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Sample records for nasal salt glands

  1. Hypertonic fluids are secreted by medial and lateral segments in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal salt glands.

    PubMed

    Butler, David G

    2002-05-01

    Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is a functional symmetry between the left and right salt glands, (b) the medial segment always secretes fluid at approximately twice the rate of the lateral segment and (c) fluid secreted by the medial segment has the same ionic composition but variable ion concentrations when compared with fluid from the lateral segment. A 12 % increase in post-segmental fluid osmolality was probably due to the evaporation of water from epithelial surfaces in the nasal cavities during breathing. A post-segmental outflux of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-) in the medial and lateral collecting ducts and/or nasal epithelium may be of adaptive significance when birds inhabit calcium- and magnesium-rich marine environments. PMID:11986388

  2. Hypertonic fluids are secreted by medial and lateral segments in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal salt glands

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David G

    2002-01-01

    Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is a functional symmetry between the left and right salt glands, (b) the medial segment always secretes fluid at approximately twice the rate of the lateral segment and (c) fluid secreted by the medial segment has the same ionic composition but variable ion concentrations when compared with fluid from the lateral segment. A 12 % increase in post-segmental fluid osmolality was probably due to the evaporation of water from epithelial surfaces in the nasal cavities during breathing. A post-segmental outflux of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl− in the medial and lateral collecting ducts and/or nasal epithelium may be of adaptive significance when birds inhabit calcium- and magnesium-rich marine environments. PMID:11986388

  3. Microvasculature of the nasal salt gland of the duckling, Anas platyrhynchos: quantitative responses to osmotic adaptation and deadaptation studied with vascular corrosion casting.

    PubMed

    Hossler, F E; Olson, K R

    1990-06-01

    The three-dimensional microvasculature of the nasal salt gland of the duckling was studied by vascular corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in the vascular volume of the gland in response to osmotic stress were also determined using cast weights and densities. The richly vascularized gland is supplied on its medial surface by large branches of the supraorbital and ethmoidal arteries. Numerous arterial branches enter the gland and distribute to lobes via the interlobar connective tissue. Lobar arterioles penetrate to the periductal areas of the lobes before dividing into capillaries supplying the ductal epithelium and secretory tubules. Capillaries envelope the secretory tubules and run radially from the ducts toward the lobe periphery, so that blood flows counter to the tubular secretion. Blood is collected via venous plexuses seen as distinct drainage units on the periphery of each lobe. Veins exhibit large numbers of bicuspid valves. Following 1 day and 4 days of osmotic loading (feeding 1% NaCl), vascular volume of the gland increased fivefold and ninefold, respectively, a response that precedes and exceeds that of the gland weight or Na,K-ATPase activity. When salt water-adapted ducklings were fed fresh water for only 24 hr (deadaptation), vascular volume fell to 2.8 times the control level. Changes in blood flow to the gland during osmotic adaptation and deadaptation are rapid and dramatic and may represent the initial steps in the control of gland secretion.

  4. Lead toxicosis and salt glands in domestic ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiani, S.S.; Rindi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supraorbital nasal glands (salt glands), although present in all birds, have an important functional significance in marine birds and water fowl. In these species, such organs are remarkably developed and it has been demonstrated these nasal glands provide an extra-renal pathway for the excretion of sodium chloride mostly when the environmental conditions oblige these birds to consume quantities of salt greater than their relative ability of renal clearance. In the light of these facts and knowing the interaction of lead on the ATP-ase activity, we have analyzed the nasal glands from domestic ducks lead-dosed, upon various experimental conditions.

  5. Necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the mucous glands of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H

    1977-09-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia was found in maxillary sinus mucous glands of an 83 year old woman who had undergone a radical maxillectomy for basal cell carcinoma 10 days earlier. Previously recognized as an ulcerating lesion involving salivary glands in the oral cavity, this benign reactive process may also occur in the mucous glands of the nasal cavity and sinuses and can simulate squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Ischemia appears to be pathogenetic.

