increasing transpiration. Salinity is uniform with depth in the unvegetated dunes; parabolics with dense vegetation exhibit a strong partitioning of salts.. Groundwater salinity drops by more than an order of magnitude, while there is a spike in soil salinity at the surface; consistent with model predictions. The spatial transition in dune-plant stability may therefore be applied to understand temporal shifts in dune field stability that may result from environmental change.

  9. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  10. NASA Data Acquisitions System (NDAS) Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dawn; Duncan, Michael; Franzl, Richard; Holladay, Wendy; Marshall, Peggi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NDAS Software Project is for the development of common low speed data acquisition system software to support NASA's rocket propulsion testing facilities at John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Plum Brook Station (PBS), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about

  12. Microbial Nitrogen and Sulfur Cycles at the Playa and Playa-lake Deposits of White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glamoclija, M.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.

    2011-12-01

    A deflationary basin, Alkali Flat, of White Sands National Monument holds active playas and a playa lake, which allows for an excellent comparison of these different (hyper)saline habitats. Playa lakes are commonly studied as extreme hypersaline environments, however from our data, less studied playa sediments and coarse selenite crystals showed to be more biologically challenging environments. The Flat contains dome structures composed of coarse selenites, an alternative newly discovered microbial habitat. A comparison of environmental physicochemical conditions and molecular biology was used to determine the characteristics of microbial habitats and communities and to decipher nodes of nitrogen and sulfur cycles. On Mars, the presence of sulfate rich playa deposits has been suggested for the deposits discovered by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum. Recently, it has been suggested that the playa settings extended to a larger, Arabia Terra, zone of groundwater upwelling. The study of terrestrial analogue site with playa settings, such as Alkali Flat from New Mexico, provides an analogue system to explore and characterize the proposed habitable zones and their potential biosignatures. At White Sands, playa lake deposits held up to 55wt.% of water within the surface mirabilite crust, bottom layers composed of sulfates, clay, halite, and carbonates had less water. The lake deposits hold the only setting with reducing chemistry that was detected in the layers beneath the crust (with 3.42:1 ammonium (NH4) over nitric oxides (NO)). Playa sediments were 10 times drier than the playa lake deposits and had patchy surface crust of halite and gypsum. Selenite crystals were the driest among studied habitats (0.16wt.% H2O). Playa sediments and selenites contained 9.49 and 3.9 times more NO than NH4, suggesting importance of nitrification processes in these settings. Nitrogen fixation genes were detected only in playa lake deposits. A variety of ammonium oxidation genes

  13. Microbial Ecology of Sediment-Groundwater Interface in the Lake Lucero Playa at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, S.; Glamoclija, M.; Widanagamage, I. H.; Zeidan, M.; Potochniak, S.

    2016-12-01

    The microbial ecology of playa lake sediments at the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico is conditioned by the physical and geochemical parameters of the surrounding environment, which due to its aridity and hypersalinity is considered an extreme habitat. The goal of this study is to couple microbial diversity analysis to environmental variations in geochemistry and mineralogy to learn more about the interactions of the microorganisms with their environment and to see how similar or different the communities that live at the surface and subsurface are from those in the groundwater and whether there is any overlap between the two. The 1m depth profile collected in the middle of the modern playa consists of predominantly gypsum minerals mixed with some quartz and minor mirabilite, halite, quartz, epsomite, celestine, and clays. The cation analysis has shown variation among different depth samples; however, the pending anion analysis coupled with detailed mineralogical data will provide a better insight into inorganically driven changes within this environment. SEM/EDS analysis showed no obvious microbial morphologies or biofilm in any of the samples. However, some unusual carbon-rich structures have been seen that may possibly be of biological origin. DNA isolation has been completed and the extracts have been sent out for Illumina MiSeq 515 sequencing. OUT-based analysis will be performed using Mothur and the data will be discussed and presented at the conference. Through this study, we are hoping to reveal what survival strategies microbes utilize to live and thrive in this extreme environment. Furthermore, much of the previous microbially-themed research on playa lakes has focused on studying the microbes within the actual water columns of the playas rather than the sediments or the groundwater, so this research will expand upon a poorly-understood field of study.

  14. Rover Track in Sand Sheet Near Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-10

    The rippled surface of the first Martian sand dune ever studied up close fills this view of "High Dune" from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity rover. This site is part of the "Bagnold Dunes" field along the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp. The dunes are active, migrating up to about one yard or meter per year. The component images of this mosaic view were taken on Nov. 27, 2015, during the 1,176th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The scene is presented with a color adjustment that approximates white balancing, to resemble how the sand would appear under daytime lighting conditions on Earth. The annotated version includes superimposed scale bars of 30 centimeters (1 foot) in the foreground and 100 centimeters (3.3 feet) in the middle distance. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates Curiosity's Mastcam. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built the rover and manages the project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20169

  15. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment for the Establishment of an Air-to-Surface Helicopter Gunnery Training Target Set at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    micrograms per cubic meter 49 FW 49th Fighter Wing 58 SOW 58th Special Operations Wing AETC Air Education and Training Command AFB Air Force Base...White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and U.S. Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, 58th Special Operations Wing PROPONENT: ~~ ZSJ’~<:/;8...New Mexico is a unit of the USAF Air Education and Training Command (AETC) and is the proponent of this action. Kirtland AFB is located southeast

  17. XRD and mineralogical analysis of gypsum dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico and applications to gypsum detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, B.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; King, S. J.; Blake, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Downs, R.; Horgan, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    A field portable X-ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument was used at White Sands National Monument to perform in-situ measurements followed by laboratory analyses of the gypsum-rich dunes and to determine its modal mineralogy. The field instrument is a Terra XRD (Olympus NDT) based on the technology of the CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity which is providing the mineralogical and chemical composition of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater [1]. Using Terra at White Sands will contribute to 'ground truth' for gypsum-bearing environments on Mars. Together with data provided by VNIR spectra [2], this study clarifies our understanding of the origin and history of gypsum-rich sand dunes discovered near the northern polar region of Mars [3]. The results obtained from the field analyses performed by XRD and VNIR spectroscopy in four dunes at White Sands revealed the presence of quartz and dolomite. Their relative abundance has been estimated using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method. For this study, particulate samples of pure natural gypsum, quartz and dolomite were used to prepare calibration mixtures of gypsum-quartz and gypsum-dolomite with the 90-150μm size fractions. All single phases and mixtures were analyzed by XRD and RIR factors were calculated. Using this method, the relative abundance of quartz and dolomite has been estimated from the data collected in the field. Quartz appears to be present in low amounts (2-5 wt.%) while dolomite is present at percentages up to 80 wt.%. Samples from four dunes were collected and prepared for subsequent XRD analysis in the lab to estimate their composition and illustrate the changes in mineralogy with respect to location and grain size. Gypsum-dolomite mixtures: The dolomite XRD pattern is dominated by an intense diffraction peak at 2θ≈36 deg. which overlaps a peak of gypsum, This makes low concentrations of dolomite

  18. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a "terra-firme"-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park, northern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Bruno A F DE; Fernandes, Elpídio I; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Mendonça, Júlia G F DE; Vasconcelos, Bruno N F

    2017-01-01

    Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation of the Campinaranas types and Forest differed in biomass and species density. Ten species, endemic to Brazil, were particularly well-represented. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay, which were the most differentiating properties between Campinarana and Forest; For the separation of the Campinarana types, the main distinguishing variable was organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species and the lower similarity of Forest was related to the high occurrence of locally rare species.

  20. Implementation of NASA's Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Dave

    2001-08-01

    NASA's Sounding Rocket Program was privatized in February 1999 at NASA Wallops Island, Virginia, USA. Litton/PRC* is the prime contractor on the 10-year NASA Sounding Rocket Contract (NSROC). The NSROC team is comprised of several teammates including Litton/PRC, Orbital Sciences, Arcata, RSS and Boeing. NSROC provides NASA's Sounding Rocket Office (SRPO) with all mission/vehicle planning, design, development, integration, test, launch and post-flight analysis. The NSROC team achieved ISO 9000 registration status in August 2000. NSROC launches an average of 20 vehicles/missions per year. Launches are performed from many world-wide launch ranges including Wallops Island Flight Facility Virginia, White Sands Missile Range New Mexico, Poker Flat Alaska, Esrange Sweden, Andøya Norway, Barking Sands Hawaii, Woomera Australia, Greenland, Svalbard Norway, Fortaleza Brazil, Vandeburg AFB California, Eastern Test Range Florida, Peru, Puerto Rico, amongst others.

  1. Sand Dunes in Spring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-05

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows Mars northern-most sand dunes beginning to emerge from their winter cover of seasonal carbon dioxide dry ice. Dark, bare south-facing slopes are soaking up the warmth of the sun.

  2. Southern Sand Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-15

    At first glance, this NASA Mars Odyssey image showing impact craters and linear ridges and troughs is typical of the southern highlands. However, upon closer examination migrating sand dunes are observed within the troughs.

  3. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  4. Friction evaluation of unpaved, gypsum-surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, in support of Space Shuttle Orbiter landing and retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Horne, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Friction measurement results obtained on the gypsum surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, N. M., using an instrumented tire test vehicle and a diagonal braked vehicle, are presented. These runways were prepared to serve as backup landing and retrieval sites to the primary sites located at Dryden Flight Research Center for shuttle orbiter during initial test flights. Similar friction data obtained on paved and other unpaved surfaces was shown for comparison and to indicate that the friction capability measured on the dry gypsum surface runways is sufficient for operations with the shuttle orbiter and the Boeing 747 aircraft. Based on these ground vehicle friction measurements, estimates of shuttle orbiter and aircraft tire friction performance are presented and discussed. General observations concerning the gypsum surface characteristics are also included and several recommendations are made for improving and maintaining adequate surface friction capabilities prior to the first shuttle orbiter landing.

  5. White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    White Rock is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970 and is now shown here in an image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  6. Windblown Sand in Ganges Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    Dark, windblown sand covers intricate sedimentary rock layers in this image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) from Ganges Chasma, a canyon in the Valles Marineris system. These features are at once familiar and unusual to those familiar with Earth's beaches and deserts. Most sand dunes on Earth are made of silica-rich sand, giving them a light color; these Martian dunes owe their dark color to the iron and magnesium-rich sand found in the region. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21600

  7. Ocean Sand, Bahamas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired January 17, 2001 Though the above image may resemble a new age painting straight out of an art gallery in Venice Beach, California, it is in fact a satellite image of the sands and seaweed in the Bahamas. The image was taken by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. Tides and ocean currents in the Bahamas sculpted the sand and seaweed beds into these multicolored, fluted patterns in much the same way that winds sculpted the vast sand dunes in the Sahara Desert. Image courtesy Serge Andrefouet, University of South Florida Instrument: Landsat 7 - ETM+ Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  9. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  10. The effects of ground-water development on the water supply in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.; Hearne, Glenn A.

    1976-01-01

    Water-level declines in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex., have been accompanied by slight but progressive increases in the concentration of dissolved solids in water withdrawn from the aquifer. Projected water-level declines through 1996 are estimated from a digital simulation model to not exceed 200 feet (61 metres). A conceptual model of water quality provides three potential sources for water that is relatively high in dissolved solids: brine from the Tularosa Basin to the east, slightly saline water beneath the subjacent aquatard, and very slightly saline water from the less permeable units within the aquifer itself. Management of the well field to minimize drawdown and spread the cone of depression would minimize the rate of water-quality deterioration. A well designed monitoring network may provide advance warning of severe or rapid water-quality deterioration.. The Soledad Canyon area 10 miles (16.1 kilometres) south of the Post Headquarters offers the greatest potential for development of additional water supplies.

