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Sample records for nasal cavity tumors

  1. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Nasal Cavity: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, George Ani; Ashish, Gaurav; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Chandrashekharan, Ramanathan; Paul, Roshna Rose

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) of the nose and paranasal sinuses are extremely rare. These were originally described as neoplasms of the pleura originating from spindle cells. It is further sub-classified as a benign type of mesothelial tumour. Its occurrence in many extra pleural sites have been reported earlier, mainly in the liver, parapharyngeal space, sublingual glands, tongue, parotid gland, thyroid, periorbital region, and very occasionally in the nose and paranasal sinus area. Case Report: A 28-year-old man with a 6 month history of persistent progressive left nasal obstruction and watering of the left eye is reported. Further imaging by CT and MRI revealed a large, left-sided, highly vascular, nasal cavity mass (Figs.1-4) pushing laterally on the medial wall of the maxilla. The patient underwent a lateral rhinotomy, which proceeded with the excision of the mass. Histopathological analysis of the specimen was consistent with SFT. Conclusion: This case is reported to develop insights regarding diagnosis and management of such rare tumours. PMID:26788480

  2. Cytomorphologic Attributes of Epithelial Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity - A Rare Tumor with Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayshankar, Shivshankar; Abhishek, MG; Kumari, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma (EMC) is a rare low grade epithelial malignancy of major Salivary Glands (SG). Though the histomorphology of this tumor is distinct, unusual location and clinical presentation may pose diagnostic difficulties especially when this lesion is first encountered at cytology. We report a case of 60-year-old female presenting with nasal obstruction of three months duration. At FNAC the diagnosis of EMC was suggested and it was confirmed on histopathology. We present this case highlighting the cytomorphologic attributes of this rare tumor occurring at an extremely uncommon location – Nasal cavity. PMID:27790447

  3. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal sinus cavities.

    PubMed

    Lomeo, Paul E; McDonald, John E; Finneman, Judith; Shoreline

    2007-01-01

    This is case report of extramedullary plasmacytoma occurring in the nasal cavity. These are unusual tumors especially in the nasal area. Patients present mainly with nasal symptoms on the same side of the tumors. The treatment consists of surgery resection, or, radiation, or both. There is a fifty percent survival rate in five years.

  4. [Etiological epidemiology of tumors of the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Belli, S

    1992-01-01

    Etiologically-oriented epidemiologic studies on cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses have been carried out since the beginning of the century. These studies showed that several chemical agents (chromates, nickel compounds, isopropylic alcohol, and mustard gas), and two occupational exposures (wood dust in the furniture industry and exposure to leather in shoe factories) were causally associated with nasal cancer. An increased risk has also been associated with several occupations (i.e. metalworker, textile worker, construction worker, and farmer) even in the apparent absence of causal agents. The first reports of an increased risk of nasal cancer in woodworkers and leather workers in Italy date back to 1980. Subsequent studies have provided estimates of the relative risk, ranging from 3.0 to 11.0 among woodworkers and from 8.1 to 47.1 among leatherworkers. Increased risks have been associated to the metal industry (relative risk ranging from 3.1 to 5.9), the textile industry (ranging from 2.9 to 17.0), the mining and construction industry (ranging from 2.3 to 5.3), and the agricultural industry (ranging from 1.9 to 3.3); all of these estimates are time- and place-specific. Moreover, the estimates are not reliable because of the small sample size, resulting from the low occurrence of the disease. The etiologic fraction for the population, taking into account both verified and suspected carcinogenic exposures, ranges between 50% and 65% in males. Relatively few cases of nasal cancer (all of them occurring in woodworkers) have been notified for workman's compensation; woodworkers with nasal cancer have received monetary compensation in Italy since 1988. Nasal cancer is an often fatal but largely preventable disease. Several verified and suspected occupational exposures are associated with this neoplasm. The reduction of dust and fumes in the air of the above mentioned work environments is recommended for reducing the occurrence of this disease.

  5. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal cavity or ethmoid sinuses. T categories for maxillary sinus cancer TX: Primary (main) tumor cannot be ... the nose from the brain), and/or the maxillary sinus. T4a: Tumor has grown into other structures ...

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegner, Ellen A.; Daly, Megan E.; Murphy, James D.; Abelson, Jonathan; Chapman, Chris H.; Chung, Melody; Yu, Yao; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Chang, Daniel T.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity (PNS/NC). Methods/Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2009, 52 patients with tumors of the PNS/NC underwent postoperative or definitive radiation with IMRT. Twenty-eight (54%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-nine patients (56%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 26.6 months (range, 2.9-118.4) for all patients and 30.9 months for living patients. Results: Eighteen patients (35%) developed local-regional failure (LRF) at median time of 7.2 months. Thirteen local failures (25%) were observed, 12 in-field and 1 marginal. Six regional failures were observed, two in-field and four out-of-field. No patients treated with elective nodal radiation had nodal regional failure. Two-year local-regional control (LRC), in-field LRC, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) were 64%, 74%, 71%, and 66% among all patients, respectively, and 43%, 61%, 61%, and 53% among patients with SCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, SCC and >1 subsite involved had worse LRC (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.046, respectively) and OS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). Cribriform plate invasion (p = 0.005) and residual disease (p = 0.047) also had worse LRC. Acute toxicities included Grade {>=}3 mucositis in 19 patients (37%), and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8 patients (15%). Six patients had Grade {>=}3 late toxicity including one optic toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT for patients with PNS/NC tumors has good outcomes compared with historical series and is well tolerated. Patients with SCC have worse LRC and OS. LRF is the predominant pattern of failure.

  7. [Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer].

    PubMed

    Peyraga, G; Lafond, C; Pointreau, Y; Giraud, P; Maingon, P

    2016-09-01

    The nasal cavity and parasinusal cancer are rare (10% of tumors of the head and neck) and are mainly represented by squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus and adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus (occupational disease, wood dust). The most common clinical sign is nasal obstruction, but tumors can also manifest as rhinorrhea and/or epistaxis (usually unilateral signs). A magnetic resonance imaging of the facial structure is systematic for staging before treatment. The treatment consists of a first surgery if the patient is operable with a resectable tumor. If it is not the case, the treatment consists of radiotherapy (RT) associated with chemotherapy (CT) according to the initial data (T3/T4 or N+). After first surgery, RT is indicated (except T1N0 with complete resection) associated with a CT based on postoperative data (capsular effraction or incomplete resection). Lymph node irradiation is considered case by case, but is indicated in any nodal involvement. RT must be an intensity modulated RT (IMRT), static or dynamic, and must be imagery guided (IGRT). According to ICRU 83, doses to organs at risk and target volumes must be carried. Finally, after a post-treatment baseline imaging between 2 and 4 months, monitoring will be alternated with the ENT surgeon every 2 or 3 months for 2 years, then every 4 to 6 months for 5 years.

  8. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  9. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  10. Polypoidal Lesions in the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising from mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the histopathologic spectrum of polypoidal lesions of the nasal cavity. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 100 consecutive cases of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity, received in the department of pathology. The age and sex of the patients were recorded. The tissues were routinely processed for histopathologic sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains. Special stains like Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was done wherever applicable. The cases were classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The neoplastic lesions were further classified according to WHO classification on histopathologic examination. Results: Analysis of 100 polypoidal lesions in the nose and paranasal sinuses with clinical diagnosis of nasal polyps, revealed 66 cases were nonneoplastic and 34 were neoplastic;17 (50%)were benign and 17(50%) were malignant. True nasal polyps both inflammatory and allergic together comprised 44 cases of the 100 polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity. Angiofibroma and inverted papilloma were the most frequent benign tumour accounting for 12/17(0.7%). The most common malignant tumour was anaplastic carcinoma 7/17(0.4%). Nonneoplastic and benign tumours were common in younger age groups whereas malignant tumours were most common in older males. Conclusion: The majority of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity are nonneoplastic. PMID:23905098

  11. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  12. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers? What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ...

  13. Standardization of Malaysian adult female nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  14. [The incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses in the district of Biella, 1970-1986].

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Ciambellotti, E; Salvi, U; Zanetti, R; Comba, P

    1989-01-01

    The district of Biella in Piedmont (NW Italy) has one of the largest concentrations of the textile industry in Italy, traditionally manufacturing high quality wools. The present paper describes a survey of primitive cancers of the nasal fossae and paranasal sinuses diagnosed among residents of this area from 1970 to 1986. This study is a preliminary step in a case-control study aimed at investigating the association with occupational exposure in the textile industry. Seven cases were diagnosed in the 1970-75 period and 25 in the following ten years 1976-1986. The cut-off point corresponds to the year when the Hospital Admission and Discharge Registry became operative in Piedmont and Lombardy. The 1970-75 annual incidence rates (X 100,000, world standardized) were 0.5 both among males and females. Corresponding figures in 1976-86 were 1.2 and 0.2. Out of 32 cases, 16 were adenocarcinomas or adenoid-cystic carcinomas. Eleven cases are reported in the clinical record as wood or leather workers and seven as textile workers. Occupation was not reported for six cases. A case-control study is in progress.

  15. Complex odontoma of the nasal cavity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Michelle; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2008-05-01

    We describe the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with symptoms of chronic nasal obstruction and recurrent sinusitis of many years' duration. The patient's history and radiographic findings established a diagnosis of a complex odontoma of the nasal cavity. The mass was surgically excised, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The occurrence of an odontoma in the nasal cavity is extremely rare.

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Nasal Cavity and Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Alyssa Marie; Degner, Daniel Alvin

    2016-07-01

    The nasal cavity and sinuses may be exposed primarily via a dorsal or ventral surgical approach. Surgical planning involves the use of advanced imaging, such as computed tomography or MRI. Surgical treatment of lesions of the nasal cavity usually is limited to benign lesions or can also be used in combination with adjunctive therapy, such as radiation therapy. Extreme caution must be exercised with a dorsal approach to the nasal cavity to avoid complications of inadvertent penetration into the brain case. Gentle tissue handling and careful closure of the mucoperiosteum must be exercised following a ventral approach to minimize the risk of oronasal fistula formation.

  17. Efficacy of cobalt-60 radiation therapy for the treatment of nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog.

    PubMed

    Correa, Stephanie Shank; Mauldin, G Neal; Mauldin, Glenna E; Patnaik, Amiya K

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of cobalt-60 radiotherapy in the treatment of nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in dogs and to compare this treatment group to historical controls. Six dogs with histopathologically confirmed nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma were treated with cobalt-60 radiotherapy to a total dose of either 63 Gy or 54 Gy. Overall survival times ranged from 30 days to 330 days, with a median survival time of 165 days. Nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog is an aggressive tumor that responds poorly to radiotherapy.

  18. Comparative morphometry of the nasal cavity in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, E A; Swenberg, J A; Fields, S; Popp, J A

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of the various epithelial types lining the nasal cavity in normal 7 and 16 weeks old male Fischer-344 rats and male B6C3F1 mice has been mapped at the light microscopic level. Photographs of transverse sections of the nose were analysed using a Zeiss Videoplan computerized image analysis system programmed for measurement and evaluation of count, area, perimeter and length. In rats, the volumes of the nasal cavity at 7 and 16 weeks are 156 and 257 mm3 respectively; while in mice the nasal cavity volume is essentially the same (32 . 5 and 31 . 5 mm3) at the same two ages. Total surface areas of the nasal cavity in rats at 7 and 16 weeks are 799 and 1344 mm2 respectively; and in mice 278 and 289 mm2. The percentages of the nasal cavity surface lined by squamous, respiratory and olfactory epithelium are similar at both ages in both species. Applications and significance of these data are discussed. PMID:7130058

  19. [Two-cavity (sectional) nasal hydrotamponade after endonasal surgical interventions].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Tsarapkin, G Iu; Kunel'skaia, N L; Gorovaia, E V; Lavrova, A S

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on the problem of achieving post-operative hemostasis in patients undergoing endonasal surgical intervention. Analysis of 156 tamponades of the nasal cavity with three types of silicone hydrotampons gives evidence that the use of two separate balloons within a single block of an original sectional hydrotampon allows for differential mechanical impact on anteromedial and posterior nasal cavities to avoid unnecessary compression of the mucous membrane. Results of manometric measurements suggest that a combination of mechanical arrest of post-operative hemorrhage and selective hyperthermia in the choanal compartment of the hydrotampon permits to reduce tampon pressure on the mucous membrane in anteromedial and posterior nasal cavities by 6.0-9.3% and 10.3-24.7% respectively.

  20. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  1. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  2. MALPOSITIONED LMA CONFUSED AS FOREIGN BODY IN NASAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sidharth; Mehta, Nitika; Mehta, Nandita; Mehta, Satish; Verma, Jayeeta

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of confusing white foreign body in the nasal cavity detected during Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) in a 35-yr-old male which turned out to be a malposition of classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Although malposition of LMA is a known entity to the anesthesiologist, if ventilation is adequate, back folded LMA in nasal cavity might not be recognized by the surgeon and lead to catastrophic consequences during endoscopic sinus surgery. In principle, misfolding and malpositioning can be reduced by pre usage testing, using appropriate sizes, minimizing cuff volume, and early identification and correction of malposition.

  3. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  4. What Are the Key Statistics about Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses occur in the maxillary sinuses or in the nasal cavity. They are ... Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make ...

  5. Deposition of inhaled wood dust in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Z F; Inthavong, K; Tu, J Y

    2007-11-01

    Detailed deposition patterns of inhaled wood dust in an anatomically accurate nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Three wood dusts, pine dust, heavy oak dust, and light oak dust, with a particle size distribution generated by machining (Chung et al., 2000), were simulated at an inhalation flow rate of 10 L/min. It was found that the major particle deposition sites were the nasal valve region and anterior section of the middle turbinate. Wood dust depositing in these regions is physiologically removed much more slowly than in other regions. This leads to the surrounding layer of soft tissues being damaged by the deposited particles during continuous exposure to wood dust. Additionally, it was found that pine dust had a higher deposition efficiency in the nasal cavity than the two oak dusts, due to the fact that it comprises a higher proportion of larger sized particles. Therefore, this indicates that dusts with a large amount of fine particles, such as those generated by sanding, may penetrate the nasal cavity and travel further into the lung.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in human nasal cavity and its characteristic dimension study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Yu, Chi

    2008-04-01

    To study the airflow distribution in human nasal cavity during respiration and the characteristic parameters of nasal structure, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate representations of 30 adult nasal cavity models were reconstructed based on processed tomography images collected from normal people. The airflow fields in nasal cavities were simulated by fluid dynamics with finite element software ANSYS. The results showed that the difference of human nasal cavity structure led to different airflow distribution in the nasal cavities and variation of the main airstream passing through the common nasal meatus. The nasal resistance in the regions of nasal valve and nasal vestibule accounted for more than half of the overall resistance. The characteristic model of nasal cavity was extracted on the basis of characteristic points and dimensions deduced from the original models. It showed that either the geometric structure or the airflow field of the two kinds of models was similar. The characteristic dimensions were the characteristic parameters of nasal cavity that could properly represent the original model in model studies on nasal cavity.

  7. Proton Beam Therapy for Unresectable Malignancies of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Nishio, Teiji; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Seiji; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The cure rate for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is low. Because irradiation with proton beams, which are characterized by their rapid fall-off at the distal end of the Bragg peak and sharp lateral penumbra, depending on energy, depth, and delivery, provide better dose distribution than X-ray irradiation, proton beam therapy (PBT) might improve treatment outcomes for conditions located in proximity to risk organs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 39 patients in our database fulfilling the following criteria: unresectable malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or skull base; N0M0 disease; and treatment with PBT (>60 GyE) from January 1999 to December 2006. Results: Median patient age was 57 years (range, 22-84 years); 22 of the patients were men and 17 were women. The most frequent primary site was the nasal cavity (n = 26, 67%). The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 84.6% and 77.0%, respectively. With a median active follow-up of 45.4 months, 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 49.1% and 59.3%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were mild dermatitis (Grade 2, 33.3%), but no severe toxicity was observed (Grade 3 or greater, 0%). Five patients (12.8%) experienced Grade 3 to 5 late toxicities, and one treatment-related death was reported, caused by cerebrospinal fluid leakage Grade 5 (2.6%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses make it is a promising treatment option.

  8. Pedunculated carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Po-Wu; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jeng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an epithelial malignancy arising in or from a benign pleomorphic salivary adenoma. The parotid gland is the most common location of CXPAs. Minor salivary gland CXPAs of the nasal cavity are exceedingly rare, with only 6 documented in the literature. Methods and Result: We present a 7th case: an unusual pedunculated intranasal CXPA, which had a favorable outcome after a wide endoscopic excision and the longest follow-up period reported to date. The clinical features, immunohistochemical characteristics, treatment choices, and disease outcomes of the intranasal CXPAs reported in previous studies are also reviewed. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of CXPA in the differential diagnosis of minor salivary gland malignancies in the nasal cavity. PMID:27684860

  9. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  10. An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Chung, S. K.

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in nasal cavities is essential to understand the physiology and pathology aspects of nasal breathing. Several studies have utilized physical models of the healthy nasal cavity to investigate the relationship between nasal anatomy and airflow. Since the final goal of these works is their contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of nasal diseases, therefore, the next step in this topic must be followed by the studies for disordered nasal cavities. In this paper, airflows in normal and abnormal nasal cavities and surgically created models, which simulate surgical treatment, are investigated experimentally by PIV. High-resolution computerized tomogram data and careful manipulation of the model surface by the ear, nose and throat doctor provide more sophisticated nasal cavity models. The correlation based correction PIV algorithm with window offset is used for PIV flow analysis. Average and RMS distributions in sagittal and coronal sections are obtained for inspiratory and expiratory nasal airflows. Comparisons in nasal airflows for both normal and abnormal cases are also examined. Airflow characteristics that are related to the abnormalities in the nasal cavity are proposed. In the case of simulations of surgical operations, velocity and RMS distributions in coronal section change locally, this may cause some difficulties in physiologic functions of noses and may hurt mucosal surface.

  11. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  12. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  13. Plasma cell granuloma of the nasal cavity treated by radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Seider, M.J.; Cleary, K.R.; van Tassel, P.; Alexanian, R.; Schantz, S.P.; Frias, A.; Fuller, L.M. )

    1991-02-15

    Plasma cell granuloma is a rare, benign tumor most commonly found in the lungs in patients younger than 30 years. Although presentation has been reported at a number of other anatomic sites, this report is the first of plasma cell granuloma of the nasal cavity. The tumor was initially resected, but progression was seen at 1-month follow-up. Because further surgery to completely eradicate the tumor would have been extensive and disfiguring, 40-Gy external beam radiation was given in 20 fractions using a three-field wedge technique. Most recent clinical follow-up at 27 months showed local control. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for plasma cell granuloma when the disease can be completely resected. However, irradiation can also be effective in patients with recurrent or inoperable local disease.

  14. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Bucci, M. Kara; El-Sayed, Ivan; Xia Ping; Kaplan, Michael J.; Eisele, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 36 patients with malignancies of the sinonasal region were treated with IMRT. Thirty-two patients (89%) were treated in the postoperative setting after gross total resection. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem. The primary sites were: 13 ethmoid sinus, 10 maxillary sinus, 7 nasal cavity, and 6 other. Histology was: 12 squamous cell, 7 esthesioneuroblastoma, 5 adenoid cystic, 5 undifferentiated, 5 adenocarcinoma, and 2 other. Median follow-up was 51 months among surviving patients (range, 9-82 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year estimates of local control were 62% and 58%, respectively. One patient developed isolated distant metastasis, and none developed isolated regional failure. The 5-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 55% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of ocular toxicity was minimal with no patients reporting decreased vision. Late complications included xerophthalmia (1 patient), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and cataract (1 patient). Conclusion: Although IMRT for malignancies of the sinonasal region does not appear to lead to significant improvements in disease control, the low incidence of complications is encouraging.

  15. Histological and anatomical structure of the nasal cavity of Bama minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingjing; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Objective The nasal mucosa is equipped with abundant lymphatic tissues, serving as the first line of defense against invasion by microorganisms. In this study, we characterized the features of the nasal mucosa of Bama minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) via histological analysis. Methods Five cross sections (I, II, III, IV, and V) were obtained from the distal end of the nasal cavity toward the pharynx (along the cavity axis) and examined. Specifically, CD3+ T cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA)+ cells, and M cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, while dendritic cells (DCs) were detected by immunofluorescence. The distribution of goblet cells was determined by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Results The nasal cavity of Bama minipigs can be divided into three parts: the regio vestibularis (I, II), regio respiratoria (III, IV), and regio olfactoria (V). Lymphoid tissue was present at random locations in the nasal cavity. Abundant lymphoid tissue was located in the roof of the nasopharyngeal meatus and was continuous with the lymphoid tissue of the pharynx. The distribution of CD3+ T cells, IgA+ cells, M cells, and DCs increased distally in the nasal cavity. Conclusions The present work comprises a histological study of the nasal cavity of Bama minipigs, and will be beneficial for understanding the mechanisms of immunity in these animals after nasal vaccination. PMID:28339502

  16. Unsteady flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy measured by stereoscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) cannulae are used to deliver heated and humidified air to patients at steady flows ranging from 5 to 50 l/min. In this study, the flow velocities in the nasal cavity across the complete respiratory cycle during natural breathing and with NHF has been mapped in vitro using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). An anatomically accurate silicone resin model of a complete human nasal cavity was constructed using CT scan data and rapid prototyping. Physiological breathing waveforms were reproduced in vitro using Reynolds and Womersley number matching and a piston pump driven by a ball screw and stepper motor. The flow pattern in the nasal cavity with NHF was found to differ significantly from natural breathing. Velocities of 2.4 and 3.3 ms-1 occurred in the nasal valve during natural breathing at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively; however, on expiration, the maximum velocity of 3.8 ms-1 occurred in the nasopharynx. At a cannula flow rate of 30 l/min, maximal velocities of 13.6 and 16.5 ms-1 at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively, were both located in the cannula jet within the nasal valve. Results are presented that suggest the quasi-steady flow assumption is invalid in the nasal cavity during natural breathing; however, it was valid with NHF. Cannula flow has been found to continuously flush the nasopharyngeal dead space, which may enhance carbon dioxide removal and increase oxygen fraction.

  17. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Nasal Cavity Hemangiomas According to Histological Type

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Soo Chin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between two histological types of nasal hemangiomas (cavernous hemangioma and capillary or lobular capillary hemangioma). Materials and Methods CT (n = 20; six pre-contrast; 20 post-enhancement) and MRI (n = 7) images from 23 patients (16 men and seven women; mean age, 43 years; range, 13-73 years) with a pathologically diagnosed nasal cavity hemangioma (17 capillary and lobular capillary hemangiomas and six cavernous hemangiomas) were reviewed, focusing on lesion location, size, origin, contour, enhancement pattern, attenuation or signal intensity (SI), and bony changes. Results The 17 capillary and lobular hemangiomas averaged 13 mm (range, 4-37 mm) in size, and most (n = 13) were round. Fourteen capillary hemangiomas had marked or moderate early phase enhancement on CT, which dissipated during the delayed phase. Four capillary hemangiomas on MRI showed marked enhancement. Bony changes were usually not seen on CT or MRI (seen on five cases, 29.4%). Half of the lesions (2/4) had low SI on T1-weighted MRI images and heterogeneously high SI with signal voids on T2-weighted images. The six cavernous hemangiomas were larger than the capillary type (mean, 20.5 mm; range, 10-39 mm) and most had lobulating contours (n = 4), with characteristic enhancement patterns (three centripetal and three multifocal nodular), bony remodeling (n = 4, 66.7%), and mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement during the early and delayed phases. Conclusion CT and MRI findings are different between the two histological types of nasal hemangiomas, particularly in the enhancement pattern and size, which can assist in preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical tumor excision. PMID:25995686

  18. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  19. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  20. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions.

  1. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  2. Craniofacial pain and anatomical abnormalities of the nasal cavities.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Jeferson Cedaro de; Bussoloti Filho, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    The causal relation between anatomical variations of the nose and headaches and facial pain is analyzed through literature review of the topic. The pathogenesis that can be involved in this relation proves to be wider than simple alteration of nasal septum and turbinates that can cause mechanical stimulus through contact between these structures, which covers infectious factors, neurogenic inflammation, correlation with migraines and the role of nasal obstruction. The clinical findings of a lot of authors including the test with topical anesthetic to prove this causal relation, the indication of surgical treatment, in addition to good results of this treatment, are reported. The mechanism of pain relief obtained through surgical correction of nasal septum and turbinate is discussed. These data make us conclude that there are multiple etiologic factors involved, which makes us question the fundamental role of the mechanical aspect.

  3. Endoscopic approach to the resection of adenoid cystic carcinoma of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: case report and own experience.

    PubMed

    Wardas, Piotr; Tymowski, Michał; Piotrowska-Seweryn, Agnieszka; Kaspera, Wojciech; Ślaska-Kaspera, Aleksandra; Markowski, Jarosław

    2015-12-12

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor that might occur in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. It is characteristic for poor prognosis, especially the solid histopathological subtype of the tumor. ACC might spread along nerves and fascias and it is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging together with fine-needle biopsy are the gold standards in the diagnostic procedure of the cancer. Surgery with adjuvant therapy are the most common methods of treatment. Among the surgical approaches, the functional endonasal sinus surgery seems to be the most appropriate and favorable way of treatment. In the study, the authors present a case of a 62-year-old patient with T4aN0M0 ACC tumor treated endoscopically at the Department of Laryngology and ENT Oncology, WSS No. 5 in Sosnowiec. The authors indicate the usefulness of FESS procedure in the treatment of malignancies of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. They also review the recent publications on endonasal versus open approach in similar cases. In conclusions, the authors favor endonasal approach as a mini-invasive method of surgical treatment of ACC of paranasal sinuses that results in satisfactory oncological outcome and high quality of patient's life.

  4. MUCORMYCOSIS IN SEVERELY BURNED PATIENTS. REPORT OF TWO CASES PRESENTING EXTENSIVE DESTRUCTION OF THE FACE AND NASAL CAVITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Two cases of fatal mucormycosis presenting rapid widespread destruction of the face and nasal cavity are reported as a complication of extensive...recognition of mucormycosis infection depends upon its distinctive dry, black, ischemic necrosis of the face and nasal cavity with early spread to the orbit

  5. Giant Primary Schwannoma of the Left Nasal Cavity and Ethmoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Justin; Oh, Lawrence; Cox, Daniel; Forer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A unilateral tumour in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses is commonly caused by polyps, cysts, and mucoceles, as well as invasive tumours such as papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Schwannomas, in contrast, are rare lesions in this area (Minhas et al., 2013). We present a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 4-year progressive history of mucous hypersecretion, nasal obstruction, pain, and fullness. Imaging of the paranasal sinuses showed complete opacification of the entire left nasal cavity and sinuses by a tumour causing subsequent obstruction of the frontal and maxillary sinuses. The tumour was completely excised endoscopically. Histopathology was consistent with that of a schwannoma. PMID:27379190

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatous stroma in the nasal cavity of a dog.

    PubMed

    Bosward, K L; Kessell, A E; Lucy, R J

    2004-09-01

    This is a report of an unusual squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity of a dog. A 13-year-old Golden Retriever was presented with a unilateral nasal and ocular discharge. Although a nasal tumour was suspected, initial diagnostic investigations were unrewarding, and, with worsening clinical signs, the dog was euthanatized. Necropsy examination confirmed the presence of a nasal tumour that was composed histologically of both a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma component blending with a predominant spindle cell component. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human keratin/cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2 and broad spectrum cytokeratin), Vimentin, Desmin, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein supported a diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma with (pseudo) sarcomatous stroma.

  7. What Happens After Treatment For Nasal Cavity or Paranasal Sinus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back: Cancer Recurrence . Help for trouble swallowing and nutrition problems Cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and their treatments can sometimes cause problems such as trouble swallowing, dry ... due to poor nutrition. Some people may need to adjust what they ...

  8. The effects of injection modes on instantaneous particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian; Gu, Xin; Wang, Mengmeng; Jian, Guanping; Wang, Simin; Zheng, Guoxi

    2017-03-01

    To understand the instantaneous particle deposition in nasal cavity, effects of two injection models on particle deposition characteristic were discussed in this paper. Based on a realistic human nasal cavity geometry obtained from CT scans, a comparison of deposition pattern in the nasal cavity between single injection and continuous injection was investigated through the Lagrangian approach. The instantaneous airflow field was simulated with the tidal volume of 159 and 318 mL by two sine wave curves at inlet. For the case of single injection, particles have finished deposition in the first half of inhalation, and a negative correlation between the tidal volumes and deposition can be observed when the particle diameter was larger than 10 µm. Moreover, particles were mainly deposited in the turbinate area that was beneficial for aerosol therapy. The inertial parameter was not suitable to predict the particle deposition in the case of single injection. With respect to continuous injection, a reduction in total deposition caused by the deceleration process of inhalation can be observed after 1.5 s. The deposition was closely associated with the time-varying flow field, and particles were mainly deposited in the anterior region and turbinate area. Besides, the particle deposition increased with the inertial parameter for continuous injection. The results indicated that the injection modes had an influence on both the total deposition and local deposition pattern in the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Computational model of particle deposition in the nasal cavity under steady and dynamic flow.

    PubMed

    Karakosta, Paraskevi; Alexopoulos, Aleck H; Kiparissides, Costas

    2015-01-01

    A computational model for flow and particle deposition in a three-dimensional representation of the human nasal cavity is developed. Simulations of steady state and dynamic airflow during inhalation are performed at flow rates of 9-60 l/min. Depositions for particles of size 0.5-20 μm are determined and compared with experimental and simulation results from the literature in terms of deposition efficiencies. The nasal model is validated by comparison with experimental and simulation results from the literature for particle deposition under steady-state flow. The distribution of deposited particles in the nasal cavity is presented in terms of an axial deposition distribution as well as a bivariate axial deposition and particle size distribution. Simulations of dynamic airflow and particle deposition during an inhalation cycle are performed for different nasal cavity outlet pressure variations and different particle injections. The total particle deposition efficiency under dynamic flow is found to depend strongly on the dynamics of airflow as well as the type of particle injection.

  10. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara

    2012-06-01

    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  11. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Treatment Options by Stage)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  12. Stages of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  14. General Information about Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  15. Infection of Oligochaetes, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Oligochaeta), in the Nasal Cavity of a Chinese Man

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhenming; Huang, Guangping; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Chunmiao; Wang, Yan; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    The infection by Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède, 1862 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae) in humans is relatively uncommon. The present report is to describe an incidental human infection with oligochaetes in the nasal cavity of a Chinese man, a 25-year-old man residing in Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province, China presenting with nose bleed, severe itching, continuous sneezing, and rhinorrhea. A lot of oligochaete worms were found in the nasal discharge of the patient. The detected worms were identified as Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Oligochaeta) based on morphological and molecular characteristics. This incidental L. hoffmeisteri nasal infection is the first case in China and indicates that oligochaete worms can be encountered in humans. PMID:28285510

  16. Extraction of an incisor embedded within the nasal cavity in two guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; ONO, Kaori; OMIYA, Tomoko; OGUCHI, Yukio; SETOGAWA, Moemi; MACHIDA, Yuuki

    2015-01-01

    Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered. PMID:26118492

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma in the nasal cavity: a clinicopathological study of ten cases in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vento, S I; Numminen, J; Kinnunen, I; Rautiainen, M; Tarkkanen, J; Hagström, J; Mäkitie, A A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the nationwide occurrence of sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma in Finland. A retrospective study was conducted at The Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and Pathology at the five university hospitals in Finland. Data were obtained by searching for sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma cases in the clinical and histopathological registries at these institutions for the past two to four decades. All patients who had had a histologically proven pleomorphic adenoma in the sinonasal area were included as participants. Ten cases with pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity were found. The majority of these tumours originated in the septum, and there were no malignant transformations. Pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal cavity were found to be extremely rare in this nationwide investigation.

  18. [Congenital atresia of the anterior nares and hypoplasia of the nasal cavity].

    PubMed

    Murawski, E; Gajewski, P

    1995-01-01

    We described a case of congenital atresia of the anterior nares with a minute opening on the right side and underdevelopment of the nasal cavities. The hard palate was flat and the soft palate was normally mobile. Right anophthalmia and microphthalmia of the left eye with iris coloboma were also noted. In order to provide a nasal airway and to enable the newborn to suck and breathe simultaneously the patient was operated on at four days of age. By means of transpalatal approach a nasal cavity was drilled out of solid bone and connected with the small anterior duct. Trough the new created air duct a nasopharyngeal tube was introduced. In spite of that the external nasal orifice was enlarged later, there was an inclination the orifice to collapse due to lack of nostril cartilages, therefore a nasopharyngeal tube still is used. The physical and intellectual development of the now 11-month old infant is normal. Final reconstruction of the external nose will take place later.

  19. [Adult of Drosophila melanogaster parasitized in human nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Tang, Xiaoniu; Wang, Shaosheng

    2015-05-01

    We reported a case of adult Drosophila melanogaster parasitized in nasal cavity of a 81-year-old woman who was living in Xuancheng City, Anhui Province now. She was admitted for treatment of cerebral infarction and water accumulation in the lungs in 2014 June. The patient was also suffering from secretory otitis media, a history of hypertension and heart stents were placed in 2007. A foreign body was found in the left nasal cavity during the preoperative examination process, and then the part of the inflammatory tissue was removed through the nasal endoscopy, and sent to our department for identification. There are three adults of Drosophila in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. The parasites length is approximately 3mm, with huge red compound eyes. The end of the body is tip, with 5 ring lines in back, has no dark spots. The abdomen of the parasites have seven sections. Tarsus of foot I have no sex comb on base, and they are male adult of Drosophila melanogaster after identification. After a thorough reviewing of medical history, we knew the patient began to sneeze violently and frequently six years ago. But there was no clear or purulent nasal discharge flowing, therefore did not attract attention. After removing the parasites the sneezing symptoms were relieved, and had no abnormal symptoms in the follow-up 6 months.

  20. Is Radiologic Evaluation Necessary to Find out Foreign Bodies in Nasal Cavity?

    PubMed

    Oh, Hoon; Min, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Although there were previous studies on the clinical aspects such as etiology, treatment modalities, studies regarding the necessity of radiologic evaluation for nasal foreign body were limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the necessity and indication of radiologic evaluation for nasal foreign bodies. There are consecutive patients aged less than 10 years who presented with suspected foreign bodies in nasal cavity. We reviewed the patient's age and sex, including the methods of evaluation, management tools, and types of foreign bodies. There were 35 cases (11.4%) on whom radiographs were performed in the 24 uncooperative patients and 11 cooperative patients who were not identified with any foreign bodies via nasal endoscopy. Among them, only 4 cases had positive reports of foreign body and the others were normal radiologic findings. We suggest that the radiologic evaluation is always not necessary to find the location of nasal foreign bodies. It, however, should be performed in cases of negative findings of physical examination with anterior rhinoscopy or sinus endoscopy and unwitnessed foreign bodies to rule out metallic contents, especially button type battery.

  1. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  2. Clearance concepts applied to the metabolism of inhaled vapors in tissues lining the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M E; Sarangapani, R

    1999-10-01

    Some inhaled vapors are metabolized by tissues in the nasal cavity or carried away in nasal venous blood after diffusing from the lumen through the nasal epithelial tissues. These processes remove chemical from the airstream. Clearance (volume/time) is the volumetric airflow from which chemical would have to be completely removed to account for the net loss. We present here a steady-state analysis of a series of physiologically based clearance-extraction (PBCE) models for nasal clearance of inhaled vapors, consisting of one, two, three, or four subcompartments. A two-compartment model is the simplest representation of tissues in the nasal cavity, with an air and a tissue compartment. The three-compartment model had air, mucus, and tissue phases. The four-compartment model included both epithelial and submucosal tissues in addition to the air and mucus compartments. For the two-, three-, and four-compartment models, the airstream clearance (Cl(sys)) equation has a common form. Cl(sys) = Cl(tot)H(m:a)PA(gas)Q divided by Cl(tot)H(m:a)(Q + PA(gas)) + PA(gas)Q. In this equation, Cl(tot) is the total tissue clearance, PA(gas) is the gas-phase diffusional clearance, Q is the airflow, and H(muc:a) is the mucus air partition coefficient. Cl(tot) varies in complexity for the different models since it encompasses tissue diffusion, tissue clearance due to metabolism, and blood flow. A physiologically based clearance-extraction (PBCE) model for the whole nose with three nasal tissue regions, each containing a four-compartment tissue stack, was used to simulate nasal uptake of three vapors-acetone, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and vinyl acetate (VA)-to show the dependence of clearance on different parameters for specific compounds. Acetone is not metabolized in the nose, MMA is metabolized at a moderate rate by nasal tissues, and VA is metabolized at a high rate in mucus and tissues. Equations derived from steady-state analyses show the importance of the specific biochemical and

  3. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory) or the Vth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents) or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish). In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory) epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17683564

  4. Evaluation of nasal cavity by acoustic rhinometry in Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z L; Wang, D Y; Zhang, P C; Dong, F; Yeoh, K H

    2001-10-01

    Acoustic rhinometry (AR) evaluates the geometry of the nasal cavity by measuring the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and nasal volume (V) by means of acoustic reflection. Understanding the normal and pathologic conditions of the internal nasal cavity using AR is important in the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal range of AR parameters in healthy volunteers from three ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malay and Indian. We also attempted to evaluate the role of these measurements in the documentation of structural abnormalities in the nose. A total of 189 Singaporeans, aged > or = 18 years, were recruited from a nationwide survey study. They comprised 83 Chinese, 35 Malays and 71 Indians. Eighty-nine subjects had a rhinoscopically normal nose (Group 1), 77 had significant septal deviation (Group 2) and 23 had inferior turbinate hypertrophy (Group 3). AR was performed to measure the MCA at the anterior 1-5 cm from the nostril and the volume (V) between points at the nostril and 5 cm into the nose. A mean MCA (mMCA; equal to (L + R)/2) and a total volume (Vt; equal to L + R) were then calculated for each subject, where L and R refer to the measurements made for the left and right nostrils, respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in mMCA (p = 0.80) and Vt (p = 0.60) among the three ethnic subgroups of Group 1. Statistically significant differences were found only between Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001 for both mMCA and Vt) and between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001 for mMCA and p = 0.013 for Vt). Although there was no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, significant differences in MCA (p = 0.001) and V (p = 0.040) were found between the narrower sides (smaller volume) and the wider sides in Group 2, indicating volume compensation between the nasal cavities. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that there is no significant difference in the normal

  5. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  7. Microendoscopy of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses via their natural orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarz, Marietta; Hopf, Juergen U. G.; Gundlach, Peter; Scherer, Hans H.; Loerke, S.; Voege, Karl H.; Lutze-Koffroth, C.; Tschepe, Johannes; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1992-08-01

    Microendoscopy of the nasal cavities and the para-nasal sinuses is a new and atraumatical method to investigate these anatomical regions which were previously inaccessible for direct visual inspection due to their special topography. By means of superfine flexible and partly actively tip controllable fiberscopes the procedure only requires local anesthesia. Microendoscopes with outside diameters of 290 to 1600 micrometers are inserted through the natural orifices or ducts of the para-nasal sinuses partly guided by actively steerable microcatheters of 5 to 9 F. The eyepiece of the scope is connected with a chip-camera simultaneously carrying the endoscopic images onto a monitor system. This new procedure contributes to a better presurgical planning and risk assessment of endonasal sinus surgery and to the avoiding of repeated x-ray imaging during the therapeutic follow up of acute and chronic para-nasal infections. Furthermore, in combination with fiber delivered laser systems, it forms the basis and technical precondition for `minimal invasive laser-assisted microsurgery' of these anatomic regions.

  8. REACTIONS OF THE NASAL CAVITY AND POSTNASAL SPACE TO CHILLING OF THE BODY SURFACE

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Stuart; Goldman, Alfred; Grant, Samuel B.