  6. [Nasal endoscope surgery of acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland on nasal septum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jizhe

    2016-02-01

    A 67-year-old male patient was admitted because of "the right side nasal obstruction repeatedly for 4 years". He got nasal obstruction 4 years ago, especially for the right side nasal cavity, sometimes got blood in his nasal discharge, then the symptom relieved after accepting treatment in local hospital. During the 4 years, the symptom repeatedly occurrence. Three days before hospitalization, the CT examination indicated abnormal things in his nasal cavity and the bone of his nasal sinus had been destroyed. Some abnormal organism were sent to pathological examination, and the report indicated it is acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. During the nasal endoscope surgery, a red goiter was found in his nose with its surface crude and brittle. Then we cut the goiter by nasal endoscope, during the operation we find the bottom of the goiter is on the nasal septum. Two weeks after the operation, the patient received the radiation therapy. One year after the operation he doesn't get the abnormal symptom and the nasal MRI not found recidivation. PMID:27373103

  7. Morphological and biochemical evidence for the evolution of salt glands in snakes.

    PubMed

    Babonis, Leslie S; Evans, David H

    2011-11-01

    Vertebrate salt glands have evolved independently multiple times, yet there are few hypotheses about the processes underlying the convergent evolution of salt glands across taxa. Here, we compare the morphology and molecular biology of specialized salt-secreting glands from a marine snake (Laticauda semifasciata) with the cephalic glands from semi-marine (Nerodia clarkii clarkii) and freshwater (N. fasciata) watersnakes to look for evidence of a salt gland in the former and to develop hypotheses about the evolution of snake salt glands. Like the salt gland of L. semifasciata, the nasal and anterior/posterior sublingual glands in both species of Nerodia exhibit a compound tubular shape, and express basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-)cotransporter (NKCC); however, the abundance of NKA and NKCC in N. fasciata appears lower than in N. c. clarkii. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is also basolateral in the sublingual glands of both species of Nerodia, as is abundant neutral mucin; both AQP3 and mucin are absent from the salt gland in L. semifasciata. Thus, we propose that the evolution of the snake salt gland by co-option of an existing gland involved at least two steps: (i) an increase in the abundance of NKA and NKCC in the basolateral membranes of the secretory epithelia, and (ii) loss of AQP3/mucus secretion from these epithelia.

  8. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  9. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  10. The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species.

    PubMed

    Kratzing, J E

    1984-10-01

    The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species were studied by light and electron microscopy. The species studied were the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus), the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis). Glands were grouped and described according to their location. Those of general distribution (goblet cells and olfactory glands) were similar in structures and distribution in all specimens. Glands of the lateral nasal wall include the lateral nasal, maxillary sinus and turbinate glands. The lateral nasal and maxillary sinus glands were absent in the adult koala but occupied large areas in the other species. Turbinate glands were best developed rostrally and ventrally in the nasal cavity. On the nasal septum, Tarsipes and Isoodon had well developed glands associated with vascular 'swell bodies'. These were poorly developed to Macropus though septal glands were abundant. 'Swell bodies' were absent in Phascolarctos and glands were sparse. Tubular vomeronasal glands were present in all species and most extensive in Tarsipes. In Isoodon, there was a posterior ventral septal gland associated with the septal olfactory organ. The fine structural features of secretory cells and ducts are described and their potential role discussed in terms of chemoreception and temperature and humidity control. PMID:6490535

  11. The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1984-01-01

    The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species were studied by light and electron microscopy. The species studied were the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus), the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis). Glands were grouped and described according to their location. Those of general distribution (goblet cells and olfactory glands) were similar in structures and distribution in all specimens. Glands of the lateral nasal wall include the lateral nasal, maxillary sinus and turbinate glands. The lateral nasal and maxillary sinus glands were absent in the adult koala but occupied large areas in the other species. Turbinate glands were best developed rostrally and ventrally in the nasal cavity. On the nasal septum, Tarsipes and Isoodon had well developed glands associated with vascular 'swell bodies'. These were poorly developed to Macropus though septal glands were abundant. 'Swell bodies' were absent in Phascolarctos and glands were sparse. Tubular vomeronasal glands were present in all species and most extensive in Tarsipes. In Isoodon, there was a posterior ventral septal gland associated with the septal olfactory organ. The fine structural features of secretory cells and ducts are described and their potential role discussed in terms of chemoreception and temperature and humidity control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6490535

  12. Autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptors in rat nasal glands.

    PubMed

    Van Megen, Y J; Teunissen, M J; Klaassen, A B; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for the biochemical and autoradiographic demonstration of low muscarinic receptor densities in peripheral tissue. Histological criteria point clearly to the necessity for fixation to preserve tissue quality. [3H]l-Quinuclidinylbenzilate bound specifically to a homogeneous class of binding sites in 0.5% glutardialdehyde-fixed cryostat sections (10 microns) of rat nasal glands with high affinity (Kd = 0.47 +/- 0.06 nM) and with a receptor density (Bmax) of 41 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein. This binding was linearly dependent on the thickness of the sections. Kinetic experiments resulted in a Kd value of 0.19 nM. Binding was stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Autoradiograms, generated after incubation with 0.6 nM [3H]l-quinuclidinylbenzilate and dipping in nuclear K2 emulsion, showed specific labelling of the glandular acini and excretory ducts. These in vitro observations provide conclusive evidence for the presence of acetylcholine receptors in the nasal glands of the rat. PMID:2450760

  13. [Mucinous cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland of the nasal fossa].