  11. Drilling, construction, and testing of water-supply wells 21 and 22, White Sands Missle Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, R.R.; Roybal, R.G.; Gonzales, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 1976, two municipal-supply wells (designated as well 21 and well 22 - 2,000 feet apart) were drilled at the Post Headquarters area of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The design specifications for both wells called for 24-inch diameter surface casing cemented in place to a depth of about 430 feet, with 16-inch liner and slotted casing from the surface to a depth of about 700 feet. Each well was pumped continuously for 32 hours in a step-drawdown test. This test consisted of four steps, with discharge rates varying from about 500 to 1,150 gallons per minute. The drawdown test for well 21 gave an estimated transmissivity of 17,300 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of slightly less than 11 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The step-drawdown test and later drawdown and recovery test on well 22 gave an average transmissivity of 32,600 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of about 15 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The data collected indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of well 22 is more permeable than the aquifer around well 21. Both wells furnish a satisfactory quantity of excellent-quality water. The dissolved-solids content of water from wells 21 and 22 is 232 and 301 mg/liter respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Simulated water-level and water-quality changes in the bolson-fill aquifer, Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The quantity of freshwater available in the Post Headquarters well field, White Sand Missile Range, New Mexico, is limited and its quality is threatened by saltwater enroachment. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model and a cross-sectional, density-dependent solute-transport model were constructed to simulate possible future water level declines and water quality changes in the Post Headquarters well field. A six-layer flow model was constructed using hydraulic-conductivity values in the upper 600 ft of saturated aquifer ranging from 0.1 to 10 ft/day, specific yield of 0.15, and average recharge of about 1,590 acre-ft/yr. Water levels simulated by the model closely matched measured water levels for 1948-82. Possible future water level changes for 1983-2017 were simulated using rates of groundwater withdrawal of 1,033 and 2 ,066 acre-ft/year and wastewater return flow of 0 or 30% of the groundwater withdrawal rate. The cross-sectional solute-transport model indicated that the freshwater zone is about 1,500 to 2,000 ft thick beneath the well field. Transient simulations show that solutes probably will move laterally toward the well field rather than from beneath the well field. (USGS)

  13. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  14. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Monitoring Sand Sheets and Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) captured this crater featuring sand dunes and sand sheets on its floor. What are sand sheets? Snow fall on Earth is a good example of sand sheets: when it snows, the ground gets blanketed with up to a few meters of snow. The snow mantles the ground and "mimics" the underlying topography. Sand sheets likewise mantle the ground as a relatively thin deposit. This kind of environment has been monitored by HiRISE since 2007 to look for movement in the ripples covering the dunes and sheets. This is how scientists who study wind-blown sand can track the amount of sand moving through the area and possibly where the sand came from. Using the present environment is crucial to understanding the past: sand dunes, sheets, and ripples sometimes become preserved as sandstone and contain clues as to how they were deposited The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 75 centimeters (29.5 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21757

  16. Land cover mapping at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands, New Mexico, USA using multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrefat, Habes A.; Goodell, Philip C.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this research is to map land cover patterns and to detect changes that occurred at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands using multispectral Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and hyperspectral Hyperion and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The other objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the information dimensionality limits of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, ALI, Hyperion, and AVIRIS data with respect to signal-to-noise and spectral resolution, (2) to determine the spatial distribution and fractional abundances of land cover endmembers, and (3) to check ground correspondence with satellite data. A better understanding of the spatial and spectral resolution of these sensors, optimum spectral bands and their information contents, appropriate image processing methods, spectral signatures of land cover classes, and atmospheric effects are needed to our ability to detect and map minerals from space. Image spectra were validated using samples collected from various localities across Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero. These samples were measured in the laboratory using VNIR-SWIR (0.4-2.5 μm) spectra and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. Dry gypsum deposits, wet gypsum deposits, standing water, green vegetation, and clastic alluvial sediments dominated by mixtures of ferric iron (ferricrete) and calcite were identified in the study area using Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Pixel Purity Index (PPI), and n-D Visualization. The results of MNF confirm that AVIRIS and Hyperion data have higher information dimensionality thresholds exceeding the number of available bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, and ALI data. ASTER and ALI data can be a reasonable alternative to AVIRIS and Hyperion data for the purpose of monitoring land cover, hydrology and sedimentation in the basin. The spectral unmixing analysis and dimensionality eigen

  17. NASA SAVE Award Winner

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Financial Manager and White House 2011 SAVE award winner Matthew Ritsko is seen during a television interview at NASA Headquarters shortly after meeting with President Obama at the White House on Monday, Jan. 9, 2011, in Washington. The Presidential Securing Americans' Value and Efficiency (SAVE) program gives front-line federal workers the chance to submit their ideas on how their agencies can save money and work more efficiently. Matthew's proposal calls for NASA to create a "lending library" where specialized space tools and hardware purchased by one NASA organization will be made available to other NASA programs and projects. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  1. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  2. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  3. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with topical self-application of permethrin by white-tailed deer inhabiting NASA, Beltsville, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Solberg, V B; Miller, J A; Hadfield, T; Burge, R; Schech, J M; Pound, J M

    2003-06-01

    We report the first successful area-wide reduction of Ixodes scapularis by using minimal amounts of permethrin self-applied by free-ranging white-tailed deer in as little as 3 y of nearly continuous treatment. The study to control all active stages of L. scapularis Say was initiated in April 1995, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Beltsville, Maryland (treated location), and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland (non-treated location). The locations had similar flora and fauna, and pre-treatment sampling (April to October 1995) of deer, plots, and mice for I. scapularis indicated nearly similar tick populations at both locations. After pre-treatment sampling, 4 deer '4-poster' stations were placed at NASA, while the control area received none. Ten percent permethrin, supplied to 4 roller covers on each station, was passively transferred to the head, neck, and ears of free-ranging deer feeding at the stations. This treatment resulted in elimination of adult I. scapularis on sampled deer (100% control) by the 2nd y of treatment and reductions of immature tick stages on mice. During the 3rd y of treatment, adult, nymphal, and larval questing ticks were reduced by 91-100% from sampled plots, and nymphal and larval ticks were reduced by 70-95% on sampled mice.

  5. A technician leaves the 'white room,' the access point for entering the Space Shuttle Discovery during post-flight processing at NASA DFRC in California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-14

    A technician leaves the 'white room', the access point for entering the Space Shuttle Discovery during post-flight processing in the Mate-Demate Device (MDD) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California. The gantry-like MDD structure is used for servicing the shuttle orbiters in preparation for their ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, including mounting the shuttle atop NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. Space Shuttle Discovery landed safely at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California at 5:11:22 a.m. PDT, August 9, 2005, following the very successful 14-day STS-114 return to flight mission. During their two weeks in space, Commander Eileen Collins and her six crewmates tested out new safety procedures and delivered supplies and equipment the International Space Station. Discovery spent two weeks in space, where the crew demonstrated new methods to inspect and repair the Shuttle in orbit. The crew also delivered supplies, outfitted and performed maintenance on the International Space Station. A number of these tasks were conducted during three spacewalks. In an unprecedented event, spacewalkers were called upon to remove protruding gap fillers from the heat shield on Discovery's underbelly. In other spacewalk activities, astronauts installed an external platform onto the Station's Quest Airlock and replaced one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes. Inside the Station, the STS-114 crew conducted joint operations with the Expedition 11 crew. They unloaded fresh supplies from the Shuttle and the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Before Discovery undocked, the crews filled Raffeallo with unneeded items and returned to Shuttle payload bay. Discovery launched on July 26 and spent almost 14 days on orbit.

  6. White paper: A plan for cooperation between NASA and DARPA to establish a center for advanced architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.; Adams, G. B., III; Brown, R. L.; Kanerva, P.; Leiner, B. M.; Raugh, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Large, complex computer systems require many years of development. It is recognized that large scale systems are unlikely to be delivered in useful condition unless users are intimately involved throughout the design process. A mechanism is described that will involve users in the design of advanced computing systems and will accelerate the insertion of new systems into scientific research. This mechanism is embodied in a facility called the Center for Advanced Architectures (CAA). CAA would be a division of RIACS (Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science) and would receive its technical direction from a Scientific Advisory Board established by RIACS. The CAA described here is a possible implementation of a center envisaged in a proposed cooperation between NASA and DARPA.

  7. Historical Evolution of NASA Standard Materials Testing with Hypergolic Propellants and Ammonia (NASA Standard 6001 Test 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has performed testing of hazardous and reactive aerospace fluids, including hypergolic propellants, with materials since the 1960s with the Apollo program. Amongst other test activities, Test 15 is a NASA standard test for evaluating the reactivity of materials with selected aerospace fluids, in particular hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, uns-dimethylhydrazine, Aerozine 50, dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizers, and ammonia. This manuscript provides an overview of the history of Test 15 over a timeline ranging from prior to its development and first implementation as a NASA standard test in 1974 to its current refinement. Precursor documents to NASA standard tests, as they are currently known, are reviewed. A related supplementary test, international standardization, and enhancements to Test 15 are also discussed. Because WSTF was instrumental in the development and implementation of Test 15, WSTF experience and practices are referred to in this manuscript.

  8. The GBFEL-TIE (Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) Sample Survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    most complex period of Jornada Mogollon logical Project along the lower Rio Grande (Marshall andprenistory and as the period of g oreatest d pendence...other words, these typologies assume that variability in tial formulation. The model proposed by Hard (1983) is site size and complexity primarily...that, density, complexity , and ultimately, of significance of in the central basin, all critical resources except water are cultural resources

  9. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    President Barack Obama spoke at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014 at the White House. NASA Administrator Charles Bolden attended and was recognized by the President at the fourth White House Science Fair, which included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Final Environmental Assessment of the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-Off Missile (JASSM) Development and Evaluation Testing, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Walk, Haydel, and Assoc. 1989). 3.2.3 San Andres Mountain Geology The San Andres Mountains form a portion of a geologic feature known as the Rio ...which are located east of the Rio Grande River. The Jornada del Muerto Basin is considered part of the Rio Grande Rift (WSMR, 1998). The basin’s...carried into the basin during flooding of the Rio Grande River, lake deposits, and alluvial sands. A few Cretaceous outcrops and small lava flows are

  11. Sand Avalanches in Meroe Patera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-04

    One of the major extended-mission objectives for HiRISE has been to re-image parts of the surface to look for changes. Such observations can tell us what processes are active today. This image was acquired as part of a series to look for sand movement in Meroe Patera, not far from the active sand dunes of Nili Patera. Our image shows that sand dunes are missing downwind (to the left) of a crater near the center of the observation, because sand falls into the crater and is trapped. Zooming in on the sand-coated crater wall and comparing it with older images revealed a surprise: several major sand flows slumped down into the crater (towards the upper left), leaving small ridges (called "levees") along their path and rounded piles of sand at the end. What caused these slumps? Dry ice, which is thought to cause flows in some gullies and the North polar dunes, does not occur this close to the equator. There is no sign of recurring slope lineae, the leading candidates for liquid on the Martian surface. Instead, it is most likely that these were dry flows. They are far larger than the avalanches commonly seen on sand dunes, typified by the shorter light streaks visible in the lower left part of the "after" image, so they might have been triggered by a Mars-quake or an unusually strong wind. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19305

  12. Robert White, Bill Dana, Neil Armstrong and Joe Engle were on hand when astronaut wings were presented to the three NASA pilots who flew the X-15 into space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-23

    Four of the five surviving X-15 pilots were on hand when astronaut wings were presented to the three NASA pilots who flew the X-15 rocket plane into space in the 1960s, Bill Dana, Joe Walker (deceased) and Jack McKay (deceased). From left, Robert White, Dana, Neil Armstrong, Joe Engle.

  13. Migrating and Static Sand Ripples on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-28

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is of one many that highlights new discoveries; one of these is that many sand dunes and ripples are moving, some at rates of several meters per year.

  14. Gully Changes on Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-29

    The gullies on a Martian sand dune in this trio of images from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter deceptively resemble features on Earth that are carved by streams of water. The dunes lie inside Matara Crater.