    1921-01-01

    Devices are described by means of which the terminals of thermopiles may be held in stable apposition with the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and postnasal space and local temperature variations thus followed. Chilling of the body surface has without exception caused depression of the temperature of the nasal mucosa surface, amounting in some instances to as much as 6°C., and indicating marked reflex vasoconstriction and diminution of blood supply. With rewrapping, partial recovery of blood supply promptly occurs, although recovery has been incomplete within the duration of the experiments in ten of twelve instances. Application of the wires within the nasal cavity has usually caused pain and discharge of clear mucus, sometimes also lacrimation and sneezing. The rhinorrhea has occurred both on the side directly irritated and on the opposite side, although on the former more abundantly, and has apparently been little if at all affected by the diminished blood supply and shrinkage of the mucous membrane incident to chilling the body surface. Discharge from the nose has been at most a rare occurrence in experiments in which the nasal mucosa was not directly irritated. The temperature of the nasopharyngeal mucosa surface has also been depressed, typically between 1° and 2°C., with chilling of the body surface. This depression has also been shown to have local reflex vasoconstriction and ischemia as its basis. With rewrapping, prompt return toward normal occurs, but here also recovery of blood supply has in the majority of instances not been complete within the duration of the experiments. The thresholds of the chilling vasoconstrictor reflex to the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and postnasal space, tonsil, oropharynx, and palate and the threshold of the reflex to the skin of the trunk have been found to be lower than the threshold of the like reflex to the skin of the forehead. Disrobing 'the warmly wrapped subject in a room a little below ordinary room

  9. Long-Term Radiotherapy Outcomes for Nasal Cavity and Septal Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Matthew W.; Schwartz, David L. Rana, Vishal; Adapala, Pranshanth; Morrison, William H.; Hanna, Ehab Y.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.; Ang, K. Kian

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and septum has historically been associated with a poor prognosis. This report updates the long-term outcomes for radiotherapy (RT) of this disease site at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from 68 patients diagnosed with histologically proven carcinoma of the nasal cavity or septum treated with RT for curative intent between 1969 and 2000. The disease histologic type was as follows: 45 (66%) had squamous cell carcinoma, 12 (18%) had adenoid cystic carcinoma, 8 (12%) had adenocarcinoma, and 3 (4%) had poorly/undifferentiated carcinoma. Of the 68 patients, 32 (47%) had received definitive RT. Of these, 23 had received external beam RT and 9 brachytherapy. Of the remaining 36 patients, 3 (4%) underwent preoperative external beam RT and 33 (49%) postoperative external beam RT. Of the 68 patients, 13 (19%) received neck RT. The median dose for patients receiving definitive and postoperative RT was 65 and 58.2 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 11 years (range, 2.4-30.1 years). Results: Of the 68 patients, 19 (28%) developed a locoregional relapse, 14 (21%) locally and 5 (7%) regionally. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years was 86% and 76%, respectively. The disease-specific survival rate was 86% and 78%, and the overall survival rate was 82% and 62% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: This extended follow-up of our institutional experience has demonstrated that RT can provide durable long-term locoregional control and survival outcomes for patients with carcinoma of the nasal cavity and septum.

  10. ACR appropriateness criteria(®) nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Smith, Richard V; Yom, Sue S; Beitler, Jonathan J; Busse, Paul M; Cooper, Jay S; Hanna, Ehab Y; Jones, Christopher U; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Quon, Harry; Ridge, John A; Saba, Nabil F; Worden, Francis; Yao, Min; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-03-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Here, we present the Appropriateness Criteria for cancers arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinuses). This includes clinical presentation, prognostic factors, principles of management, and treatment outcomes. Controversies regarding management of cervical lymph nodes are discussed. Rare and unusual nasal cavity cancers, such as esthesioneuroblastoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas, are included. © 2016 American College of Radiology. Head Neck, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 407-418, 2017.

  11. A preliminary 3D computed tomography study of the human maxillary sinus and nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Butaric, Lauren N; McCarthy, Robert C; Broadfield, Douglas C

    2010-11-01

    Despite centuries of investigation, the function of the maxillary sinus (MS) and underlying patterns governing its form remain elusive. In this study, we articulate a methodology for collecting volumetric data for the MS and nasal cavity (NC) from computed tomography (CT) scans and report details for a small sample of 39 dried human crania of known ecogeographic provenience useful for assessing variation in MS size and shape. We use scaling analyses to preliminarily test the hypothesis that volumes of the nasal cavity (NCV) and maxillary sinus (MSV) are inversely correlated such that the NC covaries with size of the face, whereas the MS "fills in" the leftover space [proposed by Shea: Am J Phys Anthropol 47 (1977):289-300]. Against expectation, MSV is not significantly correlated with NCV or any cranial size variable. NCV, on the other hand, scales isometrically with facial size. The results of this pilot study suggest that NCV covaries with facial size, but that the MS does not simply fill in the leftover space in the face. The role, if any, of the MSs in midfacial function and architecture remains unclear. Larger sample sizes, additional environmental variables, and assessment of MS and NC shape are necessary to resolve this issue.

  12. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  13. Cobalt 60 radiotherapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in three horses.

    PubMed

    Walker, M A; Schumacher, J; Schmitz, D G; McMullen, W C; Ruoff, W W; Crabill, M R; Hawkins, J F; Hogan, P M; McClure, S R; Vacek, J R; Edwards, J F; Helman, R G; Frelier, P F

    1998-03-15

    Three adult horses underwent aggressive treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, using course-fractionated cobalt 60 radiotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is not commonly diagnosed in horses. Historically, horses with this type of neoplasm have not been treated or have undergone some form of surgery. The prognosis for long-term survival or cure has been poor. Long-term results of cobalt 60 radiotherapy were good to excellent and exceeded those usually reported for horses treated surgically. On the basis of these results, use of radiotherapy for these neoplasms is recommended.

  14. PROSPECTIVE COMPARISON OF TUMOR STAGING USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH NASAL NEOPLASIA: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Lux, Cassie N; Culp, William T N; Johnson, Lynelle R; Kent, Michael; Mayhew, Philipp; Daniaux, Lise A; Carr, Alaina; Puchalski, Sarah

    2017-02-24

    Identification of nasal neoplasia extension and tumor staging in dogs is most commonly performed using computed tomography (CT), however magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in human medicine. A prospective pilot study enrolling six dogs with nasal neoplasia was performed with CT and MRI studies acquired under the same anesthetic episode. Interobserver comparison and comparison between the two imaging modalities with regard to bidimensional measurements of the nasal tumors, tumor staging using historical schemes, and assignment of an ordinal scale of tumor margin clarity at the tumor-soft tissue interface were performed. The hypotheses included that MRI would have greater tumor measurements, result in higher tumor staging, and more clearly define the tumor soft tissue interface when compared to CT. Evaluation of bone involvement of the nasal cavity and head showed a high level of agreement between CT and MRI. Estimation of tumor volume using bidimensional measurements was higher on MRI imaging in 5/6 dogs, and resulted in a median tumor volume which was 18.4% higher than CT imaging. Disagreement between CT and MRI was noted with meningeal enhancement, in which two dogs were positive for meningeal enhancement on MRI and negative on CT. One of six dogs had a higher tumor stage on MRI compared to CT, while the remaining five agreed. Magnetic resonance imaging resulted in larger bidimensional measurements and tumor volume estimates, along with a higher likelihood of identifying meningeal enhancement when compared to CT imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide integral information for tumor staging, prognosis, and treatment planning.

  15. [Reconstruction of the floor of the nasal cavity, hemipalate, bucal cheek and lower lip].

    PubMed

    Zapater, E; Simón, E; Ferrandis, E; Vendrell, B

    1999-01-01

    We describe the surgical technique used to reconstruct a defect created by resection of a tumor of the palate, malar mucosa, lower lip and adjacent gingival mucosa. We used a microvascular radial forearm flap. A strip across the flap is de-epithelialized and the flap is folded in half at that point. The sides are used for the oral and nasal linings, respectively. The thinness of this flap, its vascularization and the length of its pedicle make this design possible. Four months after the surgery the patient was free of disease and had achieved adequate phonation and swallowing.

  16. Comparison between manual and semi-automatic segmentation of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses from CT images.

    PubMed

    Tingelhoff, K; Moral, A I; Kunkel, M E; Rilk, M; Wagner, I; Eichhorn, K G; Wahl, F M; Bootz, F

    2007-01-01

    Segmentation of medical image data is getting more and more important over the last years. The results are used for diagnosis, surgical planning or workspace definition of robot-assisted systems. The purpose of this paper is to find out whether manual or semi-automatic segmentation is adequate for ENT surgical workflow or whether fully automatic segmentation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is needed. We present a comparison of manual and semi-automatic segmentation of paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity. Manual segmentation is performed by custom software whereas semi-automatic segmentation is realized by a commercial product (Amira). For this study we used a CT dataset of the paranasal sinuses which consists of 98 transversal slices, each 1.0 mm thick, with a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels. For the analysis of both segmentation procedures we used volume, extension (width, length and height), segmentation time and 3D-reconstruction. The segmentation time was reduced from 960 minutes with manual to 215 minutes with semi-automatic segmentation. We found highest variances segmenting nasal cavity. For the paranasal sinuses manual and semi-automatic volume differences are not significant. Dependent on the segmentation accuracy both approaches deliver useful results and could be used for e.g. robot-assisted systems. Nevertheless both procedures are not useful for everyday surgical workflow, because they take too much time. Fully automatic and reproducible segmentation algorithms are needed for segmentation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity.

  17. How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Eiting, Thomas P.; Perot, J. Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

  18. Nasal osteosarcoma and interstitial cell tumor in a Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis).

    PubMed

    Dadone, Liza I; Whiteside, Douglas P; Black, Sandra R; Remedios, Audrey; Raverty, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    A 6-yr-old male Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) presented for poor hibernation, weight loss, and symmetric trunk alopecia. An abdominal interstitial cell tumor was identified and surgically removed. Serum levels of estrogen were markedly elevated before surgery and decreased after tumor removal, indicating that the tumor had been functionally secretory. Nine months later, the marmot presented with respiratory stridor. A large boney nasal mass was identified radiographically and evaluated by computed tomography (CT) prior to surgical debulking. The marmot did not recover from anesthesia. Pathologic findings included a nasal osteosarcoma with lysis of the cribriform plate, and endocardial fibrosis with degenerative changes within the adjoining myocardium. This is the first known report of nasal osteosarcoma and interstitial tumor in a Vancouver Island marmot.

  19. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results Mean Cancer Infections, such as tuberculosis Necrotizing granuloma , a type of tumor Nasal polyps Nasal tumors ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Juvenile angiofibroma Nasal polyps Necrotizing granuloma Tumor Review Date 4/11/2015 Updated by: ...

  20. A dosimetric comparative study: Volumetric modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kham; Cummings, David; Lanza, Vincent C.; Morris, Kathleen; Wang, Congjun; Sutton, Jordan; Garcia, John

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum, minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume.

  1. Anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Aegyptopithecus and early Miocene African catarrhines.

    PubMed

    Rossie, James B

    2005-03-01

    Neontological comparisons suggest that paranasal sinus anatomy is diagnostic of several catarrhine clades such as Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea, Homininae, and Ponginae. However, while the loss of sinuses in cercopithecoids is generally recognized as a derived condition, determining the polarity of character-state changes within noncercopithecoid catarrhines requires knowledge of the primitive catarrhine condition. To address this problem, the paranasal sinus anatomy of Aegyptopithecus and several early Miocene catarrhines was investigated. Two partial facial skeletons of Aegyptopithecus were subjected to computed tomography in order to reveal their internal anatomy. These data were compared with facial and palatal specimens of Proconsul, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Kalepithecus in the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, and to wet and dry specimens of living taxa. Results confirm that cercopithecoid paranasal anatomy is derived, and reveal that the sinus anatomy of stem catarrhines included a hominoid-like maxillary sinus as well as an ethmofrontal system like that of hominines. Accordingly, these two features do not constitute evidence for the hominoid, hominid, or hominine status of any fossil species. Conversely, the absence of the ethmofrontal sinus system in Sivapithecus and Pongo is synapomorphic. In addition, features of the nasal cavity of Limnopithecus and Kalepithecus support previous suggestions that these taxa are stem catarrhines rather than hominoids.

  2. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  3. Analysis of the Bacterial Flora in the Nasal Cavity and the Sphenoid Sinus Mucosa in Patients Operated on with an Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    SHIBAO, Shunsuke; TODA, Masahiro; TOMITA, Toshiki; OGAWA, Kaoru; YOSHIDA, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial flora in the nasal cavity and sphenoid sinus and evaluate the sensitivity of these bacteria to antibiotics that can be used to prevent postoperative meningitis. Bacteria of the preoperative nasal cavity and intraoperative sphenoid sinus mucosa were cultured and analyzed in 40 patients (20 men and 20 women; mean age, 52.2 years) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. The sensitivity of these bacteria to cephalosporin, a representative prophylactic antibiotic, was examined. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently detected species in both spaces; 24 (38.7%) of 62 isolates in the nasal cavity and 26 (37.1%) of 70 isolates in the sphenoid sinus. In contrast, Corynebacterium species were found mainly in the nasal cavity, and anaerobic bacteria were found only in the sphenoid sinus. Bacteria that were resistant to cephalosporin were found in the nasal cavity in 3.2% of patients and in the sphenoid sinus in 20% of patients. In conclusion, the composition of bacterial flora, including bacteria that are resistant to prophylactic antibiotics, differs between the nasal cavity and the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25446386

  4. Computed tomography or rhinoscopy as the first-line procedure for suspected nasal tumor: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Finck, Marlène; Ponce, Frédérique; Guilbaud, Laurent; Chervier, Cindy; Floch, Franck; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Thomas; Hugonnard, Marine

    2015-02-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines as to whether computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy should be selected as the first-line procedure when a nasal tumor is suspected in a dog or a cat and only one examination can be performed. Computed tomography and rhinoscopic features of 17 dogs and 5 cats with a histopathologically or cytologically confirmed nasal tumor were retrospectively reviewed. The level of suspicion for nasal neoplasia after CT and/or rhinoscopy was compared to the definitive diagnosis. Twelve animals underwent CT, 14 underwent rhinoscopy, and 4 both examinations. Of the 12 CT examinations performed, 11 (92%) resulted in the conclusion that a nasal tumor was the most likely diagnosis compared with 9/14 (64%) for rhinoscopies. Computed tomography appeared to be more reliable than rhinoscopy for detecting nasal tumors and should therefore be considered as the first-line procedure.

  5. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  6. Salient Points in Reconstruction of Nasal Skin after Tumor Ablation with Local Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Azin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A variety of nasal skin reconstruction methods are available to meet the esthetic patient's needs. In this article, we review some of modifications of these procedures and share our experience in reconstruction of different parts of the nasal skin following skin tumor ablation. Patients and Methods: From January 2010 to January 2014, 171 patients underwent nasal skin reconstruction after excising cancerous lesions of the involved nasal skin. The patient's history, pre- and post-operation photographs, and the surgery data were collected and assessed. Demographic data related to the type of cancer, defect size and location, type of reconstruction were collected. Results: A variety of local flaps were used based on location and defect features. Nearly all flaps healed primarily without postsurgical significant complications. Conclusion: According to the results and the outcomes of the operations, we concluded that a certain flaps are more effective than others in nasal skin reconstruction. Local flap reconstruction of the nose has good esthetic result with low complication rate. PMID:27761088

  7. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Velez, Ines

    2016-09-01

    Classic granular cell tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm that commonly occurs on the skin, but is not infrequently found in the oral cavity, primarily on the dorsal tongue. Diagnosis is usually straightforward with hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. Immunohistochemical studies on classic granular cell tumor shows positive immunostaining for S-100 and vimentin, while CD68 is variably positive. We report a case of otherwise unremarkable oral granular cell tumor that was immunohistochemically negative for S-100, and positive for vimentin and CD68, and discuss the differential diagnosis. The results of the immunohistochemical studies in our case are compared with those of classic S-100 positive oral granular cell tumors, as well as cutaneous and oral S-100 negative granular cell tumors. Classic S-100 positive granular cell tumors and S-100 negative granular cell tumors of the oral cavity can only be distinguished by immunohistochemical studies; however, the necessity of this distinction is unclear, as both are benign lesions in which recurrence is unlikely.

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the sphenoid bone extending into the ethmoid sinus, nasal cavity and orbita in a child.

    PubMed

    Bozbuğa, Mustafa; Turan Süslü, Hikmet

    2009-04-01

    An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) typically involves the long bones of the extremities, thorax, pelvis, or vertebrae. Skull base involvement is rare. We describe the case of a 9-year-old girl with ABC of the skull base. The patient had presented with nasal obstruction and headache over a period of approximately 8 months. The patient had no history of trauma or surgery. Physical and neurological examination findings normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a multicystic lesion arising from the sphenoid sinus and extending into ethmoid sinus, superior nasal cavity and medial walls of the orbit. The lesion contained thin internal septations that revealed high signal characteristics on all sequences. The lesion was resected via an extended frontal approach without any complications. Histological evaluation confirmed that the lesion was an ABC. The patient did not receive postoperative radiotherapy. No recurrence was observed after 22 months. ABC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone neoplasms in this region.

  9. Hyperthermia treatment of spontaneously occurring oral cavity tumors using a computer-controlled Nd:YAG laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Frazier, Donita L.; Klebanow, Edward R.

    1991-05-01

    Conventional hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors in the oral cavity is difficult due to inability in accessing the lesion. A new hyperthermia technique employing near infrared Nd:YAG irradiation delivered through an optical fiber is introduced for heating oral and nasal tumors in animals. This system consisted of an Nd:YAG laser, a He-Ne laser, a computer controlled optical shutter, an interstitial thermometer, computer and a printer. The tumors were heated via surface illumination of the lesion. A thermocouple implanted in the base of the tumor provided temperature feedback for laser energy regulation. Three spontaneously occurring canine (two squamous cell carcinoma on the gum, one pigmented melanoma on the hard palate) and one feline tumor (squamous cell carcinoma on the nose) have been treated with the Nd:YAG laser-induced hyperthermia delivered following radiation therapy. The tumor temperature was maintained between 43.2-43.5 degree(s)C for one hour. Nd:YAG hyperthermia allowed efficient delivery of heat to veterinary oral and nasal lesions otherwise impossible to treat with conventional heating techniques.

  10. Traumatic intrusion of maxillary permanent incisors into the nasal cavity associated with a seizure disorder: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian S

    2003-10-01

    Childhood traumatic dental injury is typically associated with motor vehicle accidents, sports, or other recreational activities. However, seizure disorders or other compromising medical conditions may precipitate dental trauma. Complete intrusion injuries in the mixed or permanent dentition are relatively rare. This paper describes the case history of an adolescent male who sustained displacement of a lateral incisor into the nasal cavity and complete bony intrusion of the three other permanent maxillary incisors because of a fall following a seizure. Counseling on helmet/face-shield usage for seizure-susceptible patients must be provided and documented, particularly after sustaining traumatic injury.

  11. Helical tomotherapy setup variations in canine nasal tumor patients immobilized with a bite block.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Lyndsay N; Seo, Songwon; Chappell, Richard J; Jeraj, Robert; Forrest, Lisa J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare setup variation in four degrees of freedom (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, and roll) between canine nasal tumor patients immobilized with a mattress and bite block, versus a mattress alone. Our secondary aim was to define a clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion margin based on our mean systematic error values associated with nasal tumor patients immobilized by a mattress and bite block. We evaluated six parameters for setup corrections: systematic error, random error, patient-patient variation in systematic errors, the magnitude of patient-specific random errors (root mean square [RMS]), distance error, and the variation of setup corrections from zero shift. The variations in all parameters were statistically smaller in the group immobilized by a mattress and bite block. The mean setup corrections in the mattress and bite block group ranged from 0.91 mm to 1.59 mm for the translational errors and 0.5°. Although most veterinary radiation facilities do not have access to Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), we identified a need for more rigid fixation, established the value of adding IGRT to veterinary radiation therapy, and define the CTV-PTV setup error margin for canine nasal tumor patients immobilized in a mattress and bite block.

  12. Assessment of p53 protein expression in normal mucosa and benign and malignant lesions of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Fang, S Y; Yan, J J; Ohyama, M

    1998-01-01

    p53 gene mutation is documented in head and neck cancer. No reports exist relating this mutation to normal mucosa or benign and malignant lesions of the nasal cavity. We investigate p53 overexpression using immunohistochemical techniques improved by an antigen retrieval method. p53 protein was analyzed in the following cases: normal, benign [papilloma and inverted papilloma (IP)] and malignant [squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in IP, SCC alone, adenocarcinoma and small-cell carcinoma]. Both the intensity and rate of positive p53 immunostaining were evaluated using a quantitative Auto-CAD program. Overexpression of p53 protein was not identified in normal mucosa, benign or premalignant lesions; however, approximately 60% is correlated to nasal cancer. p53 overexpression correlates with heavy smoking. Both the IP and SCC portions of SCC synchronous with IP showed similar p53 immunoreactivity. SCC arising in IP shows a lower p53 immunoreactivity than SCC alone. Thus, smoking along with a p53 mutation may be a mutagenic agent in nasal cancers. Alteration of the p53 protein may play an important role in the early stages of the malignant transformation of IP. A low p53 immunoreactivity indicates the presence of wild-type p53 protein. This may show a better response to radiation therapy yielding a better prognosis for SCC arising in IP compared to SCC alone. However, further clinical trials are required to investigate this possibly worthwhile prognostic marker.

  13. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas. One clinically normal koala was anesthetized twice for the separate acquisition of dorsal CT scan images and transverse, dorsal, and sagittal MR images of its nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Sagittal and transverse CT planes were reformatted. Three fresh koala skulls were also transected in one of each transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes and photographed. The CT and MR images obtained were matched with corresponding gross anatomic images and the normal bone, tissues and airway passages were identified. All anatomic structures were readily identifiable on CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gross images. CT and MRI are both valuable diagnostic tools for imaging the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of koalas. Images obtained from this project can be used as baseline references for future comparison with diseased koalas to help with diagnosis, surgical intervention, and response to therapy.

  14. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  15. [The state of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the children presenting with congenital cleft of upper lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Bogoroditskaya, A V; Sarafanova, M E; Radtsig, E Yu; Prityko, A G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the state of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the children presenting with congenital cleft of upper lip and palate (CLP). A total of 23 children at the age from 9 to 16 years who had undergone the surgical treatment of the above malformations during the first year of life were examined. The comprehensive study including routine ENT examination, endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, and computed tomography has demonstrated that 50% of the patients with congenital cleft of upper lift and palate suffered the deflection of the nasal septum associated with hyperplasia of inferior turbinal bones. The children with congenital cleft of upper lip and palate were characterized by enhanced pneumatization of the anterior end of the middle turbinate despite the absence of well apparent differences between their paranasal sinuses and those of the healthy children, with the degree of pneumatization being consistent with the patient's age in both groups.

  16. [Local anesthesia in the children undergoing the fibroendoscopic study of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx: are topical anesthetics needed?].

    PubMed

    Soldatsky, Yu L; Denisova, O A; Mazur, E M

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and larynx of the children. The study included 160 children at the age varying from 3 to 14 (mean 7.4±2.96) years randomly allocated to four statistically comparable groups matched for age and sex. The following preparations were used to treat the children prior to fibroendoscopy: physiological solution (group 1), a 0.05% xylometazoline solution (group 2), a 10% lidocaine solution (group 3), and a mixture of 0.05% xylometazoline and 10% lidocaine solutions (group 4). The evaluation of the tolerance to the pretreatment of the nasal cavity with lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylometazoline (groups 3 and 4) showed that it was significantly (p<0.05) worse than in groups 1 and 2. The subjective tolerance to fibroendoscopy as reported by the patients was on the average similar in the children of all four groups (p>0.05). The doctors found the tolerance of fibroendoscopy to be the worst following pretreatment with the physiological solution (group 1) and the best after pretreatment with a mixture of lidocaine and xylometazoline (group 4) (p=0.03). The children comprising groups 2 and 3 were not significantly different in terms of the tolerance to fibroendoscopy (p>0.05). It is concluded that the pretreatment of the nasal cavity of the children with a 10% lidocaine solution before fibroendoscopy has no advantage over the pretreatment with a 0.05% xylometazoline solution; at the same time, insuflation of lidocaine as an anesthetic induces more pronounced negative emotions compared with the application of 0.05% xylometazoline.

  17. Mechanism of cell entry and transformation by enzootic nasal tumor virus.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Clarissa; Duh, Fuh-Mei; Rai, Sharath K; Lerman, Michael I; Miller, A Dusty

    2002-03-01

    Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) induces nasal epithelial cancer in infected sheep, but it is a simple retrovirus lacking a known oncogene. ENTV is closely related to jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which also causes cancer in sheep but in the epithelial cells of the lower airways and alveoli. Here we show that as with JSRV, the envelope (Env) protein of ENTV can transform cultured cells and thus is likely to be responsible for oncogenesis in animals. In addition, the ENTV Env protein mediates virus entry using the same receptor as does JSRV Env, the candidate tumor suppressor Hyal2. However, ENTV Env mediates entry into cells from a more restricted range of species than does JSRV, and based on this finding we have identified amino acid regions in the Env proteins that are important for virus entry. Also, because ENTV does not efficiently use human Hyal2 as a receptor, we cloned the ovine Hyal2 cDNA and show that the encoded protein functions as an efficient receptor for both ENTV and JSRV. In summary, although ENTV and JSRV use the same cell surface receptor for cell entry and apparently transform cells by the same mechanism, they induce cancer in different tissues of infected sheep, indicating that oncogenesis is regulated at some other level. The transcriptional regulatory elements in these viruses are quite different, indicating that tissue-specific oncogenesis is likely regulated at the level of viral gene expression.

  18. Specificity, Size, and Frequency of Spaces That Characterize the Mechanism of Bulk Transepithelial Transport of Prions in the Nasal Cavities of Hamsters and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, J. I.; Bartz, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inhalation of infected brain homogenate results in transepithelial transport of prions across the nasal mucosa of hamsters, some of which occurs rapidly in relatively large amounts between cells (A. E. Kincaid, K. F. Hudson, M. W. Richey, and J. C. Bartz, J. Virol 86:12731–12740, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01930-12). Bulk transepithelial transport in the nasal cavity has not been studied to date. In the present study, we characterized the frequency, size, and specificity of the intercellular spaces that mediate the bulk transport of inhaled prions between cells of mice or hamsters following extranasal inoculation with mock-infected brain homogenate, different strains of prion-infected brain homogenate, or brain homogenate mixed with India ink. Infected or mock-infected inoculum was identified within lymphatic vessels of the lamina propria and in spaces of >5 μm between a small number of cells of the nasal mucosa in >90% of animals from 5 to 60 min after inhalation. The width of the spaces between cells, the amount of the inoculum within the lumen of lymphatic vessels, and the timing of the transport indicate that this type of transport was taking place through preexisting spaces in the nasal cavity that were orders of magnitude wider than what is normally reported for paracellular transport. The indiscriminate rapid bulk transport of brain homogenate in the nasal cavity results in immediate entry into nasal cavity lymphatics following inhalation. This novel mechanism may underlie the recent report of the early detection of prions in blood following inhalation and has implications for horizontal prion transmission. IMPORTANCE The results of these studies demonstrate that the nasal mucosa of mice and hamsters is not an absolute anatomical barrier to inhaled prion-infected or uninfected brain homogenate. Relatively large amounts of infected and uninfected brain homogenate rapidly cross the nasal mucosa and enter the lumen of lymphatic vessels

  19. Use of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers exposed to abnormal microclimate and altered gaseous environment.

    PubMed

    Kiryukhina, N V; Melnikov, V G; Suvorov, A V; Morozova, Yu A; Ilyin, V K

    2013-12-01

    Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a 30-days chamber experiment modeling the effects of hyperthermia and polluted air on humans. Spray was targeted at eliminating Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity of human subjects. Three of four volunteers became S. aureus carriers in the course of the experiment, and one was a chronic carrier of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Spray application eradicated S. aureus in three subjects and reduced its presence in the MRSA carrier. Results of the study suggest that C. pseudodiphtheriticum can be used for control of S. aureus in the nasal environment. However, further investigations are required.

  20. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus SP isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    PubMed Central

    Rall, V.L.M; Sforcin, J.M.; Augustini, V.C.M.; Watanabe, M.T.; Fernandes Jr., A.; Rall, R.; Silva, M.G.; Araújo Jr., J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen. PMID:24031464

  1. [Localization and distribution of human olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavities].

    PubMed

    Escada, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A distribuição da mucosa olfactiva humana só pode ser determinada em estudos que avaliem a totalidade da região olfactiva. O objectivo deste trabalho é determinar a distribuição da mucosa olfactiva humana a partir do estudo histológico, por microscopia óptica, de peças anatómicas da região olfactiva obtidas do cadáver.Material e Métodos: Utilizaram-se peças anatómicas da região olfactiva colhidas durante a autópsia de cadáveres recentes. Em cada uma das peças foi determinada a distância entre a lâmina crivosa e o limite inferior da região olfactiva em três localizações diferentes da parede septal e da parede lateral.Resultados: das 230 peças anatómicas disponíveis, 217 foram excluídas por razões clínicas ou técnicas. Realizaram-se estudosmorfométricos em 13 peças num total de 156 medições. O limite inferior da mucosa olfactiva no septo nasal estava a 15,9 ± 3,2 mm, a 15,3 ± 3 mm e a 16 ± 2,8 mm nas porções anterior, média e posterior da região olfactiva. O limite inferior da mucosa olfactiva na parede turbinal estava a 15,3 ± 2,4 mm, a 14,8 ± 2,3 mm e a 12,3 ± 1,9 mm nas mesmas localizações. O valor mínimo observado foi de 12 mm.Conclusões: A mucosa olfactiva estende-se pelo corneto superior e médio e pelo septo nasal confrontante numa distância que nunca é inferior a 12 mm e que pode ultrapassar os 16 mm. O conhecimento da distribuição exacta da mucosa olfactiva nas fossas nasais pode ser útil para orientar a colheita em seres humanos, com propósitos diagnósticos ou terapêuticos.

  2. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-07-14

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device.

  3. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  4. Clinical Efficacy of a Spray Containing Hyaluronic Acid and Dexpanthenol after Surgery in the Nasal Cavity (Septoplasty, Simple Ethmoid Sinus Surgery, and Turbinate Surgery)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25104962

  5. Clinical efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic Acid and dexpanthenol after surgery in the nasal cavity (septoplasty, simple ethmoid sinus surgery, and turbinate surgery).

    PubMed

    Gouteva, Ina; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Meiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  6. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  7. Experimental intranasal infection of equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) in suckling hamsters: kinetics of viral transmission and inflammation in the nasal cavity and brain.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, Nagwan; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Fukushi, Hideto; Hibi, Daisuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Sasseville, Vito; Yanai, Tokuma

    2010-05-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9), the newest member of the equine herpesvirus family, is a highly neurotropic herpesvirus that induces encephalitis in a variety of animals. To access transmission of EHV-9 in the nasal cavity and brain, a suckling hamster model was developed so that precise sagittal sections of nasal and cranial cavities including the brain could be processed, which proved useful in detecting viral transmission as well as extension of pathological lesions. Suckling hamsters were inoculated intranasally with EHV-9, and were sacrificed at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h post inoculation (PI). Sagittal sections of the entire head, including nasal and cranial cavities including the brain, were made to assess viral kinetics and identify the progress of the neuropathological lesions. At 12 to 24 h PI the virus attached to and propagated in the olfactory epithelium, and infected adjacent epithelial cells. At 48 h PI, immunohistochemistry for EHV-9 viral antigen showed that virus had extended from the site of infection into the olfactory bulb and olfactory nerve. These results indicate that EHV-9 rapidly invades the brain via the olfactory route after experimental intranasal infection.

  8. Measurement of tumor-associated mutations in the nasal mucosa of rats exposed to varying doses of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxue; Bermudez, Edilberto; McKinzie, Page B; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Parsons, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential induction of tumor-associated mutations in formaldehyde-exposed rat nasal mucosa using a sensitive method, allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR (ACB-PCR). Levels of p53 codon 271 CGT to CAT and K-Ras codon 12 GGT to GAT mutations were quantified in nasal mucosa of rats exposed to formaldehyde. In addition, nasal mucosa cell proliferation was monitored because regenerative cell proliferation is considered a key event in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats (6-7 weeks old, 5 rats/group) were exposed to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, and 15 ppm formaldehyde for 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). ACB-PCR was used to determine levels of p53 and K-Ras mutations. Although two of five untreated rats had measureable spontaneous p53 mutant fractions (MFs), most nasal mucosa samples had p53 MFs below 10(-5). All K-Ras MF measurements were below 10(-5). No dose-related increases in p53 or K-Ras MF were observed, even though significant increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation demonstrated induced cell proliferation in the 10 and 15 ppm formaldehyde-treatment groups. Therefore, induction of tumor-associated p53 mutation likely occurs after several other key events in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis.

  9. Combination of CO2 laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and nasal cavity expansion enhances treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huai, De; Dai, Jun; Xu, Min; Cao, Ying; Song, Hongmao; Wang, Shoufeng; Wang, Haixu; Yin, Min; Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Yalong; Zhou, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the methods, effects, and application value of a combination of CO2 laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and selective nasal cavity expansion for the treatment of multiplanar narrowing-induced obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Ninety-three patients with OSAHS and multiplanar stenosis were treated with CO2 laser-assisted modified UPPP and selective surgical expansion of the nasal cavity, with 12 completing the operation in stages. Six months after the operation, 23 patients (24.7%) were effectively cured, 52 (55.9%) had excellent efficacy, and 18 (19.4%) were cured, and the total efficacy was 100%. One year after the surgery, the surgical outcomes of 65 patients were reviewed, and the surgeries were ineffective in four (6.2%), effective in 14 (21.5%), very effective in 36 (55.4%), and curative in 11 (16.9%), and the total efficacy was 93.8%. Another 93 cases were treated with the traditional UPPP method only. At the six-month postoperative review, 18 (19.4%) were effectively cured, 30 (32.3%) had excellent efficacy, and 10 (10.8%) were cured, while the surgery was ineffective in 35 (37.6%). The total efficacy was 62.4%. One year after the surgery, the surgical outcomes of 75 patients were reviewed, and the surgeries were ineffective in 29 (38.7%), effective in 14 (18.7%), very effective in 24 (32.0%), and curative in eight (10.7%), and the total efficacy was 61.3%. Compared to the traditional operative methods, the treatment with one operation involving CO2-laser-assisted UPPP and selective nasal cavity expansion was thoroughly effective on multiple stenosis sites, including nasal, nasopharyngeal, and oropharyngeal airways. However, potential complications must be carefully avoided. PMID:26770642

  10. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Ding, Xinxin

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  11. Intranasal Volume Changes Caused by the Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach and Their Effects on Nasal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Whan; Cho, Jin Hee; Kim, Boo Young; Han, Sungwoo; Lee, Yong Joo; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated postoperative changes in nasal cavity volume and their effects on nasal function and symptoms after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for antero-central skull base surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. Methods We studied 92 patients who underwent binostril, four-hand, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach surgery using the bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flap technique. Pre- and postoperative paranasal computed tomography and the Mimics® program were used to assess nasal cavity volume changes at three sections. We also performed several pre- and postoperative tests, including the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test, Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation, and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. In addition, a visual analog scale was used to record subjective symptoms. We compared these data with the pre- and postoperative nasal cavity volumes. Results Three-dimensional, objective increases in nasal passage volumes were evident between the inferior and middle turbinates (p<0.001) and between the superior turbinate and choana (p = 0.006) postoperatively. However, these did not correlate with subjectively assessed symptoms (NOSE, SNOT-20 and VAS; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05) or olfactory dysfunction (CCCRC and CCSIT test; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05). Conclusion Skull base tumor surgery via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach altered the patients’ nasal anatomy, but the changes in nasal cavity volumes did not affect nasal function or symptoms. These results will help surgeons to appropriately expose the surgical field during an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. PMID:27010730

  12. Large rhinolith causing nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dincer Kose, Onur; Kose, Taha Emre; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoliths are calcified masses located in the nasal cavity and may cause symptoms such as nasal obstruction, fetid odour and facial pain. They are usually diagnosed incidentally on radiographic examinations or depending on the symptoms. In this paper we report a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a calcified mass in the right nasal cavity causing nasal obstruction, anosmia and facial pain. The calcified mass was removed by endonasal approach. PMID:25759270

  13. The supernumerary nasal tooth.

    PubMed

    Kirmeier, R; Truschnegg, A; Payer, M; Malyk, J; Daghighi, S; Jakse, N

    2009-11-01

    Teeth exceeding the normal dental complement that have erupted into the nasal cavity are a rare pathological entity. This case report describes a female patient with recurrent complaints and fetid discharge from the left nasal cavity. The suspected clinical diagnosis of a supernumerary nasal tooth was confirmed by computed tomography. After endoscopic removal, the tooth was examined using X-ray microtomography and thin-section preparations; these findings are presented for the first time. A literature search identified 25 supernumerary nasal teeth in 23 patients.

  14. Diversity of bacterial species in the nasal cavity of sheep in the highlands of Ethiopia and first report of Histophilus somni in the country.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Biruk; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Tefera, Genene

    2013-06-01

    A study was conducted to isolate bacterial species/pathogens from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy and pneumonic sheep. Nasal swabs were collected aseptically, transported in tryptose soya broth and incubated for 24 h. Then, each swab was streaked onto chocolate and blood agar for culture. Bacterial species were identified following standard bacteriological procedures. Accordingly, a total of 1,556 bacteria were isolated from 960 nasal swabs collected from three different highland areas of Ethiopia, namely Debre Berhan, Asella, and Gimba. In Debre Berhan, 140 Mannheimia haemolytica, 81 Histophilus somni, 57 Staphylococcus species, and 52 Bibersteinia trehalosi were isolated. While from Gimba M. haemolytica, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and H. somni were isolated at rates of 25.2, 15.9, 11.4, and 5.9 %, respectively, of the total 647 bacterial species. In Asella from 352 bacterial species isolated, 93 (26.4 %) were M. haemolytica, 48 (13.6 %) were Staphylococcus species, 26 (7.4 %) were B. trehalosi, and 17 (4.8 %) H. somni were recognized. Further identification and characterization using BIOLOG identification system Enterococcus avium and Sphingomonas sanguinis were identified at 100 % probability, while, H. somni and Actinobacillus lignerisii were suggested by the system. The study showed that a variety of bacterial species colonize the nasal cavity of the Ethiopian highland sheep with variable proportion between healthy and pneumonic ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of H. somni, an important pathogen in cattle, from the respiratory tract of a ruminant species in the country.

  15. [Sense organs on palps and fore tarsi of gamasid mites (Parasitiformes, Rhinonyssidae), parasites of the nasal cavity of the great tit, the rock dove, and the Eurasian coot].

    PubMed

    Leonovich, S A; Dimov, I

    2012-01-01

    The main sensory organs (the palpal organ and the tarsal sensory complex) were examined by scanning electron microscopy method in parasites of the nasal cavity of the great tit Parus major (Ptilonyssus sairae, Ptilonyssus pari), the rock dove Columba livia (Mesonyssus melloi), and the Eurasian coot Fulica atra (Rallinyssus caudistigmus). It was shown that differences in the topography of sensilla within the tarsal complex correspond to the taxonomic relations between species and genera, whereas differences in the structure of the palpal organ are not associated with the taxonomy and, probably, reflect ecological peculiarities of parasitism.