    PubMed

    Cano Cuenca, B; Giménez Vaillo, F; Pérez Climent, F; García Roig, J

    2000-01-01

    Tumors of minor nasal salivary glands are relatively sparse. The case reported is a monomorph adenoma of benign character, which first clinical diagnosis mimicked a naso-sinusal polyposis. Examination of the removed piece by functional endoscopic surgery firstly was considered as an adenocarcinoma of low malignity degree but afterwards resulted as a mucinous cysto-adenoma of minor salivary glands with favorable clinical behaviour.

  14. An Unusual Outbreak of Chlamydiosis in Commercial Turkeys Involving the Nasal Glands.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Carnaccini, S; Bland, M; Aaziz, R; Moeller, R; Laroucau, K

    2015-06-01

    An unusual outbreak of chlamydiosis was diagnosed in 15,000, 13-wk-old organically grown turkeys housed in a semiconfinement housing system. The disease was characterized by unilateral or bilateral swelling above the eye due to mild-to-severe inflammation of the nasal glands in 3%-5% of the birds. Except for a slight drop in feed and water consumption, the birds did not exhibit any respiratory signs, morbidity, and mortality. Chlamydiosis in the turkeys was confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and PCR assay of the nasal glands. Other samples such as conjunctiva, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, and feces were negative for chlamydia by florescence antibody test in birds submitted over several weeks. Chlamydia psittaci strain B was isolated in chicken egg embryos and typed by multilocus sequence variable number of tandem repeats analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and ompA gene sequencing as a CP3-like strain. This is the first report of a naturally occurring chlamydiosis affecting the nasal glands in turkeys. PMID:26473684

  15. [The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2006-08-01

    The leaves of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were scanned with a scanning electron microscope, it showed that the upper-epidermis had almost the same number of salt glands as the lower-epidermis (Plate I-1, 2), and the salt gland is the typical bicelluar gland, which consists of a large basal cell inlaid into the epidermis and a small cap cell (Plate I-6). These salt glands were distributed mainly on the leaf veins, which favors the rapid collection of salts from the roots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the salt glands could effectively absorb Na(+) from the epidermal cells and mesophyllous cells (Table 1), then secreted Na(+) from the cap cells (Plate I-4), which would decrease the salinity of plant. After the plants were treated with various salts for 17 d, the ion contents of the leaves and the secretion were measured, and the results implied that salt glands had different selection in absorbing and secreting Na(+) , K(+) and Ca(2+), that is, the plants first selected K(+) when absorbing ions, while first selected Na(+) when sending ions out, but Ca(2+) was fewer in both absorbed and secreted, and the order of secretion of the three ions was found to be Na(+)>K(+)>Ca(2+) (Figs. 1-6). The secretion of Na(+) or three ions were respectively higher than that of leaves within 24 h (Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), while K(+) situation was completely opposite with them (Figs. 3, 4). At the same time, the total ion content and composition inside the leaves remained more or less constant (Fig. 8). PMID:16957392

  16. Control of salt gland activity in the hatchling green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed

    Reina, R D; Cooper, P D

    2000-02-01

    We studied the control of salt gland secretion in hatchling Chelonia mydas. The threshold salt load to activate salt secretion was between 400 mumol NaCl 100 g bodymass (BM)-1 and 600 mumol NaCl 100 g BM-1, which caused an increase in plasma sodium concentration of 13% to 19%. Following a salt load of 2700 mumol NaCl 100 g BM-1, salt gland secretion commenced in 12 +/- 1.3 min and reached maximal secretory concentration within 2-7 min. Maximal secretory rate of a single gland averaged 415 mumol Na 100 g BM-1 h-1. Plasma sodium concentration and total osmotic concentration after salt loading were significantly higher than pretreatment values within 2 min. Adrenalin (25 micrograms kg BM-1) and the cholinergic agonist methacholine (1 mg kg BM-1) inhibited salt gland activity. Atropine (10 mg kg BM-1) reversed methacholine inhibition and stimulated salt gland secretion when administered with a subthreshold salt load. Arginine vasotocin produced a transient reduction in sodium secretion by the active gland, while atrial natriuretic factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y had no measurable effect on any aspect of salt gland secretion. Our results demonstrated that secretion of the salt gland in C. mydas can be modified by neural and hormonal chemicals in vivo and that the cholinergic and adrenergic stimulation of an exocrine gland do not appear to have the typical, antagonist actions on the chelonian salt gland.