  15. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11099

  16. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, far left at table, answers a students question at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. Garver is joined on the panel by NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, center, and NASA Aerospace Engineer Sabrina Thompson. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Mechanical Properties of Alluvium from Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada; Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range, Arizona; and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-14

    ortepoesdCRS Dry sad ueBmi00n unr age rzn JD zagie 1960eeec ) 1-rv j -r - I A Table 1. Specific gravity and Atterberg limits for remolded Neilis Baseline sand...ld stress conditions in toe vicinity of a buri.o 7go - explsi~ etest . A total Of four strain paths were fo,)lowed and are eojj4 as the 2A, 2B, 3A -and...Were- peo,, rmed and the nominaliC? aewe :3 1zes for- ’ in mnAte" i li andj test3 type ag ; gven i n Tanle ".Toer, I: those3 tet Jr i1~~e in to ft) low

  18. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Administrator Lori Garver listens to astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson (off camera) at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

    2014-11-01

    With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

  20. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  1. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-08

    "NASA Update" program with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and NASA Acting Asistant Administrator for Public Affairs Bob Jacobs as moderator, NASA Headquarters, Thursday, April 8, 2010 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Sand Sources Near Athabasca Valles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    This image captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a small channel cutting into young volcanic lavas in a region where massive catastrophic flooding took place in the relatively recent past. The Athabasca Valles region includes a vast lava flow, thought to be the youngest on Mars, with even younger outflow channels that were carved by running water. The source of the water is believed to be the Cerberus Fossae valleys to the north, which may have penetrated to an over-pressurized aquifer in the subsurface. Nowadays, erosion by gravity, wind, and frost gradually wears down the rims of the outflow channels. In this scene, we see dark materials along the channel rim that were probably exposed by this erosion. The dark materials are less red than the surrounding surface and so they appear blue in this enhanced color picture. Viewed close up, the dark materials show ripples that suggest they are made up of mobile sand. It is possible that this sand originated elsewhere and simply collected where we see it today, but the fact that sand is not found elsewhere in the scene suggest to us that it is eroding out of the volcanic layers at the retreating rim of the channel. Sand sources are important because mobile sand grains have only a limited lifetime, wearing down and chipping apart each time they impact the surface. Erosion of the volcanic materials in this region may provide sands to replace those that are destroyed. Few such sand sources have so far been identified on Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18889

  3. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Obama recognizes NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during his remarks at the 3rd Annual White House Science Fair in the East Room of the White House on Monday, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who became widely known for his mohawk hairstyle during the broadcast of the Curiosity landing on Mars, is seen here discussing a project with a participant in the White House Science Fair. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  6. Martian Sand Disturbed by Rover Wheel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-10

    This view shows grains of sand where NASA's Curiosity Mars rover was driven into a shallow sand sheet near a large dune. The disturbance by the wheel exposed interior material of the sand body, including finer sand grains than on the undisturbed surface. Sunlight is coming from the left. The scene covers an area 1.3 inches by 1.0 inch (3.3 by 2.5 centimeters). This is a focus-merge product from Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), combining multiple images taken at different focus settings to yield sharper focus at varying distances from the lens. The component images were taken on Dec. 3, 2015, during the 1,182nd Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20170

  7. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  8. River of Sand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-21

    A dominant driver of surface processes on Mars today is aeolian (wind) activity. In many cases, sediment from this activity is trapped in low-lying areas, such as craters. Aeolian features in the form of dunes and ripples can occur in many places on Mars depending upon regional wind regimes. The Cerberus Fossae are a series of discontinuous fissures along dusty plains in the southeastern region of Elysium Planitia. This rift zone is thought to be the result of combined volcano-tectonic processes. Dark sediment has accumulated in areas along the floor of these fissures as well as inactive ripple-like aeolian bedforms known as "transverse aeolian ridges" (TAR). Viewed through HiRISE infrared color, the basaltic sand lining the fissures' floor stands out as deep blue against the light-toned dust covering the region. This, along with the linearity of the fissures and the wave-like appearance of the TAR, give the viewer an impression of a river cutting through the Martian plains. However, this river of sand does not appear to be flowing. Analyses of annual monitoring images of this region have not detected aeolian activity in the form of ripple migration thus far. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21063

  9. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  13. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  14. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Astronaut and Expeditions 23 and 24 Flight Engineer, Tracy Caldwell Dyson, far left, speaks at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Caldwell Dyson recently returned from a six-month stay aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Astronaut and Expeditions 23 and 24 Flight Engineer, Tracy Caldwell Dyson, speaks at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Caldwell Dyson recently returned from a six-month stay aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-15

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr., answers questions during a NASA Update on, Tuesday, Feb. 15, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver took the time discuss the agency’s fiscal year 2012 budget request and to take questions from employees. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  18. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  19. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  20. Nodules of Cemented Sand Grains Within Martian Sandstone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-11

    This view from NASA Curiosity shows nodules exposed in sandstone that is part of the Stimson geological unit on Mount Sharp, Mars. The nodules can be seen to consist of grains of sand cemented together.

  1. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  2. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Planetary Society Executive Director and “Bill Nye the Science Guy” host Bill Nye, right, photographs himself with NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi, during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  4. Sand Dune Field in Richardson Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a view of the sand dune field in Richardson Crater covered with seasonal frost. The frost is a combination of frozen carbon dioxide and some water ice that covers the dunes in the winter and spring.

  5. Windblown Sand from the Rocknest Drift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity acquired close-up views of sands in the Rocknest wind drift to document the nature of the material that the rover scooped, sieved and delivered to the CheMin and SAM instruments in October and November 2012.

  6. Scoop Marks in the Sand at Rocknest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This is a view of the third left and fourth right trenches made by the 1.6-inch-wide 4-centimeter-wide scoop on NASA Mars rover Curiosity in October 2012 and shows some of the details regarding the properties of the Rocknest wind drift sand.

  7. NASA Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

  8. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-15

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver listens as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden answers a question during a NASA Update on Tuesday, Feb. 15, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden and Garver took the time discuss the agency’s fiscal year 2012 budget request and to take questions from employees. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. NASA Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

  10. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. left, and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver are seen during their first NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. speaks during his first NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator, was joined by Deputy Administrator Lori Garver where they took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-15

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr., and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver deliver a NASA Update on, Tuesday, Feb. 15, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time discuss the agency’s fiscal year 2012 budget request and to take questions from employees. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. NASA Update.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-15

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver answers questions during a NASA Update on, Tuesday, Feb. 15, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Garver and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden took the time discuss the agency’s fiscal year 2012 budget request and to take questions from employees. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-15

    NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Communications Bob Jacobs moderates the NASA Update program, Tuesday, Feb. 15, 2011 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA's 12th Administrator Charles Bolden and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver took the time discuss the agency’s fiscal year 2012 budget request and to take questions from employees. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. A NASA technician paints NASA's first Orion full-scale abort flight test crew module.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-31

    A full-scale flight-test mockup of the Constellation program's Orion crew vehicle arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late March 2008 to undergo preparations for the first short-range flight test of the spacecraft's astronaut escape system later that year. Engineers and technicians at NASA's Langley Research Center fabricated the structure, which precisely represents the size, outer shape and mass characteristics of the Orion space capsule. The Orion crew module mockup was ferried to NASA Dryden on an Air Force C-17. After painting in the Edwards Air Force Base paint hangar, the conical capsule was taken to Dryden for installation of flight computers, instrumentation and other electronics prior to being sent to the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for integration with the escape system and the first abort flight test in late 2008. The tests were designed to ensure a safe, reliable method of escape for astronauts in case of an emergency.

  16. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, right, looks on as NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. speaks during his first NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, second right on stage, speaks as NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. looks on during a NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    Alan Ladwig, senior advisor to the NASA Administator, far left, makes a point as he introduces NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver at a NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the White Rock feature on Mars in both infrared left and visible right wavelengths. White Rock is the unofficial name for this landform that was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970.

  20. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Barack Obama speaks as he hosts the third-ever White House Science Fair in the East Room at the White House in Washington, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP shows off its new blue-and-white livery at L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP is shown at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas, where major modifications and installation was performed. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  2. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, speaks with a member of "invenTeam" at the White House Science Fair. Olivia Van Amsterdam, 16, Katelyn Sweeney, 17, and their team of student engineers from Natick, MA, invented a 120 lb remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that can help search-and-rescue dive teams search for bodies in dangerous, icy waters. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  4. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    Valerie Jarrett, senior advisor and assistant to the president for Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs for the Obama administration, speaks at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  6. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. is seen through a television camera monitor during his first NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator, was joined by Deputy Administrator Lori Garver where they took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. left on stage, speaks during his first NASA Update as Deputy Administrator Lori Garver looks on at right,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. left, speaks during his first NASA Update as Deputy Administrator Lori Garver looks on,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver makes a point as she speaks during a NASA Update with Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr.,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr., left on stage, speaks during his first NASA Update as Deputy Administrator Lori Garver looks on at right,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. is seen on a television camera monitor while speaking at his first NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator, was joined by Deputy Administrator Lori Garver where they took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr., left on stage, speaks during his first NASA Update as Deputy Administrator Lori Garver looks on,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, NASA's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. NASA-STD-6001B Test 7: Impact of Test Methodology and Detection Advancements on the Obsolescence of Historical Offgas Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Woods, Brenton; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Perez, Horacio; Ryder, Valerie; Tapia, Alma S.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA-STD-6001B states "all nonmetals tested in accordance with NASA-STD-6001 should be retested every 10 years or as required by the responsible program/project." The retesting of materials helps ensure the most accurate data are used in material selection. Manufacturer formulas and processes can change over time, sometimes without an update to product number and material information. Material performance in certain NASA-STD-6001 tests can be particularly vulnerable to these changes, such as material offgas (Test 7). In addition, Test 7 analysis techniques at NASA White Sands Test Facility were dramatically enhanced in the early 1990s, resulting in improved detection capabilities. Low level formaldehyde identification was improved again in 2004. Understanding the limitations in offgas analysis data prior to 1990 puts into question the validity and current applicability of that data. Case studies on Super Koropon (Registered trademark) and Aeroglaze (Registered trademark) topcoat highlight the importance of material retesting.

  14. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  15. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop, convened May 1-3, 2002 at NASA's Ames Research Center. Sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), this programmatic workshop is held periodically by NASA to discuss the current state of knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of laboratory astrophysics and to identify the science priorities (needs) in support of NASA's space missions. An important goal of the Workshop is to provide input to OSS in the form of a white paper for incorporation in its strategic planning. This report comprises a record of the complete proceedings of the Workshop and the Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper drafted at the Workshop.

  16. NASA Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-20

    Alan Ladwig, Senior Advisor to the NASA Administrator, introduces Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver at a NASA Update,Tuesday, July 21, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Bolden, the agency's 12th Administrator and Garver took the time to introduce themselves and outline their vision for the agency going forward. No questions were taken during the session. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    A participant at a NASA Social in Washington engages in social media as he listens to astronaut Joe Acaba answer questions, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 at NASA Headquarters. NASA astronaut Joe Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    NASA astronaut Joe Acaba answers questions at a behind-the-scenes NASA Social at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 in Washington. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    NASA astronaut Joe Acaba speaks at a behind-the-scenes NASA Social at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 in Washington. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    NASA astronaut Joe Acaba, center, greets participants at a behind-the-scenes NASA Social in Washington, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 at NASA Headquarters. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    A NASA Social participant tweets during as astronaut Joe Acaba answers questions from the audience at NASA Headquaters, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 in Washington. NASA astronaut Acaba launched to the ISS on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    A participant at a NASA Social in Washington listens to astronaut Joe Acaba answer questions about his time living aboard the International Space Station, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 at NASA Headquarters. NASA astronaut Acaba launched to the ISS on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    NASA astronaut Joe Acaba answers questions at a NASA Social at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 in Washington. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-19

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and Kennedy Space Center director Robert Cabana appear at the NASA Social event, Friday morning, May 19, 2012, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-18

    Ed Mango, of the NASA Commercial Crew Office, speaks during a NASA Social, Friday, May 18, 2012, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  7. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-19

    A NASA Social follower holds up a mobile device as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and Kennedy Space Center director Robert Cabana appear at the NASA Social event, Friday morning, May 19, 2012, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  9. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  10. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  11. NASA chief scientist visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-19

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Waleed Abdalati visited Stennis Space Center on July 19, to learn about the extensive science capabilities onsite. Shown at right are: (seated, l to r), Stennis Center Director Patrick Scheuermann; Dr. Abdalati; U.S. Navy Rear Adm. Jonathan White; NOAA National Data Buoy Center Program Manager Shannon McArthur; (standing, l to r) Stennis Project Directorate Assistant Director Anne Peek; Stennis Applied Science & Technology Project Office Chief Duane Armstrong; and Stennis Project Directorate Director Keith Brock.

  12. DVB-S2 Experiment over NASA's Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Evans, Michael A.; Tollis, Nicholas S.

    2017-01-01

    The commercial DVB-S2 standard was successfully demonstrated over NASAs Space Network (SN) and the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) during testing conducted September 20-22nd, 2016. This test was a joint effort between NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to evaluate the performance of DVB-S2 as an alternative to traditional NASA SN waveforms. Two distinct sets of tests were conducted: one was sourced from the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, an external payload on the International Space Station, and the other was sourced from GRCs S-band ground station to emulate a Space Network user through TDRSS. In both cases, a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver made by Newtec was used to receive the signal at White Sands Complex. Using SCaN Testbed, peak data rates of 5.7 Mbps were demonstrated. Peak data rates of 33 Mbps were demonstrated over the GRC S-band ground station through a 10MHz channel over TDRSS, using 32-amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) and a rate 89 low density parity check (LDPC) code. Advanced features of the DVB-S2 standard were evaluated, including variable and adaptive coding and modulation (VCMACM), as well as an adaptive digital pre-distortion (DPD) algorithm. These features provided additional data throughput and increased link performance reliability. This testing has shown that commercial standards are a viable, low-cost alternative for future Space Network users.