  16. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  17. Myoepithelioma of the Nasal Septum: A Rare Case of Extrasalivary Gland Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Camurugy, Tatiane Costa; Ribeiro, Thiago Cavalcante; Costa, Nara Nunes Barbosa; Azevedo, Amanda Canário Andrade; Vinhaes, Eriko Soares de Azevedo; de Andrade, Nilvano Alves

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The myoepithelioma is a rare benign tumor, most frequently found in the salivary glands. The extrasalivary gland involvement is even rarer and few cases involving the nasal cavity have been reported in the literature. Case Report. MES, a 54-year-old woman, complaining of progressive nasal obstruction and mild epistaxis through the right nostril which had developed 1 year previously. Computed tomography scan showed tumor with heterogeneous contrast enhancement occupying the right nasal cavity, moving contralaterally in the nasal septum. Excisional biopsy was performed through endoscopic surgery of the mass that was inserted at the nasal septum. Pathological and immunohistochemical exams concluded myoepithelioma. Discussion. The main symptoms of nasal myoepitheliomas are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Immunohistochemistry is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, typically positive for cytokeratin and S-100, calponin, smooth muscle actin, myosin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and carcinoembryonic antigen. The main marker for myoepithelioma is the S-100 protein. In our case, it was positive for cytokeratin, S-100, calponin, actin smooth muscle, and GFAP. In all cases reported in the literature surgical treatment was performed and the recurrence was associated with incomplete tumor resection. Final Comments. The myoepithelioma is a rare differential diagnosis of nasal tumors and its treatment is the total lesion excision. PMID:28168074

  18. Humoral pathway for local transfer of the priming pheromone androstenol from the nasal cavity to the brain and hypophysis in anaesthetized gilts.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; W sowska, B; Skipor, J

    2000-11-01

    It is generally accepted that pheromones act by stimulating of the dendritic receptors of the olfactory neurones massed in the olfactory epithelium. This study was designed to ascertain whether it is possible for the boar pheromone androstenol (5alpha-androst-16-en-3-ol) to be transported from the nasal cavity of anaesthetized gilts to the brain and hypophysis via local transfer from the blood in the perihypophyseal vascular complex. The experiment was performed on days 18-21 of the porcine oestrous cycle (crossbred gilts, n = 6). Tritiated androstenol (3H-A; total amount 10(8) d.p.m. (758 ng)) was applied for 1 min onto the respiratory part of the nasal mucosa, 4-6 cm from the opening of the nares. Arterial blood samples from the aorta and from the carotid rete were collected every 2 min during the 60 min period following administration of the steroid. Total radioactive venous effluent from the head was removed and an adequate volume of homologous blood was transfused into the heart through the carotid external vein. At the end of the experiment gilts were killed and tissue samples of the hypophysis and some brain structures were collected to measure radioactivity. In addition, corresponding control tissues were collected from three untreated gilts and from three heads of gilts 60 min after 3H-A was applied post mortem into the nasal cavity. The concentration of 3H-A was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the arterial blood of the carotid rete than that of aorta. The mean rate of 3H-A counter current transfer from venous to arterial blood in the perihypophyseal vascular complex, expressed as the ratio of the 3H-A concentration in arterial blood of the carotid rete to the 3H-A concentration in blood sampled simultaneously from the aorta, was 1.96 +/- 0.1. The concentration of 3H-A in plasma from the venous effluent from the head ranged from 1.3 to 1.8 pg x ml(-1). During the 60 min period of the experiment, 0.68% of the total applied dose of 3H-A was resorbed

  19. [The influence of an isotonic solution containing benzalkonium chloride and a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium from the nasal cavity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Laberko, E L; Bogomil'sky, M R; Soldatsky, Yu L; Pogosova, I E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of an isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride and of a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium in the nasal cavity in vitro. To this effect, we investigated the cytological material obtained from 35 children presenting with adenoid tissue hypertrophy. The tissue samples were taken from the nasal cavity by the standard method. A cellular biopsy obtained from each patient was distributed between three tubes that contained isotonic saline solution supplemented by benzalconium chloride (0.1 mg/ml), a hypertonic seawater solution, and a standard physiological saline solution. It was shown that the number of the viable cells in both isotonic solutions was statistically comparable and significantly higher than in the hypertonic solution (p<0.05). The ciliary beat frequency of the cells embedded in the two isotonic solutions was not significantly different but considerably exceeded that in the hypertonic seawater solution (p<0.05). Thus, the present study has demonstrated the absence of the ciliotoxic influence of isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and the strong ciliotoxic effect of the hypertonic seawater solution. This finding gives reason to recommend isotonic solutions for the regular application whereas hypertonic solutions can be prescribed only during infectious and/or inflammatory ENT diseases.

  20. Sequential Combination Chemotherapy of Dacarbazine (DTIC) with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Patients with Metastatic Mucosal Melanoma of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Omata, W.; Tsutsumida, A.; Namikawa, K.; Takahashi, A.; Oashi, K.; Yamazaki, N.

    2017-01-01

    By the recent introduction of molecular targeting drugs against BRAF mutation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the prognosis of patients with melanoma in advanced stage is now improving, but still in the minority. Mucosal melanoma lacks the BRAF mutations, and hence conventional chemotherapeutic regimens must be improved. We have conventionally used dacarbazine (DTIC) for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma. However, the efficacy of DTIC in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma has been limited. Therefore, we explored other possibilities to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from metastatic mucosal melanoma. In this communication, we present a retrospective analysis of the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) for metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The objective response rate of seven patients is 14.3% by RECIST 1.1 and the overall survival (OS) is 12.5 months. These data indicate that the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with CP could be an option for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who are currently ending into dismal prognosis. PMID:28096700

  1. Sequential Combination Chemotherapy of Dacarbazine (DTIC) with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Patients with Metastatic Mucosal Melanoma of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Omata, W; Tsutsumida, A; Namikawa, K; Takahashi, A; Oashi, K; Yamazaki, N

    2017-01-01

    By the recent introduction of molecular targeting drugs against BRAF mutation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the prognosis of patients with melanoma in advanced stage is now improving, but still in the minority. Mucosal melanoma lacks the BRAF mutations, and hence conventional chemotherapeutic regimens must be improved. We have conventionally used dacarbazine (DTIC) for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma. However, the efficacy of DTIC in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma has been limited. Therefore, we explored other possibilities to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from metastatic mucosal melanoma. In this communication, we present a retrospective analysis of the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) for metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The objective response rate of seven patients is 14.3% by RECIST 1.1 and the overall survival (OS) is 12.5 months. These data indicate that the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with CP could be an option for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who are currently ending into dismal prognosis.

  2. Interstitial radiation therapy for early-stage nasal vestibule cancer: A continuing quest for optimal tumor control and cosmesis

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, Peter C. . E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl; Nijdam, Wideke M.; Moolenburgh, Sanne E. van; Tan, Lisa; Noever, Inge R.T.T.; Rooy, Peter van; Mureau, Marc; Jansen, Peter P.; Munte, Kai; Hofer, Stefan O.P.

    2006-09-01

    Introduction: This article reports on the effectiveness, cosmetic outcome, and costs of interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for early-stage cancer of the nasal vestibule (NV) proper and/or columella high-dose-rate (HDR). Methods and Materials: Tumor control, survival, cosmetic outcome, functional results, and costs were established in 64 T1/T2N0 nasal vestibule cancers treated from 1991-2005 by fractionated interstitial radiation therapy (IRT) only. Total dose is 44 Gy: 2 fractions of 3 Gy per day, 6-hour interval, first and last fraction 4 Gy. Cosmesis is noted in the chart by the medical doctor during follow-up, by the patient (visual analog scale), and by a panel. Finally, full hospital costs are computed. Results: A local relapse-free survival rate of 92% at 5 years was obtained. Four local failures were observed; all four patients were salvaged. The neck was not treated electively; no neck recurrence in follow-up was seen. Excellent cosmetic and functional results were observed. With 10 days admission for full treatment, hospital costs amounted to Euro 5772 ($7044). Conclusion: Excellent tumor control, cosmesis, and function of nasal airway passage can be achieved when HDR-IRT for T1/T2N0 NV cancers is used. For the more advanced cancers (Wang classification: T3 tumor stage), we elect to treat by local excision followed by a reconstructive procedure. The costs, admission to hospital inclusive, for treatment by HDR-IRT amounts to Euro 5772 ($7044 US). This contrasts substantially with the full hospital costs when NV cancers are treated by plastic reconstructive surgery, being on average threefold as expensive.

  3. Nasal septum giant pyogenic granuloma after a long lasting nasal intubation: case report.

    PubMed

    Neves-Pinto, Roberto M; Carvalho, Adolpho; Araujo, Elizabeth; Alberto, Carlos; Basilio-De-Oliveira; De Carvalho, Gustavo Adolpho

    2005-03-01

    The authors present a case of Pyogenic Granuloma (PG) arising from the nasal septum in the posterior nasal cavity of a patient male sex, caucasian, 32 years old, with a previous history of cranioencephalic trauma, several neurosurgeries for different subsequent neurological problems and the use of a nasogastric tube for feeding (nasal intubation) during 30 days. He underwent surgery in St. Vincent de Paul Hospital (Rio de Janeiro) on May 18, 1993, for the tumor removal and straightening of the nasal septum. Under endoscopic guidance the complete excision of the tumor mass was perfectly done thanks to the excellent exposure of the lesion, provided by the enlarged telescopic view, and the wide access afforded by the septum straighttening plus the cartilaginous septum mobilization through the maxilla-premaxilla approach of Cottle, allied to the lateralization and volume reduction of the right inferior nasal concha, simultaneously performed, thus making lateral rhinotomy or "degloving" unnecessary. The patient is until now (2004) completely free of the lesion operated on. This is the first report in the literature of such a lesion associated to nasal intubation as the triggering agent.

  4. Extramedullary nasal plasmacytoma: Literature review and a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Marco Antonio dos Anjos; Granato, Lídio; Ikeda, Felipe; de Próspero, José Donato

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a plasma cell tumor that grows within any of the soft tissues of the organism. Similar to all plasmacytic dyscrasia, the disease is extremely rare. Aim: This study reports a case of an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal cavity and provides a literature review on the topic. Case report: A 51-year-old woman presented at our tertiary university hospital with a 6-month history of progressive nasal obstruction, predominantly to the right side, and self-limiting epistaxis. Examination revealed a large pale-reddish tumor within the right nasal cavity. Anatomopathological analysis showed features consistent with a plasmacytoma diagnosis, which was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques. Further assessment revealed the solitary nature of the condition, consistent with extramedullary plasmacytoma. Radiotherapy was initiated, which led to partial regression of the symptoms. The tumor was surgically removed by using a mid-facial degloving approach. The patient evolved with a naso-oral fistula and underwent 3 corrective surgeries. No evidence of associated systemic disease was found after 5 years of follow-up. Conclusions: This case report, which describes a rare tumor of the nasal cavity, is expected to improve the recognition and referral of this condition by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists for multidisciplinary management and long-term follow-up. PMID:25992016

  5. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Bahgat, Mohammed; Bahgat, Yassin; Bahgat, Ahmed; Elwany, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is a rare malignancy. When it occurs, early diagnosis is difficult because patients generally present with common, non-specific sinonasal complaints. This is the report of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month history of nasal obstruction, headache and anosmia. Nasal endoscopy showed a nasal mass obstructing both nasal cavities not separable from the septum. A wedge biopsy of the nasal mass was taken. Histopathology was suggestive of chondrosarcoma. The tumour was removed by an endoscopic approach. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this case as well as a review of the literature are discussed. PMID:22669930

  6. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... get rid of nasal polyps. Nasal steroid sprays shrink polyps. They help clear blocked nasal passages and ... is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. ...

  7. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  8. Occurrence, species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Bagcigil, Funda A; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E; Jensen, Vibeke F; Guardabassi, Luca

    2007-04-15

    beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n=21), S. vitulinus (n=19), S. sciuri (n=13), S. epidermidis (n=8), and S. warneri (n=2). mecA-mediated methicillin resistance in S. vitulinus was described for the first time. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. PFGE analysis revealed the presence of specific MRCoNS clones in samples originating from the same veterinary hospital or equine farm. Erythromycin-resistant S. aureus (ERSA) was detected in 38% of pigs and all isolates harboured a constitutively expressed erm(C) gene. The vast majority (37/38) of pigs carrying ERSA originated from a farm characterized by frequent use of macrolides. Most ERSA isolates (28/38) displayed indistinguishable or closely related PFGE patterns, indicating clonal distribution within the farm. Based on the analysis of data on antimicrobial consumption, the occurrence of MRCoNS in companion animals and that of ERSA in pigs reflected national and local patterns of antimicrobial usage.

  9. Nasal mucociliary clearance after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S P; Stiles, W; Slattery, W H; Krumerman, J; Parsons, J T; Mendenhall, W M; Cassisi, N J

    1995-04-01

    Irradiation has been demonstrated to cause decreased mucociliary clearance in animal models. We sought to verify this effect clinically by using the saccharin transport test to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance in 9 patients previously treated with radiation therapy to the nasal cavity. The patients also completed a questionnaire examining the prevalence of nasal symptoms before and after radiation therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy had no clearance of saccharin from the nasal cavity at a minimum of 20 minutes. The controls had a median clearance time of 5 minutes. The patients noted a higher prevalence of nasal congestion, drainage, and facial pain after radiation therapy. This study demonstrates that radiation therapy to the nasal cavity causes a decrease in nasal mucociliary clearance. This alteration should be considered when selecting therapy for malignancies in the nasal area.

  10. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the floor of mouth: first reported case in the oral cavity of an adult.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie L; Kerpel, Stanley; Reich, Renee F; Freedman, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are exceedingly rare lesions. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, with both examples occurring in infants. The current case is the third reported case of MRT of the oral cavity and the first reported case to occur in an adult at this location. The following report describes the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor.

  11. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal mucosa can help adjust the humidity and temperature of the air before it reaches the lungs. ... area of the nasal mucosa helps regulate the temperature and humidity of inspired air. The nasal cycle ...

  12. Speech aerodynamics and nasalance in oral cancer patients treated with microvascular transfers.

    PubMed

    Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Isotalo, Elina; Mäkitie, Antti A; Suominen, Erkki; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa; Haapanen, Marja-Leena

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess speech aerodynamics and nasal acoustic energy during a follow-up period of 12 months in patients having undergone microvascular free flap reconstruction after tumor ablation from the oral cavity or oropharynx, usually followed by radiotherapy. Velopharyngeal function was assessed in terms of velopharyngeal orifice size by a pressure-flow measurement technique as well as by determining the instrumental correlate of perceived nasality (i.e., nasalance) during speech production. Velopharyngeal closure and nasalance were estimated to be adequate before operation both in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer patients. After the operation, at the group level, the oral cavity patients showed adequate velopharyngeal closure and nasalance. In contrast, the postoperative velopharynx orifice size was significantly bigger in the oropharyngeal cancer patients as compared with the oral cavity patients 6 months after operation. However, based on average aerodynamic as well as the nasalance data, the impairment of velopharyngeal function was not regarded clinically significant at the group level in either group of patients. The present treatment protocol served to maintain the prerequisites for normal or close to normal speech physiology.

  13. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. [A case report of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Chida, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Kenji; Yamao, Yoko; Shiotuka, Kaori; Ritsuno, Hideaki; Awabuchi, Satoshi; Akoshima, Hiromichi; Sugimura, Mikako; Noguchi, Kenji; Tanabe, Nobukazu; Iwabuchi, Masahiro; Mano, Yutaka; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we present a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) arising from the abdominal cavity in a 20-year-old woman. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain. Radiological imaging showed a 15-cm mass penetrating to the proxymal jejunum in the upper abdominal cavity and peritoneal disseminations. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was ES/pPNET. Although the patient underwent radiation therapy, she died of the disease two months after diagnosis. ES/pPNET in the abdominal cavity is extremely rare and our case showed aggressive behavior and an unfortunate outcome.

  15. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Tyler J.; Bowen, Stephen R.; Deveau, Michael A.; Kubicek, Lyndsay; White, Pamela; Bentzen, Søren M.; Chappell, Richard J.; Forrest, Lisa J.; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R{sup 2}. Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUV{sub mean} (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUV{sub mean} from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.022) in

  16. Neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, Masao; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-12-12

    Antigen-transporting cells take up pathogens, and then migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid tissues to induce an immune response. Among antigen-transporting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent and professional antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate naive T cells. However, the cells that transport antigens, tumor cell antigens in particular, have not been clearly identified. In this study we have analyzed what types of cells transport tumor cell antigens to secondary lymphoid tissues. We show that neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but not DCs engulf X-irradiated P388 leukemic cells after their injection into the peritoneal cavity, and that neutrophils and monocytes but not macrophages migrate to the parathymic lymph nodes (pLN), the blood, and then the spleen. The monocytes in the pLN comprise Gr-1{sup -} and Gr-1{sup +} ones, and some of these cells express CD11c. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  17. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Deborah Gondim Lambert; Oliveira, Viviane Alves De; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Germano, Adriano Rocha; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis. PMID:28326216

  18. [Application thymogen for preoperative preparation of elderly patients with tumor processes in abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, V S; Petlenko, S V; El'tsin, S S

    2011-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Thymogen preparation for elderly patients for surgery on the solid tumors in abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space was carried out. The drug has been administered by intranasal instillation of 100 mg once a day for 7 days before surgery. The isotonic sodium chloride solution for the placebo group in the same scheme was used. The preoperative use of Thymogen proved to be useful to restore the structural and functional parameters of cellular immunity. Immunomodulatory therapy resulted in the significant decrease in the number and range of post-operative complications and the shorting of the postoperative period.

  19. Mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity: clinico-pathologic and molecular study of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Furlan, Daniela; Franzi, Francesca; Battaglia, Paolo; Frattini, Milo; Zanellato, Elena; Marando, Alessandro; Sahnane, Nora; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Capella, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITACs) are rare neoplasms histologically resembling intestinal adenocarcinomas. Although a neuroendocrine differentiation in ITACs has been described, true mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30 % of the lesion, are extremely rare and their molecular alterations are largely unknown. We describe herein the clinico-pathologic features, the methylation profile, chromosomal gains and losses, and mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF and p53 in a nasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma resected in a 79-year-old man. The tumor was composed of an ITAC and a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Both exocrine and neuroendocrine components were CK8, CK20, CDX2 and p53 positive, and CK7 and TTF1 negative. The neuroendocrine component also showed immunoreactivity for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and glicentin. Gains and losses were found at following chromosome regions: 17p13 (TP53), 14q24 (MLH3), 19q13 (KLK3), 5q21 (APC), 7q21 (CDK6), 9q34 (DAPK1), 12p13 (TNFRSF 1A, CDKN1B), 13q12 (BRCA2), 17p13.3 (HIC1), 18q21 (BCL2), and 22q12 (TIMP3). Aberrant methylation was detected only in the neuroendocrine component and involved APC and DAPK1 genes. No mutation of KRAS (exons 2-4), BRAF (exon 15), and p53 (exons 4-10) was found in both components. The results suggest a monoclonal origin of the tumor from a pluripotent cell undergoing a biphenotypic differentiation and that the neuroendocrine differentiation may be from an exocrine to an endocrine pathway. We have also reviewed the literature on sinonasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas to give to the reader a comprehensive overview of these very rare tumor types.

  20. The Dynamic Tumor Bed: Volumetric Changes in the Lumpectomy Cavity During Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, Brendan; Indelicato, Daniel J. Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Lightsey, Judith L.; Snead, Felicia E.; Morris, Christopher G.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude of volume change in the postoperative tumor bed before and during radiotherapy, and to identify any factors associated with large volumetric change. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six consecutive patients with early-stage or preinvasive breast cancer underwent breast-conserving therapy at our institution between June 2006 and October 2007. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the breast were obtained shortly after surgery, before the start of radiotherapy (RT) for treatment planning, and, if applicable, before the tumor bed boost. Postoperative changes, seroma, and surgical clips were used to define the tumor bed through consensus agreement of 3 observers (B.P., D.I., and J.L.). Multiple variables were examined for correlation with volumetric change. Results: Between the first and last scan obtained (median time, 7.2 weeks), the tumor bed volume decreased at least 20% in 86% of patients (n = 31) and at least 50% in 64% of patients (n = 23). From the postoperative scan to the planning scan (median time, 3 weeks), the tumor bed volume decreased by an average of 49.9%, or approximately 2.1% per postoperative day. From planning scan to boost scan (median interval, 7 weeks), the median tumor bed volume decreased by 44.6%, at an average rate of 0.95% per postoperative day. No single factor was significantly associated with a change in tumor bed volume greater than 20%. Conclusions: The average postlumpectomy cavity undergoes dramatic volumetric change after surgery and continues this change during RT. The rate of change is inversely proportional to the duration from surgery. In this study no factors studied predicted large volumetric change.

  1. Quantification of tumor morphology via 3D histology: application to oral cavity cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Scott; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Tomaszewski, John

    2016-03-01

    Traditional histopathology quantifies disease through the study of glass slides, i.e. two-dimensional samples that are representative of the overall process. We hypothesize that 3D reconstruction can enhance our understanding of histopathologic interpretations. To test this hypothesis, we perform a pilot study of the risk model for oral cavity cancer (OCC), which stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk for locoregional disease-free survival. Classification is based on study of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained tissues sampled from the resection specimens. In this model, the Worst Pattern of Invasion (WPOI) is assessed, representing specific architectural features at the interface between cancer and non-cancer tissue. Currently, assessment of WPOI is based on 2D sections of tissue, representing complex 3D structures of tumor growth. We believe that by reconstructing a 3D model of tumor growth and quantifying the tumor-host interface, we can obtain important diagnostic information that is difficult to assess in 2D. Therefore, we introduce a pilot study framework for visualizing tissue architecture and morphology in 3D from serial sections of histopathology. This framework can be used to enhance predictive models for diseases where severity is determined by 3D biological structure. In this work we utilize serial H and E-stained OCC resections obtained from 7 patients exhibiting WPOI-3 (low risk of recurrence) through WPOI-5 (high risk of recurrence). A supervised classifier automatically generates a map of tumor regions on each slide, which are then co-registered using an elastic deformation algorithm. A smooth 3D model of the tumor region is generated from the registered maps, which is suitable for quantitative tumor interface morphology feature extraction. We report our preliminary models created with this system and suggest further enhancements to traditional histology scoring mechanisms that take spatial architecture into consideration.

  2. Influence of the respiratory cycle structure on the flow field in human nasal cavity at a fixed level of breath depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosykh, L. Yu.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Sadovskii, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of air flow field in the human nasal cavity has studied during the respiratory cycle. Real tomographic scans of the adult without abnormalities in the upper airway have been used to construct the geometric model. Quiet breathing mode is selected: the duration of the respiratory cycle is 4.3 sec and the depth of breathing is 600 ml, which provides pulmonary ventilation at 8.4 liters of air per minute. The system of Navier - Stokes equations was used to describe the flow. Laminar flow regime was postulated. The Lagrange approach was used for calculation of submicron particles motion. The numerical solution was built on the basis of gas-dynamic solver FLUENT of software package ANSYS 12. Calculations were made for two cases in which the same value of the integral characteristic (the depth of breathing) was reached, but which had different kind of boundary conditions on the exit. In the first case, the velocity was assumed symmetrical with respect to inhalation - exhalation and was approximated by sinusoid. In the second case, the velocity as a function of time is determined by processing of the real person spirogram. For the both variants the flow fields were obtained and compared. Analysis of the results showed that in non-stationary case the use of symmetric boundary condition leads to an underestimation of respiratory effort for the implementation of the required depth of breathing. In cyclic flow the flow fields in acceleration and deceleration phases are, basically, the same as in the corresponding steady flow. At the same time taking into account of non-symmetry of respiratory cycle influences on deposition pattern of particles significantly.

  3. Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.

  4. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  6. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma as a Complication after an Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Gonadotrophin-Producing Pituitary Adenoma Resection.

    PubMed

    Forte, Dalila; Irañeta, Amets Sagarribay; Nabais, Anabela; Figueiredo, António; Mafra, Manuela; Gonçalves, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Background Lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor, most frequently located in the head or neck region, the nasal cavity being uncommonly affected. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully established, although traumatic and hormonal factors have been implied. Case Description A 50-year-old female patient underwent an uneventful endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of a pituitary cystic macroadenoma at our institution. Nasal packing was used in postoperative hemostasis. Histopathology was compatible with a gonadotrophin-producing adenoma. One month after the surgery, the patient presented with frequent episodes of epistaxis and a progressively growing nasal mass, which was removed endoscopically. Its pathological examination confirmed a lobular capillary hemangioma. Conclusions The authors present a clinical case combining two possible predisposing factors to the development of a nasal lobular capillary hemangioma: local traumatic injury through surgery and postoperative nasal packing and hormonal influence. This lesion is a rare complication of endoscopic transsphenoidal resections of pituitary adenomas.

  7. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma as a Complication after an Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Gonadotrophin-Producing Pituitary Adenoma Resection

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Dalila; Irañeta, Amets Sagarribay; Nabais, Anabela; Figueiredo, António; Mafra, Manuela; Gonçalves, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Background Lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor, most frequently located in the head or neck region, the nasal cavity being uncommonly affected. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully established, although traumatic and hormonal factors have been implied. Case Description A 50-year-old female patient underwent an uneventful endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of a pituitary cystic macroadenoma at our institution. Nasal packing was used in postoperative hemostasis. Histopathology was compatible with a gonadotrophin-producing adenoma. One month after the surgery, the patient presented with frequent episodes of epistaxis and a progressively growing nasal mass, which was removed endoscopically. Its pathological examination confirmed a lobular capillary hemangioma. Conclusions The authors present a clinical case combining two possible predisposing factors to the development of a nasal lobular capillary hemangioma: local traumatic injury through surgery and postoperative nasal packing and hormonal influence. This lesion is a rare complication of endoscopic transsphenoidal resections of pituitary adenomas. PMID:28326242

  8. [Experience of application of multimodal combined spinal-epidural anesthesia during operative interventions for abdominal cavity tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Dmutriiev, D V

    2014-10-01

    The investigations were conducted in 44 children, operated on for abdominal cavity tumors and tumors of ovaries. In patients of the first group a combined spinal-epidural analgesia and a continuous intravenous phentanyl infusion were applied; while in the second group--the intravenous continuous infusion of phentanyl. Conduction of a multimodal analgesia have had reduced significantly a negative outcomes of insufficient analgesia in children and secured an effective analgesia after traumatic operations.

  9. Evaluation of effect of ephedrine on the transport of drugs from the nasal cavity to the systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Stuart T; Davis, Stanley S; Illum, Lisbeth

    2007-06-01

    It has been shown that vasoconstrictive drugs such as ephedrine derivatives are able to decrease systemic absorption of drugs administered by mucosal surfaces. The present paper set out to evaluate in the rat model the effect of co-administered nasal ephedrine on the absorption of GR138950 in a simple and in a pectin self-gelling formulation. It was hypothetised that a decrease in nasal systemic absorption would lead to an increase in direct nose-to-brain transport as demonstrated by the drug concentration in the olfactory lobes of the brain. It was found that ephedrine administered nasally with the drug in a simple aqueous solution resulted in a significant increase in nasal systemic absorption and also an increase in brain delivery; however, this trend was not observed with the pectin formulations. The pectin formulation with ephedrine resulted in lower systemic absorption of GR138950 and lower brain uptake compared to the simple solution formulation containing ephedrine.

  10. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  11. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  12. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion

    PubMed Central

    Naclerio, Robert M; Bachert, Claus; Baraniuk, James N

    2010-01-01

    Nasal congestion is a common symptom in rhinitis (both allergic and nonallergic), rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Congestion can also be caused by physical obstruction of nasal passages and/or modulation of sensory perception. Mucosal inflammation underlies many of the specific and interrelated factors that contribute to nasal congestion, as well as other symptoms of both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. A wide range of biologically active agents (eg, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, cell adhesion molecules) and cell types contribute to inflammation, which can manifest as venous engorgement, increased nasal secretions and tissue swelling/edema, ultimately leading to impaired airflow and the sensation of nasal congestion. Inflammation-induced changes in the properties of sensory afferents (eg, expression of peptides and receptors) that innervate the nose can also contribute to altered sensory perception, which may result in a subjective feeling of congestion. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation can facilitate improved treatment selection and the development of new therapies for congestion. PMID:20463823

  13. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area. We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS). Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3–4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442). Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  14. Nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gerald A.

    1969-01-01

    A review of 313 cases of nasal polyposis indicates that there is a high incidence of recurrence in this disease. Other nasal pathology affects a significant number of these patients. Simple surgical removal of the polypi by a transnasal route is the common mode of treatment. PMID:4187956

  15. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction.

  16. Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 polymorphism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other oral cavity tumors in Russia.

    PubMed

    Senyuta, Natalia; Yakovleva, Larissa; Goncharova, Elena; Scherback, Liana; Diduk, Sergey; Smirnova, Ksenia; Maksimovich, Dmitry; Gurtsevitch, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of EBV LMP1 alleles isolated from tumor, blood, and throat washing samples of 22 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 17 patients with other non-EBV-related tumors of the oral cavity, and 19 blood donors have been studied in representatives of Central Russia and the Republics of Northern Caucasus, regions which are non-endemic for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The analysis of the LMP1 alleles collected revealed that they practically matched previously described LMP1 variants; however, some characteristic features were also detected. In particular, the G212S substitution in LMP1 isolates investigated was not observed at all. Tumor samples obtained from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other tumors of the oral cavity did not differ significantly either in the frequency of "high oncogenic" LMP1 alleles with 10 aa and/or 23 aa deletions (LMP1(China1) and/or LMP1(Med+)), nor in the number of 11 aa repeats and the frequency of 5 aa motif insertions. No differences in the frequency of amino acid substitutions between LMP1 alleles obtained from tumor and throat washing samples of both patient groups were also detected. The data obtained may indicate that in both nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and patients with other tumors of the oral cavity, the EBV strains with similar LMP1 variants are found to persist. This observation allows us to suggest that in non-endemic areas, EBV strains with any LMP1 alleles can initiate the nasopharyngeal carcinoma development but only in those individuals who have a genetic predisposition to the disease and are subjected to specific environmental, and/or dietary factors present in certain geographic areas.

  17. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link?

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Delgado, R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A; Meneses, A; Ruiz, L M; De La Garza, J; Acuna, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Raab-Traub, N; Devlin, R

    2000-04-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem in major cities in Mexico. The concentrations of monitored criteria pollutants have been above the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the last decade. To determine whether the number of primary malignant nasal and paranasal neoplasms has increased, we surveyed 256 such cases admitted to a major adult oncology hospital located in metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) for the period from 1976-1997 and to a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, an industrial city, for the period from 1993-1998. The clinical histories and histopathologic material were reviewed, and a brief clinical summary was written for each case. In the MMC hospital the number of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms per year for the period from 1976-1986 averaged 5.1, whereas for the next 11 years it increased to 12.5. The maximal increase was observed in 1995-1997, with an average of 20.3 new cases per year (P = 0.0006). The predominant neoplasms in these series were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, adenocarcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the Monterrey hospital a 2-fold increase in the numbers of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms was recorded between 1993 and 1998. The predominant MMC neoplasm in this series, namely nasal T-cell/natural killer cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is potentially Epstein-Barr virus related. Nasal and paranasal malignant neoplasms are generally rare. Environmental causative factors include exposure in industries such as nickel refining, leather, and wood furniture manufacturing. Although epidemiologic studies have not addressed the relationship between outdoor air pollution and sinonasal malignant neoplasms, there is strong evidence for the nasal and paranasal carcinogenic effect of occupational aerosol complex chemical mixtures. General practitioners and ear, nose, and throat physicians working in highly polluted cities should be aware of the clinical

  18. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  19. Extradural frontal abscess complicating nasal septal abscess in a child.

    PubMed

    Thomson, C J; Berkowitz, R G

    1998-10-02

    Nasal septal abscess (NSA) is an uncommon sequel to minor nasal trauma. Abscess extension beyond the nasal cavity is rarely documented. A case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with a NSA associated with a large extradural frontal abscess is presented and indications for CT scanning in the workup of pediatric patients with NSA is discussed.

  20. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor (So-called Primitive Polypoid Non-neural Granular Cell Tumor) of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Yeshwant B; Dodson, Thomas B

    2016-10-05

    Four cases of cutaneous S-100 negative granular cell tumor were described in 1991. Until now, only 3 cases of oral involvement have been documented in English literature. Two additional cases of oral S-100 negative granular cell tumor are described. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to exclude other lesions that may show the presence of granular cells. The clinical findings were correlated with the histopathological and immunohistochemical features to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. S-100 negative granular cell tumors are erythematous polypoid masses commonly mistaken for granulation tissue or a pyogenic granuloma. Any part of the oral cavity may be affected. Histopathologically, the lesions consist of sheets, nests, and fascicles of granular cells that are S-100 negative. The granular cells are non-reactive to SMA, HMB45, Melan A, and CD163. The intracytoplasmic granules are diffusely and strongly positive to NKI/C3. The cell lineage of the S-100 negative granular cell tumor is obscure. Absence of staining with CD163 excludes a histiocytic lineage. Absence of staining with S-100 excludes a neural origin. Absence of staining with S-100 and key melanoma markers HMB45 and Melan A also excludes a melanocytic origin. In this context, positive reactivity with NKI/C3 is indicative of presence of intracytoplasmic lysosomal granules only. Greater awareness of this lesion in the oral cavity will result in better characterization of its biologic potential.

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma first presenting as a tumor of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Alrumaih, Redha Ali; Arian, Asif Ali; Alhedyani, Alanoud A; Al-Zaher, Nabil; Dababo, M Anas

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide; HCC metastasis is common affecting 50% of cases. However, metastasis to the oral cavity is extremely infrequent. We present a case of hepatocellular cancer first presenting as a mass lesion at the upper alveolus and review metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the oral cavity in 73-year-old male patient.

  2. Alvespimycin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-09

    and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  3. Evaluation of Conoscopic Holography for Estimating Tumor Resection Cavities in Model-Based Image-Guided Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kay; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Rucker, D. Caleb; Sills, Allen K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical navigation relies on accurately mapping the intraoperative state of the patient to models derived from preoperative images. In image-guided neurosurgery, soft tissue deformations are common and have been shown to compromise the accuracy of guidance systems. In lieu of whole-brain intraoperative imaging, some advocate the use of intraoperatively acquired sparse data from laser-range scans, ultrasound imaging, or stereo reconstruction coupled with a computational model to drive subsurface deformations. Some authors have reported on compensating for brain sag, swelling, retraction, and the application of pharmaceuticals such as mannitol with these models. To date, strategies for modeling tissue resection have been limited. In this paper, we report our experiences with a novel digitization approach, called a conoprobe, to document tissue resection cavities and assess the impact of resection on model-based guidance systems. Specifically, the conoprobe was used to digitize the interior of the resection cavity during eight brain tumor resection surgeries and then compared against model prediction results of tumor locations. We should note that no effort was made to incorporate resection into the model but rather the objective was to determine if measurement was possible to study the impact on modeling tissue resection. In addition, the digitized resection cavity was compared with early postoperative MRI scans to determine whether these scans can further inform tissue resection. The results demonstrate benefit in model correction despite not having resection explicitly modeled. However, results also indicate the challenge that resection provides for model-correction approaches. With respect to the digitization technology, it is clear that the conoprobe provides important real-time data regarding resection and adds another dimension to our noncontact instrumentation framework for soft-tissue deformation compensation in guidance systems. PMID:24845293

  4. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning.

  5. Solitary Fibrous Tumor – Less Common Neoplasms of the Pleural Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vejvodova, Sarka; Spidlen, Vladimir; Mukensnabl, Petr; Krakorova, Gabriela; Molacek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) represent a heterogeneous group of primary pleural neoplasms with a low incidence rate and of which the biological origin, which consists of mesenchymal cells, is uncertain. Methods: The authors present herewith a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with SFTs who were diagnosed and surgically treated between the years 2000–2015. The preoperative tumors were successfully verified morphologically by transthoracic core needle biopsy under CT control in 27.3% of patients. Surgical approaches were either posterolateral thoracotomy or videothoracoscopy. The follow-up median was 45 months (range 1–188 months). Results: Twenty tumors were surgically removed radically, two tumors were found to be unresectable due to the considerable tumor size. From histological point of view 81.8% of tumors were SFT with low malignant potential, 18.2% of tumors with high malignant potential. Despite the radical extirpation of the SFT, it relapsed in two patients. Conclusion: The gold standard of SFT treatment is radical surgical removal; however, patients at risk of recurrence require additional follow-ups. The results of adjuvant therapy in recurrent and malignant forms of SFTs are the subject of discussion and further study. PMID:28049955

  6. Proton therapy for tumors of the base of the skull.

    PubMed

    Noel, Georges; Gondi, Vinai

    2016-08-01

    Relative to conventional photon irradiation, proton therapy has distinct advantages in its ability to more precisely target tumor while shielding adjacent normal tissues. In the setting of skull base tumors, proton therapy plays a critical role in the dose-escalation required for optimal tumor control of chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. For benign tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas and meningiomas, proton therapy can limit long-term adverse effects, such as secondary malignancies. This review summarizes published literature to date regarding the role of proton therapy in skull base tumors and introduces emerging proton therapy approaches such as pencil-beam scanning (PBS).

  7. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-07-06

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration.

  8. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  9. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  10. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route.

    PubMed

    Jain, Darshana S; Bajaj, Amrita N; Athawale, Rajani B; Shikhande, Shruti S; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N; Gude, Rajiv P; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors.

  11. Detection of tumor cells in body cavity fluids by flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Awtar; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Jorda, Merce; Hamelik, Ronald M; Reis, Isildinha M; Nadji, Mehrdad

    2006-08-01

    Measurement of electronic volume versus DNA content of nuclei can be used to discriminate between normal and malignant cells. Epithelial membrane antigen immunocytochemistry (EMA-ICC), a helpful ancillary test in body cavity fluids, is not universally accurate for detecting malignancy in effusions. The current study was undertaken to determine if multiparametric flow cytometry (based on simultaneous analysis of light scatter, nuclear volume, DNA, and nuclear protein content) in combination with (EMA-ICC) could be used for the detection of malignant cells in peritoneal and pleural fluids. We studied 130 body cavity fluids (68 peritoneal and 62 pleural fluids) by conventional cytology and multiparametric laser flow cytometry. EMA-ICC was performed using EMA antibodies and L-SAB detection system (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA). EMA-ICC had significantly higher sensitivity than conventional cytology (79% versus 59%, P = 0.016) and ploidy (79% versus 38%, P = 0.001). Cytology had significantly higher specificity than ploidy (97% versus 82%, P = 0.012). The differences in specificity between EMA-ICC and ploidy (87% versus 82%, P= 0.607) or EMA-ICC and cytology (87% versus 97%, P = 0.109) were not statistically significant. However, assuming serial testing, sensitivity increased significantly for the combinations of cytology and EMA-ICC (79.4%, P = 0.016) and cytology and ploidy (73.5%, P = 0.004) as compared to cytology alone (58.8%). Also, the combination of cytology and ploidy had a higher sensitivity than ploidy alone (73% versus 38%, P < 0.0001). However, the sensitivity associated with the three tests used in serial (85.3%) was not significantly different from the sensitivities corresponding to the combination of cytology and EMA-ICC (79%) or cytology and ploidy (73%). Multiparametric flow cytometry utilizing high resolution DNA, nuclear volume, protein measurement, and ICC, in combination with cytomorphology, may be a valuable tool for rapid identification of

  12. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  13. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Post-Nasal Drip Post-Nasal Drip Patient Health Information News media ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ...

  14. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control. PMID:19723329

  15. Saline nasal irrigation: Its role as an adjunct treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Papsin, Blake; McTavish, Alison

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review clinical evidence on the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation for treatment of sinonasal conditions and to explore its potential benefits. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Clinical trials, reviews, and treatment guidelines discussing nasal irrigation were obtained through a MEDLINE search from January 1980 to December 2001. Most trials were small and some were not controlled; evidence, therefore, is level II, or fair. MAIN MESSAGE: Flushing the nasal cavity with saline solution promotes mucociliary clearance by moisturizing the nasal cavity and by removing encrusted material. The procedure has been used safely for both adults and children, and has no documented serious adverse effects. Patients treated with nasal irrigation rely less on other medications and make fewer visits to physicians. Treatment guidelines in both Canada and the United States now advocate use of nasal irrigation for all causes of rhinosinusitis and for postoperative cleaning of the nasal cavity. CONCLUSION: Nasal irrigation is a simple, inexpensive treatment that relieves the symptoms of a variety of sinus and nasal conditions, reduces use of medical resources, and could help minimize antibiotic resistance. PMID:12619739

  16. CT-Based Evaluation of Tumor Volume After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy of Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Comparison with Clinical Remission Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Stefan Turowski, Bernd; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kovacs, Adorjan F.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the volume of locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity and the oropharynx before and after intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy by means of computed tomography and to compare these data with clinically determined treatment response of the same patient population. Methods. Eighty-eight patients with histologically proven, advanced carcinoma of the oral cavity and/or the oropharynx (local tumor stages T3/4) received neoadjuvant i.a. chemotherapy with cisplatin as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen, comprising (1) local chemotherapy, (2) surgery, and (3) combined radio-chemotherapy. Three weeks after the intervention, residual disease was evaluated radiologically by measurement of the tumor volume and clinically by inspection and palpation of the primary tumor according to WHO criteria. Results. Comparison of treatment response according to radiological and clinical criteria respectively revealed complete remission in 5% vs. 8% (p < 0.05), partial remission in 30% vs. 31%, stable disease in 61% vs. 58%, and tumor progression in 5% vs. 2%. Conclusion. Radiological volumetry and clinical evaluation found comparable response rates after local chemotherapy. However, in patients with good response after local treatment, volumetric measurement with CT may help to distinguish between partial and complete remission. Thus, radiological tumor volumetry provides precise and differentiated information about tumor response and should be used as an additional tool in treatment monitoring after local chemotherapy.