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of crustacean larval salt gland.

    PubMed

    Lowy, R J; Conte, F P

    1985-06-01

    A batch method for isolating viable salt glands from the naupliar brine shrimp (Artemia salina) has been developed. This protocol produces a final preparation consisting of approximately 185 isolated salt glands, representing 1 X 10(4) secretory cells/g wet wt nauplii, with a final purity of 88%. Assays of cell integrity and function indicate good retention of in situ characteristics. Vital dye was excluded by 95% of the cells for at least 24 h. The O2 consumption rate was 22.7 nM O2 X min-1 X mg protein-1 and could be altered predictably by compounds known to affect oxidative phosphorylation and ion transport. The specific activity of the Na+-K+-ATPase in the salt gland, measured here for the first time, was 9.1 mM Pi X h-1 X mg protein-1. This is a substantial proportion of the body total, 17%, as expected for an active ion-transporting epithelium. PMID:2988351

  18. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  19. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  20. Metabolic activation of phenacetin in rat nasal mucosa: dose-dependent binding to the glands of Bowman

    SciTech Connect

    Brittebo, E.B.

    1987-03-01

    The metabolism and binding of the analgetic drug (ring-/sup 3/H)phenacetin in the nasal mucosa were studied in vitro and in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. As shown by whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography there was an irreversible binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa after high but not after low doses of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. In the other tissues, the distribution of radioactivity was not changed when the dose was increased. Autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)-acetaminophen showed no preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. At incubation of nasal septa with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin in vitro, a binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman was observed indicating that the metabolism occurred in situ. In rats, glutathione (GSH) depleted by pretreatment with phorone, there was a binding to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa also after a trace dose of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. Addition of GSH decreased the irreversible binding of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin metabolites that occurred in 9000 X g nasal mucosa supernatants incubated with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. There was a moderate decrease in the level of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH, in the olfactory mucosa after administration of 100-300 mg/kg phenacetin. Collectively, these data suggest that phenacetin is metabolized and subsequent to GSH depletion, bound preferentially in the glands of Bowman. The data also suggest that in situ metabolic activation and binding of phenacetin in the rat nasal mucosa at high doses may play a role in the pathogenesis of the nasal tumors induced by high doses of phenacetin in the rat.

  1. Proteome profile of salt gland-rich epidermis extracted from a salt-tolerant tree species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Ang, Yiqian; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of proteins from salt-gland-rich tissues of mangrove plant is necessary for a systematic study of proteins involved in the plant's unique desalination mechanism. Extraction of high-quality proteins from the leaves of mangrove tree species, however, is difficult due to the presence of high levels of endogenous phenolic compounds. In our study, preparation of proteins from only a part of the leaf tissues (i.e. salt gland-rich epidermal layers) was required, rendering extraction even more challenging. By comparing several extraction methods, we developed a reliable procedure for obtaining proteins from salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. Protein extraction was markedly improved using a phenol-based extraction method. Greater resolution 1D protein gel profiles could be obtained. More promising proteome profiles could be obtained through 1D-LC-MS/MS. The number of proteins detected was twice as much as compared to TUTS extraction method. Focusing on proteins that were solely present in each extraction method, phenol-based extracts contained nearly ten times more proteins than those in the extracts without using phenol. The approach could thus be applied for downstream high-throughput proteomic analyses involving LC-MS/MS or equivalent. The proteomics data presented herein are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001691.