  13. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Director of Strategic Communications and Senior Science and Technology Policy Analyst, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Rick Weiss, left, “Big Bang Theory” co-creator Bill Prady, center, and NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi talk during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  15. NASA Computational Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This blue sky study was conducted in order to study the feasibility and scope of the notion of Computational Mobility to potential NASA applications such as control of multiple robotic platforms. The study was started on July lst, 2003 and concluded on September 30th, 2004. During the course of that period, four meetings were held for the participants to meet and discuss the concept, its viability, and potential applications. The study involved, at various stages, the following personnel: James Allen (IHMC), Albert0 Canas (IHMC), Daniel Cooke (Texas Tech), Kenneth Ford (IHMC - PI), Patrick Hayes (IHMC), Butler Hine (NASA), Robert Morris (NASA), Liam Pedersen (NASA), Jerry Pratt (IHMC), Raul Saavedra (IHMC), Niranjan Suri (IHMC), and Milind Tambe (USC). A white paper describing the notion of a Process Integrated Mechanism (PIM) was generated as a result of this study. The white paper is attached to this report. In addition, a number of presentations were generated during the four meetings, which are included in this report. Finally, an execution platform and a simulation environment were developed, which are available upon request from Niranjan Suri (nsuri@,ihmc.us).

  16. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Joey Hudy demonstrates his Intel Galileo-based 10x10x10 LED Cube during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    NASA Social participants are reflected in the sunglasses of former NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, now a senior engineer working on astronaut safety and mission assurance for Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, as he speaks with them, Friday, May 18, 2012, at the launch complex where the company's Falcon 9 rocket is set to launch early Friday morning at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. NASA Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

  19. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-18

    Gwynne Shotwell, President of SpaceX, speaks during a NASA Social, Friday, May 18, 2012, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    A participant at a NASA Social in Washington asks astronaut Joe Acaba a question, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012, at NASA Headquarters. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    NASA Social participants listen as astronaut Joe Acaba answers questions about his time living aboard the International Space Station at NASA Headquarters, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 in Washington. Acaba launched to the International Space Station on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    Models of various rockets line a table at a NASA Social, Friday, May 18, 2012, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  3. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    Participants with the NASA Social stand together, Friday, May 18, 2012, in front of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. About 50 NASA Social followers attended an event as part of activities surrounding the launch of Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, demonstration mission of the company's Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. NASA Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

  5. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 December 2003

    This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 December 2003

    This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  8. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  9. NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-04

    A participant at a NASA Social in Washington tweets as he listens to astronaut Joe Acaba answer questions about his time living aboard the International Space Station, Tuesday, Dec. 4, 2012 at NASA Headquarters. NASA astronaut Joe Acaba launched to the ISS on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft May 15, 2012, spending 123 days aboard as a flight engineer of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. He recently returned to Earth on Sept. 17 after four months in low earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. NASA Solve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Solve lists opportunities available to the general public to contribute to solving tough problems related to NASA’s mission through challenges, prize competitions, and crowdsourcing activities...

  11. Snow White Trench After Scraping

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-24

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench informally named Snow White after a series of scrapings were done in preparation for collecting a sample for analysis from a hard subsurface layer.

  12. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  13. ISO 15859 Propellant and Fluid Specifications: A Review and Comparison with Military and NASA Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Baker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents an overview of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15859 International Standard for Space Systems Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods Parts 1 through 13 issued in June 2004. These standards establish requirements for fluid characteristics, sampling, and test methods for 13 fluids of concern to the propellant community and propellant characterization laboratories: oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, helium, nitrogen tetroxide, monomethylhydrazine, hydrazine, kerosene, argon, water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and breathing air. A comparison of the fluid characteristics, sampling, and test methods required by the ISO standards to the current military and NASA specifications, which are in use at NASA facilities and elsewhere, is presented. Many ISO standards composition limits and other content agree with those found in the applicable parts of NASA SE-S-0073, NASA SSP 30573, military performance standards and details, and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) commodity specifications. The status of a current project managed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to rewrite these documents is discussed.

  14. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, Edwin J.

    2003-01-01

    The political, economic, and enivronmental conditions of the twenty-first century demand new goals for NASA. These goals include the imaging of habitable extrasolar planets, expanded commercialization of low earth orbit, clean and rapid air transportation, environment protection, and distance learning. The presentation recommends strategies for pursuing these goals, and summarizes activities at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  17. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Crystal Brockington and Aaron Barron, both 18 years old, designed a more efficient and cost effective solar cell that harnesses energy without cadmium, which has been shown to be harmful to the environment. They were selected to participate in the White House Science Fair after they were awarded the High School Grand Prize at the Siemens We Can Change the World Challenge. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Sand consolidation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1984-01-24

    Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

  19. The Flow of Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yersel, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration of the flow of sand through an orifice at the bottom of a sandbox. Advocates the experiment's use with dimensional analysis for students in an introductory physics course. (WRM)

  20. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  1. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  2. Change Observed in Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-16

    This animation flips back and forth between views taken in 2010 and 2014 of a Martian sand dune at the edge of Mount Sharp, documenting dune activity. The images are from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. They cover an area about 740 feet (about 225 meters) wide, showing a site called "Dune 2" in the "Bagnold Dunes" dune field. NASA's Curiosity Mars rover will observe this dune up close on the rover's route up Mount Sharp. North is toward the top. The edge of the dune at the crescent-shaped slip face on the south edge advances slightly during the four-year period between the dates of the images. Figure A is an annotated version with an arrow indicating the location of this change. The lighting angle is different in the two images, resulting in numerous changes in shadows. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20161

  3. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-04-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectional wind. The model is simply based on two physical ingredients, namely, the sand capture process at the slip face and the cross-wind sand transport. The efficiency of the sand capture process is taken to be dependent of the dune height and lateral diffusion is considered on both the windward and lee sides of the dune. In addition, the dune cross section is assumed to be scale invariant and is approximated by a triangular shape. In this framework, the dune dynamics is reduced to the motion of a string representing the dune crest line and is expressed as a set of two coupled nonlinear differential equations. This simple model reveals its ability to reproduce basic features of barchan and transverse dunes. Analytical predictions are drawn concerning dune equilibrium shape, stability and long-term dynamics. We derive, in particular, analytical solutions for barchan dunes, yielding explicit relationships between their shape and the lateral sand diffusion; and analytical predictions for the migration speed and equilibrium sand flux. A stability analysis of a rectilinear transverse dune allows us to predict analytically the wavelength emerging from fluctuations of the dune crest. We also determine the characteristic time needed for the rectilinear dune to fragment into a multitude of barchan dunes. These outcomes show that extremely simple ingredients can generate complex patterns for migrating dunes. From several dune field data, we are able to determine values of the model

  4. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  5. VNIR reflectance spectra of gypsum mixtures for comparison with White Sands National Monument, New Mexico (WSNM) dune samples as an analog study of the Olympia Undae region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; Lafuente, B.; Garcia, G. C.; Horgan, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dunes at WSNM are being used as an analog study area for gypsum-rich dunes near the northern polar region of Mars. Samples were collected from 4 dunes at WSNM for this study. In order to determine abundances of the gypsum, quartz and dolomite present in the dune sand, size separates (<45, 45-90, 90-150, 150-250, >250 μm) were prepared for gypsum, quartz and dolomite, mixtures were prepared using the 90-150 μm size fraction, and all samples were characterized in the lab. Analyses of the VNIR spectral data are presented here (Figs. 1-2) and analyses of the XRD data are presented in a companion abstract [1]. The majority of the dune sand is dominated by gypsum, while the coarse grains at some ripples are largely dolomite. Mid-IR spectra will be evaluated as well. Gypsum/Dolomite Mixtures (Fig. 1) There is a clear progression of albedo and band strength in these mixture spectra as one mineral is increased and the other decreased. The mixture spectra are dominated by the gypsum bands for mixtures that are gypsum rich (≥50wt.% gypsum) including a triplet at 1.446-1.535 μm, plus bands at 1.749, 1.945, 2.217 and 2.267 μm. When mixtures become predominantly dolomite (10/90 & 20/80 mixtures), the gypsum bands are significantly weaker, while the dolomite band at 2.322 becomes much more visible. Gypsum/Quartz Mixtures (Fig. 2) The gypsum/quartz mixture spectra are dominated to an even greater extent by gypsum, resulting in readily observable gypsum features for spectra of samples with only 10 wt.% gypsum. [1] Lafuente et al. (2013) AGU, submitted.

  6. NASA Spacecraft Shows Location of China Quake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft highlights the epicenter of a powerful magnitude 6.6 earthquake which struck Sichuan Province in southwest China on April 20, 2013. Vegetation is displayed in red; clouds and snow are in white.

  7. NASA MISR Views Kruger National Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-06

    This nadir camera view was captured by NASA Terra spacecraft around Kruger National Park in NE South Africa. The bright white feature is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique.

  8. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Made In Space company displays some of the tools that can be made by their 3D printer during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    A prototype model of the Made In Space 3D printer is on display during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses with an all-girl engineering team that participated in the White House Science Fair. "Team Rocket Power" was one of 100 teams that qualified for last year’s Team America Rocketry Challenge (TARC). Nia'mani Robinson, 15, Jasmyn Logan, 15, and Rebecca Chapin-Ridgely, 17, gave up their weekends and free time after school to build and test their bright purple rocket, which is designed to launch to an altitude of about 750 ft, and then return a “payload” (an egg) to the ground safely. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  14. A study of morphology, provenance, and movement of desert sand seas in Africa, Asia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, E. D.; Breed, C. S.; Harris, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Examination of sand samples from both dune and interdune areas at White Sands, New Mexico, indicates marked differences in composition and texture between these two types of facies. If these differences are characteristics of dune fields in general, information concerning them may help to explain the contrast in appearance of the two kinds of sand areas on ERTS imagery and to permit interpretation of similar features in remote areas, such as Saudi Arabia.

  15. Kentucky tar sand project

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

    1985-03-01

    Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

  16. Results of the Test Program for Replacement of AK-225G Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance chlorofluorocarbon-113 was banned, NASA's propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center and Stennis Space Center have relied upon the solvent Asahiklin AK-225 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225ca/cb or HCFC-225ca/cb) and, more recently AK-225G (the single isomer form, HCFC-225cb) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of Class II Ozone Depleting Substances, including AK-225G, was prohibited in the United States by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, NASA test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a solvent replacement for AK-225G that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. This paper summarizes the tests performed, results, and lessons learned.

  17. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  18. Laser Hit on Martian Sand Target, Before and After

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    The Chemistry and Camera ChemCam instrument on NASA Mars rover Curiosity used its laser and spectrometers to examine what chemical elements are in a drift of Martian sand during the mission 74th Martian day, or sol Oct. 20, 2012.

  19. Sand Dunes with Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Enabling knowledge discovery: taxonomy development for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, J.; Busch, J.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper provides the background for why it is important to take the next steps with the NASA taxonomy including test and validation, XML schema development, integration with the FirstGov federal search engine, the OneNASA portal and its supporting web content management system.

  19. Enabling knowledge discovery: taxonomy development for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, J.; Busch, J.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper provides the background for why it is important to take the next steps with the NASA taxonomy including test and validation, XML schema development, integration with the FirstGov federal search engine, the OneNASA portal and its supporting web content management system.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  7. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  8. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  9. Sand Penetration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Berry, Don; Lawhorn, William

    2009-06-01

    In an experimental program, steel bullets and short cylinders, and tungsten alloy rods were shot into dry silica sand at 600 to 1100 m/s. The rods included finsets that were designed for aerodynamic stabilization. The fins also apparently provided trajectory stabilization within the sand as well. Time-of-arrival screens allowed measurement of velocity. Analysis of those data indicated that drag coefficients increased as projectiles slowed down. Comparison with previous data indicates there was a slight increase in drag coefficient of rods over expected values for unfinned rods; however, the net result was penetration normalized by length was as high as 40, depending on nose shape. It was found that when the velocity exceeded about 80 m/s (which is close to the speed of sound in sand) sand particles were broken down into their constituent grains, resulting in a decrease in size by about 1000. Normalized penetration is expected to scale as kinetic energy per unit area, and it was significantly higher for the rods than for the other projectiles. This is attributed to stabilization from interaction of the fins with the cavity wall.