  17. An Unusual Case of a Nasal Foreign Body in a Cat with Chronic Nasal Discharge.

    PubMed

    Bellei, Emma; Pisoni, Luciano; Joechler, Monika; Pietra, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a cat infected with the feline infectious virus and a 1 yr history of unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Intraoral radiography and endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a large fragment of tooth root in the right nasal cavity. The cat had previously undergone maxillary canine tooth (104) extraction. The root was successfully removed by an endoscopic-assisted procedure, and follow-up examination 1 yr later documented complete disappearance of the respiratory signs.

  18. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  19. Fabrication of a provisional nasal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    A technique for making a provisional nasal prosthesis for interim use after the ablation of a midface tumor is described. The technique is especially useful for the re-creation of a nasal form in an expedient and cost-effective manner. A preoperative definitive cast, or moulage, of the patient that includes a nasal form is used to fabricate a vacuum form of the midface. The vacuum form is evaluated on the patient, the extension is adjusted, and an external adhesive knit liner is applied to give the appearance of a contoured nasal bandage. The provisional nasal prosthesis is attached with medical adhesive tape and removed daily by the patient. The prosthesis is easily replaced during the course of treatment and has been found to be functional and esthetically acceptable to those patients receiving care from the Dental Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  20. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  1. Capillary hemangioma as a rare benign tumor of the oral cavity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Hemangioma is a relatively common benign proliferation of blood vessels that primarily develops during childhood. Two main forms of hemangioma recognized: capillary and cavernous. The capillary form presents as a flat area consisting of numerous small capillaries. Cavernous hemangioma appears as an elevated lesion of a deep red color, and consists of large dilated sinuses filled with blood. The purpose of the study was to report the case of a capillary hemangioma in a patient and to describe the successful treatment of this case. Case presentation The patient was a 19-year-old female who presented herself to the Atatürk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, with the complaint of bleeding and slowly enlarging mass on the upper right molar region. The lesion was diagnosed as capillary hemangioma after clinical examination and biopsy. Treatment consisted of scaling, root planning and surgical excision. Four months after surgery healing was occurred and two years later area of the lesion appeared completely normal as clinically. Conclusions The surface is highly keratinized and no further growth was evidenced during the two year of follow-up. Early detection and biopsy is necessary to determine the clinical behavior of the tumor and potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:20181211

  2. Primary nasal tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Ravi C; Al Kaabi, Juma; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2004-03-01

    During the past 2 decades, tuberculosis--both pulmonary and extrapulmonary--has re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis--either primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus--is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal granulomas. We describe a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with a polypoid lesion in one nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment. Given the rising incidence of tuberculosis, it is prudent that otolaryngologists remain cognizant of this infection as a potential cause of unusual lesions in the head and neck.

  3. Outcome Prediction After Surgery and Chemoradiation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Hypopharynx: Use of Baseline Perfusion CT Microcirculatory Parameters vs. Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Anand, Sharma K.; Glavina, Gordana; Day, Terry; Rumboldt, Zoran

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether pretreatment perfusion computed tomography (PCT) may predict outcome in chemoradiated patients with oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) after surgical excision. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with SCCA were examined before treatment. The primary site was oral cavity in 6, oropharynx in 7, and hypopharynx in 8 patients; there were 11 T2, 6 T3, and 4 T4 tumors. PCT was performed at the level of largest tumor diameter based on standard neck CT. The data were processed to obtain blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface area product (PS). Regions of interest were free-hand positioned on the lesions to obtain PCT measurements. Tumor volume was also calculated. Follow-up was performed with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and endoscopy. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for comparison between the subgroups. A regression model was constructed to predict recurrence based on the following predictors: age, gender, tumor (T) and nodal (N) stage, tumor volume, and PCT parameters. Results: BF{sub mean}, BF{sub max}, BV{sub mean}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, PS{sub mean}, and PS{sub max} were significantly different between patients with and without tumor recurrence (0.0001, p < 0.04). T stage, tumor volume, N stage, BF{sub max}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, and radiation dose (p < 0.001) were independent predictors for recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model for tumor recurrence revealed significantly increased risk with high tumor volume (p = 0.00001, relative risk [RR] 7.4), low PS{sub mean} (p = 0.0001, RR 14.3), and low BF{sub max} (p = 0.002, RR 5.9). Conclusions: Our data suggest that PCT parameters have a prognostic role in patients with SCCA.

  4. Isolated tumor cells are frequently detectable in the peritoneal cavity of gastric and colorectal cancer patients and serve as a new prognostic marker.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, A; Vogel, I; Krueger, U; Kalthoff, H; Schreiber, H W; Schmiegel, W; Henne-Bruns, D; Kremer, B; Juhl, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated tumor cells detected by a panel of various monoclonal antibodies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previously, we showed by using immunocytology that cancer cells are frequently found in bone marrow and peritoneal cavity samples of gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: Findings in bone marrow and peritoneal cavity samples were compared and correlated with the 4-year survival rate of 84 gastric and 109 colorectal patients with cancer. RESULTS: Although positive results in the bone marrow showed little prognostic significance, the peritoneal cavity results correlated with the 4-year survival rate (gastric cancer: p = 0.0038; colorectal cancer: p = 0.0079). Additionally, in subgroups of patients with early (gastric cancer: p = 0.02, colorectal cancer: p = 0.48) and advanced (gastric cancer: p = 0.02, colorectal cancer: p < 0.0001) tumor stages, a correlation of immunocytologic findings and the survival rate was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of minimal residual disease in the peritoneal cavity serves as a new prognostic marker. Images Figure 5. PMID:9527060

  5. Deprojecting the nasal profile.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Mabrie, D C

    1999-02-01

    The nose is the most prominent aesthetic feature of the facial profile. Nasal length, tip rotation, and tip projection are integral aspects in analysis of the nasal profile. In most rhinoplasties the surgeon has the difficult task of increasing or maintaining tip projection of an underprojected or normally projected nasal tip. Less commonly, the rhinoplastic surgeon is presented with an overprojected nasal tip, and efforts are focused on deprojecting the nasal profile. In this article, the authors present a discussion of the overprojected tip, elucidating strategies of analysis, etiologies, and management of the nasal profile and give clinical examples.

  6. Nasal Injuries in Sports.

    PubMed

    Marston, Alexander P; O'Brien, Erin K; Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-04-01

    Nasal trauma is a common consequence of athletic competition. The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured facial bone and are particularly at risk during sports participation. Acute management of trauma to the nose includes thorough evaluation of all injuries and may require immediate management for repair of facial lacerations, epistaxis control, or septal hematoma drainage. Nasal fractures can often be addressed with closed reduction techniques; however, in the setting of complex nasal trauma, an open approach may be indicated. Using appropriate treatment techniques, posttraumatic nasal sequelae can be minimized; most patients report satisfactory long-term nasal form and function.

  7. Intranasal coadministration of Cholera toxin with amoeba lysates modulates the secretion of IgA and IgG antibodies, production of cytokines and expression of pIgR in the nasal cavity of mice in the model of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Lopez-Reyes, Israel; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Rodriguez-Cortes, Antonio Yahve; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Miliar-Garcia, Angel; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2014-11-01

    The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ∼65 and ∼74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-α compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages.

  8. Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO University Donate eNEWS SIGNUP f Cancer. ... of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. ...

  9. Neurilemmoma of lateral nasal wall.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Gautam, Parul; Arora, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Neurilemmoma is a benign tumour of nerve sheath origin that can arise from myelinated nerve. The Head and neck is the most frequent site involved and other sites are scalp, face, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and ear. Neurilemmoma usually occur as solitary lesions and in association with NF type 2. Malignant transformation is very rare. We report a case of 18 year old male presented with complaint of nasal obstruction and swelling in right side of nose. We discuss the clinical presentation, histologic features, and therapeutic options for such a rare benign lesion.

  10. A decrease in nasal CO2 stimulates breathing in the tegu lizard.

    PubMed

    Coates, E L; Furilla, R A; Ballam, G O; Bartlett, D

    1991-10-01

    Tegu lizards decrease ventilatory frequency (f) when constant CO2, as low as 0.4%, is delivered to the nasal cavities. In contrast, CO2, as high as 6%, pulsed into the nasal cavities during the expiratory phase of the breathing cycle does not alter f. The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the effect of nasal CO2 pattern on f in tegu lizards. Specifically, we tested: (1) whether f was affected by CO2 delivered to the nasal cavities during the inspiratory phase of the breathing cycle, and (2) whether pulsed decreases in nasal CO2 from 4% to 2% and from 4% to 0% would remove the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2. Ventilation was measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer in-line with an endotracheal T-tube inserted through the glottis. CO2 was delivered to the nasal cavities through small tubes inserted into the external nares. Ventilatory frequency was not significantly altered when 4% CO2 was pulsed into the nasal cavities during inspiration. Dropping the CO2 in the nasal cavities from 4% to 0% at either 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz) or for one cycle stimulated breathing. There was no significant difference between the f response to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 0% and that to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 2%. The failure to link the phasic CO2 ventilatory response to a phase in the respiratory cycle indicates that the nasal CO2 receptors do not participate in the breath-by-breath regulation of breathing in these lizards. The observation that small decreases in nasal CO2 abolished the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2 provides further evidence for the ability of the nasal CO2 receptors to distinguish between pulsed and constant CO2.

  11. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  12. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  13. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not ... germs.Triamcinolone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever and allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  14. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. Flunisolide nasal spray should not ... germs.Flunisolide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  15. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a neti pot, squeeze bottle, or rubber nasal bulb at your drug store. You can also buy ... infection. Always clean the neti pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every ...

  16. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... or concerns about your symptoms Trouble using the medicine Alternative Names Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays References American Academy of ... of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University ...

  17. Nasal septal hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, ... heal. References Chegar BE, Tatum SA III. Nasal fractures. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et ...

  18. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  19. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  20. Nasal septal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, C M

    1998-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication of nasal trauma. Proper management consists of early recognition, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma, and antimicrobial therapy if a secondary nasal septal abscess is suspected. Clindamycin is recommended as initial therapy until the results of cultures and susceptibility studies are available.

  1. Nasal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Ned F

    2006-05-01

    Chronic nasal disease is often a challenge to diagnose. Computed tomography greatly enhances the ability to diagnose chronic nasal disease in dogs and cats. Nasal computed tomography provides detailed information regarding the extent of disease, accurate discrimination of neoplastic versus nonneoplastic diseases, and identification of areas of the nose to examine rhinoscopically and suspicious regions to target for biopsy.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity.

  3. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine and Irinotecan Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors or Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Currently Accruing Only Triple-negative Breast Cancer Patients Since 6/8/2007)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  4. Comparative pathology of the nasal mucosa in laboratory animals exposed to inhaled irritants.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J R

    1990-01-01

    The nasal cavity is susceptible to chemically induced injury as a result of exposure to inhaled irritants. Some responses of the nasal mucosa to inhaled toxicants are species specific. These species-related differences in response may be due to variations in structural, physiologic, and biochemical factors, such as gross nasal cavity structure, distribution of luminal epithelial cell populations along the nasal airway, intranasal airflow patterns, nasal mucociliary apparatus, and nasal xenobiotic metabolism among animal species. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy and irritant-induced pathology of the nasal cavity in laboratory animals. The toxicologist, pathologist, and environmental risk assessor must have a good working knowledge of the similarities and differences in normal nasal structure and response to injury among species before they can select animal models for nasal toxicity studies, recognize toxicant-induced lesions in the nasal airway, and extrapolate experimental results to estimate the possible effects of an inhaled toxicant on the human nasal airway. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. A PLATE 2. B PLATE 3. PMID:2116960

  5. Malignant Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity With Emphasis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Snyers, An Janssens, Geert; Twickler, Marcel B.; Hermus, Ad R.; Takes, Robert P.; Kappelle, Arnoud C.; Merkx, Matthias A.W.; Dirix, Piet; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome after surgery and radiotherapy for patients with sinonasal cancer and assess late toxicity, with special emphasis on hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 168 patients treated for sinonasal cancer in a single institute between 1986 and 2006. A more detailed analysis was performed on a subgroup of 76 patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent. Long-term survivors were evaluated for late toxicity by a multidisciplinary team using the late effects of normal tissues (LENT SOMA) scoring system. Additional endocrinologic tests were performed for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Results: Five-year actuarial local control and overall survival rates were 62% and 35% for all patients and 64% and 42% for the subgroup with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In multivariate analysis, T stage was the only significant factor predicting local relapse (79% at 5 years for T1-T3 vs. 53% for T4; p = 0.006). Sinonasal mucosal melanomas had the highest rate of regional failure (33% at 5 years). Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) evaluated at the late morbidity clinic had hormonal disturbances, of whom 5 (24%) had definitive evidence of hypopituitarism with multiple hormonal deficiencies. Conclusion: Local failure is the dominant cause of treatment failure for patients with sinonasal cancer, with T4 stage the only independent predictor. Because of a high rate of radiation-induced hypopituitarism, we recommend endocrinologic surveillance for these patients.

  6. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors and Liver or Kidney Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Subependymoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer

  7. Simulating the nasal cycle with computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ruchin G.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Frank-Ito, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop a method to account for the confounding effect of the nasal cycle when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal patency. (2) Illustrate this method by reporting objective measures derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models spanning the full range of mucosal engorgement associated with the nasal cycle in two subjects. Study Design Retrospective Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods A cohort of 24 nasal airway obstruction patients was reviewed to select the two patients with the greatest reciprocal change in mucosal engorgement between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography (CT) scans. Three-dimensional anatomic models were created based on the pre- and post-operative CT scans. Nasal cycling models were also created by gradually changing the thickness of the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and septal swell body. CFD was used to simulate airflow and to calculate nasal resistance and average heat flux. Results Before accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A appeared to have a paradoxical worsening nasal obstruction in the right cavity postoperatively. After accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A had small improvements in objective measures postoperatively. The magnitude of the surgical effect also differed in Patient B after accounting for the nasal cycle. Conclusion By simulating the nasal cycle and comparing models in similar congestive states, surgical changes in nasal patency can be distinguished from physiological changes associated with the nasal cycle. This ability can lead to more precise comparisons of pre and post-surgery objective measures and potentially more accurate virtual surgery planning. PMID:25450411

  8. Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastases: Prospective Evaluation of Target Margin on Tumor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Given the neurocognitive toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBRT), approaches to defer or avoid WBRT after surgical resection of brain metastases are desirable. Our initial experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) targeting the resection cavity showed promising results. We examined the outcomes of postoperative resection cavity SRS to determine the effect of adding a 2-mm margin around the resection cavity on local failure (LF) and toxicity. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 120 cavities in 112 patients treated from 1998-2009. Factors associated with LF and distant brain failure (DF) were analyzed using competing risks analysis, with death as a competing risk. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; variables associated with OS were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards and log rank tests. Results: The 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF and DF, with death as a competing risk, were 9.5% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, expansion of the cavity with a 2-mm margin was associated with decreased LF; the 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF with and without margin were 3% and 16%, respectively (P=.042). The 12-month toxicity rates with and without margin were 3% and 8%, respectively (P=.27). On multivariate analysis, melanoma histology (P=.038) and number of brain metastases (P=.0097) were associated with higher DF. The median OS time was 17 months (range, 2-114 months), with a 12-month OS rate of 62%. Overall, WBRT was avoided in 72% of the patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant SRS targeting the resection cavity of brain metastases results in excellent local control and allows WBRT to be avoided in a majority of patients. A 2-mm margin around the resection cavity improved local control without increasing toxicity compared with our prior technique with no margin.

  9. [Endoscopic pleomorphic adenoma of nasal septum resection assisted by low-temperature plasm radiofrequency: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dagong; Xiao, Liu; Tian, Huan

    2014-11-01

    We present an extremely rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum in a 24-year old woman who went to consultation because of right nasal neoplasm. The radiologic discoveries by computerized tomography showed a tumor in the right nasal septum. Incisional biopsy was done, with a histopathological report of pleomorphic adenoma. Later, nasal endoscopy was used to remove the neoplasm and histology revealed pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

  10. [Nasal, pulmonary, and abomasal aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) in a calf].

    PubMed

    Breuer, W; Stoll, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Hafner-Marx, A; Deischl, K

    2015-07-01

    This study presents a case of nasal aspergillosis in a 17-days old calf (German Fleckvieh): it had been admitted moribund to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Munich, and died after a short time. Pathologically, the calf was diagnosed with purulent-necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing pneumonia, and diphtheroid-necrotizing abomasitis. Histologically, fungal elements were found in all the localizations mentioned before, and mycologically, Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from nasal cavity. Pathogenesis is discussed.

  11. Canine and feline nasal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Christine

    2006-05-01

    Dogs and cats of our society have outgrown their status as merely pets and are now considered our close companions and even family members. This shift in their roles has led to pet owners seeking improved preventative medicine for their four-legged friends. Subsequently, dogs and cats are living longer lives than ever before and developing more old-age-related diseases. One of the most devastating diseases of older animals is cancer. Once a veterinarian has detected cancer in a pet, pet owners seek advice on their next course of action. This article is intended to provide concise information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intranasal tumors of the dog and cat. This article outlines the forms of nasal tumors that are the most common, the recommended imaging and biopsy techniques to diagnose the tumor, and the most appropriate treatments of them.

  12. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for {>=}24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth {>=}12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of {>=}19.3 and tumor depth of {>=}12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax ({>=}19.3) and pathologic tumor depth ({>=}12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death.

  13. [Numerical flow simulation : A new method for assessing nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T; Osman, J; Goubergrits, L

    2016-08-01

    The current options for objective assessment of nasal breathing are limited. The maximum they can determine is the total nasal resistance. Possibilities to analyze the endonasal airstream are lacking. In contrast, numerical flow simulation is able to provide detailed information of the flow field within the nasal cavity. Thus, it has the potential to analyze the nasal airstream of an individual patient in a comprehensive manner and only a computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses is required. The clinical application is still limited due to the necessary technical and personnel resources. In particular, a statistically based referential characterization of normal nasal breathing does not yet exist in order to be able to compare and classify the simulation results.

  14. [Nasal fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Sannia; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-03-07

    The risk of complications warrants treatment of most dislocated nasal fractures. Other injuries including other facial fractures and septal haematoma must be treated if present at the initial presentation. The usual treatment for a simple nasal fracture is closed reduction in local anaesthesia after five to seven days. Complicated cases require open reduction in general anaesthesia. Later revision of the deviated nose may become necessary in patients suffering from complications such as persistent nasal stenosis and/or deformity.

  15. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  16. Penetrating foreign body in the nasal floor through nasolacrimal duct

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Mannella, Valentina Katia; Freni, Francesco; Galletti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Clinical otolaryngologists frequently encounter nasal foreign bodies (FBs) particularly among children. The removal of nasal FBs is a common otolaryngological practice. However, occasionally trauma results from FBs being lodged in the nasal cavity especially through the nasolacrimal duct. In this article we present an unusual case of a FB that from the left medial canthus went inside the nasolacrimal duct, then through the inferior turbinate and stuck in the floor of the nose. We describe the transnasal endoscopic approach used and we recommend that the treatment be done as soon as possible to avoid complications. PMID:24925531

  17. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  18. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  19. [The possibility of using соformulated intranasal drugs after surgical correction of nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, G N; Svistushkin, V M; Zakharova, N M; Shevchik, E A; Zolotova, A V; Dedova, M G

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of chronic nasal obstruction is the nasal septum deformation and increase of the lower nasal turbinates. The number of septoplasty--operations ranges from 14% to 44,2% of all ENT-operations. The results of surgery are swelling of the tissues and damaged ciliar epithelium, that leads to the inparament of the mucociliar transport. In the postoperati e period the nasal cavity should be cleaned. Drugs, that are used, should reduce swelling, improve regeneration and should not supress ciliar activity. The results of supervisory, non-interventional study have shown, that application of Nasiс after septoplasty and submucose vasotomy of inferior nasal turbinates increases reparative process and leads to more rapid recovery of respiratory function of nasal cavity.

  20. Nasality in Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ho-hsien

    2004-01-01

    This study used perceptual and articulatory data to investigate a language specific phonemic inventory, and allophonic rules for homorganic initial voiced stops versus homorganic nasal stops, and oral versus nasal vowels in Taiwanese. Four experiments were conducted: concept formation, gating, and two airflow studies. Results of a first nasal…

  1. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  2. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  3. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations.

  4. Nasal eschar: a warning sign of potentially fatal invasive fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nurliza; Lim, Lynne H Y

    2012-05-01

    Most invasive fungal sinusitis occurs in immunocompromised adult patients. We present the case study of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. He developed a progressive darkening discoloration over the dorsum of the nose that turned into an eschar. Nasal endoscopy revealed extensive necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity mucosa, inferior and middle turbinates, and septal cartilage that extended to the eschar of the skin over the nasal dorsum. Histopathology showed aspergillus invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

  5. Unilateral inferior turbinate hypoplasia caused by a longstanding (approximately 35 yr) nasal foreign body.

    PubMed

    Derosas, Fiorenza; Marioni, Gino; Brescia, Giuseppe; Florio, Alessandra; Staffieri, Claudia; Staffieri, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    We report the unusual case of a 44-year-old man who presented with a plastic foreign body that had been lodged in his right nasal cavity for approximately 35 years. Initial attempts to remove the object were unsuccessful; only after it was broken into several parts was removal achieved. Rigid nasal endoscopy and computed tomography revealed hypoplasia of the ipsilateral inferior turbinate.

  6. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  7. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  8. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-10

    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Anal Canal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Anal Canal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Appendix Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cholangiocarcinoma; Chordoma; Colorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Dermoid Cyst; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fibromyxoid Tumor; Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Giant Cell Carcinoma; Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Sarcomatoid Carcinoma; Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Malignant Odontogenic Neoplasm; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Malignant Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm of Unknown Primary Origin; Mixed Mesodermal (Mullerian) Tumor; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Paraganglioma; Paranasal Sinus Adenocarcinoma; Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma; Parathyroid Gland Carcinoma; Pituitary Gland Carcinoma; Placental Choriocarcinoma; Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Scrotal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma; Seminoma; Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spindle Cell Neoplasm

  9. An unusual cause of necrosis and nasal septum perforation after septoplasty: Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Binar, M; Arslan, F; Tasli, H; Karakoc, O; Kilic, A; Aydin, U

    2015-11-01

    A 20-year-old man with nasal obstruction underwent septoplasty due to nasal septal deviation. Nasal packs were inserted at the end of surgery and removed 48 hours after surgery. Twenty-four hours after removal of nasal packs, there was necrosis in both sides of septal mucosa and in bilateral inferior turbinates. Nasal swab culture was performed from both nasal cavities. Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from samples. Two weeks after surgery, nasal septum perforation was unavoidable. To our knowledge, this is the first case in literature describing septal mucosal necrosis caused by this pathogen after septoplasty. Mucosal necrosis and perforation as septoplasty complications should be kept in mind, the result of causes both common and, as in the present case, unusual.

  10. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-03-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the /sup 133/Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated.

  11. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    PubMed

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe

    2010-11-24

    Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos. Nasal bots are widespread in Mediterranean and tropical areas and in affected animals they induce sneezing and nasal discharge which may become caked with dust making breathing very difficult. The aforementioned species of larvae are host-specific but sometimes the may be deposited in human eyes inducing a painful opthalmomyiasis of short duration. The first fascinating trait of these parasites is the very efficient morphological and biological adaptations to parasitism they show either as larvae or as adults, in order to facilitate their survival and search for a suitable host. Nasal bots have reached different degrees of complexity in their life cycles. Indeed, while for some species (e.g., Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus) larvae are injected by flies directly into nostrils and develop in the sinuses before being ejected for external pupation, some other species migrate from eyes to blood before returning to nasal cavities either through the ethmoid bone (Gedoelstia hässleri) or via lungs and bronchi (Gedoelstia cristata). Moreover, larvae are very well-adapted to their environment being able to undergo through hypobiosis either inside or outside the host, according to the climatic environmental conditions and seasonality. The second fascinating trait of nasal bots is related to host behavioural and immune

  12. Nasal septal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K D; Carpenter, R J; Kern, E B

    1979-07-01

    If the septal component of a nasal injury is adequately managed, usually the entire nasal injury will be well managed. Major or minor nasal trauma can cause cartilage fracture, deviation, dislocation, hematoma, or abscess formation, and the various associated sequelae, some of them life-threatening. A negative x-ray report should never be used as a substitute for a complete intranasal examination in any child with nasal trauma. Any nasal abnormality should be referred for immediate evaluation and treatment.

  13. Nasal packing in sphenopalatine artery bleeding: therapeutic or harmful?

    PubMed

    Sireci, F; Speciale, R; Sorrentino, R; Turri-Zanoni, M; Nicolotti, M; Canevari, F R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to present our management protocol of sphenopalatine artery bleeding, demonstrating that nasoendoscopic cautery (NC) was a more effective method than the nasal packing, in terms of shorter inpatient stay and reduced complications rate. We present ten posterior epistaxis not resolved by nasal packing. Tabotamp(®) was placed in the area of sphenopalatine foramen and/or in those parts of the posterior nasal cavity, where it was suspected that bleeding origins. In two cases, the bleeding was resolved in this way, instead eight cases needed of subperiosteal cauterization of sphenopalatine artery by Dessi bipolar forceps (MicroFrance(®)). 4 of these 8 patients evidenced a remarkable bleeding removing nasal packing (Hb before-nasal packing = 15 ± 0.69 versus Hb after-nasal packing = 13.3 ± 0.81; t student = 2.94; p value = 0.025). These four patients showed a deviation of the nasal septum ipsilateral to epistaxis, and according our experience, a traumatism of sphenopalatine area can be caused by Merocel(®) nasal packing in this condition. During follow-up, no recurrences of nasal bleeding have been observed in such patients. Nasal packing must be considered if posterior epistaxis is severe, but always taking into account the specific anatomy of patient and in particular septal spurs that can further compromise sphenopalatine artery. In our experience, the endoscopic endonasal cauterization of the sphenopalatine branches represented a safe and effective procedure.

  14. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Budesonide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  15. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Fluticasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  16. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It is also used to ... using mometasone nasal spray to prevent or relieve hay fever or allergy symptoms, it is usually sprayed in ...

  17. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or vasomotor (nonallergic) rhinitis. It is ... germs.Beclomethasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  18. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... months or if it becomes discolored. Cleaning the Bulb Syringe (dropper, syringe or nasal spray bottle) After ... may be several times a day), fill the bulb syringe with water (described above), swish the water ...

  19. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  20. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  1. Chapter 6: Nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Settipane, Russell A; Peters, Anju T; Chiu, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps occur in 1-4% of the population, usually occurring in the setting of an underlying local or systemic disease. The most common associated condition is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). A high prevalence of nasal polyps is also seen in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. In the setting of CRS, nasal polyps are not likely to be cured by either medical or surgical therapy; however, control is generally attainable. The best medical evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids for maintenance therapy and short courses of oral corticosteroids for exacerbations. The evidence for short- and long-term antibiotics is much less robust. For patients with symptomatic nasal polyposis nonresponsive to medical therapies, functional endoscopic sinus surgery provides an adjunctive therapeutic option.

  2. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  3. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens: A Bounding Approach for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Based on PBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-05-11

    A relatively simple, quantitative approach is proposed to address a specific, important gap in the appr approach recommended by the USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment to oach address uncertainty in carcinogenic mode of action of certain chemicals when risk is extrapolated from bioassay data. These Guidelines recognize that some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate 'linear' (genotoxic) vs. 'nonlinear' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient t to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably o extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach - similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints - can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low low-dose risk as a function of administere administered or internal dose. Even when a 'nonlinear' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was i illustrated llustrated for a likely DMOA rodent carcinogen naphthalene, specifically to the issue of risk extrapolation from bioassay data on naphthalene naphthalene-induced nasal tumors in rats. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based p pharmacokinetic and 2 harmacokinetic 2-stage

  4. Titanium Mesh Nasal Repair without Nasal Lining.

    PubMed

    Zenga, Joseph; Kao, Katherine; Chen, Collin; Gross, Jennifer; Hahn, Samuel; Chi, John J; Branham, Gregory H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe outcomes for patients who underwent titanium mesh reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects without internal lining repair. This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with through-and-through nasal defects were identified at a single academic institution between 2008 and 2016. Nasal reconstruction was performed with either titanium mesh and external skin reconstruction without repair of the intranasal lining or traditional three-layer closure. Five patients underwent titanium mesh reconstruction and 11 underwent traditional three-layer repair. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-66 months). The only significant difference between groups was older age in patients undergoing titanium reconstruction (mean, 81 vs. 63 years; difference of 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-32 years). Defect extent including overall size and structures removed was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Paramedian forehead flap was the most common external reconstruction in both groups (100% for titanium mesh and 73% for three-layer closure). Time under anesthesia was significantly shorter for titanium mesh reconstruction (median, 119 vs. 314 minutes; difference of 195; 95% CI, 45-237). Estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Complication rates were substantial although not significantly different, 40 and 36% in titanium and three-layer reconstruction, respectively (p > 0.05). All patients with complications after titanium reconstruction had prior or postoperative radiotherapy. Titanium mesh reconstruction of through-and-through nasal defects can successfully be performed without reconstruction of the intranasal lining, significantly decreasing operative times. This reconstructive technique may not be suitable for patients who undergo radiotherapy.

  5. Exploring the bacterial assemblages along the human nasal passage.

    PubMed

    Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Jáuregui, Ruy; Oxley, Andrew P A; Kaspar, Ursula; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Rudack, Claudia; Becker, Karsten; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2016-07-01

    The human nasal passage, from the anterior nares through the nasal vestibule to the nasal cavities, is an important habitat for opportunistic pathogens and commensals alike. This work sampled four different anatomical regions within the human nasal passage across a large cohort of individuals (n = 79) comprising individuals suffering from chronic nasal inflammation clinically known as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and individuals not suffering from inflammation (CRS-free). While individuals had their own unique bacterial fingerprint that was consistent across the anatomical regions, these bacterial fingerprints formed into distinct delineated groups comprising core bacterial members, which were consistent across all four swabbed anatomical regions irrespective of health status. The most significant observed pattern was the difference between the global bacterial profiles of swabbed and tissue biopsy samples from the same individuals, being also consistent across different anatomical regions. Importantly, no statistically significant differences could be observed concerning the global bacterial communities, any of the bacterial species or the range of diversity indices used to compare between CRS and CRS-free individuals, and between two CRS phenotypes (without nasal polyps and with nasal polyps). Thus, the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of sinusitis remains uncertain.

  6. Simultaneous immobilization of glucose oxidase on the surface and cavity of hollow gold nanospheres as labels for highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongju; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Jiang, Wen; Su, Huilan; Che, Xin; Ran, Xiaoqi

    2011-01-15

    A novel tracer, glucose oxidase (GOD)-functionalized hollow gold nanospheres encapsulating glucose oxidase (Au(shell)@GOD), was designed to label the ferrocenemonocarboxylic-grafted secondary antibodies (Fc@Ab(2)) for highly sensitive detection of tumor marker using carboxyl group functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes as platform. Initially, Au(shell)@GOD was synthesized specially by reverse micelle approach, and then the labeling of antibody and the preparation of GOD-functionalized Au(shell)@GOD were performed by one-pot assembly of Fc@Ab(2) and GOD on the surface of Au(shell)@GOD. The ferrocene used to label antibodies acted as a mediator of electron transfer between GOD and electrode surface. The high-content glucose oxidase in the tracer (on the surface and in the cavity) could significantly amplify the amperometric signal for sandwich-type immunoassay. Using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as model analyte, the designed tracer showed linear range from 0.02 to 5.0 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit down to 6.7 pg mL(-1). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in an acceptable agreement with the reference values. The new protocol showed acceptable stability and reproducibility, high sensitivity, and good precision, which could provide a promising potential for clinical screening and diagnosis of tumor disease.

  7. TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS OF F344 RAT NASAL EPITHELIUM SUGGESTS THAT THE LACK OF CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO GLUTARALDEHYDE IS DUE TO ITS GREATER TOXICITY COMPARED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde is cytotoxic and carcinogenic to the rat nasal respiratory epithelium inducing tumors after 12 months. Glutaraldehyde is also cytotoxic but is not carcinogenic to nasal epithelium even after 24 months. Both aldehydes induce similar acute and subchronic histopathology...

  8. Monocular nasal hemianopia from atypical sphenoid wing meningioma.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Rebecca C; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Lessell, Simmons; Cestari, Dean M

    2010-06-01

    Neurogenic monocular nasal field defects respecting the vertical midline are quite uncommon. We report a case of a unilateral nasal hemianopia that was caused by compression of the left optic nerve by a sphenoid wing meningioma. Histological examination revealed that the pathology of the meningioma was consistent with that of an atypical meningioma, which carries a guarded prognosis with increased chance of recurrence. The tumor was debulked surgically, and the patient's visual field defect improved.

  9. Nasal high flow reduces dead space.

    PubMed

    Möller, Winfried; Feng, Sheng; Domanski, Ulrike; Franke, Karl-Josef; Celik, Gülnaz; Bartenstein, Peter; Becker, Sven; Meyer, Gabriele; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Tatkov, Stanislav; Nilius, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nasal high flow (NHF) therapy can support ventilation in patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clearance of dead space has been suggested as being the key mechanism of respiratory support with NHF therapy. The hypothesis of this study was that NHF in a dose-dependent manner can clear dead space of the upper airways from expired air and decrease rebreathing. The randomized crossover study involved 10 volunteers using scintigraphy with (81m)Krypton ((81m)Kr) gas during a breath-holding maneuver with closed mouth and in 3 nasally breathing tracheotomized patients by volumetric capnography and oximetry through sampling CO2 and O2 in the trachea and measuring the inspired volume with inductance plethysmography following NHF rates of 15, 30, and 45 l/min. The scintigraphy revealed a decrease in (81m)Kr gas clearance half-time with an increase of NHF in the nasal cavities [Pearson's correlation coefficient cc = -0.55, P < 0.01], the pharynx (cc = -0.41, P < 0.01), and the trachea (cc = -0.51, P < 0.01). Clearance rates in nasal cavities derived from time constants and MRI-measured volumes were 40.6 ± 12.3 (SD), 52.5 ± 17.7, and 72.9 ± 21.3 ml/s during NHF (15, 30, and 45 l/min, respectively). Measurement of inspired gases in the trachea showed an NHF-dependent decrease of inspired CO2 that correlated with an increase of inspired O2 (cc = -0.77, P < 0.05). NHF clears the upper airways of expired air, which reduces dead space by a decrease of rebreathing making ventilation more efficient. The dead space clearance is flow and time dependent, and it may extend below the soft palate.

  10. Does Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improve Outcomes In pT1-3N0 Oral Cavity Cancer With Tumor-Free Margins and Perineural Invasion?

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The criteria for administration of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain controversial, and it is unclear whether patients with pT1-3N0 disease benefit from adjuvant radiation in the presence of free margins and perineural invasion. The goal of this report was to determine whether this group would benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy in terms of 5-year local control rate and overall survival rate. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed our case records from January 1996 to May 2005. In all, 460 pT1-3N0 OSCC patients had tumor-free margins, of whom 68 had perineural invasion. Postoperative adjuvant RT was performed in patients with pT4 tumors, positive lymph nodes, or close margins ({<=}4 mm). In addition, selected OSCC patients with large pT3 tumors or perineural invasion received postoperative adjuvant RT. Local control and overall survival rates were plotted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in 5-year local control (p 0.1936) and overall survival (p = 0.5580) rates between patients with perineural invasion compared with those without. Among patients with perineural invasion, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly alter the 5-year local control rate (p = 0.3170) or the overall survival rate (p = 0.0935). Conclusion: Altogether, these data seem to indicate that radical surgical resection alone should be considered a sufficient treatment for OSCC patients with pT1-3N0 disease, even in the presence of perineural invasion.

  11. Mycosis Fungoides of the Oral Cavity: Fungating Tumor Successfully Treated with Electron Beam Radiation and Maintenance Bexarotene

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Roberto N.; Emge, Drew A.; DiCicco, Beau A.; Lewis, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Oral involvement in mycosis fungoides is unusual and portends a poor prognosis. The clinical findings of three new cases are described along with a differential diagnosis and review of the literature. For brevity, only one patient is discussed in detail below whereas the other two cases are solely described in table form. The patient had a four-year history of mycosis fungoides before developing an exophytic tongue tumor. He was treated with local electron beam radiation and is disease-free to date while being on maintenance therapy with oral bexarotene. Analysis of the data collected from our review of the literature and the present cases reveal key insights. PMID:28074163

  12. Nasal region dimensions in children: a CT study and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Likus, Wirginia; Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katarzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Atresias of nasal cavity, especially in young children, pose an essential problem in children's otolaryngology. Only a few morphometric studies of nasal cavity concerning healthy neonates and young infants without nasal stenosis are available. Multislice computed tomography is a perfect tool enabling a precise evaluation of anatomic structures. The aim of this study was a complex morphometric evaluation of clinically important bone and mucosal structures of nasal cavity and examination of their dependence on age and sex in children up to 3 years of age. 180 children, age range 0-3 years, were divided into 5 age groups, and measurements of 18 distances between skeletal structures and between mucosal structures of nasal cavity were performed on their CT scans. A correlation between the widths of selected bone structures was examined. There were no statistically significant differences in analyzed morphometric parameters between adjacent age groups. The differences were statistically significant only between extreme age groups. There was a correlation between evaluated structures and age. Our results are a valuable supplement of nasal cavity morphometric data of young children. They may be useful in setting reference values of evaluated parameters in children and in diagnosis and planning of surgical treatment in children's otolaryngology.

  13. Nasal Region Dimensions in Children: A CT Study and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katarzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Atresias of nasal cavity, especially in young children, pose an essential problem in children's otolaryngology. Only a few morphometric studies of nasal cavity concerning healthy neonates and young infants without nasal stenosis are available. Multislice computed tomography is a perfect tool enabling a precise evaluation of anatomic structures. The aim of this study was a complex morphometric evaluation of clinically important bone and mucosal structures of nasal cavity and examination of their dependence on age and sex in children up to 3 years of age. 180 children, age range 0–3 years, were divided into 5 age groups, and measurements of 18 distances between skeletal structures and between mucosal structures of nasal cavity were performed on their CT scans. A correlation between the widths of selected bone structures was examined. There were no statistically significant differences in analyzed morphometric parameters between adjacent age groups. The differences were statistically significant only between extreme age groups. There was a correlation between evaluated structures and age. Our results are a valuable supplement of nasal cavity morphometric data of young children. They may be useful in setting reference values of evaluated parameters in children and in diagnosis and planning of surgical treatment in children's otolaryngology. PMID:24987667

  14. Primary carcinoid tumor of the frontal sinus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W; Karakla, Daniel W; Silverberg, Marc; Han, Joseph K

    2010-10-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, indolent, neuroendocrine tumors that are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. They occasionally develop in the head and neck, either as a primary tumor or, more commonly, as a metastasis. The most common sites of head and neck carcinoids are the larynx and middle ear. Only a few cases of carcinoid in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have been reported. We describe a case of primary typical carcinoid of the frontal sinus in a 61-year-old man, and we review the clinical, imaging, surgical, and histochemical findings in this case. The patient was treated with endoscopic resection. A subsequent workup for metastatic and occult primary disease was negative, confirming that the frontal sinus was the primary source. At follow-up 12 months postoperatively, the patient remained without disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a primary typical carcinoid tumor originating in the frontal sinus.

  15. Ion activated in situ gel of gellan gum containing salbutamol sulphate for nasal administration.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Sneha R; Patil, Sanjay B

    2016-06-01

    Nasal delivery is the promising approach for rapid onset of action and avoids the first pass metabolism. The main aim of present study was to develop a novel mucoadhesive in situ gel of salbutamol sulphate using gellan gum and hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) for nasal administration. The formulations were prepared so as to have gelation at physiological ion content after nasal administration. Developed formulations were evaluated for gelation, viscosity, drug content, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release study, ex vivo permeation, and histopathology. Formulations showed pH in the range of nasal cavity and optimum viscosity for nasal administration. The mucoadhesive force depends upon concentration of HPMC and drug release was found to be 97.34% in 11h. The histopathology did not detect any damage during ex vivo permeation studies. Hence, in situ gel system of gellan gum may be a promising approach for nasal delivery of salbutamol sulphate for therapeutic improvement.

  16. A review on mucoadhesive polymer used in nasal drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Mayank; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla

    2011-01-01

    This update review is on mucoadhesive polymers used in nasal dosage forms. The nasal mucosa provides a potentially good route for systemic drug delivery. One of the most important features of the nasal route is that it avoids first-pass hepatic metabolism, thereby reducing metabolism. The application of mucoadhesive polymers in nasal drug delivery systems has gained to promote dosage form residence time in the nasal cavity as well as improving intimacy of contact with absorptive membranes of the biological system. The various new technology uses in development of nasal drug delivery dosage forms are discussed. The various dosage forms are vesicular carriers (liposome, noisome), nanostructured particles, prodrugs, in situ gelling system with special attention to in vivo studies. PMID:22247888

  17. A study on transvelar coupling for non-nasalized sounds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Jianwu; Wei, Jianguo; Honda, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the velum in speech production may not only serve as a binary switch with on-off states for nasal and non-nasal sounds, but also partially alter the acoustic characteristics of non-nasalized sounds. The present study investigated the unique functions of the velum in the production of non-nasalized sounds by using morphological, mechanical, and acoustical measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging movies obtained from three Japanese speakers were used to measure the behaviors of the velum and dynamic changes in the pseudo-volume of the pharyngeal cavity during utterances of voiced stops and vowels. The measurements revealed no significant enlargements in the supraglottal cavity as subjects uttered voiced stops. It is found that the velum thickness varied across utterances in a way that depended on vowels, but not on consonants. The mechanical and acoustical observations in the study suggested that the velum is actively controlled to augment the voice bars of voiced stops, and nostril-radiated sound is one of the most important sources for voice bars, just as is laryngeal wall vibration. This study also proposed a two-layer diaphragm model that simulates transvelar coupling during the production of non-nasalized speech sounds. The simulation demonstrated that the model accurately represented the basic velar functions involved in speech production.

  18. Nasalance in Cochlear Implantees

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, N; Lepcha, Anjali; Mathew, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Speech intelligibility is severely affected in children with congenital profound hearing loss. Hypernasality is a problem commonly encountered in their speech. Auditory information received from cochlear implants is expected to be far superior to that from hearing aids. Our study aimed at comparing the percentages of nasality in the speech of the cochlear implantees with hearing aid users and also with children with normal hearing. Methods Three groups of subjects took part in the study. Groups I and II comprised 12 children each, in the age range of 4-10 years, with prelingual bilateral profound hearing loss, using multichannel cochlear implants and digital hearing aids respectively. Both groups had received at least one year of speech therapy intervention since cochlear implant surgery and hearing aid fitting respectively. The third group consisted of age-matched and sex-matched children with normal hearing. The subjects were asked to say a sentence which consisted of only oral sounds and no nasal sounds ("Buy baby a bib"). The nasalance score as a percentage was calculated. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the children using hearing aids showed a high percentage of nasalance in their speech. The cochlear implantees showed a lower percentage of nasalance compared to children using hearing aids, but did not match with their normal hearing peers. Conclusion The quality of speech of the cochlear implantees was superior to that of the hearing aid users, but did not match with the normal controls. The study suggests that acoustic variables still exist after cochlear implantation in children, with hearing impairments at deviant levels, which needs attention. Further research needs to be carried out to explore the effect of the age at implantation as a variable in reducing nasality in the speech and attaining normative values in cochlear implantees, and also between unilateral versus bilateral implantees. PMID:26330912

  19. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  20. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  1. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  2. Managing the distinctiveness of phonemic nasal vowels: articulatory evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Shosted, Ryan; Carignan, Christopher; Rong, Panying

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that fine articulatory adjustments are made by speakers to reinforce and sometimes counteract the acoustic consequences of nasality. However, it is difficult to attribute the acoustic changes in nasal vowel spectra to either oral cavity configuration or to velopharyngeal opening (VPO). This paper takes the position that it is possible to disambiguate the effects of VPO and oropharyngeal configuration on the acoustic output of the vocal tract by studying the position and movement of the tongue and lips during the production of oral and nasal vowels. This paper uses simultaneously collected articulatory, acoustic, and nasal airflow data during the production of all oral and phonemically nasal vowels in Hindi (four speakers) to understand the consequences of the movements of oral articulators on the spectra of nasal vowels. For Hindi nasal vowels, the tongue body is generally lowered for back vowels, fronted for low vowels, and raised for front vowels (with respect to their oral congeners). These movements are generally supported by accompanying changes in the vowel spectra. In Hindi, the lowering of back nasal vowels may have originally served to enhance the acoustic salience of nasality, but has since engendered a nasal vowel chain shift.

  3. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some throat ...

  4. Experiment K-315: Studies of the nasal nucosa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The posterior regions of the olfactory nasal mucosa of rats flown on Cosmos 1129 failed to reveal histopathological changes. These results are at variance with those of the Apollo 12 Biocore experiment in which severe necrotic olfactory mucosal lesions were seen in flight animals only. In the anterior aspect of the nasal cavity of the Cosmos 1129 rats, however, focal lesions of moderate severity and variable extent were seen. These were consistent in character with that of a mild virus infection, which, it is postulated, was self-limiting. The infection was present in all groups of animals: flight, synchronous and vivarium control.

  5. Concordance of nasal and diabetic foot ulcer staphylococcal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Haleem, Ambar; Schultz, Jonathan S.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Gardner, Sue E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The goal of this study was to investigate the concordance between nasal and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) SA carriage. Methods 79 subjects with DFUs were assessed for nasal and DFU colonization with SA, including Methicillin-resistant-SA (MRSA). Results Twenty-five (31.6%) subjects had nares colonization with SA; 29 (36.7%) had DFU colonization with SA. Seven (8.8%) subjects had nares colonization with MRSA and 7 (8.8%) had DFU colonization with MRSA. Ulcer duration was associated with MRSA presence (p=0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of positive nasal SA colonization with positive DFU colonization were 41 and 74%. Conclusions We found substantial discordance between SA strains colonizing DFU and the nasal cavity. The poor positive predictive values for SA isolation in a DFU based on nasal carriage suggests SA colonization of a DFU by endogenous SA strains cannot be assumed. PMID:24560808

  6. Routine nasal packing follwoing nasal surgery-Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Basha, S I; Gupta, D; Kaluskar, S K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of routine nasal packing after nasal surgery is usually customary and not evidence based. Post operative complications, while uncoumon, are sometimes pack related. A retrospective analysis of 110 patients who underwent a variety of nasal operations was performed to determine the incidence of complications when nasal packs were not routinely inserted 9 cases (8.2%) [6 out of these were revision surgeries] needed nasal packing for haemostasis at the end of surgery. 4 cases (3.6%) required to be packed in the immediate post operative period. One patient who required nasal packing developed a unilateral adhesion. No patient developed septal hematoma. The need for routine nasal packing is not supported. Packing should be indicated where there continuous bleeding at.

  7. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  8. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash the dust cap and applicator with warm water. Dry and replace the applicator and press down and release the pump one time or until you see a fine spray. Replace the dust cap. Do not use pins or other sharp objects in the tiny spray hole on the nasal applicator to remove the blockage. ...

  9. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rinse the tip of the dispenser with hot water or wipe it clean after you use it.Follow the directions for using the nasal spray that appear on the package label. If you are using a product that comes in a pump dispenser, press down on the rim several times ...

  10. Nasal high flow reduces dead space

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Sheng; Domanski, Ulrike; Franke, Karl-Josef; Celik, Gülnaz; Bartenstein, Peter; Becker, Sven; Meyer, Gabriele; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Tatkov, Stanislav; Nilius, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nasal high flow (NHF) therapy can support ventilation in patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clearance of dead space has been suggested as being the key mechanism of respiratory support with NHF therapy. The hypothesis of this study was that NHF in a dose-dependent manner can clear dead space of the upper airways from expired air and decrease rebreathing. The randomized crossover study involved 10 volunteers using scintigraphy with 81mKrypton (81mKr) gas during a breath-holding maneuver with closed mouth and in 3 nasally breathing tracheotomized patients by volumetric capnography and oximetry through sampling CO2 and O2 in the trachea and measuring the inspired volume with inductance plethysmography following NHF rates of 15, 30, and 45 l/min. The scintigraphy revealed a decrease in 81mKr gas clearance half-time with an increase of NHF in the nasal cavities [Pearson’s correlation coefficient cc = −0.55, P < 0.01], the pharynx (cc = −0.41, P < 0.01), and the trachea (cc = −0.51, P < 0.01). Clearance rates in nasal cavities derived from time constants and MRI-measured volumes were 40.6 ± 12.3 (SD), 52.5 ± 17.7, and 72.9 ± 21.3 ml/s during NHF (15, 30, and 45 l/min, respectively). Measurement of inspired gases in the trachea showed an NHF-dependent decrease of inspired CO2 that correlated with an increase of inspired O2 (cc = −0.77, P < 0.05). NHF clears the upper airways of expired air, which reduces dead space by a decrease of rebreathing making ventilation more efficient. The dead space clearance is flow and time dependent, and it may extend below the soft palate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Clearance of expired air in upper airways by nasal high flow (NHF) can be extended below the soft palate and de facto causes a reduction of dead space. Using scintigraphy, the authors found a relationship between NHF, time, and clearance. Direct measurement of CO2 and O2 in the trachea confirmed a reduction of rebreathing, providing

  11. Vorinostat in Combination With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Solid Tumors and HIV Infection

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-11

    HIV Infection; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES

    PubMed Central

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package ‘nlme’, multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  13. Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824

  14. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES.

    PubMed

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package 'nlme', multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility.

  15. Nasal turbinate enlargement due to cartilage and bone proliferation: a normal developmental finding in young ferrets.

    PubMed

    Funk, Kathleen A; Frantz, Christopher; Dyke, Amy S; Ryan, Patricia C; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Dixit, Rakesh; Leininger, Joel R

    2010-12-01

    Toxicity studies of intranasally administered, live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates conducted in male and female ferrets led to the microscopic observation of individual differences in the size of nasal turbinates, especially in the dorsal aspect of the nasal cavity. The association of these enlarged turbinates with acute to subacute inflammation, which is sometimes common in ferrets given live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates, led to this detailed microscopic evaluation of turbinate enlargement (cartilaginous and osseous thickening, or COT) in control animals dosed intranasally with saline. Results of this evaluation led to the conclusion that COT is a normal developmental feature of growing ferrets, irrespective of inflammation in nasal tissues or inflammatory exudate in the nasal cavity.

  16. Overexpression of Rap-1A indicates a poor prognosis for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumor cell invasion via Aurora-A modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Han; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Su, Li-Jen; Shiu, Li-Yen; Leu, Steve; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2013-02-01

    The functions of Rap-1A in oral carcinogenesis are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the expression of Rap-1A at different malignant stages of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to evaluate Rap-1A mRNA and protein expressions, respectively, in paired OCSCC patient specimens. To determine the possible correlation between Rap-1A expression and various clinical characteristics, 256 samples from patients with OCSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Strong Rap-1A expression was a significant prognostic marker and predictor of aggressive OCSCC. The overall and disease-specific 5-year survival rates were significantly correlated with strong expression of Rap-1A (P < 0.001). Functionally, overexpressed Rap-1A could promote oral cancer cell migration and invasion by Transwell chambers and wound healing assay. Conversely, the suppression of Rap-1A expression using Rap-1A-mediated siRNA was sufficient to decrease cell motility. Furthermore, our data also illustrated that Aurora-A could not only induce mRNA and protein expressions of Rap-1A for enhancing cancer cell motility but also co-localize and form a complex with Rap-1A in the oral cancer cell line. Finally, immunohistochemical staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis of human aggressive OCSCC specimens revealed a significantly positive correlation between Rap-1A and Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results suggest that the Aurora-A/Rap-1A pathway is associated with survival, tumor progression, and metastasis of OCSCC patients.

  17. Formaldehyde production promoted by rat nasal cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with nasal decongestants, essences, solvents, air pollutants, nicotine, and cocaine as substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Hadley, W.M.

    1983-02-01

    To identify compounds which might be metabolized to formaldehyde in the nasal cavity, 32 potential substrates for cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases were screened with rat nasal and, for comparison, liver microsomes. Tested substrates included 6 nasal decongestants, cocaine, nicotine, 9 essences, 3 potential air pollutants, and 12 solvents. Each test substrate, with the possible exception of the air pollutants, contained one or more N-methyl, O-methyl, or S-methyl groups. Eighteen of the tested materials were metabolized to produce formaldehyde by nasal microsomes. Five substrates, namely, the solvents HMPA and dimethylaniline, cocaine, and the essences dimethyl anthranilate and p-methoxyacetophenone, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates exceeding 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min by nasal microsomes. Eight substrates, including four nasal decongestants, nicotine, and an extract of diesel exhaust particles, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates of 200 to 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min. Five other substrates were metabolized to formaldehyde at detectable rates. The results indicate that a variety of materials which often come in contact with the nasal mucosa can be metabolized to formaldehyde by nasal enzymes. The released formaldehyde may influence the irritancy of inhaled compounds and has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenicity of some compounds.

  18. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations.

  19. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Polycarp; Masterson, Liam

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pleomorphic adenomas are the most common benign tumour of the major salivary glands. In addition, they may also occur in the minor salivary glands of the hard and soft palate. Intranasal pleomorphic adenomas are unusual and may be misdiagnosed because they have greater myoepithelial cellularity and fewer myxoid stromata compared to those elsewhere. Case presentation We present the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of left nasal obstruction, occasional epistaxis and facial pain. Radiological examination demonstrated well pneumatised paranasal sinuses and a soft tissue mass in the anterior aspect of the left nasal cavity. In this patient, an intranasal approach was used to achieve a wide local resection. Conclusion Pleomorphic adenomas are rare tumours of the nasal cavity and have been shown to be misdiagnosed in over half of cases leading to more aggressive treatment than is necessary. If unilateral nasal obstruction is the main presenting complaint, we suggest consideration of this diagnosis. In view of the potential for tumour recurrence, long-term follow-up and careful examination of the nose with an endoscope are necessary. PMID:19014678

  20. Single-stage osseointegrated implants for nasal prosthodontic rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruna M D F; Freitas-Pontes, Karina M; de Negreiros, Wagner A; Verde, Marcus A R L

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumors in the nasal region may be treated by means of invasive surgical procedures, with large facial losses. Nasal prostheses, retained by osseointegrated facial implants, instead of plastic surgery, will, in most patients, offer good biomechanical and cosmetic results. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with nasal cancer who had the entire nasal vestibule removed in a single-stage surgical procedure in order to shorten the rehabilitation time. The nasal prosthesis was built on a 3-magnet bar and was made of platinum silicone with intrinsic pigmentation, thereby restoring the patient's appearance and self-esteem. The authors concluded that single-stage implants may reduce the rehabilitation time to as little as 1 month, and the correct use of materials and techniques may significantly improve the nasal prosthesis.

  1. Some acoustic features of nasal and nasalized vowels: a target for vowel nasalization.

    PubMed

    Feng, G; Castelli, E

    1996-06-01

    In order to characterize acoustic properties of nasal and nasalized vowels, these sounds will be considered as a dynamic trend from an oral configuration toward an [n]-like configuration. The latter can be viewed as a target for vowel nasalization. This target corresponds to the pharyngonasal tract and it can be modeled, with some simplifications, by a single tract without any parallel paths. Thus the first two resonance frequencies (at about 300 and 1000 Hz) characterize this target well. A series of measurements has been carried out in order to describe the acoustic characteristics of the target. Measured transfer functions confirm the resonator nature of the low-frequency peak. The introduction of such a target allows the conception of the nasal vowels as a trend beginning with a simple configuration, which is terminated in the same manner, so allowing the complex nasal phenomena to be bounded. A complete study of pole-zero evolutions for the nasalization of the 11 French vowels is presented. It allows the proposition of a common strategy for the nasalization of all vowels, so a true nasal vowel can be placed in this nasalization frame. The measured transfer functions for several French nasal vowels are also given.

  2. Nasal filters in prevention of seasonal rhinitis induced by allergenic pollen grains. Open clinical study.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Salzillo, A; Russo, M; Narciso, P; Allegra, L

    2012-04-01

    Nasal filters (Sanispira) might represent a novel approach in preventing exacerbations of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis by reducing pollen access to nasal cavities. Female and male voluntary patients between the ages of 18 and 64 years living in Naples area and affected by allergic rhinitis were recruited in an open clinical study. All were allergic to Parietaria pollen as assessed by skin-prick and/or RAST test with or without associated sensitization to other pollens such as Gramineae and Olea europaea. A pollen count was also carried out from 10th April until 30th of June 2011. The results of our study show positive statistical differences between the scores of common nasal symptoms and the reduced use of antihistaminic drugs in patients using nasal filters in comparison to non users. Nasal filters constitute a useful mean to reduce symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients suffering from pollen allergy.

  3. Nasal irrigation: From empiricism to evidence-based medicine. A review.

    PubMed

    Bastier, P-L; Lechot, A; Bordenave, L; Durand, M; de Gabory, L

    2015-11-01

    Nasal irrigation plays a non-negligible role in the treatment of numerous sinonasal pathologies and postoperative care. There is, however, a wide variety of protocols. The present review of the evidence-based literature sought objective arguments for optimization and efficacy. It emerged that large-volume low-pressure nasal douche optimizes the distribution and cleansing power of the irrigation solution in the nasal cavity. Ionic composition and pH also influence mucociliary clearance and epithelium trophicity. Seawater is less rich in sodium ions and richer in bicarbonates, potassium, calcium and magnesium than is isotonic normal saline, while alkaline pH and elevated calcium concentration optimized ciliary motility in vitro. Bicarbonates reduce secretion viscosity. Potassium and magnesium promote healing and limit local inflammation. These results show that the efficacy of nasal irrigation is multifactorial. Large-volume low-pressure nasal irrigation using undiluted seawater seems, in the present state of knowledge, to be the most effective protocol.

  4. Comparison of outcomes between endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Deng, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chang-Wu; Kong, Yong-Gang; Xu, Yu; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus and compare the treatment outcomes of endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for this intractable form of epistaxis. Methods: Between August 2011 and August 2014, the medical records of 53 adult patients with idiopathic epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus diagnosed by nasal endoscopy were obtained from our department. Of these, 38 patients underwent endoscopic surgery (surgery group) and 15 received a nasal pack (packing group). The patients’ background characteristics, incidence of re-bleeding, extent of discomfort after treatment as assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in background characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of re-bleeding (0/38 vs. 4/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001), VAS score for discomfort (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment (2/38 vs. 7/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the packing group. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery is superior to conventional nasal packing for the management of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus. During surgery, it is crucial to expose the bleeding sites by shifting the inferior turbinate inward by fracture. PMID:26870097

  5. Effects of lateral osteotomy on nasal sound intensity levels in patients who underwent rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Seren, Erdal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal; Hanci, Deniz

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effects of lateral osteotomy on nasal sound intensity levels in 34 patients who underwent rhinoplasty. Four groups were evaluated: group 1, preoperative rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomy (Preop-RPwithLO); group 2, postoperative rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomy (Postop-RPwithLO); group 3, preoperative rhinoplasty without lateral osteotomy (Preop-RPwithoutLO); and group 4, postoperative rhinoplasty without lateral osteotomy (Postop-RPwithoutLO). By sound analysis, low-frequency (Lf; 500-1000 Hz), medium-frequency (Mf; 1-2 kHz), and high-frequency (Hf; 2-4 and 4-6 kHz) nasal sound intensities were defined. Mf-left values of Postop-RPwithLO were significantly lower than those of Preop-RPwithLO, and Mf-left values of Postop-RPwithoutLO were significantly higher than those of Postop-RPwithLO and Preop-RPwithoutLO. Hf-right values of Preop-RPwithoutLO were significantly higher than those of Postop-RPwithLO and Postop-RPwithoutLO. Hf-total values of Postop-RPwithoutLO were significantly lower than those of Preop-RPwithoutLO. Nasal airway width decreased and nasal sounds, especially Mf sound intensities, increased in the nonlateral osteotomy group (group 4). When lateral osteotomy is performed, the nasal air passage may be adjusted as required by the surgeon, the air passage in the nasal valve region may not be narrowed, and nasal sound intensities may decrease. During postoperative follow-ups, increased Mf and Lf nasal sound intensities should be considered for the narrowness of the nasal passage and lower patency of the nasal cavities. Nasal sound analysis is a noninvasive technique and can also be used to evaluate nasal patency in septoplasty and rhinoplasty patients and children and for cases in which official reports are needed in addition to acoustic rhinometry measurements.

  6. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    PubMed

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  7. [Accidental intracerebral penetration of a nasal hemostatic probe].

    PubMed

    Adam, J C; Mauchaufee, J C; Potard, G; L'Azou, D

    1999-04-01

    We report a case of inadvertent intracerebral introduction of a haemostatic device (Brighton tube) inserted into a nasal cavity for control of epistaxis in a patient with major craniofacial trauma. This complication remained unrecognized in the unconscious patient until the subsequent CT-scan control. In unconscious patients with a major facial trauma, intranasal haemostatic probes should be inserted under direct visual control by a ENT specialist and their position checked by digital palpation of the inflated cuffs behind the soft palate.

  8. Architecture of the nasal complex in neanderthals: comparison with other hominids and phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian; Teschler-Nicola, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Although paranasal sinus configuration has occasionally been the focus in analyses of the phylogenetic relationships of various primates, other elements of the region of the nasal fossa--in particular, the turbinals--have received far less attention. A preliminary study of Neanderthal cranial morphology revealed the presence of an apparently unique configuration of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity: namely, in the region in which in Homo sapiens the anterior extremity of the maxilloturbinal (also referred to as the inferior nasal concha) articulates with the internal surface of the maxilla along a relatively anteroposteriorly long and essentially horizontally oriented conchal crest, there exists a vertically oriented thickening that protrudes medially into the nasal cavity (Schwartz and Tattersall, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93:10852-10854). Subsequent citations of this report either claimed that this "medial projection" in Neanderthals is merely an enlarged maxilloturbinal or mistakenly identified as this structure the base of a maxilloturbinal that had fused to the lateral wall of the nasal cavity and subsequently broken off. In light of the potential significance that any novel configuration of the nasal complex architecture may have for elucidating hominid evolution, we present here a comparative overview of this region in fossil and extant large-bodied hominoids, and demonstrate that Neanderthals do indeed possess a configuration that is unique among hominids.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of nasal avian schistosomes (Trichobilharzia) from aquatic birds in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Ghobaditara, Maryam; Brant, Sara V; Karamian, Mehdi; Gohardehi, Shaban; Bastani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Nasal schistosomes are trematodes in the family Schistosomatidae, many members of which are causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis (HCD). Little is known about the species diversity and distribution of nasal dwelling schistosomes of water birds, particularly in countries outside of Europe; even less is known in countries like Iran. Nasal schistosomes are of particular interest since these species migrate via the central nervous system to the nasal cavity once they penetrate their host. Thus, there must be efforts to determine the incidence of HCD due to nasal schistosomes. HCD outbreaks are reported seasonally in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, an area well known for rice cultivation leading to increased person contact with water and infected snails. Such places include favorable habitat for both domestic ducks year round, and wild migratory ducks in the winter through spring. Recent reports have detected the presence of both nasal and visceral schistosomes in ducks in this area but with little species characterization. In this study, we examine a diversity of aquatic birds to determine the distribution, prevalence and bird host use of nasal schistosomes. We apply for the first time a molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of these schistosomes. From 2012 to 2014, the nasal cavity of 508 aquatic birds from Mazandaran Province were examined that included species in Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes and Phoenicopteriformes. Nasal schistosomes were found in 45 (8.9%) birds belonging to Anseriformes (Anas platyrhynchos and Anas clypeata). Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase1 gene of isolated eggs revealed that all samples grouped in a sister clade to the European Trichobilharzia regenti. However, Trichobilharzia from this study were more similar to a unique haplotype of Trichobilharzia, isolated from the nasals of an A. clypeata in France. The genetic and

  10. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. J. M.; Mitchell, G.; Bailie, N.; Thornhill, D.; Watterson, J.; Kimbell, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  11. Absorption across the nasal airway mucosa in house dust mite perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Greiff, Lennart; Andersson, Morgan; Svensson, Jenny; Wollmer, Per; Lundin, Stefan; Persson, Carl G A

    2002-01-01

    House dust mite allergens express protease activity and it has been suggested that this property has pathogenic effects by increasing airway absorption. In accordance, house dust mite allergens may increase mucosal permeability in vitro. The objective of the present study was to examine nasal absorption of desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) in patients with perennial house dust mite allergic rhinitis and in healthy subjects in vivo. Patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were examined after a 4-week treatment withdrawal period, when symptoms of allergic rhinitis occurred, and healthy subjects were examined together with the patients. Desmopressin (20 microg ml(-1)) was moved into the nasal cavity using a nasal pool-device that contained 15 ml fluid. The fluid was kept in the nasal cavity for 15 min and then recovered. Urine was collected for 24 h after the nasal administration and the urinary excretion of desmopressin was determined as an index of nasal absorption. The urinary excretion of desmopressin was 1148+/-535 pmol 24 h(-1) in patients with perennial house dust mite allergic rhinitis and 1012+/-291 pmol 24 h(-1) in healthy subjects. We conclude that nasal airway absorption of the 1067 Da peptide desmopressin is unaffected in perennial house dust mite allergic rhinitis compared with healthy subjects.

  12. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  13. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration. PMID:427634

  14. Giant cell reparative granuloma presenting as a midline nasal mass.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1991-03-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is an uncommon entity that has been reported in all areas of the head and neck. It must be distinguished from true giant cell tumors, brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism, aneurysmal bone cysts, and fibrous dysplasia. It responds well to surgical debulking and curettage and has a benign clinical course. We describe a case report of a GCRG presenting as a midline nasal mass and review the pertinent English language literature.

  15. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  16. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  17. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Results Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). Conclusion The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects. PMID:27618145

  18. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  19. Nasal delivery of P-gp substrates to the brain through the nose-brain pathway.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Tomotaka; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Shinji

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in rats the potential utility of the nasal route to enhance central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs recognized by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Well-known P-gp substrates verapamil and talinolol were perfused nasally or infused intravenously, and when plasma concentrations following intravenous infusion and nasal perfusion showed similar profiles. The concentration of verapamil in the brain after nasal perfusion was twice that after intravenous infusion. Although talinolol in the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid after i.v. infusion were below the detection limit, it was detected after nasal perfusion. When rats were treated with cyclosporin A, brain concentrations of verapamil after both administration modes were increased significantly, while those of talinolol were not significantly changed. Since the permeability of talinolol is low, talinolol in the brain which was transported directly from the nasal cavity has little chance of transport by P-gp localized in the apical membrane of cerebral microvessel endothelial cells. The potential for drug delivery utilizing the nose-CNS route was confirmed for P-gp substrates. The advantage of nasal delivery over i.v. delivery of talinolol to the brain was more significant than that of verapamil, suggesting that nasal administration is more useful strategy for the brain delivery of low-permeability P-gp substrates than the use of P-gp inhibitors.

  20. Thiolated polycarbophil as an adjuvant for permeation enhancement in nasal delivery of antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Vetter, A; Martien, R; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thiolated polycarbophil as an adjuvant to enhance the permeation and improve the stability of a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (PTO-ODN) on the nasal mucosa. Polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) was synthesized by the covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. Cytotoxicity tests were examined on human nasal epithelial cells from surgery of nasal polyps confirmed by histological studies. Deoxyribonuclease I activity in respiratory region of the porcine nasal cavity was analyzed by an enzymatic assay. The enzymatic degradation of PTO-ODNs on freshly excised porcine nasal mucosa was analyzed and protection of PCP-cysteine toward DNase I degradation was evaluated. Permeation studies were performed in Ussing-type diffusion chambers. PCP-Cys/GSH did not arise a remarkable mortal effect. Porcine respiratory mucosa was shown to possess nuclease activity corresponding to 0.69 Kunitz units/mL. PTO-ODNs were degraded by incubation with nasal mucosa. In the presence of 0.45% thiolated polycarbophil and 0.5% glutathione (GSH), this degradation process could be lowered. In the presence of thiolated polycarbophil and GSH the uptake of PTO-ODNs from the nasal mucosa was 1.7-fold improved. According to these results thiolated polycarbophil/GSH might be a promising excipient for nasal administration of PTO-ODNs.

  1. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  2. Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593

  3. Investigation of the effects of intranasal botulinum toxin type A and ipratropium bromide nasal spray on nasal hypersecretion in idiopathic rhinitis without eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Sapci, Tarik; Yazici, Sara; Evcimik, M Fatih; Bozkurt, Ziya; Karavus, Ahmet; Ugurlu, Bayram; Ozkurt, Emre

    2008-03-01

    Idiopathic rhinitis without eosinophilia is a group of frequently observed diseases, the aetiopathogenesis of which is not yet well known. One of the most disturbing symptoms for patients within this disease group is nasal hypersecretion. Although many different treatments have been tried for hypersecretion, nasal topical drugs form the basis of any such therapy today. Ipratropium bromide (IB) is a drug offirst choice in nasal hypersecretion therapy. It displays a parasympatholytic effect in topical use and antagonizes acetylcholine transport in efferent parasympathetic nerves, thus decreasing submucosal gland secretion, which is the cause of hypersecretion. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is among the alternative treatment choices that is increasingly used in symptomatic treatment of nasal hypersecretion. Our study was planned with the aim of comparing the effect of these two groups of drugs on nasal hypersecretion. Thirty-eight patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic rhinitis without eosinophilia were included in the study and were divided in 3 different groups: In the first group, a total of 10 units of BTX-A were injected into both nasal cavities. In the second group, 3x2 IB was injected into both nasal cavities for 4 weeks. The third group received intranasal physiologic saline as placebo. The patients were evaluated in terms of nasal hypersecretion with visual analogue scale prior to the treatment and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 during the follow-up period. Throughout the 8 weeks follow-up period, the patient complaints displayed a 41.2% decrease in the group that received BTX-A and a 61.4% decrease in the group which received IB, while no change was observed in the control group. Both drug groups were well tolerated by the patients, with no serious adverse or systemic effects. As a result, while IB and BTX-A differ in terms of method of application, they display a similar degree and duration of efficiency in hypersecretion therapy.

  4. Skin metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma to the nasal tip.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Masahisa; Yoshida, Yuichi; Tominaga, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rarely metastasizes to the skin. Metastases to the nasal tip from hypopharyngeal malignancies are extremely rare. We present a patient with nasal tip metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC. A 74-year-old man with hypopharyngeal and esophageal carcinomas had a red nodule on his nasal tip (so-called "clown nose"). Histopathologically, atypical squamoid cell nests had proliferated in a lobular fashion from the dermis to subcutaneous tissue. Those atypical cells were identical to primary tumor cells in the hypopharynx. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of skin metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC was made. In patients with malignant disease, biopsy should be performed for any suspicious skin lesion. In a patient like ours, "clown nose" might be a symptom of cutaneous metastasis. When clinicians note a "clown nose", they should consider malignancies in the neck and chest areas.

  5. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  7. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  8. The Relationship between Nasalance and Nasality in Children with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watterson, Thomas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study correlated measures of nasalance computed by the Nasometer with listener judgments of nasality of speech passages spoken by 25 children with craniofacial disorders. Results showed a significant correlation between nasalance and nasality only when nasal consonants were not included in the passage spoken. (Author/DB)

  9. The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Brent A.; Paterson, Eric G.; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains hundreds of millions of sensory neurons, located in the olfactory epithelium that lines convoluted nasal turbinates recessed in the rear of the nose. Traditional explanations for canine olfactory acuity, which include large sensory organ size and receptor gene repertoire, overlook the fluid dynamics of odorant transport during sniffing. But odorant transport to the sensory part of the nose is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we report new experimental data on canine sniffing and demonstrate allometric scaling of sniff frequency, inspiratory airflow rate and tidal volume with body mass. Next, a computational fluid dynamics simulation of airflow in an anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of the canine nasal cavity, reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans, reveals that, during sniffing, spatially separate odour samples are acquired by each nostril that may be used for bilateral stimulus intensity comparison and odour source localization. Inside the nose, the computation shows that a unique nasal airflow pattern develops during sniffing, which is optimized for odorant transport to the olfactory part of the nose. These results contrast sharply with nasal airflow in the human. We propose that mammalian olfactory function and acuity may largely depend on odorant transport by nasal airflow patterns resulting from either the presence of a highly developed olfactory recess (in macrosmats such as the canine) or the lack of one (in microsmats including humans). PMID:20007171

  10. Fuzzy zoning for feature matching technique in 3D reconstruction of nasal endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Rattanalappaiboon, Surapong; Bhongmakapat, Thongchai; Ritthipravat, Panrasee

    2015-12-01

    3D reconstruction from nasal endoscopic images greatly supports an otolaryngologist in examining nasal passages, mucosa, polyps, sinuses, and nasopharyx. In general, structure from motion is a popular technique. It consists of four main steps; (1) camera calibration, (2) feature extraction, (3) feature matching, and (4) 3D reconstruction. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is normally used for both feature extraction and feature matching. However, SIFT algorithm relatively consumes computational time particularly in the feature matching process because each feature in an image of interest is compared with all features in the subsequent image in order to find the best matched pair. A fuzzy zoning approach is developed for confining feature matching area. Matching between two corresponding features from different images can be efficiently performed. With this approach, it can greatly reduce the matching time. The proposed technique is tested with endoscopic images created from phantoms and compared with the original SIFT technique in terms of the matching time and average errors of the reconstructed models. Finally, original SIFT and the proposed fuzzy-based technique are applied to 3D model reconstruction of real nasal cavity based on images taken from a rigid nasal endoscope. The results showed that the fuzzy-based approach was significantly faster than traditional SIFT technique and provided similar quality of the 3D models. It could be used for creating a nasal cavity taken by a rigid nasal endoscope.

  11. Nasal Tip Reconstruction Using Integra Bilayer Wound Matrix: An Alternative to the Forehead Flap

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, M. A.; Carter, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Large defects of the nasal tip with exposure of the underlying cartilage pose a significant reconstructive challenge to the plastic surgeon. Objective: This article presents a case of a large nasal tip defect following basal cell excision that was successfully treated with Integra bilayer wound matrix and skin grafting. Methods: Following tumor excision, meshed Integra bilayer wound matrix was placed over the exposed nasal tip cartilage. After 4 weeks, the silicone layer was removed and a full-thickness graft placed on the nasal tip. Results: This reconstruction resulted in the restoration of patient's nasal tip with good contour and color match without the need for a forehead flap. Conclusion: This demonstrates the reconstructive potential of this modality in patients who are not candidates for reconstruction with a forehead flap. PMID:26681994

  12. Blindness associated with nasal/paranasal lymphoma in a stallion

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; OKAMOTO, Minoru; OOTSUKA, Youhei; MATSUDA, Kazuya; YUSA, Shigeki; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A 29-year-old stallion presented with bilateral blindness following the chronic purulent nasal drainage. The mass occupied the right caudal nasal cavity and right paranasal sinuses including maxillary, palatine and sphenoidal sinuses, and the right-side turbinal and paranasal septal bones, and cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were destructively replaced by the mass growth. The right optic nerve was invaded and involved by the mass, and the left optic nerve and optic chiasm were compressed by the mass which was extended and invaded the skull base. Histologically, the optic nerves and optic chiasm were degenerated, and the mass was diagnosed as lymphoma which was morphologically and immunohistochemically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Based on these findings, the cause of the blindness in the stallion was concluded to be due to the degeneration of the optic nerves and chiasm associated with lymphoma occurring in the nasal and paranasal cavities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the equine blindness with optic nerve degeneration accompanied by lymphoma. PMID:28163275

  13. Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?

    PubMed

    Santana, S E; Lofgren, S E

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted that nasal echolocation has resulted in the evolution of a third cranial module, the 'nasal dome', in addition to the braincase and rostrum modules, which are conserved across mammals. We also test for similarities in the evolution of skull shape in relation to habitat across rhinolophids. We find that, despite broad variation in the shape of the nasal dome, the integration of the rhinolophid skull is highly consistent with conserved patterns of modularity found in other mammals. Across their broad geographical distribution, cranial shape in rhinolophids follows two major divisions that could reflect adaptations to dietary and environmental differences in African versus South Asian distributions. Our results highlight the potential of a relatively simple modular template to generate broad morphological and functional variation in mammals.

  14. The relationship between nasal resistance to airflow and the airspace minimal cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Hariri, Benjamin M; Patel, Ruchin G; Rhee, John S

    2016-06-14

    The relationship between nasal resistance (R) and airspace minimal cross-sectional area (mCSA) remains unclear. After the introduction of acoustic rhinometry, many otolaryngologists believed that mCSA measurements would correlate with subjective perception of nasal airway obstruction (NAO), and thus could provide an objective measure of nasal patency to guide therapy. However, multiple studies reported a low correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency, and between mCSA and R. This apparent lack of correlation between nasal form and function has been a long-standing enigma in the field of rhinology. Here we propose that nasal resistance is described by the Bernoulli Obstruction Theory. This theory predicts two flow regimes. For mCSA>Acrit, the constriction is not too severe and there is not a tight coupling between R and mCSA. In contrast, when mCSAnasal resistance is dominated by the severe constriction and it is predicted to be inversely proportional to the minimal cross-sectional area (R∝mCSA(-1)). To test this hypothesis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in 3-dimensional models based on computed tomography scans of 15 NAO patients pre- and post-surgery (i.e., 60 unilateral nasal cavities). Airspace cross-sectional areas were quantified perpendicular to airflow streamlines. Our computational results are consistent with the theory. Given that in most people mCSA>Acrit (estimated to be 0.37cm(2)), this theory suggests that airway constrictions are rarely an exclusive contributor to nasal resistance, which may explain the weak correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency.

  15. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-01-27

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  16. mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition differentially modulate tumor growth and the immune microenvironment in syngeneic models of oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Harrison; Shah, Sujay; Moore, Ellen; Caruso, Andria; Uppaluri, Ravindra; Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition on tumor growth and the tumor microenvironment in immunogenic and poorly immunogenic models of murine oral cancer. In vitro, rapamycin and PD901 inhibited signaling through expected downstream targets, but only PD901 reduced viability and altered function of MOC cells. Following transplantation of MOC cells into immune-competent mice, effects on both cancer and infiltrating immune cells were characterized following rapamycin and/or PD901 treatment for 21 days. In vivo, both rapamycin and PD901 inhibition reduced primary growth of established MOC tumors on treatment. Following withdrawal of PD901, rapid rebound of tumor growth limited survival, whereas durable tumor control was observed following rapamycin treatment in immunogenic MOC1 tumors despite more robust inhibition of oncogenic signaling by PD901. Characterization of the immune microenvironment revealed diminished infiltration and activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells and other immune cells following PD901 but not rapamycin in immunogenic tumors. Subsequent in vitro T-cell assays validated robust inhibition of T-cell expansion and activation following MEK inhibition compared to mTOR inhibition. CD8 cell depletion abrogated rapamycin-induced primary tumor growth inhibition in MOC1 mice. These data have critical implications in the design of combination targeted and immune therapies in oral cancer. PMID:26506415

  17. Cleft Nasal Deformity and Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Yoav; Buchanan, Edward P.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Stal, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The cleft nasal deformity is a complex challenge in plastic surgery involving the skin, cartilage, mucosa, and skeletal platform. Ever since Blair and Brown first described the intricacies of the cleft pathology in 1931, the appropriate approach has been extensively debated in the literature with respect to timing, technique, and extent of surgical intervention. In this article, the authors review the literature and summarize the various modalities for achieving a successful rhinoplasty in the patient with a cleft nasal deformity. PMID:24179452

  18. Simulating and understanding the effects of velar coupling area on nasalized vowel spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthi, Tarun; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y.