  10. Sand supply to beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  11. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  12. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  13. The Engineering of Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are beach replenishment, and hard structures in relation to the sand transportation system. Failures of current engineering practices and the resulting costs to the taxpayer are stressed. Equations and parameters used to make predictions of beach durability are criticized. (CW)

  14. Sand and sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Pettijohn, F.J.; Potter, P.E.; Siever, R.

    1987-01-01

    Here is a new, second edition of a classical textbook in sedimentology, petrology, and petrography of sand and sandstones. It has been extensively revised and updated, including: new techniques and their utility; new literature; new illustrations; new, explicitly stated problems for the student; and a wider scope.

  15. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  16. NASA visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-30

    NASA Associate Administrator for Education Leland Melvin speaks with 7-year-old Ben at the beginning of a presentation to Mississippi 4-H students at John C. Stennis Space Center on July 30, 2012. Melvin predicted Ben could be a future astronaut, urging students to discover and prepare to make their dreams into reality as well.

  17. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 27 October 2003

    This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 27 October 2003

    This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    provide some sense of local biodiversity), opening the mind and the culture to the Earth and its environment, using as drivers a poor material such as the sand and its story telling hidden inside a simple color (black or white).

  1. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  2. Dust Devil Passes Near Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-27

    This image from an animation shows effects of one Martian day of wind blowing sand underneath NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on a non-driving day for the rover. Each image was taken just after sundown by the rover's downward-looking Mars Descent Imager (MARDI). The area of ground shown in the images spans about 3 feet (about 1 meter) left-to-right. The first image was taken on Jan. 23, 2017, during the 1,587th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. Figure 1 above is the image with a scale bar in centimeters. The second was taken on Jan. 24, 2017 (Sol 1588). The day-apart images by MARDI were taken as a part of investigation of wind's effects during Martian summer, the windiest time of year in Gale Crater. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21143

  3. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water.

    This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008).

    The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Maker Faire trailer is seen outside the rose garden during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    President Barack Obama delivers his remarks at the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center personnel accompany NASA's first Orion full-scale abort flight test crew module as it heads to its new home.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-01

    A full-scale flight-test mockup of the Constellation program's Orion crew vehicle arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late March 2008 to undergo preparations for the first short-range flight test of the spacecraft's astronaut escape system later that year. Engineers and technicians at NASA's Langley Research Center fabricated the structure, which precisely represents the size, outer shape and mass characteristics of the Orion space capsule. The Orion crew module mockup was ferried to NASA Dryden on an Air Force C-17. After painting in the Edwards Air Force Base paint hangar, the conical capsule was taken to Dryden for installation of flight computers, instrumentation and other electronics prior to being sent to the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for integration with the escape system and the first abort flight test in late 2008. The tests were designed to ensure a safe, reliable method of escape for astronauts in case of an emergency.

  8. NASA's first Orion full-scale abort flight test crew module was placed in NASA Dryden's Abort Flight Test integration area for equipment installation.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-01

    A full-scale flight-test mockup of the Constellation program's Orion crew vehicle arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late March 2008 to undergo preparations for the first short-range flight test of the spacecraft's astronaut escape system later that year. Engineers and technicians at NASA's Langley Research Center fabricated the structure, which precisely represents the size, outer shape and mass characteristics of the Orion space capsule. The Orion crew module mockup was ferried to NASA Dryden on an Air Force C-17. After painting in the Edwards Air Force Base paint hangar, the conical capsule was taken to Dryden for installation of flight computers, instrumentation and other electronics prior to being sent to the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for integration with the escape system and the first abort flight test in late 2008. The tests were designed to ensure a safe, reliable method of escape for astronauts in case of an emergency.

  9. A NASA painter applies the first primer coat to NASA's Orion full-scale abort flight test crew module in the Edwards Air Force Base paint hangar.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-29

    A full-scale flight-test mockup of the Constellation program's Orion crew vehicle arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late March 2008 to undergo preparations for the first short-range flight test of the spacecraft's astronaut escape system later that year. Engineers and technicians at NASA's Langley Research Center fabricated the structure, which precisely represents the size, outer shape and mass characteristics of the Orion space capsule. The Orion crew module mockup was ferried to NASA Dryden on an Air Force C-17. After painting in the Edwards Air Force Base paint hangar, the conical capsule was taken to Dryden for installation of flight computers, instrumentation and other electronics prior to being sent to the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for integration with the escape system and the first abort flight test in late 2008. The tests were designed to ensure a safe, reliable method of escape for astronauts in case of an emergency.

  10. NASA Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, Glenn; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Freeman, Ken; Gambrel, Dave; Green, Bryan; Henze, Chris; Hinke, Thomas; Hood, Robert; Kiris, Cetin; Moran, Patrick; hide

    2001-01-01

    A series of NASA presentations for the Supercomputing 2001 conference are summarized. The topics include: (1) Mars Surveyor Landing Sites "Collaboratory"; (2) Parallel and Distributed CFD for Unsteady Flows with Moving Overset Grids; (3) IP Multicast for Seamless Support of Remote Science; (4) Consolidated Supercomputing Management Office; (5) Growler: A Component-Based Framework for Distributed/Collaborative Scientific Visualization and Computational Steering; (6) Data Mining on the Information Power Grid (IPG); (7) Debugging on the IPG; (8) Debakey Heart Assist Device: (9) Unsteady Turbopump for Reusable Launch Vehicle; (10) Exploratory Computing Environments Component Framework; (11) OVERSET Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools; (12) Control and Observation in Distributed Environments; (13) Multi-Level Parallelism Scaling on NASA's Origin 1024 CPU System; (14) Computing, Information, & Communications Technology; (15) NAS Grid Benchmarks; (16) IPG: A Large-Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management System; and (17) ILab: Parameter Study Creation and Submission on the IPG.

  11. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  12. Sand Filter Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    cooling tower water by removing suspended particles in the water including very fine contaminant particles down to 0.25 microns. The sand filter...thermal resistance and reduce overall performance. These contaminants accumulate on the water side of heat transfer surfaces in both open- and...closed-loop systems and without some type of water treatment system fouling will occur gradually over time, depending on the quality and temperature

  13. Read You Loud and Clear! The Story of NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsiao, Sunny

    2008-01-01

    A historical account is provided of NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN), starting with its formation in the late 1950s to what it is today in the first decade of the 21st century. It traces the roots of the tracking network from its beginnings at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System space-based constellation of today. The story spans the early days of satellite tracking using the Minitrack Network, through the expansion of the Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network and the Manned Space Flight Network, and finally, to the Space and Ground networks of today. These accounts tell how international goodwill and foreign cooperation were crucial to the operation of the network and why the space agency chose to build the STDN as it did.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate design of fire detection systems requires knowledge of both the expected fire signature and the background aerosol levels. Terrestrial fire detection systems have been developed based on extensive study of terrestrial fires. Unfortunately there is no corresponding data set for spacecraft fires and consequently the fire detectors in current spacecraft were developed based upon terrestrial designs. In low gravity, buoyant flow is negligible which causes particles to concentrate at the smoke source, increasing their residence time, and increasing the transport time to smoke detectors. Microgravity fires have significantly different structure than those in 1-g which can change the formation history of the smoke particles. Finally the materials used in spacecraft are different from typical terrestrial environments where smoke properties have been evaluated. It is critically important to detect a fire in its early phase before a flame is established, given the fixed volume of air on any spacecraft. Consequently, the primary target for spacecraft fire detection is pyrolysis products rather than soot. Experimental investigations have been performed at three different NASA facilities which characterize smoke aerosols from overheating common spacecraft materials. The earliest effort consists of aerosol measurements in low gravity, called the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME), and subsequent ground-based testing of SAME smoke in 55-gallon drums with an aerosol reference instrument. Another set of experiments were performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), with additional fuels and an alternate smoke production method. Measurements of these smoke products include mass and number concentration, and a thermal precipitator was designed for this investigation to capture particles for microscopic analysis. The final experiments presented are from NASAs Gases and Aerosols from Smoldering Polymers (GASP) Laboratory, with selected

  15. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  16. Snow White Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long.

    'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  18. Space Radar Image of Namibia Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the vast Namib Sand Sea on the west coast of southern Africa, just northeast of the city of Luderitz, Namibia. The magenta areas in the image are fields of sand dunes, and the orange area along the bottom of the image is the surface of the South Atlantic Ocean. The region receives only a few centimeters (inches) of rain per year. In most radar images, sandy areas appear dark due to their smooth texture, but in this area the sand is organized into steep dunes, causing bright radar reflections off the dune 'faces.' This effect is especially pronounced in the lower center of the image, where many glints of bright radar reflections are seen. Radar images of this hyper-arid region have been used to image sub-surface features, such as abandoned stream courses. The bright green features in the upper right are rocky hills poking through the sand sea. The peninsula in the lower center, near Hottentott Bay, is Diaz Point; Elizabeth Point is south of Diaz Point. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. The image is 54.2 kilometers by 82.2 kilometers (33.6 miles by 51.0 miles) and is centered at 26.2 degrees South latitude, 15.1 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  11. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Girl Scout troop 2612 members from Tulsa, OK take photos of one another with Google Glass at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014. Avery Dodson, 6; Natalie Hurley, 8; Miriam Schaffer, 8; Claire Winton, 8; and Lucy Claire Sharp, 8 participated in the Junior FIRST Lego League's Disaster Blaster Challenge, which invites elementary-school-aged students from across the country to explore how simple machines, engineering, and math can help solve problems posed by natural disasters. The girls invented the "Flood Proof Bridge" and built a model mechanizing the bridge using motors and developing a computer program to automatically retract the bridge when flood conditions are detected. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. D.; Mitchell, M. A.; McMillian, J. H.; Farner, B. R.; Harper, S. A.; Peralta, S. F.; Lowrey, N. M.; Ross, H. R.; Juarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have used hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone-depleting substance, to safety clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems and associated test facilities. In 2012 through 2014, test laboratories at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center-White Sands Test Facility collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify an environmentally preferred replacement for HCFC-225. Candidate solvents were selected, a test plan was developed, and the products were tested for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Honewell Soltice (TradeMark) Performance Fluid (trans-1-chloro-3,3, 3-trifluoropropene) was selected to replace HCFC-225 at NASA's MSFC and SSC rocket propulsion test facilities.

  13. Laboratory singing sand avalanches.

    PubMed

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed.

  14. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  15. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  16. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  17. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  18. Sand Dunes in Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003

    The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  19. Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nathanael; Cameron, Ken; Madaras, Eric; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh; Murthy, Pappu; Revilock, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aging composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), being used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently under evaluation to better quantify their reliability and clarify their likelihood of failure due to stress rupture and age-dependent issues. As a result, some test and analysis programs have been successfully accomplished and other related programs are still in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and other NASA centers, with assistance from the commercial sector. To support this effort, a group of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) experts was assembled to provide NDE competence for pretest evaluation of test articles and for application of NDE technology to real-time testing. Techniques were required to provide assurance that the test article had adequate structural integrity and manufacturing consistency to be considered acceptable for testing and these techniques were successfully applied. Destructive testing is also being accomplished to better understand the physical and chemical property changes associated with progression toward "stress rupture" (SR) failure, and it is being associated with NDE response, so it can potentially be used to help with life prediction. Destructive work also includes the evaluation of residual stresses during dissection of the overwrap, laboratory evaluation of specimens extracted from the overwrap to evaluate physical property changes, and quantitative microscopy to inform the theoretical micromechanics.