    2005-09-01

    MRI-based area functions for the nasal cavity of one speaker were combined with the area functions for the vowels /iy/ and /aa/ to study nasalized vowels. The oral cavity was compensated for the falling velum by decreasing the oral cavity area by an amount equal to the increase in the nasal cavity area. Susceptance plots were used along with the simulated transfer functions to understand the effects of velar coupling on nasalized vowel spectra. Susceptance plots of -(Bp+Bo) and Bn suggested significant deviation from the rules suggested by O. Fujimura and J. Lindqvist [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(2), 541-558 (1971)]. In particular, the plots showed that: (1) the frequency of zero crossings of the susceptance plots changes with a change in the coupling area, and (2) formant frequencies need not shift monotonically upward with an increase in coupling area. Further, as a consequence of (1), and the fact that an increase in the coupling area results in a shift of Bn to the right and -(Bp+Bo) to the left, it is postulated that zero crossings of the two plots can cross each other. [MRI data from Brad Story. Work supported by NSF Grant No. BCS0236707.

  19. Nasal cancer in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry.

    PubMed

    Acheson, E D; Cowdell, R H; Jolles, B

    1970-02-14

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources.The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry.The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear.Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry-one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54.6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41.7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed.There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory factor

  20. Nasal Cancer in the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory

  1. Sphenopalatine Ganglion Acupuncture Improves Nasal Ventilation and Modulates Autonomic Nervous Activity in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuiji; Chen, Luquan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Luo

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) acupuncture on nasal ventilation function and autonomic nervous system in health volunteers. 39 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either active SPG acupuncture group (AA group) or sham-SPG acupuncture group (SA group). All subjects were assessed for self-reported nasal ventilation, nasal patency (nasal airway resistance (NAR) and nasal cavity volume (NCV), exhaled nasal nitric oxide (nNO), and neuropeptides (substance P(SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) in nasal secretions at baseline, 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours after acupuncture. Significantly more subjects in AA group reported improvements in nasal ventilation at all time points after acupuncture, compared to SA group. NAR and NCV were also significantly lower in AA group than SA group. The level of nNO in AA group was significantly decreased after 24 hours compared to SA group. The level of NPY was significantly increased in AA group at 30 minutes and 2 hours compared to baseline and SA group. The levels of SP and VIP were not significantly different in the two groups. We concluded that SPG acupuncture could help to improve nasal ventilation by increasing sympathetic nerve excitability in healthy volunteers. PMID:27425415

  2. Photodynamic therapy on spontaneous tumors of dogs and cats: a ten-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Diego

    1992-06-01

    Since 1981, more than fifty spontaneous tumors of dogs and cats were treated by photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrins in the surgery department of the University of Milan. Therapeutic results proved to be successful and promising in certain forms of cancer and will be compared in the future with the effectiveness of other photosensitizer drugs like phatolocyanines derivatives. Applied hematoporphyrins phototherapy methods included: (1) injection of hematoporphyrins derivative (HpD) and irradiation with laser light at 631 nanometers, using a Rhodamine B dye laser; (2) injection of the active component of hematoporphyrin derivative (DHE) and irradiation with a Rhodamine B dye laser; and (3) injection of DHE and irradiation with laser light at 628 nanometers using a gold vapor laser. More frequently treated tumor sites were oral and nasal cavities. Other localizations were mucous membranes of the glans and stomach. Nineteen histological types were diagnosed in treated tumors.

  3. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in canine oronasal tumors.

    PubMed

    Nakaichi, Munekazu; Yunuki, Toshi; Okuda, Masaru; Une, Satoshi; Taura, Yasuho

    2007-04-01

    Activity of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and the expression of its related molecules were examined in spontaneous canine oronasal tumors. Tissue samples from melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma possessed higher MMP-2 activity, as shown in gelatin zymography, in comparison with acanthomatous epulis and nasal adenocarcinoma. Regional lymph node invasion and distant metastases were more frequently observed in the MMP-2 positive cases. There were no significant differences by RT-PCR examination in the expression of the genes encoding MMP-2, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 among the tumor histological types. However, the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio showed a significantly higher level of the genes in the malignant oral melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio was also positively correlated with MMP-2 activity in gelatin zymography. These results indicate that the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio may be of value in evaluating the prognosis in canine oronasal cavity tumors.

  4. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements Inside the Human Nasal Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James; Hopkins, Lisa; Sreenivas, K. R.; Wexler, Anthony; Prasad, Ajay

    1998-11-01

    In some applications (such as biological flows) the flow passage exhibits a highly complex geometry. A method is described by which such a flow passage is rendered as a three-dimensional model. A computer model of an adult human nasal cavity was generated from digitized computed tomography (CT) scan images, using the I-DEAS modeling package, and was converted to a stereolithographic file for rapid prototyping. Rapid prototyping yielded a water soluble negative of the airway. Silicone elastomer was poured over the negative, which was washed out after the silicone hardened. This technique can be used to obtain an accurate, transparent, silicone, replicate model of any arbitrary geometry. If the working fluid is refractive-index matched to the silicone, it is possible to obtain PIV measurements in any cross-section. We demonstrate the technique by creating a double-scale model of the human nasal passage, and obtaining PIV measurements.

  5. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Ozone-Induced Injury in the Nasal Airways of Monkeys Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Morphometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, Stephen A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Trease, Lynn L.; Wagner, James G.; Garcia, Guilherme M.; Ballinger, Carol A.; Kimbell, Julia; Plopper, Charles G.; Corley, Rick A.; Postlewait, Ed; Harkema, Jack R.

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related changes in gross and microscopic structure of the nasal cavity can alter local tissue susceptibility as well as the dose of inhaled toxicant delivered to susceptible sites. This article describes a novel method for the use of magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional airway modeling, and morphometric techniques to characterize the distribution and magnitude of ozone-induced nasal injury in infant monkeys. Using this method, we are able to generate age-specific, 3-dimensional, epithelial maps of the nasal airways of infant Rhesus macaques. The principal nasal lesions observed in this primate model of ozone-induced nasal toxicology were neutrophilic rhinitis, along with necrosis and exfoliation of the epithelium lining the anterior maxilloturbinate. These lesions, induced by acute or cyclic (episodic) exposures, were examined by light microscopy, quantified by morphometric techniques, and mapped on 3-dimensional models of the nasal airways. Here, we describe the histopathologic, imaging, and computational biology methods developed to efficiently characterize, localize, quantify, and map these nasal lesions. By combining these techniques, the location and severity of the nasal epithelial injury were correlated with epithelial type, nasal airway geometry, and local biochemical and molecular changes on an individual animal basis. These correlations are critical for accurate predictive modeling of exposure-dose-response relationships in the nasal airways, and subsequent extrapolation of nasal findings in animals to humans for developing risk assessment.

  6. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  7. A surgical view of the superior nasal turbinate: anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Mustafa; Govsa, Figen; Saylam, Canan

    2010-06-01

    Differences of the superior nasal turbinate (SNT), presence of the supreme nasal turbinate (SpNT) and measurements of opening sphenoid sinus (OSS) are consistent anatomical landmarks that allow for safe entrances, such as posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoid sinusotomy. The purpose of study was to investigate the anatomical details of the SNT for approaching the OSS on 20 specimens of adult cadavers under an operating microscope. The SNT and SpNT were localized more perpendicular than parallel to their axes. The SpNT structure was observed in 12 specimens (60%) and it was classified into three types. Type A SpNT was shortest of all turbinates (58.3%). In types B and C, SpNT was equal or larger than the SNT. These types were seen in 41.7% of specimens. In 11 specimens, posterior ethmoidal cells opened to supreme nasal meatus. In 7 specimens, there was one opening to supreme nasal meatus, while 2 openings were detected in 12 specimens, and 3 openings were seen in 1 specimen. All these openings belonged to posterior ethmoidal cells. To determine the position of the OSS, distances between some anatomical points were measured. In cases where the SpNT is present or the SpNT is bigger than the SNT, it is certain that a different method will be applied during the procedure in the nasal cavity. The SNT and the SpNT may easily be injured by unrecognized dissection in types B and C, leading to the disruption of its olfactory neuroepithelium and possibly to postoperative hyposmia.

  8. Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yexiong; Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

  9. High expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen in the tumor-associated neo-vasculature is associated with worse prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; Laimer, Johannes; Chaux, Alcides; Schäfer, Georg; Obrist, Peter; Brunner, Andrea; Kronberger, Irmgard E; Laimer, Klaus; Gurel, Bora; Koller, Johann-Benedikt; Seifarth, Christof; Zelger, Bettina; Klocker, Helmut; Rasse, Michael; Doppler, Wolfgang; Bander, Neil H

    2012-08-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein expressed in prostate cancer as well as in the neo-vasculature of nonprostatic solid tumors. Here, we determined the expression pattern of PSMA in the vasculature of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using a previously validated antibody, PSMA staining distribution and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression status was evaluated in a cohort of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (n=96) using immunohistochemistry and was correlated with clinicopathological features as well as outcome. Twenty-four (25%) cases showed no detectable PSMA staining, 48 (50%) demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for PSMA in less than 50% of microvessels and 24 (25%) cases showed strong endothelial PSMA expression in more than 50% of tumor-associated microvessels. High endothelial PSMA expression was associated with greatly reduced survival (18.2 vs 77.3 months; P=0.0001) and maintained prognostic significance after adjusting for grade and stage in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.19, P=0.007). Furthermore, we observed a strong association between endothelial PSMA and cancer cell-specific COX2 expression. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for the prognostic significance of endothelial PSMA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and, suggest a potential interaction between arachidonic acid metabolites and endothelial PSMA expression in the tumor neo-vasculature.

  10. Computed tomography and sectional anatomy of the head cavities in donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, S A A; Alsafy, M A M; El Sharaby, A A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal donkey head cavities to be used as a basis for interpretation of CT images of donkey. Six adult donkeys' heads of undetermined sex were used in this study. The donkey heads were divided into three regions-nasal, orbital, and cranial-to show the morphology of the following cavities: nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity, especially the guttural pouch, cranial cavity and temporomandibular joint. The donkey head had six pairs of sinuses: three paranasal (the frontal, maxillary and sphenopalatine sinuses) and three nasal (dorsal, middle and ventral conchal) sinuses. The maxillary sinus was subdivided into rostral and caudal compartments by a thin incomplete bony septum that was identified and labeled according to cheek teeth landmarks. The topographic description and relationship between the nasal, oral, orbital, cranial, temporomandibular joint, pharyngeal cavities and paranasal sinuses were demonstrated. The articular disc, articular surface and joint capsule of the temporomandibular joint were indicated easily in our CT and cross sectional images.

  11. Ovarian carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    António, Ana Marta; Alves, João Vitor; Goulão, João; Bártolo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic ovarian cancer uncommonly presents with skin metastasis. When present, skin metastases of ovarian cancer are usually localized in the vicinity of the primary tumor. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with a rapid growing erythematous, well-defined nodule localized on the left nasal ala. A skin biopsy was performed and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were compatible with a cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinoma. A systematic investigation revealed a bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma associated with visceral dissemination, likely associated with nose cutaneous metastasis. We report a very uncommon case because of the presentation of ovarian carcinoma as cutaneous metastasis. To our knowledge, this atypical localization on the nose has not been described yet in the literature. PMID:28300910

  12. Nasal cell micronuclei, cytology and clinical symptoms in stainless steel production workers exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Huvinen, Markku; Mäkitie, Antti; Järventaus, Hilkka; Wolff, Henrik; Stjernvall, Tuula; Hovi, Arja; Hirvonen, Ari; Ranta, Riikka; Nurminen, Markku; Norppa, Hannu

    2002-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether workers in stainless steel production with low exposure to various forms of chromium show an increase in micronucleated nasal cells or an excess of nasal symptoms or disease. Altogether, 48 workers employed in a stainless steel production chain were studied, 29 of them in the steel melting shop with exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), 14 in the sintering and crushing departments of the ferrochromium plant with exposure to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) and five in the mine with exposure to chromite ore (Cr(3+)). Thirty-nine workers from the cold rolling mill, with very low exposure to chromium, served as referents. All the subjects were never smokers with a minimum of 14 years employment in the same department. There were no significant differences between the exposure groups and the referents regarding the mean frequency of centromere-negative or centromere-positive micronuclei (studied by pancentromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization), nasal diseases and symptoms or mucociliary clearance of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of cell atypia or inflammatory cells were detected between the exposed workers and the reference group, except for an increase in lymphocytes among the chromite ore workers. Anterior rhinoscopy indicated slight inflammatory changes in nasal mucosa and secretion more often in the Cr(6+) and Cr(3+) groups than in the referents, the Cr(6+)-exposed workers showing more livid or oedemic epithelium. In conclusion, the stainless steel production workers, with low exposure to dusts or fumes containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium, did not show clinical changes in the nasal mucosa or an increase in nasal cell micronuclei or symptoms of nasal diseases, except for slight changes in the nasal epithelium and secretion.

  13. Three-dimensional Evaluation of Nasal Surgery in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dan-Mo; Han, De-Min; Nicolas, Busaba; Hu, Chang-Long; Wu, Jun; Su, Min-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder and is characterized by airway collapse at multiple levels of upper airway. The effectiveness of nasal surgery has been discussed in several studies and shows a promising growing interest. In this study, we intended to evaluate the effects of nasal surgery on the upper airway dimensions in patients with OSA using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cone-beam computed tomography (CT). Methods: Twelve patients with moderate to severe OSA who underwent nasal surgery were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with OSA using polysomnography (PSG) in multi sleep health centers associated with Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and the Partners Health Care from May 31, 2011 to December 14, 2013. The effect of nasal surgery was evaluated by the examination of PSG, subjective complains, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. Cross-sectional area was measured in eleven coronal levels, and nasal cavity volume was evaluated from anterior nasal spine to posterior nasal spine. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region was also measured. Results: Five out of the 12 patients were successfully treated by nasal surgery, with more than 50% drop of apnea–hypopnea index. All the 12 patients showed significant increase of cross-sectional area and volume postoperatively. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region revealed significant decrease postoperatively, which decreased from 19.14 ± 2.40 cm2 and 6.11 ± 1.76 cm2 to 17.13 ± 1.91 cm2 and 5.22 ± 1.20 cm2. Conclusions: Nasal surgery improved OSA severity as measured by PSG, subjective complaints, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. 3D assessment of upper airway can play an important role in the evaluation of treatment outcome. PMID:26960367

  14. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs.

  15. Effect of Nasal Obstruction on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Tanuma, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nasal obstruction is a common problem in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea and limits treatment compliance. The purpose of this study is to model the effects of nasal obstruction on airflow parameters under CPAP using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and to clarify quantitatively the relation between airflow velocity and pressure loss coefficient in subjects with and without nasal obstruction. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 16 Japanese adult subjects, of whom 9 had nasal obstruction and 7 did not (control group). Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx with a CPAP mask fitted to the nostrils were created from each subject’s CT scans. The digital models were meshed with tetrahedral cells and stereolithography formats were created. CPAP airflow simulations were conducted using CFD software. Airflow streamlines and velocity contours in the nasal cavities and nasopharynx were compared between groups. Simulation models were confirmed to agree with actual measurements of nasal flow rate and with pressure and flow rate in the CPAP machine. Results Under 10 cmH2O CPAP, average maximum airflow velocity during inspiration was 17.6 ± 5.6 m/s in the nasal obstruction group but only 11.8 ± 1.4 m/s in the control group. The average pressure drop in the nasopharynx relative to inlet static pressure was 2.44 ± 1.41 cmH2O in the nasal obstruction group but only 1.17 ± 0.29 cmH2O in the control group. The nasal obstruction and control groups were clearly separated by a velocity threshold of 13.5 m/s, and pressure loss coefficient threshold of approximately 10.0. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expiratory pressure in the nasopharynx between the groups. Conclusion This is the first CFD analysis of the effect of nasal obstruction on CPAP treatment. A strong correlation between the inspiratory pressure loss coefficient and maximum airflow

  16. Effects of Nasal Port Area on Perception of Nasality and Measures of Nasalance Based on Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to extend previously published modeling work examining the relation between nasal port opening, measures of nasalance, and perceptual ratings of nasality by experienced listeners for three simulated English corner vowels, /i/, /u/, and /ɑ/. Design Samples were generated using a computational model that allowed for exact control of nasal port size and direct measures of nasalance. Perceptual ratings were obtained using a paired stimulus presentation. Participants Four experienced listeners. Main Outcome Measures Nasalance and perceptual ratings of nasality. Results Findings indicate that perceptual ratings of nasality and nasalance increased for samples generated with nasal port areas up to and including 0.16 cm2 but plateaued in samples generated with larger nasal port areas. No vowel differences were noted for perceptual ratings. Conclusions This work extends previously published work by including nasal port areas representative of those reported in the literature for clinical populations, however, continued work using samples with varied phonetic context, and varying suprasegmental and temporal characteristics are needed. PMID:24437587

  17. Y-configured metallic stent combined with 125I seed strands cavity brachytherapy for a patient with type IV Klatskin tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dechao, Jiao; Yanli, Wang; Zhen, Li

    2016-01-01

    We report a case in an inoperable patient with type IV Klatskin tumor treated by the use of a novel, two piece, Y-configured self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) combined with two 125I seed strands via bilateral approach. The placement of the Y-shaped SEMS was successful and resulted in adequate biliary drainage. After 2 months of intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT), both 125I seed strands and temporary drainage catheter were removed after patency of the expanded stents was confirmed by the cholangiogram. This technique was feasible and could be considered for the treatment of patients with Bismuth type IV Klatskin tumors. PMID:27648091

  18. Quilting sutures for nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Hari, C; Marnane, C; Wormald, P J

    2008-05-01

    Suturing of the nasal septum after septal surgery is a commonly performed procedure designed to prevent complications such as septal haematoma and bleeding. It is also useful for closing any inadvertent tears of the septal mucosa and providing additional support for the cartilage pieces retained in septoplasty. In addition, the suture can be placed through the middle turbinates, stabilising them during the healing process. Placing knots for interrupted sutures in the posterior and middle part of the nasal septum can be technically difficult. We describe a continuous suturing technique for approximating the mucosal flaps following septal surgery.

  19. Nasal septal cyst--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chiang, C H; Juan, K H; Kuo, W R; Tai, C F; Wu, J R

    1996-04-01

    The usual complications of submucous resection of the nasal septum (SMR) are septal hematoma, infection, hemorrhage, septal perforation, and nasal deformity. We present a case of nasal septal cyst which may be a rare complication of SMR. Entrapment of free nasal mucosal remnants or inward folding of incised septal mucosa is thought to be the cause. The patient underwent deroofment of the left cystic wall by lateral rhinotomy. There was no recurrence after one year.

  20. Subcutaneous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Nasal Dorsum: Report of Case Treated with Endoscopic Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Socher, Jan Alessandro; Marchi, Maurício F. de Sá; Rickli, Jeniffer C. Kozechen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemangiomas are vascular malformations, with slow blood flow, that can occur in any part on the body. They are more common in women and, predominantly, are isolated lesions. The malformation does not spontaneously regress. Subcutaneous hemangioma is a rare variant with an aggressive growth pattern that sometimes recurs after excision. Objective Case report of a subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum treated with endoscopic rhinoplasty. Case Report A 27-year-old woman had a fibroelastic tumor mass in the midline of the nasal dorsum, which was pulsatile; she had obstruction and nasal congestion with associated rhinorrhea, with evolution and worsening over the previous 2 years. Computed tomography showed a tumor demarcated in the nasal dorsum without evidence of intracranial communication. Endoscopic rhinoplasty with septoplasty and associated paranasal sinus sinusectomy was performed without arteriography embolization, sclerotherapy, or laser. Pathologic diagnosis showed cavernous hemangioma. Postoperative follow-up shows no recurrence at 3 years. Discussion This case presented with atypical features, thus making the diagnosis a challenge. Imaging studies were required to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Excisional biopsy is the procedure of choice for pathologic examination. Subcutaneous hemangiomas never involute and always need treatment. The surgical approach is exceptional because there was no preoperative diagnosis. In addition, the closed technique provided best aesthetic results in this case. Conclusion Endoscopic rhinoplasty is suitable for nasal dorsum tumor resection and has superior aesthetic result to open techniques. PMID:25992093

  1. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  2. Targeted delivery of antigen to hamster nasal lymphoid tissue with M-cell-directed lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Giannasca, P J; Boden, J A; Monath, T P

    1997-01-01

    The nasal cavity of a rodent is lined by an epithelium organized into distinct regional domains responsible for specific physiological functions. Aggregates of nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT) located at the base of the nasal cavity are believed to be sites of induction of mucosal immune responses to airborne antigens. The epithelium overlying NALT contains M cells which are specialized for the transcytosis of immunogens, as demonstrated in other mucosal tissues. We hypothesized that NALT M cells are characterized by distinct glycoconjugate receptors which influence antigen uptake and immune responses to transcytosed antigens. To identify glycoconjugates that may distinguish NALT M cells from other cells of the respiratory epithelium (RE), we performed lectin histochemistry on sections of the hamster nasal cavity with a panel of lectins. Many classes of glycoconjugates were found on epithelial cells in this region. While most lectins bound to sites on both the RE and M cells, probes capable of recognizing alpha-linked galactose were found to label the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) almost exclusively. By morphological criteria, the FAE contains >90% M cells. To determine if apical glycoconjugates on M cells were accessible from the nasal cavity, an M-cell-selective lectin and a control lectin in parallel were administered intranasally to hamsters. The M-cell-selective lectin was found to specifically target the FAE, while the control lectin did not. Lectin bound to M cells in vivo was efficiently endocytosed, consistent with the role of M cells in antigen transport. Intranasal immunization with lectin-test antigen conjugates without adjuvant stimulated induction of specific serum immunoglobulin G, whereas antigen alone or admixed with lectin did not. The selective recognition of NALT M cells by a lectin in vivo provides a model for microbial adhesin-host cell receptor interactions on M cells and the targeted delivery of immunogens to NALT following intranasal

  3. Computed tomographic features of feline sino-nasal and sino-orbital aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Dhand, N K; Talbot, J J; Bell, E; Abraham, L A; Chapman, P; Bennett, S; van Doorn, T; Makara, M

    2014-08-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) occurs as two distinct anatomical forms, namely, sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) and sino-orbital aspergillosis (SOA). An emerging pathogen, Aspergillus felis, is frequently involved. The pathogenesis of URTA, in particular the relationship between the infecting isolate and outcome, is poorly understood. In this study, computed tomography was used to investigate the route of fungal infection and extension in 16 cases (SNA n = 7, SOA n = 9) where the infecting isolate had been identified by molecular testing. All cases had nasal cavity involvement except for one cat with SNA that had unilateral frontal sinus changes. There was a strong association between the infecting species and anatomic form (P = 0.005). A. fumigatus infections remained within the sino-nasal cavity, while cryptic species infections were associated with orbital and paranasal soft-tissue involvement and with orbital lysis. Cryptic species were further associated with a mass in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or nasopharynx. Orbital masses showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement, with central coalescing hypoattenuating foci and peripheral rim enhancement. Severe, cavitated turbinate lysis, typical of canine SNA, was present only in cats with SNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the nasal cavity is the portal of entry for fungal spores in feline URTA and that the route of extension to involve the orbit is via direct naso-orbital communication from bone lysis. Additionally, a pathogenic role for A. wyomingensis and a sinolith in a cat with A. udagawae infection are reported for the first time.

  4. Nasal and conjunctival screening prior to refractive surgery: an observational and cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Koji; Sotozono, Chie; Sakamoto, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hieda, Osamu; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate bacterial flora of clinically healthy conjunctiva and nasal cavity among patients prior to refractive surgery, as well as the characteristics of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation. Design Observational and cross-sectional study. Setting A single-centre study in Japan. Participants 120 consecutive patients pre-refractive surgery. Primary and secondary outcome measures methods Samples were obtained from the right conjunctival sac and the nasal cavity of 120 consecutive patients prior to refractive surgery and were then measured for the levels of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics. Patients were interviewed regarding their occupation, family living situation and any personal history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, smoking or contact lens wear. Results Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) (32.5%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.2%) were detected from the conjunctival sac. S. epidermidis was the most commonly isolated (68.3%) in the nasal cavity. Of the 30 patients (25.0%) with colonisation by S. aureus, 2 patients, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis, were found to be positive for MRSA in the nasal cavity. A history of contact lens wear, asthma or smoking, as well as patient gender and age, was not associated with MRSA colonisation. Conclusions There were only 2 patients who were colonised with MRSA, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis. P. acnes was predominantly found in the conjunctival sac. Further study is needed to investigate the involvement between nasal and conjunctival flora, and risk factors for infectious complications. PMID:27160843

  5. Gamma scintigraphy for testing bioequivalence: a case study on two cromolyn sodium nasal spray preparations.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghananeem, Abeer M; Sandefer, Erik P; Doll, Walter J; Page, Richard C; Chang, Yunik; Digenis, George A

    2008-06-05

    The present work was carried out to study the deposition patterns and clearance of technetium-99m (99mTc) DTPA labeled cromolyn sodium (CS) solutions when administered from two different CS nasal products using gamma scintigraphy. Five healthy volunteers received a single dose with complete crossover design involving treatment A (test formulation) and treatment B (reference formulation). The deposition patterns as well as the changes in distribution of the radiolabeled CS solutions due to the mucociliary transport were monitored by gamma scintigraphy. Primary deposition of the aforementioned nasal solutions occurred in the anterior portion of the nose. After migration into the posterior nasal cavity, the solutions were rapidly cleared by ciliary action into the nasopharynx where it was swallowed. The test product of cromolyn sodium was shown to be equivalent to the reference product with regard to nasal deposition and clearance. The results from this study indicate that external gamma scintigraphy can be used to demonstrate the equivalence of nasal sprays that are intended for local therapeutic action where the drug is not systemically absorbed into the blood circulation. Furthermore, a non-invasive imaging method such as rhinoscintigraphy may prove to be a useful technique to be utilized during the regulatory approval process for local-acting nasal products, and may facilitate the early introduction of these products to the market.

  6. Elevation of nasal mucosal temperature increases the ability of the nose to warm and humidify air.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D J; Baroody, F M; Naureckas, E; Naclerio, R M

    2001-01-01

    The nose functions to warm and humidify inspired air. The factors that influence these functions have been studied to a limited degree. We have developed a method for measuring the temperature and relative humidity of the air before and after nasal conditioning to study nasal function. In this experiment we studied the effects of raising the mucosal surface temperature by immersion of the feet in warm water. Six subjects (avg. age = 27.0 years) were randomized to immersion of the feet in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C water. The nasal mucosal temperature increased significantly from the 32.2+/-1.3 degrees C during immersion in the 30 degrees C water to the 33.1+/-1.2 degrees C during immersion in 40 degrees water (p < 0.05). No significant difference in nasal volume was noted between the 30 degrees (17.8+/-4.5 cc) and the 40 degrees (17.7+/-5.3 cc) immersions. There was a significant increase in the conditioning capacity of the nose (as measured by total water content of inspired air) in response to cold-air challenge during the 40 degrees immersion (1669+/-312 mg water) when compared to the 30 degrees immersion (1324+/-152 mg water). From these data we deduce that warming of the nasal mucosa improves the ability of the nose to condition inspired air without a significant change in the volume of the nasal cavity.

  7. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  9. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  10. Pharmacological evaluation of selective α2c-adrenergic agonists in experimental animal models of nasal congestion.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanlin; Mingo, Garfield G; Hunter, John C; Lieber, Gissela B; Palamanda, Jairam R; Mei, Hong; Boyce, Christopher W; Koss, Michael C; Yu, Yongxin; Cicmil, Milenko; Hey, John A; McLeod, Robbie L

    2014-04-01

    Nasal congestion is one of the most troublesome symptoms of many upper airways diseases. We characterized the effect of selective α2c-adrenergic agonists in animal models of nasal congestion. In porcine mucosa tissue, compound A and compound B contracted nasal veins with only modest effects on arteries. In in vivo experiments, we examined the nasal decongestant dose-response characteristics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, duration of action, potential development of tolerance, and topical efficacy of α2c-adrenergic agonists. Acoustic rhinometry was used to determine nasal cavity dimensions following intranasal compound 48/80 (1%, 75 µl). In feline experiments, compound 48/80 decreased nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional areas by 77% and 40%, respectively. Oral administration of compound A (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), compound B (0.3-5.0 mg/kg), and d-pseudoephedrine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decongestion. Unlike d-pseudoephedrine, compounds A and B did not alter systolic blood pressure. The plasma exposure of compound A to produce a robust decongestion (EC(80)) was 500 nM, which related well to the duration of action of approximately 4.0 hours. No tolerance to the decongestant effect of compound A (1.0 mg/kg p.o.) was observed. To study the topical efficacies of compounds A and B, the drugs were given topically 30 minutes after compound 48/80 (a therapeutic paradigm) where both agents reversed nasal congestion. Finally, nasal-decongestive activity was confirmed in the dog. We demonstrate that α2c-adrenergic agonists behave as nasal decongestants without cardiovascular actions in animal models of upper airway congestion.

  11. Nasal intubation: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Varun; Acharya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article. Various complications may arise while doing nasotracheal intubation but a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and physics behind the procedure can help reduce such complications and manage appropriately. It is important for an anesthesiologist to be well versed with the basics of nasotracheal intubation and advances in the techniques. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and the advent of newer devices have abolished the negative effect of blindness of the procedure. PMID:27994382

  12. Subarachnoid space of the CNS, nasal mucosa, and lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R T; Tigges, J; Arnold, W

    1979-04-01

    We have briefly reviewed the literature pertaining to the movement of tracer molecules and infectious organisms within the olfactory nerve. There is a body of evidence indicating that tracers placed in the CSF will quickly move via the olfactory nerve to the nasal mucosa and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Organic and inorganic tracer materials and organisms as diverse as viruses, a bacillus, and an amoeba, when placed in the nasal cavity, have been shown to move from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb and the CSF. We think that a portion of the data on tracer movement is due to incorporation of tracer materials and organisms into the axoplasm of the olfactory neurons with subsequent anterograde or retrograde axoplasmic transport. However, some of the movement of tracers may occur within the olfactory perineural space. This space may be continuous with a subarachnoid extension that surrounds the olfactory nerve as it penetrates the cribriform plate. To our knowledge, no one has yet followed the perineural space to determine if it is continuous from olfactory receptor to olfactory bulb. The consideration of this space and its role is the main reason for this review.

  13. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-04-03

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  14. Nasal Granuloma Caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Cabañes, F. J.; Roura, X.; García, F.; Domingo, M.; Abarca, M. L.; Pastor, J.

    1998-01-01

    A 10-month-old male American Staffordshire terrier was presented to the Autonomous University of Barcelona Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of a 6-month history of a mucopurulent bilateral nasal discharge. The dog had not responded to antibiotics. A follow-up X ray revealed a mixed pattern of osteolysis and increased radiodensity confined to the nasal cavity. Histologic sections of the biopsy specimens revealed the presence of granules containing numerous septate hyphae that were hyaline to pale brown and smooth, one-celled, subspherical-to-elongate conidia that were hyaline to brownish green, and bacteria. Cultures yielded numerous colonies belonging to Scedosporium apiospermum. Susceptibility tests were performed on the isolated strain. The isolate was sensitive to ketoconazole, intermediate to clotrimazole, and resistant to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. The dog was treated with oral ketoconazole. During the treatment a general improvement in the lesions was observed. To our knowledge, S. apiospermum has not been implicated previously as an etiologic agent of nasal disease in dogs. This report provides its first description as such. PMID:9705431

  15. Stable Dry Powder Formulation for Nasal Delivery of Anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheena H.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Abraham, Soman N.; Staats, Herman F.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a current biodefense interest in protection against Anthrax. Here we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by rPA delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator Compound 48/80. The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D50=25μm, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by CD and ATR-FTIR, while functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unitdose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over two years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by IM immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine, or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases. PMID:21905034

  16. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    against certain actions: (1) When a surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, chooses to administer perioperative antibiotics for rhinoplasty, he or she should not routinely prescribe antibiotic therapy for a duration >24 hours after surgery. (2) Surgeons should not routinely place packing in the nasal cavity of rhinoplasty patients (with or without septoplasty) at the conclusion of surgery. The panel group made the following statement an option: (1) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, may administer perioperative systemic steroids to the rhinoplasty patient.

  17. Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL-1

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, William M.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Wang, Sheena H.; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Sparks, Neil L.; Doil, Catherine R.; Tlusty, Tom G.; Casey, Leslie S.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Briles, David E.; Dondero, Richard S.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Foster, W. Michael; Staats, Herman F.

    2010-01-01

    IL-1α and IL-1β were evaluated for their ability to provide adjuvant activity for the induction of serum antibody responses when nasally-administered with protein antigens in mice and rabbits. In mice, intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) combined with IL-1β induced protective immunity that was equivalent to that induced by parenteral immunization. Nasal immunization of awake (i.e., not anesthetized) rabbits with IL-1-adjuvanted vaccines induced highly variable serum antibody responses and was not as effective as parenteral immunization for the induction of antigen-specific serum IgG. However, i.n. immunization of deeply anesthetized rabbits with rPA + IL-1α consistently induced rPA-specific serum IgG ELISA titers that were not significantly different than those induced by intramuscular (IM) immunization with rPA + alum although lethal toxin neutralizing titers induced by nasal immunization were lower than those induced by IM immunization. Gamma scintigraphy demonstrated that the enhanced immunogenicity of nasal immunization in anesthetized rabbits correlated with an increased nasal retention of i.n. delivered non-permeable radio-labeled colloidal particles. Our results demonstrate that, in mice, IL-1 is an effective adjuvant for nasally-administered vaccines for the induction of protective systemic immunity and that in non-rodent species, effective induction of systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines may require formulations that ensure adequate retention of the vaccine within the nasal cavity. PMID:20723629

  18. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  19. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  20. Effects of 0. 12 and 0. 80 ppm ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F. )

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of the rat nasal cavity and nasopharynx after short-term ozone exposure. Rats were exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate, but no change within the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within the transitional and respiratory epithelia lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway, and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within the epithelium of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates and nasopharynx. We conclude that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days after cessation of exposure.

  1. The Effect of Nasal Obstruction after Different Nasal Surgeries Using Acoustic Rhinometry and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Erkan; Cil, Yakup; Incesulu, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The efficiency of nasal surgeries can be determined by objective or subjective methods. We have assessed the effect of nasal obstruction after different nasal surgeries using Acoustic Rhinometry (AR) and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) Scale. METHODS Between May 2011 and May 2012, 40 young adult patients and 10 healthy volunteers as control group who referred to Otorhinolaryngology Clinic in Eskisehir Military Hospital due to nasal obstruction were enrolled. Depending on operation, patients were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: Septoplasty, Group 2: Septoplasty with sprader graft, Group 3: Septorinoplasty and Group 4: Septorhinoplasty with spreader graft. The patients completed NOSE scale, 1 week before and 1 month after the surgery and AR measurements. RESULTS There were a significant improvement in mean NOSE scores of patients and statistical difference was found between pre and post-operational values for each group. There was a statistically significant change of the mean minimal cross section areas (MCA) of the deviated side of nasal passages measured by AR between pre and postoperative period. CONCLUSION In patients with nasal obstruction, functional nasal surgeries which were performed after appropriate medical examination and with right operation methods had a positive impact on quality of life and patient satisfaction. We observed that nasal findings were correlated with NOSE scores and MCA values. So, we suggest that NOSE scale and AR to be used for evaluation of the efficiency of functional nasal surgeries. PMID:27853686

  2. Extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for parasellar tumors. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Kitano, M; Taneda, M

    2001-06-01

    The authors have developed an extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for resection of tumors located in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region that are difficult to remove via the conventional transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was performed using this approach in 14 patients with large pituitary adenomas, three patients with craniopharyngiomas, and one patient with a meningioma of the tuberculum sellae. The submucosal dissection of the nasal septum used in the conventional transsphenoidal approach was extended to the superior lateral wall of the nasal cavity to expose the bony surface of the superior turbinate lying under the nasal mucosa. Submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy widened the area visualized through the conventional transsphenoidal approach both superiorly and laterally. This provided a safer and less invasive access to lesions in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region through the sphenoid sinus. Using this approach the authors encountered no postoperative complications, such as olfactory disturbance, cranial nerve palsy, or arterial injury. In this article the authors present the surgical methods used in this approach.

  3. Nasal septal haematoma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukuezi, A B

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with nasal septal haematoma admitted at the General Hospital, Owerri, Nigeria over a five year period is presented. The disease was commoner in males than females. The majority of the cases (65.6 per cent) were of unknown cause and were therefore grouped as spontaneous haematoma while 30.4 per cent were due to trauma. Trauma was more common in patients below the age of 15 years while spontaneous haematoma was common in patients above that age. All the patients with septal haematoma represented 0.2 per cent of total attendances to the ENT clinic over the period. Most of the patients presented with severe and threatening symptoms necessitating intense aggressive management. All the patients were managed by surgical incision and drainage, four had marked nasal abnormalities. Three patients died from a brain abscess as a complication of infected haematoma.

  4. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  5. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  6. The nasal septum and the development of the midface. A longitudinal study of a pair of monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Grymer, L F; Bosch, C

    1997-03-01

    The development of the nose and the growth of the midface has been followed in a pair of identical twins. One of them (twin A) had nasal septum destruction after septal haematoma and abscess at the age of 7 years, and was treated by immediate implantation of homologous septal cartilage from a tissue bank. From 7-17 years of age the growth and development of the nose and face were followed. Lateral cephalograms, photographs, acoustic rhinometry and rhinoscopy were performed. Twin B presented a normal nasal and facial growth and served as control. Twin A developed a saddle nose, an upward displacement of the anterior part of the maxilla, diminished vertical development of the nasal cavity, and a retrognathically positioned maxilla due to decreased anteroposterior maxillary growth. This case report seems to indicate that the cartilaginous nasal septum is an important factor influencing vertical and sagittal growth of the maxilla.

  7. Nanogel-based pneumococcal surface protein A nasal vaccine induces microRNA-associated Th17 cell responses with neutralizing antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Y; Yuki, Y; Katakai, Y; Harada, N; Takahashi, H; Takeda, S; Mejima, M; Joo, S; Kurokawa, S; Sawada, S; Shibata, H; Park, E J; Fujihashi, K; Briles, D E; Yasutomi, Y; Tsukada, H; Akiyoshi, K; Kiyono, H

    2015-01-01

    We previously established a nanosized nasal vaccine delivery system by using a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan nanogel (cCHP nanogel), which is a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free nasal vaccination. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system safety and efficacy of nasal vaccination with our developed cCHP nanogel containing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-nanogel) against pneumococcal infection in nonhuman primates. When [18F]-labeled PspA-nanogel was nasally administered to a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), longer-term retention of PspA was noted in the nasal cavity when compared with administration of PspA alone. Of importance, no deposition of [18F]-PspA was seen in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination effectively induced PspA-specific serum IgG with protective activity and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) Ab responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nasal PspA-nanogel-induced immune responses were mediated through T-helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokine responses concomitantly with marked increases in the levels of miR-181a and miR-326 in the serum and respiratory tract tissues, respectively, of the macaques. These results demonstrate that nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination is a safe and effective strategy for the development of a nasal vaccine for the prevention of pneumonia in humans. PMID:25669148

  8. Repercussions of Surgically Assisted Maxillary Expansion on Nose Width and Position of Septum and Inferior Nasal Conchae

    PubMed Central

    Landim, Fabrício Souza; Freitas, George Borba; Malouf, Andreana Braga; Studart, Liana P. Carvalho; Rocha, Nelson Studart; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio; Caubi, Antônio Figueiredo; Filho, José Rodrigues Laureano; Oliveira e Silva, Emanuel Dias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical and radiographic repercussions of surgically assisted maxillary expansion on the septum, nasal cavity and nasal conchae. The sample was made up of 15 patients with skeletal maturity (9 females and 6 males between 16 and 45 years of age) and maxillary transverse deficiency. Assessments were performed through anterior rhinoscopy and frontal cephalometric radiographs on three occasions: (T0) preoperative period, (T1) locking of the expander and (T2) six months following the locking procedure. An increase was observed in the basal portion of the pyriform aperture and distances between the lateral wall of the basal portion of the pyriform aperture and the septum. The radiographic exam revealed that the nasal septum did not undergo any statistically significant change in its position. Moreover, no significant changes in the position of the nasal septum or nasal conchae were detected throughout the three evaluation times. The results suggest that surgically assisted maxillary expansion is capable of widening the basal portion of the pyriform aperture, with little repercussion on the anterior position of the nasal septum and inferior nasal conchae. PMID:22135612

  9. What's a Cavity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity (say: KA-vuh-tee) develops when a tooth decays (say: dih-KAZE), or breaks down. A cavity ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a ...