  20. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  1. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    example, in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), the sand wave field terminated when the surficial sand sheet became too thin (Aliotta and Perillo... Rosa Island partially breached near the present-day location of the inlet mouth, but soon closed. It was reopened in March 1929 when the local...and Perillo, 1987) Bahia Blanca Estuary mean 11˚ max 30˚ mean 4˚ (Anthony and Leth, 2002) North Sea 2-4˚ 66 Figure 24. Sand wave

  2. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    submitted for publication. iii 7. Key Words: Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae Phlebotomus Leishmaniasis 1i Note: Copies of this report are filed with...5 II. Sand Flies of the Central Amazon of Brazil. 2. De- scription of Lutzomyia (Triehophoromyia) ruii n. sp. . 28 III. A New Phlebotomine Sand...previously unknown in the Republic. These are Brvmptomyia hamata, B. galindoi, Lutzomyia odax, L. ovallesi, L. carpenteri, L. shannoni, L. texana, L

  3. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    NASA Astronaut Don Pettit, speaks about his experience onboard the International Space Station at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. NASA, the Fisherman's Friend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Every angler has his secrets, whether it be an old family recipe for stink bait, a midnight worm-hunting ritual, or the most coveted of all, the no-fail fishing hole. Most of these secrets are lore and legend, passed through generations, and coveted more than the family s best tableware. Each of these kernels of wisdom promises the fisherman a bite at the end of the line, but very few are rooted in fact and science. There is one, though.... NASA partnered with a company on the bayous of Mississippi and Louisiana to use satellite data to create a marine information system, a space-age fish finder. This product provides up-to-date information about the location of a variety of fish, including yellowfin tuna, bluefish, blue marlin, white marlin, sailfish, blackfin tuna, little tunny, and swordfish. The system shows peaked catch rates, and may be the only true fish-finding product on the market.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1995.. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted at JSC, including the White Sands Test Facility, by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. In addition to the faculty participants, the 1995 program included five students. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows and visiting students during the summer of 1995. The reports of two of the students are integral with that of the respective fellow. Three students wrote separate reports.

  6. Digging in 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 44th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 43 (July 7, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing, showing the current sample scraping area in the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Surface Close-up of a Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-10

    This view of the undisturbed surface of a Martian sand dune called "High Dune" visited by NASA's Curiosity rover shows coarse grains remaining on the surface after wind removal of smaller particles. The image covers an area 1.4 inches by 1.1 inches (3.6 by 2.7 centimeters). It was taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the rover's arm on Dec. 5, 2015, during the 1,184th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The imaged location is near the base of the dune. High Dune, in the Bagnold Dunes field skirting the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp, is the first sand dune studied in place anywhere except Earth. What distinguishes actual dunes from windblown ripples of sand or dust, like those found at several sites visited previously by Mars rovers, is that dunes form a downwind face steep enough for sand to slide down. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20171

  8. Highest Resolution Image of Dust and Sand Yet Acquired on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for Figure 1Click on image for Figure 2Click on image for Figure 3

    This mosaic of four side-by-side microscope images (one a color composite) was acquired by the Optical Microscope, a part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Taken on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008), the image shows a 3 millimeter (0.12 inch) diameter silicone target after it has been exposed to dust kicked up by the landing. It is the highest resolution image of dust and sand ever acquired on Mars. The silicone substrate provides a sticky surface for holding the particles to be examined by the microscope.

    Martian Particles on Microscope's Silicone Substrate In figure 1, the particles are on a silcone substrate target 3 millimeters (0.12 inch) in diameter, which provides a sticky surface for holding the particles while the microscope images them. Blow-ups of four of the larger particles are shown in the center. These particles range in size from about 30 microns to 150 microns (from about one one-thousandth of an inch to six one-thousandths of an inch).

    Possible Nature of Particles Viewed by Mars Lander's Optical Microscope In figure 2, the color composite on the right was acquired to examine dust that had fallen onto an exposed surface. The translucent particle highlighted at bottom center is of comparable size to white particles in a Martian soil sample (upper pictures) seen two sols earlier inside the scoop of Phoenix's Robotic Arm as imaged by the lander's Robotic Arm Camera. The white particles may be examples of the abundant salts that have been found in the Martian soil by previous missions. Further investigations will be needed to determine the white material's composition and whether translucent particles

  9. Highest Resolution Image of Dust and Sand Yet Acquired on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for Figure 1Click on image for Figure 2Click on image for Figure 3

    This mosaic of four side-by-side microscope images (one a color composite) was acquired by the Optical Microscope, a part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Taken on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008), the image shows a 3 millimeter (0.12 inch) diameter silicone target after it has been exposed to dust kicked up by the landing. It is the highest resolution image of dust and sand ever acquired on Mars. The silicone substrate provides a sticky surface for holding the particles to be examined by the microscope.

    Martian Particles on Microscope's Silicone Substrate In figure 1, the particles are on a silcone substrate target 3 millimeters (0.12 inch) in diameter, which provides a sticky surface for holding the particles while the microscope images them. Blow-ups of four of the larger particles are shown in the center. These particles range in size from about 30 microns to 150 microns (from about one one-thousandth of an inch to six one-thousandths of an inch).

    Possible Nature of Particles Viewed by Mars Lander's Optical Microscope In figure 2, the color composite on the right was acquired to examine dust that had fallen onto an exposed surface. The translucent particle highlighted at bottom center is of comparable size to white particles in a Martian soil sample (upper pictures) seen two sols earlier inside the scoop of Phoenix's Robotic Arm as imaged by the lander's Robotic Arm Camera. The white particles may be examples of the abundant salts that have been found in the Martian soil by previous missions. Further investigations will be needed to determine the white material's composition and whether translucent particles

  10. House Panel skeptical of NASA budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    The forced resignation of NASA chief Richard Truly on February 12 is widely seen as having weakened the agency at a critical time, just as Congress has begun considering this year's federal budget request. Members of a House space panel expressed dismay at Truly's ouster by the White House, when the agency head appeared February 19 at the year's first NASA budget hearing. Several legislators suggested that the dismissal strengthened the hand of the National Space Council, which is headed by Vice President Dan Quayle.“It angers me to think that NASA, which has inspired generations of Americans, is being turned into a public relations tool for the rehabilitation of Dan Quayle,” said Norman Y. Mineta (D-Calif.) at the hearing of the Space Subcommittee of the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee. Mineta's charge that the White House is using NASA as a “political poker chip” was echoed repeatedly by other legislators during the hearing.

  11. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weck, Phillippe F. (Editor); Kwong, Victor H. S. (Editor); Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers presented at the 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics held in the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from February 14 to 16, 2006. This workshop brings together producers and users of laboratory astrophysics data so that they can understand each other's needs and limitations in the context of the needs for NASA's missions. The last NASA-sponsored workshop was held in 2002 at Ames Research Center. Recent related meetings include the Topical Session at the AAS meeting and the European workshop at Pillnitz, Germany, both of which were held in June 2005. The former showcased the importance of laboratory astrophysics to the community at large, while the European workshop highlighted a multi-laboratory approach to providing the needed data. The 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics, sponsored by the NASA Astrophysics Division, focused on the current status of the field and its relevance to NASA. This workshop attracted 105 participants and 82 papers of which 19 were invited. A White Paper identifying the key issues in laboratory astrophysics during the break-out sessions was prepared by the Scientific Organizing Committee, and has been forwarded to the Universe Working Group (UWG) at NASA Headquarters. This White Paper, which represented the collective inputs and opinions from experts and stakeholders in the field of astrophysics, should serve as the working document for the future development of NASA's R&A program in laboratory astrophysics.

  12. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  13. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  14. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  15. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  16. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.

    PubMed

    Gurkin, L W

    1992-10-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  17. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  18. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  19. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days.

    The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow.

    Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Paleoenvironment and depositional environment of Miocene Olcese Sand, Bakersfield, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.C.

    1986-04-01

    The Olcese Sand near Bakersfield, California, contains evidence of a range of paleoenvironments including nonmarine, estuarine, and outer shelf depositional settings. Foraminifera from surface and subsurface samples place the Olcese in the Saucesian and Relizian of the California benthic stages. A pumice bed in the Olcese has been dated by fission track methods at 15.5 Ma. The Olcese Sand interfingers with the underlying Freeman Silt and the overlying Round Mountain Silt. In the type area, in Round Mountain oil field, the Olcese is 300-360 m thick. The Olcese is subdivided into three environmental facies. In the Knob Hill Quadrangle, the lower Olcese consists of (1) thinly bedded to blocky white tuffaceous silt and sand, or (2) planar cross-bedded fine to coarse-grained sand with pumice pebbles lining the bedding surfaces. Fossil mollusks and skate teeth indicate a shallow marine environment for the lower Olcese. Although the Olcese is predominantly a marine unit, the middle Olcese is nonmarine, with lenses of marine deposition. The middle Olcese is well exposed in the Knob Hill, Oil Center, and Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangles, and is characterized by fine to coarse sand with occasional gravel lenses, strong cross-bedding, and a blue-gray color. The upper Olcese is a very fine to medium-grained, marine sand that fines upward into a sandy siltstone southward toward the Kern River. Foraminifera and mollusks from outcrops in the Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangle indicate outer shelf to estuarine environments for the upper Olcese. The varying environments in the Olcese Sand reflect slight but frequent fluctuations in water depth and can be used to interpret the basin-margin history.

  1. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-07

    Full Authority of FAA  FAA Certified Control Center Manned it ll t it f tifi t l t DoD Restricted Airspace with full command & control...Capabilities • Unique variety / breadth of ground & air targets are available • DFCS (Drone Flight Control System) can simultaneously control 6...Boresight inspections Non-Destructive T &E Laboratory  Laboratory Certifications • ORELAP • TNI Accreditation (ISO 17025) • EPA Analysis

  2. Atmospheric Transmission Measurements at White Sands Missile Range, August 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-29

    oeay md Identify by black -. b-,) Atin usp Ii ric iran sm 155111 Laser proIpagat ion Iligh-resolut ion Fourier-tranlIrl Spiect roscopy 20 ABSTRACT... NRI . RILPfRt 8422 1.0 1.0 21IP7 3-2P3 1-OPIO 21lP6 3-2P2 14org 0 2 20.. 0.1 j I0.1 2M6.0 t ~ 2662. 2675.0 2675.0 Icm’ 1 2687. 2700.0 1.0 1.0 -- - 2-1...air Ie)mpe.r.Iiure % h 1 1 4 cm 1 yii % Ilstiqflr)ClI IWJIlItln 0 .11t,11i(1101 26 NRI R1 P()RI 1 422 PATH SELECTION Selection of’ a suitable path for

  3. Modeling and data analysis of the NASA-WSTF frictional heating apparatus - Effects of test parameters on friction coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Sheng-Hu; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.; Yuen, Walter W.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model is being developed jointly by the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) to analyze data generated from the WSTF frictional heating test facility. Analyses of the data generated in the first seconds of the frictional heating test are shown to be effective in determining the friction coefficient between the rubbing interfaces. Different friction coefficients for carobn steel and Monel K-500 are observed. The initial condition of the surface is shown to affect only the initial value of the friction coefficient but to have no significant influence on the average steady-state friction coefficient. Rotational speed and the formation of oxide film on the rotating surfaces are shown to have a significant effect on the friction coefficient.

  4. Bandwidth Efficient Modulation and Coding Techniques for NASA's Existing Ku/Ka-Band 225 MHz Wide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gioannini, Bryan; Wong, Yen; Wesdock, John

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently established the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) K-band Upgrade Project (TKUP), a project intended to enhance the TDRSS Ku-band and Ka-band Single Access Return 225 MHz (Ku/KaSAR-225) data service by adding the capability to process bandwidth efficient signal design and to replace the White Sand Complex (WSC) KSAR high data rate ground equipment and high rate switches which are nearing obsolescence. As a precursor to this project, a modulation and coding study was performed to identify signal structures which maximized the data rate through the Ku/KaSAR-225 channel, minimized the required customer EIRP and ensured acceptable hardware complexity on the customer platform. This paper presents the results and conclusions of the TKUP modulation and coding study.

  5. Modeling and data analysis of the NASA-WSTF frictional heating apparatus - Effects of test parameters on friction coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Sheng-Hu; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.; Yuen, Walter W.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model is being developed jointly by the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) to analyze data generated from the WSTF frictional heating test facility. Analyses of the data generated in the first seconds of the frictional heating test are shown to be effective in determining the friction coefficient between the rubbing interfaces. Different friction coefficients for carobn steel and Monel K-500 are observed. The initial condition of the surface is shown to affect only the initial value of the friction coefficient but to have no significant influence on the average steady-state friction coefficient. Rotational speed and the formation of oxide film on the rotating surfaces are shown to have a significant effect on the friction coefficient.

  6. Bandwidth Efficient Modulation and Coding Techniques for NASA's Existing Ku/Ka-Band 225 MHz Wide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gioannini, Bryan; Wong, Yen; Wesdock, John

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently established the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) K-band Upgrade Project (TKUP), a project intended to enhance the TDRSS Ku-band and Ka-band Single Access Return 225 MHz (Ku/KaSAR-225) data service by adding the capability to process bandwidth efficient signal design and to replace the White Sand Complex (WSC) KSAR high data rate ground equipment and high rate switches which are nearing obsolescence. As a precursor to this project, a modulation and coding study was performed to identify signal structures which maximized the data rate through the Ku/KaSAR-225 channel, minimized the required customer EIRP and ensured acceptable hardware complexity on the customer platform. This paper presents the results and conclusions of the TKUP modulation and coding study.

  7. Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the

  8. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  9. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  10. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  11. NASA Spacecraft Spots Signs of Erupting Russian Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-20

    Winter still grips the volcanoes on Russia Kamchatka peninsula. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image showing the mantle of white, disturbed by dark ash entirely covering Sheveluch volcano from recent eruptions.

  12. Progress of Hawaii Lava Flow Tracked by NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    On June 27, 2014, a new vent opened on Hawaii Puu Oo vent, on the eastern flank of Kilauea volcano. NASA Terra spacecraft shows the hot lava flow in white, extending about 11 miles 17 kilometers from the vent.

  13. NASA CloudSat Spots Beginning of Pakistan Floods

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-19

    In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan. This image from NASA Aqua spacecraft reveals the bright white cloud tops from the cluster of thunderstorms.

  14. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  15. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Lindsay Lawlor, of San Diego, Calif., left, demonstrates his creation, a 17-foot-tall, robotic giraffe that "walks" on wheels and is powered by a 12-horsepower hybrid fuel-engine motor, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Sara Ann Wylie of Public Lab shows the do to yourself Balloon Mapping Kit, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Balloon Mapping Kit enables you to take your own aerial photos from 1000 ft or higher. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while NASA's Director, Earth Science Division, Mike Freilich, speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden, conducts an experiment using circuits at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    William Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator Human Exploration and Operations, speaks at a NASA Social on Science on the International Space Station at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. NASA - Beyond Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Courtenay

    2016-01-01

    NASA is able to achieve human spaceflight goals in partnership with international and commercial teams by establishing common goals and building connections. Presentation includes photographs from NASA missions - on orbit, in Mission Control, and at other NASA facilities.

  1. NASA Education Stakeholder's Summit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-12

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden gives keynote remarks at the NASA Education Stakeholders’ Summit One Stop Shopping Initiative (OSSI), Monday, Sep. 13, 2010, at the Westfields Marriott Conference Center in Chantilly, VA. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Working at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the author's educational and work background prior to working at NASA. It then presents an overview of NASA Dryden, a brief review of the author's projects while working at NASA, and some closing thoughts.

  3. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs smiles during a dialogue on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. The dialogue was part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  6. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-11

    Dr. Laurie Leshin, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator Exploration Systems Mission Directortorate, second from right, speaks as Dr. Waleed Abdalati, NASA Chief Scientist, right, Dr. Robert Braun, NASA Chief Technologist, and Leland Melvin, Assoicate Administrator for NASA Education, far left, at the NASA Future Forum held at the Riggs Alumni Center on the campus of the University of Maryland, Thursday, Aug. 11, 2011 in College Park, Md. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-11

    Dr. Robert Braun, NASA Chief Technologist, second from left, makes a point, as panelists Leland Melvin, Assoicate Administrator for NASA Education, left, Dr. Laurie Leshin, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator Exploration Systems Mission Directortorate, and Dr. Waleed Abdalati, NASA Chief Scientist, right, look on during a panel discussion at the NASA Future Forum held at the Riggs Alumni Center on the campus of the University of Maryland, Thursday, Aug. 11, 2011 in College Park, Md. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.

    1957-10-29

    A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

  9. Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.

    PubMed

    Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

    1964-12-18

    A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary.

  10. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  11. Creep Behavior of Frozen Sand.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Potash feldspar was the most abundant feldspar species. The clay minerals present were mica, illite, vermiculite and chlorite with considerable...5000X; a) Mica, b) Feldspar , c) Quartz -9- Page Fig. 111-5 Compaction - Freezing Mold 104 111-6 Cooling Curve for Partially Saturated MFS 105 111-7...aetween 74 and 250im size. The specific gravity of the sand was 2.67g/cm 3 . The mineralogy of the sand material was predominantly quartz and feldspars

  12. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs, left, and present NASA Administrator Charles Bolden conduct a dialogue on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. Bolden took over the post as NASA's 12th administrator in July 2009. The dialogue is part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  14. Sand control agent and process

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.; Donlon, W.P.; Strom, E.T.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for forming a gravel pack in a washed-out interval adjacent a borehole in an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises perforating a cased borehole at an interval of the formation having a washed-out interval adjacent the borehole; placing sand into the washed-out interval via perforations in the borehole; injecting an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate into the interval through perforations contained in the borehole which solution is of a strength sufficient to react with an alcoholic solution of calcium salt to form a permeability retention cement having a porosity sufficient to exclude formation fines or sand; and injecting thereafter via the perforations a solvent containing a calcium salt into the interval containing sand in an amount sufficient to react with the alkali metal silicate at an interface with the solvent so as to form a calcium silicate cement which binds the sand whereupon the porosity of the sand-containing interval is reduced to a size sufficient to exclude the fines or sand while retaining the formation's permeability as the interface flows evenly and continually through the formation.

  15. Microbial strengthening of loose sand.

    PubMed

    Banagan, B L; Wertheim, B M; Roth, M J S; Caslake, L F

    2010-08-01

    To test whether the addition of Flavobacterium johnsoniae could increase the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. A box model was built that simulates groundwater-like flow through a main sand compartment. Strength tests were performed at seven locations and at two depths, 10.8 and 20.3 cm below the top of the tank, using a vane shear device before and after the addition of bacteria. After the addition of Fl. johnsoniae, sand samples were obtained from multiple sampling ports on the vertical sides of the box model. The presence of a bacterial biofilm was confirmed by staining these sand samples with SYTO-9 and Alexa Fluor 633 and viewing with a confocal microscope. The average shear strength increases after the addition of Fl. johnsoniae were 15.2-87.5%, depending on the experimental conditions. Flavobacterium johnsoniae caused a statistically significant increase in the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. Biofilm-forming bacteria can increase the shear strength of saturated sand. The addition of biofilm-forming bacteria to a building site may be an alternate method to mitigate the effects of liquefaction.

  16. Sand transport over an immobile gravel substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume channel to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of sand with an immobile gravel fraction on the sand transport rate and configuration of the sand bed. Knowledge of the movement of sand in gravel beds is important for the management of streams a...

  17. Satellite Sees a Midwest White Out

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The GOES-East satellite captured a Midwestern wintertime "White Out" at 2015 UTC/3:15 p.m. EST on January 6, 2014. Blowing snow and intensely cold air created dangerous white-out conditions over the Midwest, particularly around the Great Lakes, where daytime temperatures averaged -20F with a wind chill near -50F. The GOES-East satellite is managed by NOAA. The image was created at NASA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Credit: NASA NOAA GOES Project, Dennis Chesters NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both NASA and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. This presentation summarizes the tests performed, results, and lessons learned. It also demonstrates the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  19. Current Fault Management Trends in NASA's Planetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.

    2009-01-01

    The key product of this three-day workshop is a NASA White Paper that documents lessons learned from previous missions, recommended best practices, and future opportunities for investments in the fault management domain. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations that are captured in the White Paper.

  20. NASA Education Stakeholder's Summit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-12

    William Kelly, PhD, PE, Manager, Public Affairs, American Society for Engineering Education speaks at the NASA Education Stakeholders’ Summit One Stop Shopping Initiative (OSSI), Monday, Sep. 13, 2010, at the Westfields Marriott Conference Center in Chantilly, VA. Seated are NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and NASA Acting Associate Administrator for Education, James Stofan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Marshall Porterfield, Life and Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    A NASA Social participant asks a question to the astronauts onboard the International Space Station in a live downlink from the ISS at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Expedition 33/34 astronauts onboard the International Space Station answer questions in a live downlink at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Seen from left to right are NASA astronauts Tom Marshburn, Kevin Ford and Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronaut Chris Hadfield. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. NASA Columbus Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA 2009 Astronaut Candidate and Flight Surgeon Serena Auñón talks as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden looks on during a NASA Future Forum panel discussion at The Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Marshall Porterfield, Life and Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. In the foreground is pictured Veggie, a container used for growing plants on the ISS. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs is seen during a dialogue with present NASA Administrator Charles Bolden on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. The dialogue was part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. @NASA Wins Shorty Award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-10

    A Shorty Award is seen Wednesday, April 10, 2013 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA's official Twitter feed, @NASA, has won its second consecutive Shorty award for the best government use of social media. The Shorty Award honors the best of social media across sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, YouTube, Foursquare and others. NASA took the prize Monday, April 8, at the fifth Shorty Awards ceremony in New York. The @NASA acceptance tweet was, "We're sharing the universe 1 tweet at a time. Be inspired! Follow @NASA & RT if you love science & space. #ShortyAwards." Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  9. NASA Columbus Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Leland Melvin, NASA Associate Administrator for Education and NASA Astronaut, moderates the NASA Future Forum Inspiration and Education Panel at The Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. The NASA Future Forum features panel discussions on the importance of education to our nation's future in space, the benefit of commercialized space technology to our economy and lives here on Earth, and the shifting roles for the public, commercial and international communities in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  11. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  12. Optimal array of sand fences

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-01-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost. PMID:28338053

  13. Optimal array of sand fences.

    PubMed

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  14. Optimal array of sand fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  15. Sand, gravel properties key to optimum designs

    SciTech Connect

    Oyeneyin, M.B.

    1998-01-26

    Successful gravel packed and screen well completions require a knowledge of sand as well as gravel textural properties. These completion methods keep sand and fines from entering the well bore, so that long-term production capacity of the well is ensured. This first of a three-part series will cover key factors that influence effective sand control. The concluding parts will present guidelines for both gravel packs and screens. Fines, more than load-bearing formation sands, pose the greater problem for the two sand exclusion techniques. Therefore, reservoir sand analysis is the main key for controlling sand. An integrated team approach to both sand control design and implementation from well planning through drilling to final completion is the best strategy for optimizing well performance in reservoirs with sand problems.

  16. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  17. Quantifying Void Ratio Variation in Sand using Computed Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Batiste, Susan N.; Swanson, Roy A.; Sture, Stein; Costes, Nicholas C.; Lankton, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    A series of displacement-controlled, conventional, drained axisymmetric (triaxial) experiments were conducted on dry Ottawa sand specimens at very low effective confining stresses in a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle during the NASA STS-89 mission. Post-flight analysis included studying the internal fabric and failure patterns of these specimens using Computed Tomography (CT). The CT scans of three specimens subjected to different compression levels (uncompressed specimen, a specimen compressed to 3.3% nominal axial strain (epsilon(sub a)), and a specimen compressed to 25% epsilon(sub a)) are presented to investigate the evolution of instability patterns and to quantify void ratio variation. The progress of failure is described and discussed. Also, specimens' densities were calibrated using standard ASTM procedures and void ratio spatial variation was calculated and represented by contour maps and histograms. The CT technique demonstrated good ability to detect specimen inhomogeneities, localization patterns, and quantifying void ratio variation within sand specimens.

  18. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  19. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  20. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  1. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  2. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  4. SANDS - Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Hawkins, L.; He, M.; Ebersole, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The SANDS project is also investigating the effects of sediment immersed oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster in April 2010 which has the potential to resurface as a result of tropical storm activity. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support has generated a number of decision support products derived from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments that potentially support

  5. Experimental Observations of Localization Phenomena in Sands: Plane Strain Versus Triaxial Compression Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Batiste, Susan N.; Sture, Stein; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the effects of loading condition and confining pressure on strength properties and instability phenomena in sands. A uniform sub-rounded to rounded natural silica sand known as F-75 Ottawa sand was used in the investigation. The results of a series on Conventional Triaxial Compression (CTC) experiments tested under very low confining pressures (0.05 - 1.30) kPa tested in a Microgravity environment abroad the NASA Space Shuttle are presented in addition to the results similar specimens tested in terrestrial laboratory to investigate the effect of confining pressure on the constitutive behavior of sands. The behavior of the CTC experiments is compared with the results of Plane Strain (PS) experiments. Computed tomography and other digital imaging techniques were used to study the development and evolution of shear bands.