  10. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  11. Post Septorhinoplasty Custom-Made Unilateral Nasal Stent for Nasal Cleft Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Bhoria, Mohaneesh; Boora, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case report provides a novel technique for fabrication of esthetic nasal stent after postseptorhinoplasty for secondary cleft nose deformity correction. Conclusion: This case report presents a simple, convenient technique for nasal stent fabrication for prevention of restenosis for cleft nose deformity post secondary septorhinoplasty. Provision of nasal stent allows breathing, maintains esthetics, comfort, nasal patency, and contour with minimal discomfort. PMID:25789253

  12. Effects of intranasal phototherapy on nasal microbial flora in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Yavuz Selim; Apuhan, Tayfun; Koçoğlu, Esra

    2013-07-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intranasal phototherapy on nasal microbial flora in patients with allergic rhinitis. This prospective, self-comparised, single blind study was performed on patients with a history of at least two years of moderate-to-severe perennial allergic rhinitis that was not controlled by anti-allergic drugs. Thirty-one perennial allergic rhinitis patients were enrolled in this study. Before starting the test population on their intranasal phototherapy, the same trained person took a nasal culture from each subject by applying a sterile cotton swab along each side of the nostril and middle meatus. Each intranasal cavity was irradiated three times a week for two weeks with increasing doses of irradiated. At the end of the intranasal phototherapy, nasal cultures were again obtained from the each nostril. The study found that after intranasal phototherapy, the scores for total nasal symptoms decreased significantly but bacterial proliferation was not significantly different before and after phototherapy. We have shown that intranasal phototherapy does not change the aerobic nasal microbial flora in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

  13. An effective manual deboning method to prepare intact mouse nasal tissue with preserved anatomical organization.

    PubMed

    Dunston, David; Ashby, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong

    2013-08-10

    The mammalian nose is a multi-functional organ with intricate internal structures. The nasal cavity is lined with various epithelia such as olfactory, respiratory, and squamous epithelia which differ markedly in anatomical locations, morphology, and functions. In adult mice, the nose is covered with various skull bones, limiting experimental access to internal structures, especially those in the posterior such as the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Here we describe an effective method for obtaining almost the entire and intact nasal tissues with preserved anatomical organization. Using surgical tools under a dissecting microscope, we sequentially remove the skull bones surrounding the nasal tissue. This procedure can be performed on both paraformaldehyde-fixed and freshly dissected, skinned mouse heads. The entire deboning procedure takes about 20-30 min, which is significantly shorter than the experimental time required for conventional chemical-based decalcification. In addition, we present an easy method to remove air bubbles trapped between turbinates, which is critical for obtaining intact thin horizontal or coronal or sagittal sections from the nasal tissue preparation. Nasal tissue prepared using our method can be used for whole mount observation of the entire epithelia, as well as morphological, immunocytochemical, RNA in situ hybridization, and physiological studies, especially in studies where region-specific examination and comparison are of interest.

  14. Epistaxis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nasal vestibule: is it a cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Seckin; Babaoglu, Gulcin; Catli, Tolgahan; San, Turhan; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between epistaxis and nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus in a population of patients with recurrent epistaxis. A total of 361 men and women were recruited, 245 patients with epistaxis (114 had crusting in the nasal vestibule; 131 did not) and 116 control subjects. A microbiology swab was taken from the anterior nasal cavity of each subject. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be more common in the epistaxis group when compared with the control group with a percentage of 31.8% and 4.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the prevalence of S. aureus between the crust and non-crust groups (P > 0.05). When positive cultures were grouped and compared according to season, it was observed that the positive culture with epistaxis was much higher (44.82 %) in the autumn period. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nasal vestibule is more likely to be observed in individuals who have recurrent epistaxis than in those who do not have. It seems that this colonization may have a role in the etiology of epistaxis. However, with an altered medium of the nasal vestibule after each epistaxis period, it is also possible to speculate that this colonization is may be the consequence of epistaxis itself.

  15. Nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Mark A; Parhiscar, Afshin

    2003-11-01

    Silicone rubber has been used safely and effectively for facial augmentation for nearly 5 decades in eastern Asia. We have used silicone rubber nasal implants in primary ethnic rhinoplasty and have found consistent and long-lasting results with low complication rates. Silicone dorsal nasal augmentation in primary rhinoplasty avoids donor site morbidity and implant resorption as seen with autogenous implants. Silicone nasal implants have a low extrusion and infection rate. In the appropriate patient with proper placement, silicone nasal implant is nearly the ideal implant material.

  16. Reconstruction of Small Soft Tissue Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Cheng, David; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal defect repair has been one of the more challenging areas of reconstructive surgery due to the lack of uniform nasal skin thickness and complex contours. Currently, algorithms for medium to large nasal soft tissue defects have been well defined by various authors. Small defects, arbitrarily defined as 1 cm or less, still present significant challenges. In this article, the authors examine the options available to repair small soft tissue nasal defects and the appropriate situations in which each method is best suited. PMID:24872751

  17. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  18. Hippocrates (ca 460-370 BC) on nasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Sgantzos, Markos

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cancer in antiquity is rather an unknown scientific field. Nevertheless, During the 5th century BC, Hippocrates and his followers, studied thoroughly this fatal disease and proposed surgical techniques and palliative drugs to confront and treat the malignant tumors caused by the black bile (the 4 humors theory). Inside Corpus Hippocraticum, nasal cancer was mentioned, alongside with its treatment. Local surgical excision, cautherization, drugs to relief the pain and face possible metastases combined with a possible pessary technique and endotracheal intubation, have been employed by the physicians of the era.

  19. Apoptosis and Ki-67 as predictive factors for response to radiation therapy in feline nasal lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    FU, Dah-Renn; KATO, Daiki; ENDO, Yoshifumi; KADOSAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Nasal lymphoma is the most common nasal tumor in cats and is generally a solitary and radiosensitive tumor. We retrospectively evaluated the response to radiation and survival time in relation to apoptosis and Ki-67 indices in feline nasal lymphomas treated with radiation therapy. The apoptotic and Ki-67 indices were evaluated with TUNEL and immunohistochemical staining in 30 biopsy tissues that were taken before any treatment. These two indices were compared, and differences between different treatment response groups were analyzed. The correlation between the median survival times (MST) and the indices was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method, and statistical differences between survival curves were analyzed using a log-rank method. With regard to apoptotic index, a statistical difference was observed between the samples taken from cats with complete response and stable disease (1.22% vs. 0.45%; P=0.045). The Ki-67 index in cats with both complete response and partial response was significantly higher than in cats with stable disease (44.4% and 39.6% vs. 16.3%; P<0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). The cats with a high level of apoptosis (>0.9%) nasal lymphoma were not significantly prolonged MSTs (P=0.202), however, high Ki-67-positive (>40%) cats experienced a statistically significant relationship with longer survival time (P=0.015). Our results indicate that spontaneous apoptotic and Ki-67 indices are strong predictors for response to radiation therapy in feline nasal lymphomas. PMID:27086717

  20. Equine nasal and paranasal sinus tumours: part 2: a contribution of 28 case reports.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Head, K W

    1999-05-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of 28 cases (27 horses, 1 donkey) of equid sinonasal tumours examined at the Edinburgh Veterinary School are presented and include: seven cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); five adenocarcinomas; three undifferentiated carcinomas; two adenomas; five fibro-osseous and bone tumours; and single cases of ameloblastoma, fibroma, fibrosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, melanoma and lymphosarcoma. The median ages of animals affected with epithelial, and fibro-osseous/bone tumours were 14 and 4 years, respectively. Unilateral purulent or mucopurulent nasal discharge (81% of cases) and gross facial swellings (82% of cases) were the most common presenting signs with sinonasal tumours, with epistaxis recorded in just 23% of cases. Radiology and endoscopy were the most useful ancillary diagnostic techniques. The maxillary area was the most common site of tumour origin, and only three cases were definitively identified as originating in the nasal cavity. Four of the maxillary SCC lesions originated within the nasal cavities or maxillary sinuses, while two originated in the oral cavity. Fourteen of 15 carcinomas, but only two of the 13 remaining tumours, spread to other sites in the head. Only three cases of sinonasal tumour had lymph node metastases, and none had distant metastases. In the long term, surgical treatment with seven malignant tumours was unsuccessful (6 months median survival post-operatively), but was successful with four out of five benign tumours (no regrowth at a median of 4 years post-operatively).

  1. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells.

  2. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Ouyang, Han; Jin, Jing; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of selected olfactory tumors.

    PubMed

    Villano, J Lee; Bressler, Linda; Propp, Jennifer M; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Martin, Iman K; Dolecek, Therese A; McCarthy, Bridget J

    2010-10-01

    Olfactory tumors, especially olfactory neuroblastomas (ON) and carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation (CND), are extremely rare, and little descriptive epidemiologic information is available. The objective of this study was to more fully describe selected olfactory tumors using a large population-based cancer incidence database. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 registries limited-use data were reviewed from 1973 to 2006 for selected nasal cavity (C30.0) and accessory sinus (C31.0-31.9) tumors. Frequencies, incidence rates, and relative survival rates were estimated using SEER*Stat, v6.5.2. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while the incidence of ON was greater than CND. For ON, the incidence was highest in the 60-79 year age group, while for SCC, the incidence was highest in the 80+ year age group. For CND, the incidence leveled off in the oldest age groups. Survival rates were highest for ON (>70% alive at 5 years after diagnosis) and poorest for CND (44% alive at 5 years). Adjuvant radiation therapy did not improve survival over surgery alone in ON. In SCC, survival was worse in patients who received adjuvant radiation compared to patients who had surgery alone. Our analysis confirms some previously published information, and adds new information about the incidence and demographics of ON and CND. In addition, our analysis documents the lack of benefit of adjuvant radiation in ON. It is not feasible to conduct prospective trials in patients with these rare diseases, and the importance of registry data in learning about olfactory tumors is emphasized.

  4. Combined chemoradiation for the management of nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma: elucidating the significance of systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ye; Lu, Jiade J; Ma, Xuejun; Wang, Biyun; Hong, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and treatment outcome of CHOP and CHOP combined with nitrosourea chemotherapy in natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity. Sixty-three patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity were treated with CHOP or CHOP combined with oral nitrosourea chemotherapy between January 1997 and June 2005. By the Ann Arbor Lymphoma Staging Classification, 57 patients (90%) had Stage IE or IIE disease and six patients (10%) had Stage III or IV disease. All patients with Stage IE or IIE disease were intended to be treated curatively with combined chemoradiation; and patients who had Stage III or IV disease were treated with chemotherapy alone with curative intention. Chemotherapy consisted of: (1) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen, or (2) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen with oral Semustine dosed at 120 mg (or Lomustine dosed at 100mg) on day 1 of each chemotherapy cycle. External beam radiation therapy was delivered by daily conventional fractionation by Co-60 or 6MVx linear accelerator for patients with Stage IE or IIE disease. The radiation dose to the tumor bed was between 36 and 50 Gy with a median dose of 45 Gy. Fifty-three patients received chemotherapy prior to radiation, and four patients were treated with involved field radiation before chemotherapy. The median follow up for all 44 surviving patients was 31 months (range: 6-104 months). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 60% and 70%, respectively. The PFS and OS of patients who were treated with or without oral nitrosourea in addition to CHOP were 73% vs. 44% (P=0.035) and 75% vs. 64% (P=0.276), respectively. Nine patients with Stage IE or IIE diseases developed disease progression during their planned treatment and died within 10 months after the initiation of treatment; Six patients who achieved complete response (CR) after planned chemoradiation developed

  5. A Computational Study of Nasal Spray Deposition Pattern in Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Jarrod A.; Patki, Aniruddha; Woodard, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Very little is known about the role of nasal morphology due to ethnic variation on particle deposition pattern in the sinonasal cavity. This preliminary study utilizes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate sinonasal airway morphology and deposition patterns of intranasal sprayed particles in the nose and sinuses of individuals from four different ethnic groups: African American (Black); Asian; Caucasian; and Latin American. Methods: Sixteen subjects (four from each ethnic group) with “normal” sinus protocol computed tomography (CT) were selected for CFD analysis. Three-dimensional reconstruction of each subject's sinonasal cavity was created from their personal CT images. CFD simulations were carried out in ANSYS Fluent™ in two phases: airflow phase was done by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations for steady state laminar inhalation; and particle dispersed phase was solved by tracking injected (sprayed) particles through the calculated airflow field. A total of 10,000 particle streams were released from each nostril, 1000 particles per diameter ranging from 5 μm to 50 μm, with size increments of 5 μm. Results: As reported in the literature, Caucasians (5.31 ± 0.42 cm−1) and Latin Americans (5.16 ± 0.40cm−1) had the highest surface area to volume ratio, while African Americans had highest nasal index (95.91 ± 2.22). Nasal resistance (NR) was highest among Caucasians (0.046 ± 0.008 Pa.s/mL) and Asians (0.042 ± 0.016Pa.s/mL). Asians and African Americans had the most regions with particle deposition for small (5 μm–15 μm) and large (20 μm–50 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Asians and Latin Americans individuals had the most consistent regional particle deposition pattern in the main nasal cavities within their respective ethnic groups. Conclusions: Preliminary results from these ethnic groups investigated showed that Caucasians and Latin Americans had

  6. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens:Lower Bounds for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Implied byPBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-01-30

    As reflected in the 2005 USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment, some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate ''linear'' (genotoxic) vs. ''nonlinear'' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach--similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints--can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low-dose risk as a function of administered or internal dose. Even when a ''nonlinear'' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was illustrated for the rodent carcinogen naphthalene. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based pharmacokinetic and 2-stage stochastic carcinogenesis modeling results all clearly indicate that naphthalene is a DMOA carcinogen. Plausibility bounds on rat-tumor-type specific DMOA-related uncertainty were obtained using a 2-stage model adapted to reflect the empirical link between genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the most potent identified genotoxic naphthalene metabolites, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Resulting bounds each provided the basis for a corresponding

  7. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  8. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  9. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  13. Transnasal microsurgical ethmoidectomy in nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1980-03-01

    A technique of microsurgical ethmoidectomy by a nasal route was devised for and applied to the treatment of nasal polyposis. A description of the operative procedure and the results in 30 cases with a 3-5 years of follow-up are reported.

  14. Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HAILONG; ZHANG, MINGSHAN; WANG, XUAN; QU, YANMING; ZHANG, HONGWEI; YU, CHUNJIANG

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome are frequent in adult patients. However, primary intracranial NETs, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH, high serum ACTH level and treated with anterior skull base reconstruction, are rare and complicated. We herein present a case of a primary intracranial NET immunonegative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. A 40-year-old woman presented with intermittent rhinorrhea, rapid weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, hypertension, dimness, bilateral exophthalmus, diminution of vision in the left eye and pigmentation of the skin of the face and trunk. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a sizeable enhancing tumor in the anterior cranial fossa, which infiltrated the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses bilaterally, the left maxillary sinus and the nasal cavity. Abdominal CT scans revealed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. The biochemical findings included hypokalemia and high glucose, cortisol, plasma ACTH, 24-h urinary free cortisol and testosterone levels. The neoplasm was exposed through a right frontal craniotomy, while anterior skull base reconstruction was performed during surgery. The intracranial surgery achieved gross removal of the tumor; however, part of the tumor remained in the nasal cavity. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade small-cell NET, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH. A postoperative abdominal CT scan demonstrated bilateral regression of the adrenal gland hyperplasia and the serum ACTH level returned to normal after 16 days. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of primary intracranial NETs, immunohistochemically negative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. PMID:27330775

  15. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  16. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, Klaus; Gruber, Maike; Jagsch, Reinhold; Roesner, Imme; Baumann, Arnulf; Wutzl, Arno; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria

    2017-03-15

    In patients with a repaired cleft palate, nasality is typically diagnosed by speech language pathologists. In addition, there are various instruments to objectively diagnose nasalance. To explore the potential of nasalance measurements after cleft palate repair by NasalView(®), we correlated perceptual nasality and instrumentally measured nasalance of eight speech items and determined the relationship between sensitivity and specificity of the nasalance measures by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and AUC (area under the curve) computation for each single test item and specific item groups. We recruited patients with a primarily repaired cleft palate receiving speech therapy during follow-up. During a single day visit, perceptive and instrumental assessments were obtained in 36 patients and analyzed. The individual perceptual nasality was assigned to one of four categories; the corresponding instrumental nasalance measures for the eight specific speech items were expressed on a metric scale (1-100). With reference to the perceptual diagnoses, we observed 3 nasal and one oral test item with high sensitivity. However, the specificity of the nasality indicating measures was rather low. The four best speech items with the highest sensitivity provided scores ranging from 96.43 to 100%, while the averaged sensitivity of all eight items was below 90%. We conclude that perceptive evaluation of nasality remains state of the art. For clinical follow-up, instrumental nasalance assessment can objectively document subtle changes by analysis of four speech items only. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of instrumental nasalance measures in the clinical routine, using discriminative items only.

  17. Nasal foreign body removal in children.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Brenkert, Timothy E; Losek, Joseph D

    2008-11-01

    Nasal foreign bodies in children are often managed in the pediatric emergency department. The child is usually between 2 and 4 years old, and the foreign body is most commonly a plastic toy or bead. Nasal foreign bodies are removed by a number of techniques. Positive-pressure expulsion is accomplished by orally applied pressure via a parent's mouth or an Ambu bag or by nasally applied pressure via a catheter or an oxygen source. The object can be washed out with nasally applied saline. Direct mechanical extraction is possible with a variety of tools, including forceps, hooks, or balloon-tipped catheters. Each method carries its own risks and benefits. Serious complications of nasal foreign bodies include posterior dislodgement and aspiration, trauma caused by the object itself or removal attempts, infection, and choanal stenosis. Magnets and button batteries require emergent removal as they carry the risk of septal perforation or necrosis, which may develop within a relatively short time.

  18. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors.

  19. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Anthony C.; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A.; Gooch, Karen E.; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J.; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A.; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J.; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J.; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M.; Hiscox, Julian A.; Stewart, James P.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections. PMID

  20. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Anthony C; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A; Gooch, Karen E; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M; Hiscox, Julian A; Stewart, James P; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections.

  1. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  2. Hot colors: the nature and specificity of color-induced nasal thermal sensations.

    PubMed

    Michael, George A; Galich, Hélène; Relland, Solveig; Prud'hon, Sabine

    2010-03-05

    The nature of the recently discovered color-induced nasal thermal sensations was investigated in four Experiments. Subjects were required to fixate a bottle containing a red or green solution presented centrally (Exp1 and Exp4) or laterally (Exp2) and to sniff another bottle, always the same one, but which they were not allowed to see, containing 10 ml of a colorless, odorless and trigeminal-free solution. Each nostril was tested separately, and subjects were asked whether the sniffed solution induced warming or cooling sensations (plus an ambient sensation in Exp4) in the nasal cavity. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed the warming/left nostril-cooling/right nostril dissociation, suggesting the existence of different lateralized processes for thermal processing. However, Experiment 2 failed to demonstrate dominance of warming responses when subjects' eyes were directed to the left or cooling responses when they were directed to the right. Nor did gaze direction interact with the tested nostril. This suggests that the color-induced thermal sensations are specifically related to the nasal trigeminal system, rather than a general process related to general hemispheric activity. When the exposed bottles were colorless (Exp3), no lateralized patterns were observed, suggesting, in combination with the results of Experiments 1 and 2, that both color cues and nasal stimulations are necessary for lateralized patterns to arise. Rendering the temperature judgment even more difficult (Exp4), made the lateralized patterns shift towards the associated (i.e., ambient) responses. The results are discussed in a general framework which considers that, even in the absence of real thermal stimulus, preparing to process thermal stimuli in the nasal cavity may activate the underlying lateralized neural mechanisms, and that those mechanisms are reflected in the responses.

  3. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C.; Riley, Misha M.; Cao, Luxiang; Herrick, Scott P.; Ricq, Emily L.; O’Neill, Michael J.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Murray, Tracey K.; Smith, Jaclyn E.; Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Albers, Mark W.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality. Notably, OSNs are continually replenished by adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, so OSN measurements are primed to provide specialized insights into neurological disease. Here, we have evaluated a PET radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that specifically binds mature OSNs and quantifies the mature OSN population in vivo. [11C]GV1-57 monitored native OSN population dynamics in rodents, detecting OSN generation during postnatal development and aging-associated neurodegeneration. [11C]GV1-57 additionally measured rates of neuron regeneration after acute injury and early-stage OSN deficits in a rodent tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary assessment in nonhuman primates suggested maintained uptake and saturable binding of [18F]GV1-57 in primate nasal epithelium, supporting its translational potential. Future applications for GV1-57 include monitoring additional diseases or conditions associated with olfactory dysregulation, including cognitive decline, as well as monitoring effects of neuroregenerative or neuroprotective therapeutics. PMID:28112682

  4. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Riley, Misha M; Cao, Luxiang; Ehses, Janina; Herrick, Scott P; Ricq, Emily L; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; O'Neill, Michael J; Ahmed, Zeshan; Murray, Tracey K; Smith, Jaclyn E; Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A; Albers, Mark W; Hooker, Jacob M

    2017-02-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality. Notably, OSNs are continually replenished by adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, so OSN measurements are primed to provide specialized insights into neurological disease. Here, we have evaluated a PET radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that specifically binds mature OSNs and quantifies the mature OSN population in vivo. [11C]GV1-57 monitored native OSN population dynamics in rodents, detecting OSN generation during postnatal development and aging-associated neurodegeneration. [11C]GV1-57 additionally measured rates of neuron regeneration after acute injury and early-stage OSN deficits in a rodent tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary assessment in nonhuman primates suggested maintained uptake and saturable binding of [18F]GV1-57 in primate nasal epithelium, supporting its translational potential. Future applications for GV1-57 include monitoring additional diseases or conditions associated with olfactory dysregulation, including cognitive decline, as well as monitoring effects of neuroregenerative or neuroprotective therapeutics.

  5. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of antigen/N-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chitosan conjugates for nasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Shao, Xiayan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2014-05-07

    The frequent outbreak of respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza and pulmonary tuberculosis calls for new immunization strategies with high effectiveness. Nasal immunization is one of the most potential methods to prevent the diseases infected through the respiratory tract. In this study, we designed a water-soluble system based on antigen/N-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chitosan conjugates for nasal immunization. N-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chitosan (TMC) was synthesized by free radical polymerization of chitosan and N-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chloride and identified by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. Thiolated ovalbumin (OVA) was covalently conjugated to maleimide modified TMC with high conjugation efficiency. OVA conjugated TMC (OVA-TMC) significantly increased uptake of OVA by Raw 264.7 cells, which was 2.38 times higher than that of OVA/TMC physical mixture (OVA+TMC) at 4h. After nasal administration, OVA-TMC showed higher transport efficiency to superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes than OVA+TMC or OVA alone. Balb/C mice were intranasally given with OVA-TMC three times at 2-week internals to evaluate the immunological effect. The serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a levels of the OVA-TMC group were 17.9-87.9 times higher than that of the OVA+TMC group and comparable to that of the intramuscular group. The secretory IgA levels in nasal wash and saliva of the OVA-TMC group were 5.2-7.1 times higher than that of the OVA+TMC group while the secretory IgA levels of the intramuscular alum-precipitated OVA group were not increased. After immunofluorescence staining of nasal cavity, IgA antibody secreting cells were mainly observed in the lamina propria regions and glands of nasal mucosa. OVA-TMC showed little toxicity to the nasal epithelia or cilia of rats after nasal administration for three consecutive days. These results demonstrated that antigen conjugated TMC can induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses after nasal administration and may serve

  7. Granular cell tumor of trachea.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Edgar; Toth, Jennifer W; Benninghoff, Michael G; Kang, Jason; Betancourt, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree are rare benign lesions of neurogenic origin. These benign tumors mostly involve the skin, oral cavity, or esophagus. There is no consensus regarding treatment of granular cell tumors. Treatment varies from simple observation to different bronchoscopic interventions, such as laser therapy or fulguration to surgical resection.

  8. Cell-based polymerase chain reaction for canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    SETTHAWONGSIN, Chanokchon; TECHANGAMSUWAN, Somporn; TANGKAWATTANA, Sirikachorn; RUNGSIPIPAT, Anudep

    2016-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the only naturally contagious tumor that is transmitted during coitus or social behaviors. Based on the tumor’s location, the diagnosis of genital TVT (GTVT) is comparably easier than those in the extragenital area (ETVT) that are more easily incorrectly diagnosed. Fortunately, CTVT cells contain a specific long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE), inserted upstream of the myc gene, allowing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection assay. The objectives of this study were aimed to improve the diagnostic accuracy by applying the diagnostic LINE1-c-myc PCR assay and fine needle aspiration (FNA) collection in direct comparison with standard cytological and histopathological analyses. Seventy-four dogs, comprised of 41 and 31 dogs with tumor masses at their external genitalia and extragenital areas (e.g. skin and nasal cavity), respectively, were included in this study. The signalment of these 65 dogs and clinical history of 20 client-owned dogs were collected. Samples were taken by biopsy for both histopathological examination and FNA for cytological examination and diagnostic PCR. The PCR products from 10 apparently CTVT samples were purified and sequenced. Sixty-one CTVT cases were diagnosed by cytological and histological analyses, but 65 were positive by the PCR assay. Overall, the PCR assay improved the accuracy of diagnostic CTVT results, especially for the more difficult ETVT tumors. Moreover, this PCR-based approach can facilitate the decision as to discontinue chemotherapy by discrimination between residual tumor cell masses and fibrotic tissue. PMID:27075116

  9. Selected Factors of Innate Immunity in Healthy Individuals with S. aureus Nasal Carriage.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Żaba, Zbigniew; Chudzicka-Strugała, Izabela; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K; Jaworska, Agata; Zeidler, Agnieszka; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus represents a well-defined factor of risk involving community and hospital-acquired infections. Recently a significance of several host factors has been pointed out and, in particular, of immune determinants in nasal S. aureus colonization. Therefore, this study aimed at analysis of manifestation involving manifestation in the nasal secretions of important components of the host innate immunity - human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lysozyme (Ly), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in healthy individuals and in persons with persistent carriage of S. aureus. The studies were conducted in two groups of healthy volunteers, encompassing non-carriers (group 1) or persistent carriers of S. aureus (group 2). Elisa assays were employed to evaluate levels of HBD-2, Ly, and IFN-γ in nasal secretions of the examined donors. In S. aureus carriers a significant variability of HBD-2 levels was detected, corresponding to, respectively, the high (averaging at 1.46 ng/ml) and the low (averaging at 0.13 ng/ml) secretory response of the defensin. The level of Ly in S. aureus carriers averaged at 1.46 μg/ml and it manifested no significant difference as compared to that noted in non-carriers. In turn, concentrations of IFN-γ in nasal secretions in the group of carriers of S. aureus amounted on the average to 81.7 pg/ml and they were 1.3-fold higher that in the group of non-carriers. The obtained results allow to conclude that IFN-γ secretion by the nasal cavity-colonizing S. aureus remains quantitatively insufficient to eliminate the pathogen. Nevertheless, a significant increase in levels of this host factor may be important for restriction of the staphylococcal colonization and protection against development of an invasive infection. In turn, the role of HBD-2 and Ly in inactivation of the colonizing S. aureus remains doubtful.

  10. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  11. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  12. Adjuncts to Improve Nasal Reconstruction Results.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shayna Lee; Hurst, Eva A

    2017-02-01

    The final cosmetic appearance of nasal reconstruction scars is of paramount importance to both the patient and surgeon. Ideal postreconstruction nasal scars are flat and indistinguishable from surrounding skin. Unfortunately, even with meticulous surgical execution, nasal scars can occasionally be suboptimal. Abnormal fibroblast response can lead to hypertrophic nasal scars, and excessive angiogenesis may lead to telangiectasias or an erythematous scar. Imperfect surgical closure or poor postoperative management can lead to surgical outcomes with step-offs, depressions, suture marks, or dyspigmentation. Aesthetically unacceptable nasal scars can cause pruritus, tenderness, pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression in postsurgical patients. Fortunately, there are several minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques that allow for enhancement and improvement of cosmetic results with minimal risk and associated downtime. This article provides an overview of adjuncts to improve nasal reconstruction with a focus on techniques to be used in the postoperative period. Armed with an understanding of relevant available therapies, skillful surgeons may drastically improve the final cosmesis and outcome of nasal reconstruction scars.

  13. Pharmacology of Nasal Medications: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropium bromide shows promise in the treatment of rhinorrhea. The author also reviews the use of decongestants and emollients and remarks on the factors that affect patient compliance when nasal medications are prescribed. PMID:20469495

  14. Microsurgery in nasal polyposis transnasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1986-01-01

    Transnasal ethmoidectomy is a current treatment in selected cases of nasal polyposis, and with its complicated anatomy offers a proper opportunity for microsurgery. Ten years' experience of microsurgical ethmoidectomy in 155 patients with nasal polyposis is reported. The surgical anatomy of the ethmoid sinus is reviewed with attention to the requirements of the microsurgical approach, and the operative procedure is described. The microsurgical approach is discussed both as a part of the treatment of nasal polyposis and as a new development in rhinologic surgery. Advantages of the technique are the objective safety against risks of the ethmoid area and enhanced sense of security for the surgeon.

  15. Evaluation and Reduction of Nasal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian P.; Downey, Cara R.; Stal, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Nasal trauma plays a large and important role in the field of craniofacial trauma. The resulting aesthetic, structural, and functional sequelae associated with these injuries necessitate a thorough understanding of the topic. This includes an appreciation for the unique anatomic features of the region, the important aspects of the initial history and examination, nasal injury classification, and subsequent treatment timing and options. While a large body of literature has accumulated on the topic, the purpose of this article is to focus on both clinically relevant information and pearls of management. Additionally, age-specific concerns, secondary procedures, and nasal fracture grafting, will be addressed as well. PMID:22550458

  16. Nasal base, maxillary, and infraorbital implants--alloplastic.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, U T

    1991-01-01

    The aesthetic surgery of the facial skeletal contour requires either the performance of ostectomies of excessively prominent segments or the augmentation of retruded segments with organic or synthetic material, in order to achieve balanced tridimensional relations of each segment with regard to the total facial unit. Craniomaxillofacial surgeries are necessary in major malformations or in those combined with malocclusion. In the nasal dorsum or tip, the author prefers the use of cartilage, because synthetic materials need adequate soft-tissue bulk for cover to be inserted without tension and absence of passive mobility of the reception site. For malar augmentation, first proposed by the author and independently by Spadafora in 1971, for chin augmentation up to 8 mm, and for augmentation of the mandibular angle, the author prefers silicone implants because they do not change in shape or volume, may be premanufactured or custom-made, have a similar consistency to that of bone, and do not support bacterial growth. On the other hand, autologous bone grafts adapt less to curved bony surfaces, have an erratic rate of resorption, and need an additional surgical step for removal with the corresponding morbidity and scar. Subperiosteal insertion is preferred because it confers greater stability and the cavity is easier to dissect without soft-tissue damage. Although bone erosion may occur, with over 1200 implants clinically no major change in the soft-tissue contour has been observed, nor has the author been consulted for late complication. In the malar region this may be due to the large surface of the implant and absence of muscular pressure. In the chin, an insertion over the site of the dental roots is avoided. For midface augmentation the following implants are used: (1) The premaxillary lower nasal base implant, proposed in 1971, is indicated to correct a concave midfacial profile, frequent in Asian, black, and Mestizo patients from Latin America and in Caucasian

  17. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhicong; Dong, Weiyang; Deng, Congrui; Zhao, Renwu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Ruxin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol. The results show that the PM2.5 exposure induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These changes were accompanied by decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase in rat nasal mucosa. PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa. These changes were accompanied by abnormal alterations of mitochondrial structures, including mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorder, and even fission resulting from higher doses of PM2.5. Our data shows that oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction may be the toxic mechanisms that cause nasal lesions after exposure to PM2.5. PMID:28146064

  18. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  19. Mouth leak with nasal continuous positive airway pressure increases nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Richards, G N; Cistulli, P A; Ungar, R G; Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1996-07-01

    Nasal congestion, dry nose and throat, and sore throat affect approximately 40% of patients using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The mechanisms causing nasal symptoms are unclear, but mouth leaks causing high unidirectional nasal airflow may be important. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of mouth leak and the influence of humidification on nasal resistance in normal subjects. Nasal resistance was measured with posterior rhinomanometry in six normal subjects who deliberately produced a mouth leak for 10 min while using nasal CPAP. Nasal resistance was measured regularly for 20 min after the challenge. A series of tests were performed using air at differing temperatures and humidities. There was no change in nasal resistance when subjects breathed through their noses while on CPAP, but a mouth leak caused a large increase in resistance (at a flow of 0.5 L/s) from a baseline mean of 2.21 cm H2O/L/s to a maximum mean of 7.52 cm H2O/L/s at 1 min after the challenge. Use of a cold passover humidifier caused little change in the response (maximum mean: 8.27 cm H2O/L/s), but a hot water bath humidifier greatly attenuated the magnitude (maximum mean: 4.02 cm H2O/L/s) and duration of the response. Mouth leak with nasal CPAP leads to high unidirectional nasal airflow, which causes a large increase in nasal resistance. This response can be largely prevented by fully humidifying the inspired air.

  20. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  1. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  2. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  3. Nasal Foreign Body, Dislodged and Lost – Can the Adenoids Help?

    PubMed Central

    Jotdar, Arijit; Mukhopadhyay, Subrataataata

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body in the nasal cavity is one of the most common paediatric otolaryngology emergencies and needs to be promptly addressed. The incidence of nasal foreign body getting dislodged secondary to unsuccessful attempts to take it out is quite high and can be potentially dangerous as it might cause fatal airway compromise. The chances of it getting impacted and retained in the nasopharynx are practical, although such cases are seldom encountered for primarily nasal foreign bodies. Nevertheless, the nasopharynx should always be looked for as a site of impaction of hidden foreign objects. Presence of enlarged adenoids could be of help as it may prevent accidental lodgement of displaced foreign body in the airway, but might also result in difficulty in locating and retrieving the foreign body because it acts as an anchor-pad with its grooves and crevasses. This report presents a rare, interesting case of a child with enlarged adenoids anchoring a metallic ring and describes the clinical presentations and relevant management of a nasal foreign body dislodged and lost in the nasopharynx. PMID:26266143

  4. The Nature of Nasal Fricatives: Articulatory-Perceptual Characteristics and Etiologic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal fricatives (NFs) are unusual, maladaptive articulations used by children both with and without palatal anomalies to replace oral fricatives. Nasal fricatives vary in articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual characteristics with two generally distinct types recognized. One type is produced with velopharyngeal (VP) constriction that results in turbulent nasal airflow and, frequently, tissue vibration (flutter) at the VP port. Trost (1981) described these as posterior NFs that have a distinctive snorting quality. A second type of NF is produced without significant VP constriction resulting in turbulent airflow generated at the anterior liminal valve of the nose. Of importance, both types are “active” alternative articulations in that the speaker occludes the oral cavity to direct all airflow through the nose (Harding & Grunwell, 1998). It is this oral gesture that differentiates NFs from obligatory (or passive) nasal air escape that may sound similar due to incomplete VP closure. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual nature of NFs, and (2) propose a theoretical framework for the acquisition of NFs by children both with and without cleft palate. PMID:27057267

  5. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  6. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  7. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  8. Anterior rhinomanometry in nasal allergen challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1998-11-01

    Even simple and relatively safe provocation procedures like nasal allergen challenges, should aim to allow detection of positivity with the less possible discomfort to the patient. The objective of this work was to evaluate if the use of rhinomanometric measurements during nasal provocation procedures could allow a decrease in the total administered allergen dose, causing less symptoms to the patients but without increasing the number of false-negatives, comparatively to clinical scores or nasal peak-flow measurements. Our results showed that performing rhinomanometric measurements during nasal HDM challenge procedures can lead in many patients to a reduction in the total dose of allergen administered during the challenge, without loss of sensitivity or specificity. This allergen dose reduction translates in less time consumed during the provocation and less patients' discomfort.

  9. Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.

    PubMed

    Chorianopoulos, Dimitrios; Samitas, Konstantinos; Vittorakis, Stylianos; Kiriazi, Vasiliki; Rondoyianni, Dimitra; Tsaousis, Georgios; Skoutelis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    A 51-year-old previously healthy man, an ex-smoker, was admitted to the authors' medical department with a 3-month history of dry cough; intermittent fever; painless, ulcerated cutaneous lesions over the trunk and limbs (Figure 1); and progressive weight loss. He was of Greek descent. His medical history was remarkable for nasal polyps, which were surgically removed 15 years earlier. Initially, he had been treated with antibiotics, without improvement. Several days before admission, chest radiography revealed pulmonary infiltrates in the left lower lobe. On admission, physical examination revealed a well-orientated man in mild distress, with inspiratory rhonchi at the lower part of the left lung and scattered erythematous nodules of variable size, some of which were ulcerated. Laboratory values were notable for leukopenia, 3.3 x 10(9)/L; total protein, 5.9 g/dL; globulin, 2.2 g/dL; serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, 86 IU/L; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, 71 IU/L; and lactate dehydrogenase, 519 U/L. Computed tomograph (CT) of the chest showed multiple alveolar opacities bilaterally (Figure 2). Fiberoptic bronchoscopy did not reveal any important pathologic findings. Results of bronchial biopsy, cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage, washing, brushing, and sputum following bronchoscopy were negative. CT of the brai and sinonasal area revealed an abnormal low-density mass in the left nasal area. CT findings of the abdomen were negative, as were results of a bone marrow biopsy. There was no evidence of immunosuppression. The differential diagnosis, considering the evidence described, included granulomatous or infectious diseases, angiocentric lymphoproliferative lesions, and lymphomas. Biopsy of a skin lesion showed lymphoproliferative infiltration of the dermis with a follicular and angiocentric growth pattern and regional epidermal necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the tumor cell were positive for CD56 and CD3 (cytoplasmic positivity) and

  10. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  11. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  12. Atrophic rhinitis and other nasal lesions induced by a 1-month exposure of F344 rats to 0.25 or 0.5 ppm ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Wacnik, P.W.

    1994-11-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant pollutant of photochemical smog, is a common inhaled toxicant for metropolitan area residents. The effects of acute and chronic ozone exposure on inflammatory cell influx, hyperplasia, and secretory cell metaplasia within the surface epithelium lining rat nasal airways have previously been reported. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data describing the effects of ozone exposure on the subepithelial tissues (i.e., lamina propria and bone) of nasal turbinates. However, recently, a significant decrease in nasal turbinate bone area in rats chronically exposed (20 mo) to 1 ppm ozone was reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 1-mo ozone exposure on subepithelial tissue compartments of maxilloturbinates in the anterior nasal cavity of rats.