  6. NASA's unique networking environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  7. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld talks during a NASA Social about the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Program Scientist Sarah Noble talks during a NASA Social about the LADEE mission at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    Bob Barber, Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft Systems Engineer at NASA Ames Research Center, points to a model of the LADEE spacecraft a NASA Social, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 at NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  11. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  12. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. White Toenails

    MedlinePlus

    ... This would cause a black toenail. If the trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot will slowly grow out with the normal growth of the ... may be caused by recurring trauma, such as when a runner wears shoes that ...

  14. White Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Christine

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the issue of whether the implementation of school desegregation significantly increases the decline in percentage of resident white. Presents data from a study conducted in 86 Northern school districts from a 91-city study. Data were obtained from statistics published by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare beginning in 1967.…

  15. Documentation of Recent Surface Winds on Martian Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) are of sufficient resolution to record wind ripple patterns on the surfaces of sand dunes present across the surface of Mars. We are in the early stages of an investigation to map the ripple orientations preserved on Martian sand dunes, in order to evaluate the recent wind flow over the dunes, and compare that wind flow pattern to the winds documented over terrestrial sand dunes. HiRISE image ESP_025645_1455 covers a sand dune field on the floor of a 20-km-diameter unnamed impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of the southern highlands, east of the Hellas impact basin. This image is centered at 34.23 S latitude, 138.437 E longitude with 25 cm/pixel resolution, and was taken on Jan 25 of 2012 during northern spring (Ls = 57.4). Using ArcGIS, lines were drawn across three ripples perpendicular to the ripple crests, avoiding places where complex ripple patterns suggest more than one recent wind direction. The length of the lines provides a measure of ripple wavelength, and the line orientation gives azimuth (with a 180 degree absolute ambiguity). The barchan-like shape of some dunes, including occasional slip faces, suggest sand driving winds were from the southwest, although dune asymmetries indicate the wind regime likely was much more complex than a unimodal wind. Measurements of ripple orientations are being collected from dune locations across the planet, which should provide new constraints for the modeling of recent Martian winds. This work was supported by NASA MDAP grant NNX12AJ38G.

  16. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  17. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  18. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  19. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves the interaction between the sun, wind, and earth. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the s...

  20. Registration of 'Centennial' Sand Bluestem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Centennial’ sand bluestem (PI 670042, Andropogon hallii Hack.) is a synthetic variety selected for greater percentage seed germination and percentage seedling establishment under field conditions. Centennial was tested under the experimental designation of ‘AB-Medium Syn-2’. Two cycles of recurren...

  1. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  2. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  3. Development and Implementation of NASA's Lead Center for Rocket Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    With the new millennium, NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) continues to develop and refine its role as rocket test service provider for NASA and the Nation. As Lead Center for Rocket Propulsion Testing (LCRPT), significant progress has been made under SSC's leadership to consolidate and streamline NASA's rocket test infrastructure and make this vital capability truly world class. NASA's Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) capability consists of 32 test positions with a replacement value in excess of $2B. It is dispersed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Johnson Space Center (JSC)-White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Glenn Research Center (GRC)-Plum Brook (PB), and SSC and is sized appropriately to minimize duplication and infrastructure costs. The LCRPT also provides a single integrated point of entry into NASA's rocket test services. The RPT capability is managed through the Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board (RPTMB), chaired by SSC with representatives from each center identified above. The Board is highly active, meeting weekly, and is key to providing responsive test services for ongoing operational and developmental NASA and commercial programs including Shuttle, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, and 2nd and 3rd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles. The relationship between SSC, the test provider, and the hardware developers, like MSFC, is critical to the implementation of the LCRPT. Much effort has been expended to develop and refine these relationships with SSC customers. These efforts have met with success and will continue to be a high priority to SSC for the future. To data in the exercise of its role, the LCRPT has made 22 test assignments and saved or avoided approximately $51M. The LCRPT directly manages approximately $30M annually in test infrastructure costs including facility maintenance and upgrades, direct test support, and test technology development. This annual budges supports rocket propulsion test programs which have an annual budget

  4. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  5. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  6. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  7. NASA IN THE PARK

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-18

    MORE THAN 7,500 PEOPLE ATTENDED NASA MARSHALL SPACE CENTER AND DOWNTOWN HUNTSVILLE, INC.’S THIRD ANNUAL CELEBRATION OF NASA AND THE COMMUNITY JUNE 18. THIS YEAR, THE EVENT MOVED TO HUNTSVILLE’S BIG SPRING PARK.

  8. NASA Now: Balloon Research

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law a...

  9. The NASA Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook, effective 13 September 1994, documents the NASA organization, defines terms, and sets forth the policy and requirements for establishing, modifying, and documenting the NASA organizational structure and for assigning organizational responsibilities.

  10. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  11. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  12. NASA UAS Integration Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenberg, Davis

    2017-01-01

    This is a benefit to NASA because of all the networking opportunities as well as sharing information about UAS-NAS within the UAS community. NASA has developed, and is executing, a Cohesive Strategy for UAS Integration

  13. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  14. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  15. NASA Now: Rocket Engineering

    NASA Image and Video Library

    What’s the difference between fission and fusion? What are the applications & benefits of nuclear power & propulsion at NASA? How can NASA gain nuclear energy’s benefits for space exploration? ...

  16. 'Snow White' Trench After Scraping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench informally named 'Snow White.' This image was taken after a series of scrapings by the lander's Robotic Arm on the 58th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 23, 2008). The scrapings were done in preparation for collecting a sample for analysis from a hard subsurface layer where soil may contain frozen water.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide and about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Behrens, M.D.; Davis, G.E.; Haaker, P.L.; Kushner, D.J.; Richards, D. V.; Taniguchi, I. K.; Tegner, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys with a submersible at offshore islands and banks in southern California found that white abalone were most abundant at depths between 43 and 60 m. This is deeper than estimates taken when white abalone were more abundant. Densities were highest at sites far from fishing ports. Controlling for depth and site found that white abalone were significantly more abundant in areas with Laminaria farlowii (an alga) but abalone were not associated with areas high in the cover of other algae (Pelagophycus porra or Eisenia arborea) or the amount of sand in the habitat (except that abalone always occurred on rock). Within an area with abalone, the particular rock they occurred on was significantly larger than unoccupied neighboring rocks. Occupied rocks were not significantly different in algal cover or in sea urchin density than unoccupied neighboring rocks. The position of abalone on a rock was nearer to the rock–sand interface than would be expected based on a random distribution. More white abalone were feeding when in association with red urchins, perhaps because both grazers capture drift algae to eat. These data may aid future efforts to locate white abalone brood stock and identify locations for outplanting.

  18. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA propagation studies objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite communication systems and services by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals through the intervening environment and to support NASA missions. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages unique NASA assets (currently Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through referred journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  19. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-21

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lauren Worley kicks off the second day of the NASA Future Forum at The Ohio State University on Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2012 in Columbus, Ohio. The NASA Future Forum features panel discussions on the importance of education to our nation's future in space, the benefit of commercialized space technology to our economy and lives here on Earth, and the shifting roles for the public, commercial and international communities in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-21

    NASA Chief Technologist Mason Peck talks during the NASA Future Forum at The Ohio State University on Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2012 in Columbus, Ohio. The NASA Future Forum features panel discussions on the importance of education to our nation's future in space, the benefit of commercialized space technology to our economy and lives here on Earth, and the shifting roles for the public, commercial and international communities in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-21

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver speaks during the NASA Future Forum at The Ohio State University on Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2012 in Columbus, Ohio. The NASA Future Forum features panel discussions on the importance of education to our nation's future in space, the benefit of commercialized space technology to our economy and lives here on Earth, and the shifting roles for the public, commercial and international communities in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. NASA Education Stakeholder's Summit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-12

    Special Assitant for STEM Education, U. S. Department of Education, Michael Lach, far right, addresses guests at the NASA Education Stakeholders’ Summit One Stop Shopping Initiative (OSSI), Monday, Sep. 13, 2010, at the Westfields Marriott Conference Center in Chantilly, VA. Seated from right are James Stofan, NASA Acting Associate Administrator for Education; Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator; and Cora B. Marrett, Acting Director, National Science Foundation. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. NASA Work Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2015-01-01

    I have had the opportunity to support the analytical laboratories in chemical analysis of unknown samples, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEMEDS), and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). I have assisted in characterizing fibers pulled from a spacecraft, a white fibrous residue discovered in a jet refueler truck, brown residue from a plant habitat slated for delivery to the ISS (International Space Station), corrosion on a pipe from a sprinkler, and air filtration material brought back from the ISS. I also conducted my own fiber study in order to practice techniques and further my understanding of background concepts. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to participate in diverse work assignments, where I was assigned to work with other branches of the engineering department for 1-2 days each. The first was in the Materials Science branch where I participated in the construction of the plant habitat intended for use in research aboard the ISS. The second was in the Testing Design branch where I assisted with tensile and hardness testing of over 40 samples. In addition, I have had the privilege to attend multiple tours of the NASA KSC campus, including to the Astronaut Crew Quarters, the VAB (the main area, the Columbia room, and the catwalk), the Visitor Center housing the shuttle Atlantis, the Saturn-V exhibit, the Prototype laboratory, SWAMP WORKS, the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Crawler, and the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF). Lastly, much of my coursework prepared me for this experience, including numerous laboratory courses with topics diverse as chemistry, physics, and biology.

  4. The NASA Clinic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care

  5. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Tara Ruttley, International Space Station Program Scientist, talks about the benefits of conducting science experiments on ISS at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  7. NASA Columbus Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    Sen. John Glenn, left, talks with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during a NASA Future Forum panel discussion at The Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-11

    Leland Melvin, NASA Associate Administrator for Education, speaks during a panel discussion on inspiration in education at the 2011 NASA Future Forum held at the Riggs Alumni Center on the campus of the University of Maryland, Thursday, Aug. 11, 2011, in College Park, Md. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-11

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden delivers opening remarks at the NASA Future Forum held at the Riggs Alumni Center on the campus of the University of Maryland, Thursday, Aug. 11, 2011 in College Park, Md. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. NASA Columbus Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA Associate Administrator for Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld talks during a NASA Future Forum panel discussion at The Ohio State University on, Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. NASA Columbus Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, talks as Sen. John Glenn, and Ohio State University Graduate Research Associate Vijay Gadepally, left, listen during a NASA Future Forum panel discussion at The Ohio State University on Monday, Feb. 20, 2012, in Columbus, Ohio. Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. NASA Education Stakeholder's Summit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-12

    Leland Melvin, right, Education Design Team Co-Chair and NASA Astronaut, speaks at the NASA Education Stakeholders’ Summit One Stop Shopping Initiative (OSSI), Monday, Sep. 13, 2010, at the Westfields Marriott Conference Center in Chantilly, VA. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. NASA Education Stakeholder's Summit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-12

    James Stofan, right, NASA Acting Associate Administrator for Education, introduces the keynote speakers at the NASA Education Stakeholders’ Summit One Stop Shopping Initiative (OSSI), Monday, Sep. 13, 2010, at the Westfields Marriott Conference Center in Chantilly, VA. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. NASA's educational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  15. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A brochure that was designed to encourage contractors to do business with NASA is presented. The brochure is divided into six sections: (1) This is NASA; (2) The procurement process; (3) Marketing your capabilities; (4) Special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; and (6) Sources of additional help.

  16. Seismoacoustic Waves in Water-Covered Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    pdrtially buried inclusions such as seashells and sand dollars. This section presents the first experimental results on wedge waves propagating along the...sand dollar skeleton in air and in water. Further research is needed to characterize the seismoacoustic response of seashells and sand dollars.’, Thick

  17. Sand and Water Table Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of sand and water play for young children. Provides a partial list of materials and equipment used to provide sensory experiences at sand and water tables. Offers a buying guide listing manufacturers of sand and water tables, product descriptions, and ordering information. (DR)

  18. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Sand and Water Table Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of sand and water play for young children. Provides a partial list of materials and equipment used to provide sensory experiences at sand and water tables. Offers a buying guide listing manufacturers of sand and water tables, product descriptions, and ordering information. (DR)

  20. NASA Now: Microbes @ NASA: Early Earth Ecosystems

    NASA Image and Video Library

    What may look like green slime growing on a pond is what scientists call a microbial mat! Why does NASA care about slime? Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communiti...