  13. Humoral pathway for transfer of the boar pheromone, androstenol, from the nasal mucosa to the brain and hypophysis of gilts.

    PubMed

    Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Skipor, J; Wasowska, B

    1999-11-01

    Signaling and priming pheromones play an important role in intraspecies behavioral and sexual interactions and in the control of reproduction. It is generally accepted that pheromones act by stimulating the dendritic receptors in the mucus-imbedded cilia of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium. The boar pheromone androstenol, known to induce sexual behavior in pigs, is 1 of 2 pheromones that have been chemically defined, tritiated and thus made available for use in studies. In Experiment 1, sexually mature cyclic gilts at Days 16 to 21 of the estrous cycle were humanely killed and the heads separated from the bodies. The heads were attached to a perfusion system using heated, oxygenated, heparinized, autologous blood. A total amount of 10(8) dpm (758 ng) of 3H-5 alpha-androstenol (3HA) was either infused into the angularis oculi veins that drain the nasal cavities (n = 7) over a 5-min period or applied through intranasal catheters onto the mucose surface (n = 16) for 2 min. In both groups frequent blood samples were collected from the carotid rete and from venous effluent. Concentration of 3HA in the arterial blood of the carotid rete after direct (into angularis oculi veins) or indirect (onto the nasal mucosa) administration of 3HA into veins draining the nasal cavities was significantly higher than background radioactivity before 3HA administration (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). The 3HA was selectively accumulated (compared with the respective control tissue) in the neurohypophysis (P < 0.001), adenohypophysis (P < 0.01), ventromedial hypothalamus (P < 0.05), corpus mammillare (P < 0.01), and perihypophyseal vascular complex (P < 0.001). In a second in vitro experiment, active uptake of 3HA into the nasal mucosa of the proximal, respiratory segment of the nasal cavity was observed. These results demonstrate a humoral pathway for the transfer of pheromones from the nasal cavity to the hypophysis and brain. Androstenol was taken up by the

  14. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  15. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  16. Optical recordings from the human nasal mucosa in response to olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Tadashi; Reden, Jens; Krone, Franziska; Scheibe, Mandy

    2007-08-23

    Using the intrinsic optical signal the present study aimed to investigate changes in blood flow at the nasal epithelium in response to specific olfactory stimulation. Recording equipment included an endoscope, a CCD camera, and a light source of 617 nm. Two concentrations of the specific olfactory stimulant H(2)S (2.8 and 5.6 ppm), generated by a computer-controlled olfactometer, were used for olfactory stimulation. Eight healthy normosmic volunteers participated. Using 5.6 ppm H(2)S stimuli, responses were typically recorded from the olfactory cleft, middle turbinate, and middle meatus while responses were less pronounced for 2.8 ppm H(2)S stimuli. Response areas were significantly larger for the 5.6 ppm H(2)S stimuli. While further experiments are needed, recordings of the intrinsic optical signal may be used to obtain responses from the nasal cavity to specific olfactory stimuli.

  17. Nasal mucosal melanosis may act as a harbinger of melanoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Emerick, Kevin S.; Kraft, Stefan; Holbrook, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The progression from a benign pigmented lesion on the skin to cutaneous melanoma is better understood, and it could be presumed that a similar progression occurs with mucosal lesions. However, to our knowledge, there has never been documentation of melanosis transforming into melanoma over time. Objective: To describe a transformation of a mucosal melanosis into melanoma. Methods: A 53-year-old man with diffuse melanosis of the nasal cavity underwent surgical resection. Results: Pathology revealed melanocytic hyperplasia without evidence of melanoma. The patient was serially examined, with excisions for new areas of melanosis. The pathology progressed to severely atypical melanocytic proliferation and melanoma in situ over a 4-year period. Conclusion: Nasal melanosis may be a precancerous lesion and may transform into melanoma. All melanosis should be biopsied with close endoscopic observation. Lesions with dysplasia or atypia should be excised due to potential transformation to melanoma. PMID:28107150

  18. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  19. Bilateral hamartomatous medullary lipoma within the nasal turbinate bones in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    KATSUTA, Osamu; SHIBATA, Toru; KURIKI-YAMAMOTO, Yumi; MOCHIZUKI, Takaharu; YOSHIMI, Miwa; NOTO, Takahisa; MANO, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed large bilateral masses in the maxillary sinus. In histopathological examination, both masses revealed benign medullary lipomas within the turbinate bones. The tumors were composed of well-developed lipocytes, trabecular bones and a few blood vessels. Although we initially diagnosed the tumor as bilateral lipomas in the nasal turbinates, it was not differentiated from lipomatous hamartoma. Findings, such as unique symmetrical proliferation, lack of border from the normal marrow and the intact surrounding tissue, indicated a lipomatous hamartoma/hamartomatous lipoma, thought to be a suitable diagnosis of the lesion. Of most interest was that such a proliferating lesion occurred in the nasal turbinate. PMID:27499062

  20. Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing?

    PubMed

    Lemmens, W; Lemkens, P

    2001-01-01

    Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing? After septal surgery most surgeons still routinely perform nasal packing since this is generally recommended. The aims of packing are numerous: haemostasis, prevention of haematoma, increase septal flap apposition, closure of dead space and prevention of displacement of the replaced cartilage. However, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure and may lead to cardiovascular changes, continued bleeding, nasal injury, hypoxia, foreign body reaction or infection. The major disadvantage of nasal packing is patient discomfort--usually necessitating hospital stay--and the need to administer antibiotics. Therefore alternatives were sought. Sessions, Lee and Vukovic conceived and reported in the eighties forms of continuous septal suturing, but are not widely used. A similar technique of septal suturing after nasal septoplasty without nasal packing was used in 226 consecutive surgical procedures and reviewed retrospectively. Complications like postoperative episodes of bleeding, infections, septal haematomas, septal perforations or synechia were not noted. On one patient a recurrence of the septal deviation occurred. Patients reported almost no discomfort. Moreover, the septal surgery procedure could be carried out on a day-surgery basis. Readmission of a patient was never necessary. Based on these observations the septal suturing technique is a valid alternative to intranasal packing following septal surgery.

  1. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  2. BRAFV600E Mutation in Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy: Toward Personalized Medicine?

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carolina C; Diniz, Marina G; de Menezes, Grazielle Helena F; Castro, Wagner H; Gomez, Ricardo S

    2015-07-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm that primarily affects the maxilla of infants during their first year of life. Complete resection is the conventional treatment and recurrence rates vary from 10% to 60%. The recurrent tumors grow more aggressively and can invade other anatomic structures, such as the nasal cavity, the orbit, and the skull base. The aggressive behavior of MNTIs may require radical resection, which may not be possible in some cases because of its rapid and invading growth together with invasion of vital structures. In these situations, adjunct radiotherapy or chemotherapy has been used. However, as there are no conclusive data regarding the molecular profile of this tumor, currently there is no targeted therapy that may be used in the treatment of selected aggressive cases. On the basis of MNTI similarities with melanomas, such as derivation from the neural crest cells and presence of large melanin-containing cells, we hypothesized that MNTIs also may harbor the BRAFV600E oncogenic mutation. We show for the first time that this important pediatric tumor may harbor the oncogenic BRAFV600E mutation, providing the first insights to their personalized treatment.

  3. Nd:YAG laser-induced hyperthermia treatment of spontaneously occurring veterinary head and neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Panjehpour, M; Overholt, B F; Frazier, D L; Klebanow, E R

    1991-01-01

    Conventional hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors in the oral cavity is troublesome due to difficulty in accessing the lesion. A new hyperthermia technique employing near-infrared radiation delivered through a flexible silica optical fiber is described. The system consisted of an Nd:YAG laser for tissue heating, a He-Ne laser for aiming beam, a computer-controlled optical shutter, an interstitial thermometer, computer, and a printer. A 3-m-long 600-microns silica fiber delivered laser energy to the tumor via surface illumination. Using the aiming beam, the spot size was adjusted to include 5 mm of surrounding normal tissue. A thermocouple implanted in the tumor base provided temperature feedback to maintain desired hyperthermic temperature within the lesion. Three spontaneously occurring canine (two squamous cell carcinomas on the gum, one pigmented melanoma on the hard palate) and one feline tumor (squamous cell carcinoma on the nose) have been treated with Nd:YAG laser hyperthermia. Hyperthermia was delivered at 43.5 degrees C for 1 h. All animals received standard radiation treatment prior to hyperthermia. Nd:YAG laser hyperthermia allowed effective and efficient delivery of heat to veterinary nasal and oral lesions otherwise not treatable with conventional heating techniques.

  4. Olfactory Neuroblastoma with Divergent Differentiation: An Unusual Histologic Finding in a Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Charles; Hamersley, Erin R S; Manosalva, Rodolfo E; Torske, Kevin; McIntyre, Nicole; Mitchell, Allen

    2017-02-06

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract that arises from olfactory epithelium. There have been reports, mainly in tumors treated with chemoradiation or with distant metastases, describing focal histologic changes of divergent cell populations within archetypal ONB. Only three cases have been reported of ONB coexisting with non-neuroendocrine tumors. We describe our experience with a 35-year-old male with a nasal cavity mass extending into the anterior cranial fossa. Pathology revealed this to be a high grade malignant neoplasm with features of olfactory neuroblastoma and a significant divergent population of pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen-reactive cells. The patient underwent combined endoscopic and open craniofacial resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. We describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome followed by a review of the literature. Surgical pathology clearly demonstrated two cell populations evenly distributed and displaying classic histologic and immunohistochemical markers of ONB, as well as poorly differentiated cells with an epithelial immunophenotype. The patient is now 16 months status post completion of treatment with no evidence of recurrence. Our patient's presentation is unique and unusual in that the tumor demonstrated a high grade olfactory neuroblastoma and a divergent, epithelial-marker reactive cell population in the same tumor. This combined appearance is unusual and may represent an "olfactory carcinoma". Only one previous case has reported carcinomatous involvement of an ONB. There is insufficient information in the literature to draw conclusions on the impact these divergent cell populations have on prognosis or treatment.

  5. Sinonasal Delivery of Resveratrol via Mucoadhesive Nanostructured Microparticles in a Nasal Polyp Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mingyu; Park, Chun Gwon; Huh, Beom Kang; Kim, Se-Na; Lee, Seung Ho; Khalmuratova, Roza; Park, Jong-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Choy, Young Bin

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to effectively suppress chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in a mouse model; however, when locally administered to the sinonasal cavity, bolus RSV is limited by low drug bioavailability owing to its low aqueous solubility and relatively rapid clearance from the administration site. To address this limitation, we propose mucoadhesive nanostructured microparticles (PLGA/PEG NM) as a potential carrier for the sinonasal delivery of RSV. In this study, PLGA/PEG NM released RSV in a sustained manner. Owing to the enlarged specific surface area of the nanostructures, PLGA/PEG NM had synergistically enhanced mucoadhesiveness and thus showed improved in vivo retention properties in the sinonasal cavity. Therefore, when tested in a mouse nasal polyp model, PLGA/PEG NM mitigated polyp formation and restored epithelial integrity better than the control treatments. The therapeutic effect was similar at half the dose of PLGA/PEG NM, suggesting improved local bioavailability of RSV in the sinonasal cavity. PMID:28071713

  6. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  7. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  8. Review of computational fluid dynamics in the assessment of nasal air flow and analysis of its limitations.

    PubMed

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Pipolo, Carlotta; Corti, Stefano; Lenzi, Riccardo; Messina, Francesco; Pesci, Chiara; Felisati, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Nasal breathing difficulties (NBD) are a widespread medical condition, yet decisions pertaining to the surgical treatment of chronic NBD still imply a significant degree of subjective judgement of the surgeon. The current standard objective examinations for nasal flow, e.g., rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinomanometry, do not suffice to reliably direct the surgeon on the extent of any necessary surgery. In the last two decades, several groups have therefore considered the numerical simulation of nasal airflow. Currently, these analyses take many hours of labor from the operator, and require a huge amount of computer time and the use of expensive commercial software. Most often, their results are insufficiently validated so that virtual surgery, which is the eventual application, is still absent in clinical practice. Very recently, however, attempts at considering the finest details of the flow are beginning to appear, for example unsteady turbulent simulations validated through laboratory measurements through particle image velocimetry. In this paper, we first discuss recent developments in how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is helping surgeons improve their understanding of nasal physiology and the effect of surgical modifications on the airflow in the nasal cavity. In a second part, the procedural and modeling challenges that still prevent CFD from being routinely used in clinical practice are surveyed and critically discussed.

  9. Enhanced intranasal delivery of mRNA vaccine by overcoming the nasal epithelial barrier via intra- and paracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhao, Mengnan; Fu, Yao; Li, You; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2016-04-28

    Facing the threat of highly variable virus infection, versatile vaccination systems are urgently needed. Intranasal mRNA vaccination provides a flexible and convenient approach. However, the nasal epithelium remains a major biological barrier to deliver antigens to nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). To address this issue, a potent polymer-based intranasal mRNA vaccination system for HIV-1 treatment was synthesized using cationic cyclodextrin-polyethylenimine 2k conjugate (CP 2k) complexed with anionic mRNA encoding HIV gp120. The delivery vehicle containing CP 2k and mRNA overcame the epithelial barrier by reversibly opening the tight junctions, enhanced the paracellular delivery of mRNA and consequently minimized absorption of toxins in the nasal cavity. Together with the excellent intracellular delivery and prolonged nasal residence time, strong system and mucosal anti-HIV immune responses as well as cytokine productions were achieved with a balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 type. Our study provided the first proof of evidence that cationic polymers can be used as safe and potent intranasal mRNA vaccine carriers to overcome the nasal epithelial barrier. The safe and versatile polymeric delivery system represents a promising vaccination platform for infectious diseases.

  10. Nasal hemophilic pseudotumor in a patient with mild hemophilia A and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiyasu; Monji, Mikio; Kai, Keita; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2017-02-01

    Hemophilic pseudotumor is a rare complication, even in patients with severe hemophilia. Herein we report on a case of hemophilic pseudotumor in a patient with mild hemophilia A and allergic rhinitis, initially suspected to be a nasal tumor. The pseudotumor was cured by supplementation with recombinant factor VIII concentrates, and medication for allergic rhinitis. Pseudotumor should always be considered in hemophiliac patients, even in those with only mild deficiency of coagulation factors.

  11. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  12. Rationally designed nanocarriers for intranasaltherapy of allergic rhinitis: influence of carrier type on in vivo nasal deposition.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Marwa Ahmed; Helal, Hala Mahmoud; Mortada, Sana Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a locally acting nasal delivery system of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) for the maintenance therapy of allergic rhinitis. The effect of encapsulating TA in different nanocarriers on its mucosal permeation and retention as well as in vivo nasal deposition has been studied. A comparative study was established between polymeric oil core nanocapsules (NCs), lipid nanocarriers such as nanoemulsion (NE), and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The elaborated nanocarriers were compared with TA suspension and the commercially available suspension "Nasacort(®)". The study revealed that NC provided the highest mucosal retention, as 46.14%±0.048% of the TA initial dose was retained after 24 hours, while showing the least permeation through the nasal mucosa. On the other hand, for TA suspension and Nasacort(®), the mucosal retention did not exceed 23.5%±0.047% of the initial dose after 24 hours. For NE and NLC, values of mucosal retention were 19.4%±0.041% and 10.97%±0.13%, respectively. NC also showed lower mucosal irritation and superior stability compared with NE. The in vivo nasal deposition study demonstrated that NC maintained drug in its site of action (nasal cavity mucosa) for the longest period of time. The elaborated polymeric oil core NCs are efficient carriers for the administration of nasally acting TA as it produced the least permeation results, thus decreasing systemic absorption of TA. Although NCs have been administered via various routes, this is the first study to implement the polymeric oil core NC as an efficient carrier for localized nasal drug delivery.

  13. Rationally designed nanocarriers for intranasaltherapy of allergic rhinitis: influence of carrier type on in vivo nasal deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Marwa Ahmed; Helal, Hala Mahmoud; Mortada, Sana Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a locally acting nasal delivery system of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) for the maintenance therapy of allergic rhinitis. The effect of encapsulating TA in different nanocarriers on its mucosal permeation and retention as well as in vivo nasal deposition has been studied. A comparative study was established between polymeric oil core nanocapsules (NCs), lipid nanocarriers such as nanoemulsion (NE), and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The elaborated nanocarriers were compared with TA suspension and the commercially available suspension “Nasacort®”. The study revealed that NC provided the highest mucosal retention, as 46.14%±0.048% of the TA initial dose was retained after 24 hours, while showing the least permeation through the nasal mucosa. On the other hand, for TA suspension and Nasacort®, the mucosal retention did not exceed 23.5%±0.047% of the initial dose after 24 hours. For NE and NLC, values of mucosal retention were 19.4%±0.041% and 10.97%±0.13%, respectively. NC also showed lower mucosal irritation and superior stability compared with NE. The in vivo nasal deposition study demonstrated that NC maintained drug in its site of action (nasal cavity mucosa) for the longest period of time. The elaborated polymeric oil core NCs are efficient carriers for the administration of nasally acting TA as it produced the least permeation results, thus decreasing systemic absorption of TA. Although NCs have been administered via various routes, this is the first study to implement the polymeric oil core NC as an efficient carrier for localized nasal drug delivery. PMID:27307734

  14. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  15. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-06-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

  16. Characterization of Stability and Nasal Delivery Systems for Immunization with Nanoemulsion-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nigavekar, Shraddha S.; Bielinska, Anna U.; Mank, Nicholas; Shetty, Abhishek M.; Suman, Julie; Knowlton, Jessica; Myc, Andrzej; Rook, Trent; Baker, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many infectious diseases that cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world, could be preventable through vaccination. The effort to produce safe, thermally stable, and needle-free mucosal vaccines has become increasingly important for global health considerations. We have previously demonstrated that a thermally stable nanoemulsion, a mucosal adjuvant for needle-free nasal immunization, is safe and induces protective immunity with a variety of antigens, including recombinant protein. The successful use of nanoemulsion-based vaccines, however, poses numerous challenges. Among the challenges is optimization of the formulation to maintain thermal stability and potency and another is accuracy and efficiency of dispensing the vaccines to the nasal mucosa in the anterior and turbinate region of the nasal cavity or potentially to the nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue. Methods We have examined the effects of different diluents [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 0.9% NaCl] on the stability and potency of nanoemulsion-based vaccines. In addition, we have determined the efficiency of delivering them using commercially available nasal spray devices (Pfeiffer SAP-62602 multidose pump and the BD Hypak SCF 0.5 ml unit dose AccusprayTM). Results We report the stability and potency of PBS–diluted ovalbumin–nanomeulsion mixtures for up to 8 months and NaCl-diluted mixtures up to 6 months when stored at room temperature. Significant differences in spray characteristics including droplet size, spray angle, plume width, and ovality ratios were observed between the two pumps. Further, we have demonstrated that the nanoemulsion-based vaccines are not physically or chemically altered and retain potency following actuation with nasal spray devices. Using either device, the measured spray characteristics suggest deposition of nanoemulsion-based vaccines in inductive tissues located in the anterior region of the nasal cavity

  17. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Salam, Badar; Camilleri, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Nasal septal abscess is an uncommon condition. Most commonly it is secondary to nasal trauma, which leads to haematoma, and subsequent abscess formation. There are other less common causes like sinusitis, dental infections and furunculosis. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess has also been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of non-traumatic, spontaneous nasal septal abscess, in a healthy immunocompetent patient with no evidence of sinusitis or other localized infections. Using Medline and Google.co.uk search applications, there has been one previous report of such a condition. We stress the importance of excluding nasal septal abscess in patients presenting with nasal obstruction especially with signs of toxaemia.

  18. Same noses, different nasalance scores: data from normal subjects and cleft palate speakers for three systems for nasalance analysis.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences. The nasalance distance was largest for the Nasometer and smallest for the OroNasal System. When the calculation was based on nasalance magnitudes, results for sensitivity ranged from 57.9% to 81.8% and results for specificity ranged from 62.0% to 76.0%. When the calculation was based on nasalance distances, results for sensitivity ranged from 84.2% to 100.0% and results for specificity ranged from 82.0% to 100.0%. Results suggest that nasalance scores from the three systems are not interchangeable. Diagnostic efficacy improved when the calculations were based on nasalance distances rather than magnitudes, but further research is warranted to corroborate these findings.

  19. Nasonasal reflexes, the nasal cycle, and sneeze.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Kim, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is a complex tissue that interacts with its environment and effects local and systemic changes. Receptors in the nose receive signals from stimuli, and respond locally through afferent, nociceptive, type C neurons to elicit nasonasal reflex responses mediated via cholinergic neurons. This efferent limb leads to responses in the nose (eg, rhinorrhea, glandular hyperplasia, hypersecretion with mucosal swelling). Anticholinergic agents appear useful against this limb for symptomatic relief of a "runny nose." Chronic exposure to allergens can lead to hyperresponsiveness of the nasal mucosa. As a result, receptors upregulate specific ion channels to increase the sensitivity and potency of their reflex response. Nasal stimuli also affect distant parts of the body. Nerves in the sinus mucosa cause vasodilation; the lacrimal glands can be stimulated by nasal afferent triggers. Even the cardiopulmonary system can be affected via the trigeminal chemosensory system, where sensed irritants can lead to changes in tidal volume, respiratory rate, and blink frequency. The sneeze is an airway defense mechanism that removes irritants from the nasal epithelial surface. It is generally benign, but can lead to problems in certain circumstances. The afferent pathway involves histamine-mediated depolarization of H1 receptor-bearing type C trigeminal neurons and a complex coordination of reactions to effect a response.

  20. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patients After Surgical Treatment of Maxillary Tumors with Respect to Upper Airway Protection.

    PubMed

    Rolski, D; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Nieborak, R; Przybyłowska, D; Stopa, Z; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of surgical treatment of maxillary tumors, a connection between oral and nasal cavities is formed, which leads to serious functional disorders, manifested by inability to normally ingest food, proper speech articulation, and to respiratory route disorders and upper airway inflammation. These morphological and functional disorders are intensified by adjunctive radio- or chemotherapy. The aim of this paper is to present different possible methods of rehabilitation, including application of interim obturators and individually planned prosthetic restorations to improve respiratory efficiency in patients after extensive maxillary resections. In the course of prosthetic treatment, cooperation with the laryngologist to consider every aspect of chronic paranasal sinusitis, accompanied by concurrent inflammation of oral, nasal, or laryngeal mucous membranes, was of paramount importance. Based on the quality of life questionnaire, used in this study, evident improvement in the masticatory efficiency, speech articulation, and respiration was observed. Particularly good effects were obtained in edentulous patients, in whom implant-prosthetic treatment was possible to apply. Comprehensive and multidisciplinary care of postoperative patients greatly contributes to their better quality of life and facilitates their return to prior living conditions, as well as to occupational and family lives.

  1. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  2. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.

  3. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  4. Canonical Wnt Signaling Drives Tumor-Like Lesions from Sox2-Positive Precursors of the Murine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Nils W.; Neumann, Julia E.; Ahlfeld, Julia; Wefers, Annika K.; Merk, Daniel J.; Ohli, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is known to promote proliferation of olfactory stem cells. In order to investigate the effects of a constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in Sox2-positive precursor cells of the olfactory epithelium, we used transgenic mice that allowed an inducible deletion of exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene, which is responsible for the phosphorylation and degradation of Ctnnb1 protein. After induction of aberrant Wnt activation by Ctnnb1 deletion at embryonic day 14, such mice developed tumor-like lesions in upper parts of the nasal cavity. We still observed areas of epithelial hyperplasia within the olfactory epithelium following early postnatal Wnt activation, but the olfactory epithelial architecture remained unaffected in most parts when Wnt was activated at postnatal day 21 or later. In summary, our results suggest an age-dependent tumorigenic potential of aberrant Wnt signaling in the olfactory epithelium of mice. PMID:27902722

  5. Fronto-orbito-nasal dislocations. Secondary treatment of sequelae.

    PubMed

    Merville, L C; Derome, P; de Saint-Jorre, G

    1983-04-01

    Fronto-orbito-nasal dislocation untreated or maltreated can have many important sequelae for both function and aesthetics. Two types of cases may be observed, those with: -extensive bone loss -malunited fracture. The treatment of sequelae caused by bone loss in order to be rational, logical and complete necessitates: 1. protection of the underlying elements = eye and meningo-cerebral tissues, 2. reconstitution of an harmonious cranio-facial profile, 3. definitive isolation of cranial contents from the facial cavities. 4. repair of nasal and orbital walls and the necessary ligamentous re-insertions on them. The best material for such a repair remains the autogenous bone graft. The treatment of sequelae caused by malunited fractures necessitates repositioning osteotomies. In addition to rotation, elevation and translation osteotomies the following may be required: -either a monoblock advancement osteotomy, -or an "expansion" osteotomy. They require solid fixation. This may be obtained by: -either superior fixation to a previously conserved intermediate frontal strut -or a rebuilding of the shape of the vault, laterally fixed to sound bone parts, and an interposed bone graft to act as a "keystone" of the vault. Such repairs seem to be better than simple onlay bone grafts which are useful from an aesthetic point of view, but which neglect the underlying injuries with their concomitant functional sequelae, and which expose the patient to secondary sinus or cerebro-meningeal complications. They permit a single, total, simultaneous, and definitive repair of all the sequelae both functional and aesthetic; an approach which is more rational than successive surgical sessions. But they require: 1. Dura mater repair by suture and pericranial grafting. 2. Total isolation of cranial contents from the face. 3. Obliteration of the frontal sinus. It is therefore necessary to work with a combined neuro- and maxillo-facial team. Four cases are described to illustrate these proposed

  6. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  7. Nasal lift-nasal valve lift and nasal tip lift-preliminary results of a new technique using noninvasive self-retaining unidirectional nasal suspension with threads.

    PubMed

    Saban, Yves; Javier, De Benito; Massa, Michela

    2014-12-01

    In the context of nasal obstruction treatment, an alternative, no invasive technique is described. It consists in the suspension of the nasal valve or in the association of the suspension of the valve and rotation of the tip, through the placement of one or two absorbable threads, already known in aesthetic medicine. This technique allows to open the nasal valve and to correct the moderate closure of the nasolabial angle obtaining an immediate benefit of breathing. Functional improvement has been evaluated at regular intervals, that is, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and then provided for every 6 months, through the use of a visual scale of 0/10 to 10/10. In our experience, the technique allows to obtain satisfactory results, avoiding more invasive techniques and postoperative recovery days.

  8. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  9. [Complications and sequelae after nasal trauma].

    PubMed

    Calderón, R; Miralles, G; Rodríguez Urcelay, P; Berenguer, B; González Meli, B; Enríquez de Salamanca, J; Cervera, J

    2007-04-01

    Septal haematoma after nasal trauma is a complication that can lead to septal abscess if unrecognized or early intervention is not performed. It can cause compression and thereby necrosis that evolve to a septal abscess in which cultures reveal saprophyte bacteria. Cartilage necrosis and destruction can produce impaired breathing and aesthetic deformities with collapse of the dorsum and the tip of the nose. We present a 10 year old masculine infant, that suffered a nasal fracture with a septal haematoma that remained undiagnosed. The patient developed a septal abscess that required drainage and resulted in nasal sequelae with collapse of dorsum and cranial displacement of tip and columella. Functional and aesthetic reconstruction was performed using rib cartilage grafts. No complications occurred. Functional and aesthetic improvement was observed. Result after 2 months of follow-up is considered favourable.

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Sinonasal Tumors: Ghent University Hospital Update

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira Bonte, Katrien; Vakaet, Luc; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between July 1998 and November 2006, 84 patients with sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT to a median dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Of the 84 patients, 73 had a primary tumor and 11 had local recurrence. The tumor histologic type was adenocarcinoma in 54, squamous cell carcinoma in 17, esthesioneuroblastoma in 9, and adenoid cystic carcinoma in 4. The tumors were located in the ethmoid sinus in 47, maxillary sinus in 19, nasal cavity in 16, and multiple sites in 2. Postoperative IMRT was performed in 75 patients and 9 patients received primary IMRT. Results: The median follow-up of living patients was 40 months (range, 8-106). The 5-year local control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and freedom from distant metastasis rate was 70.7%, 58.5%, 67%, 59.3%, and 82.2%, respectively. No difference was found in local control and survival between patients with primary or recurrent tumors. On multivariate analysis, invasion of the cribriform plate was significantly associated with lower local control (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0001). Local and distant recurrence was detected in 19 and 10 patients, respectively. Radiation-induced blindness was not observed. One patient developed Grade 3 radiation-induced retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Nonocular late radiation-induced toxicity comprised complete lacrimal duct stenosis in 1 patient and brain necrosis in 3 patients. Osteoradionecrosis of the maxilla and brain necrosis were detected in 1 of the 5 reirradiated patients. Conclusion: IMRT for sinonasal tumors provides low rates of radiation-induced toxicity without blindness with high local control and survival. IMRT could be considered as the treatment of choi0008.

  11. Comparison of functional results after ethmoidectomy and nasalization for diffuse and severe nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, R; Pigret, D; Decroocq, F

    1997-07-01

    Taking advantage of a natural experimental situation, we compared, retrospectively, functional results after nasalization and ethmoidectomy for diffuse nasal polyposis. Nasalization was a radical ethmoidectomy systematically removing all the bony lamellae and mucosa within the labyrinth, with large antrostomy, sphenoidotomy, frontotomy, and middle turbinectomy (Surgeon 1, 39 consecutive patients operated on between March and September 1991). Ethmoidectomy was a less systematic procedure, that was adapted to the extent of the pathology (Surgeon 2, 37 consecutive patients, operated on between October 1991 and November 1994). In May 1994, a third physician mailed a questionnaire simultaneously to all patients including 10-point visual analog scales 34/39 patients in the nasalization group (age: 28-71 years: 20 asthmatics; follow-up: 32-36 months), and 29/37 patients in the ethmoidectomy group (age: 26-65 years: 9 asthmatics: follow-up: 18-31 months) participated in the study. The overall nasal improvement was 8.8 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) after nasalization and 5.9 +/- 0.6 after ethmoidectomy (p = 0.0001). Olfaction improvement was similar in both groups 6 months after surgery, remained at the same level 36 months after nasalization (6.9 +/- 0.7), but decreased to 4.2 +/- 1 points 24 months after ethmoidectomy (p = 0.02). Asthma improvement remained significantly better after nasalization (p = 0.05), and the need for systemic steroids was also lower (p = 0.03). Results of this study suggest that when dealing with nasal polyposis, the more radical the surgery, the better the functional results.

  12. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  13. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state.

  14. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum Infection With a Destructive Nasal Lesion Mimicking Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Takanori; Ishii, Makoto; Kikuchi, Taku; Kameyama, Kaori; Namkoong, Ho; Nakata, Noboru; Sugita, Kayoko; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Shimizu, Takayuki; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium marinum is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that mainly causes skin infection in immunocompetent patients, and its disseminated infection is rare. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) usually localizes at the nasal and/or paranasal area, but occasionally disseminates into the skin/soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Compromised immunity is a risk factor for developing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and malignant lymphoma, and the 2 diseases may share similar clinical presentation; however, only a few reports have described NTM infection mimicking malignant lymphoma. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of multiple progressive skin nodules and purulent nasal discharge for 3 weeks. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease with refractory enteropathic arthritis and has been treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents for 25 years. Fiberoptic nasal examination revealed septal perforation with hemorrhagic mucus and purulent rhinorrhea. Histological examination of the nasal septum revealed the infiltration of atypical medium-to-large-sized cells with erosion. The cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, and Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA. Histological examination of the skin nodules and auricle also showed infiltration of atypical lymphocytes. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with ENKL, and chemotherapy was considered. However, the skin lesions decreased in size after discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents and minocycline administration. Two weeks later, nasal septum and lavage fluid and left leg skin cultures were positive for M marinum, and minocycline was discontinued. The skin and the nasal lesions improved after 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated M marinum infection with a destructive nasal lesion mimicking ENKL. The differentiation between M marinum infection and ENKL is clinically important because

  15. A grading system for nasal dorsal deformities.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Matthew A; Gassner, Holger G; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2003-01-01

    There is no uniform grading system for nasal dorsal deformities currently in general use among surgeons who perform rhinoplasty. Given the popularity of this procedure among both the general public and surgeons, it is time that there was a uniform system describing dorsal deformities. Such a system has value in the education of students of rhinology and cosmetic nasal surgery. We have developed one such system, and applied it to 100 cases. In all cases it accurately describes the major pathological conditions of the dorsum, if present, as noted on physical examination. We have found application of this system to be facile.

  16. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  17. Nasal administration of an angiotensin antagonist in the rat model: effect of bioadhesive formulations on the distribution of drugs to the systemic and central nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Charlton, S T; Davis, S S; Illum, L

    2007-06-29

    The effect of bioadhesive formulations on the direct transport of an angiotensin antagonist drug ((14)C-GR138950) from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system was evaluated in a rat model. Three different bioadhesive polymer formulations (3% pectin LM-5, 1.0% pectin LM-12 and 0.5% chitosan G210) containing the drug were administered nasally to rats by inserting a dosing cannula 7mm into the nasal cavity after which the plasma and brain tissue levels were measured. It was found that the polymer formulations provided significantly higher plasma levels and significantly lower brain tissue levels of drug than a control, in the form of a simple drug solution. Changing the depth of insertion of the cannula from 7 to 15mm, in order to reach the olfactory region in the nasal cavity significantly decreased plasma levels and significantly increased brain tissue levels of drug for the two formulations studied (1.0% pectin LM-12 and a simple drug solution). There was no significant difference between the drug availability for the bioadhesive formulation and the control in the brain when the longer cannula was used for administration. It is suggested that the conventional rat model is not suitable for evaluation of the effects of bioadhesive formulations in nose-to-brain delivery.

  18. What's a Cavity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a cavity, it's important to get it repaired. But why would your ... and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost ...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  11. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  12. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  13. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  14. Two-piece nasal septum prosthesis for a large nasal septum perforation: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Sashi Purna, C R; Annapurna, P D; Ahmed, Syed Basheer; Vurla, Samyuktha; Nalla, Sandeep; Abhishek, S M

    2013-02-01

    Nasal septum perforation presents with the symptoms of epistaxis and crusting. Obturation of the defect will decrease the symptoms and increase patient comfort. Prosthetic closure is more predictable and thus the treatment of choice in larger defects. This article describes a procedure for construction of a magnet-retained, heat-processed acrylic nasal septum prosthesis. The two-piece nasal septum prosthesis was processed and joined together in situ by magnets. Each piece of the septum prosthesis conforms to the remaining medial wall of each nostril and forms the missing half of the nasal septum. The prosthesis not only alleviates symptoms, but also provides structural support to the saddle-shaped nose and improves esthetics.

  15. The role of High Mobility Group Box 1 chromosomal protein in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bellussi, L M; Chen, L; Chen, D; Passali, F M; Passali, D

    2012-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is considered to be a multifactorial disease where different stimuli (mechanical, viral, bacterial, fungal infection, immunological disorders or dysreactivity, environmental pollution), acting on the mucosa of nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, lead to epithelial damage and mucosal inflammation. Inflammatory cell infiltration (predominantly eosinophils, but also neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages and lymphocytes), cytokine release and sub-epithelial oedema are the histological pictures that are associated, from the clinical point of view, with nasal congestion, secretion and/or post-nasal drip and facial pain/headache. Recently, the importance of the HMG B-1 protein in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases has been demonstrated. This protein is released from necrotic/damaged cells or immune-activated cells, and by acting on specific membrane receptors causes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, endothelial activation and the survival of inflammatory cells. The objective of the present study was: i) to determine whether HMG B1 is augmented in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps; ii) if its expression is associated with eosinophils, TNF-α, IL 5 and IL 8 cytokines typically present in chronic inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses; iii) to investigate a hypothetical role of this protein in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps tissue from 21 patients affected by CRSwNP and nasal mucosa from 8 controls was collected at the ENT Department of the Chinese PLA General Hospital and underwent immunohistological staining for detection of HMG B1 protein and IL -5, IL -8 and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines. The degree of HMG B1 protein expression was evaluated by dividing the stained sections in 4 portions: 1) nucleus of epithelial cells, 2) cytoplasm of epithelial cells, 3) focal extracellular infiltration, 4) inflammatory cells. HMG B1 was more expressed in the nucleus of epithelial

  16. The influence of steroids on the vascular tension of isolated superficial nasal and facial veins in gilts during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the facial vein into the external jugular vein and through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus. The venous cavernous sinus is the site where hormones and pheromones permeate from venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to: (1) determine whether estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in maturating prepubertal gilts (PP) and in prepubertal gilts deprived of ovarian hormones (PPov), and (2) to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors (PR), and estradiol receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in these veins. The influence of hormones on the vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel, the hormonal status and dose of hormone used. Estradiol decreased the vascular tension in the nasal and facial veins of PP gilts (P < 0.01). In PPov gilts, the effect of E2 was opposing, however it caused strong tension in the proximal and distal parts of the facial vein (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Progesterone increased the vascular tension in the proximal segment of the nasal vein and in the distal segment of the frontal and facial veins, and decreased the tension in the distal segment of the nasal and facial veins (P < 0.05) of PP gilts. In PPov gilts, P4 produced strong increase in the tension of distal and proximal segments of the nasal vein (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and of distal segment of the facial vein (P < 0.01), strong decrease in the tension of the distal part of the nasal vein (P < 0.01) and had limited effect on other veins. Expression of ER beta, but not of PR, was observed in the superficial nasal and facial veins. In conclusion, the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins in

  17. Nasalance Changes Following Various Endonasal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Hazem Saeed; Elaassar, Ahmed Shaker; Anany, Ahmad Mohammad; Quriba, Amal Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is change in nasalance post endonasal surgery which is not permanent. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term nasalance changes following different types of endonasal surgeries. Methods We included in this study patients who underwent sinonasal surgery at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in Zagazig University Hospitals from February 2015 until March 2016. We divided the patients into two groups according to the surgeries they underwent: Group (A) was the FESS group and group (B), the septoturbinoplasty group. We checked nasalance using a nasometer before and after the sinonasal surgery. Results Nasalance increased at one month after the operation in both groups. However, it returned to nearly original levels within three months postoperatively. Conclusion FESS, septoplasty, and turbinate surgery may lead to hypernasal speech. This hypernasal speech can be a result of change in the shape and diameter of the resonating vocal tract. Hypernasal speech in these circumstances may be a temporary finding that can decrease with time. Surgeons should inform their patients about the possibility of hypernasality after such types of surgery, especially if they are professional voice users. PMID:28382115

  18. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  19. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  20. Sensory properties of selected terpenes. Thresholds for odor, nasal pungency, nasal localization, and eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H; Kumarsingh, R

    1998-11-30

    We tested four normosmics and four anosmics in detection thresholds for six terpenes commonly found indoors: cumene, p-cymene, delta-3-carene, linalool, 1,8-cineole and geraniol. Normosmics provided odor thresholds and anosmics provided nasal pungency thresholds. All subjects provided nasal localization (i.e., right/left nostril) and eye irritation thresholds. Each type of threshold was measured eight times per subject-stimulus combination. Stimuli were presented from squeeze bottles in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure via an ascending method of limits. Odor thresholds ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 parts per million (ppm, by volume). Nasal pungency thresholds lay about three orders of magnitude above odor thresholds. Nasal localization and eye irritation thresholds did not differ between normosmics and anosmics, and fell close to nasal pungency thresholds. Olfactory thresholds could be obtained for all stimuli in all repetitions using the criterion of five correct choices in a row. Trigeminal thresholds (i.e., pungency, localization and eye irritation) could be obtained on all repetitions only for some terpenes using that same criterion. Carene and cineol produced nasal pungency and eye irritation on all repetitions. None of the terpenes could be localized on all repetitions, but cineol was localized a higher percentage of instances than were the other stimuli. At the other extreme, geraniol failed to evoke any of the three trigeminal responses in most instances. Overall, the results indicate that the three trigeminal thresholds produce a uniform view of the potency of these terpenes, with nasal pungency and eye irritation being slightly more sensitive than nasal localization. Furthermore, application of a previously derived linear solvation energy relationship to the results reinforced the view that physicochemical properties can predict the chemesthetic impact of volatile organic compounds.