  2. The distribution of intracellular ions in the avian salt gland

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of salt secretion in the avian salt gland, we used quantitative electron probe microanalysis to measure the intracellular elemental concentrations in dry cryosections of unspecialized and partially specialized secretory epithelial cells from fresh water- and salt water-adapted ducklings, respectively. In conjunction with this, human and duckling erythrocytes were also analyzed, since these provided the experimental basis for using in situ erythrocytes as standards for determining the local water content of epithelia from the analysis of dried cryosections. The microprobe results from both types of erythrocytes compared favorably with chemical determinations of elemental concentrations. The nucleated avian erythrocytes, whose wet-weight elemental concentrations were determined by a compartmental analysis that required neither a peripheral standard nor a measure of the local mass, revealed a marked accumulation of P and K in the nucleus (388 and 190 mmol/kg wet wt, respectively) relative to the cytoplasm (67 and 85 mmol/kg wet wt). In both developmental states of the epithelial cells, the nucleus and apical cytoplasm had essentially similar and unremarkable concentrations of Na (76 and 83 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively, in the adapted cells vs. 72 and 81 mmol/kg dry wt in the control cells) and K (602 and 423 mmol/kg dry wt vs. 451 and 442 mmol/kg dry wt). Chloride, however, which was in general rather high, was significantly depressed in the apical cytoplasm of adapted cells only (164 and 124 mmol/kg dry wt in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, of adapted cells (P less than 0.05) vs. 138 and 157 mmol/kg dry wt for control cells (P less than 0.05). Cation concentrations (Na + K) were elevated approximately 15% in the basal regions of adapted cells as compared with apical cytoplasm. When tissue water variations are accounted for, the results suggest that: (a) an active, energy-requiring process is responsible for chloride accumulation

  3. Granulomatous inflammation of salt glands in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) associated with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, Robert; Müller, Christian; Polster, Ulf; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Teifke, Jens Peter

    2005-06-01

    The "nasal glands" occur in many bird species and are powerful sodium ion-excretory organs. In ducks, they are located in supraorbital bony recesses. Granulomatous inflammation of these glands occurs with an incidence of approximately 1% in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and is not associated with specific clinical symptoms. We investigated nine glands of eight animals with granulomas by gross pathology and histopathology, and compared results of bacteriology with 20 non-lesioned nasal glands. Adenitis was characterized by multifocal to coalescent heterophilic granulomas with central necrotic heterophils, and multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Within the centres of the granulomas, there were clusters of Gram-negative bacteria that were identified as halo-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Aeromonas hydrophila. Normal glands contained exclusively various halo-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria, mostly Streptococcus sp. and Enterococcus sp. The distribution of lesions and lack of clinical symptoms were suggestive of a localized ascending infection via the secretory ductules. PMID:16191707

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  5. Organophosphate inhibition of avian salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    1. Adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given freshwater or saltwater (1.5% NaCl) for 11 days and half of each group was also given an organophosphate (17 p.p.m. fenthion) in the diet on days 6-11. 2. After 11 days, ducks drinking saltwater had lost more weight and had higher plasma Na and uric acid concentrations and osmolalities than birds drinking freshwater. 3. Saltwater treatment stimulated the salt gland to increased weight and Na, K-ATPase activity. 4. Fenthion generally reduced plasma and brain cholinesterase activity and depressed cholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase activities in salt glands of birds drinking saltwater.

  6. Osmoregulation and salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity following exposure to the anticholinesterase fenthion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water (FW, SW) and mash containing vehicle or 21 ppm fenthion (Fn) on days 1-7 and 7-12 of this study. The 8 treatments (day 1-7:day 7-12) included :FW:FW, FW:FW+Fn, FW:SW, FW+Fn:SW, FW:SW+Fn, FW+Fn:SW+FN, SW;SW, and SW:5W+Fn. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture on days 1,7 and 12, and then sacrificed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-52% and 14-26%) by Fn. However, plasma Na, Cl and osmolality, as indirect but cumulative indices of salt gland function, were uniformly elevated in all SW groups including those receiving Fn. In a second experiment, salt gland Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced after in vitro incubation with DDE (40 and 400 ?M; positive control), but was unaffected by Fn and its oxygen analog (0.04-400 ?M). The present findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not affect osmoregulatory function in adult ducks.

  7. Structural features of the salt glands of the leaf of Distichlis spicata 'Yensen 4a' (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Semenova, Galina A; Fomina, Irina R; Biel, Karl Y

    2010-04-01

    The epidermal salt glands of the leaf of Distichlis spicata 'Yensen 4a' (Poaceae) have a direct contact with one or two water-storing parenchyma cells, which act as collecting cells. A vacuole occupying almost the whole volume of the collecting cell has a direct exit into the extracellular space (apoplast) through the invaginations of the parietal layer of the cytoplasm, which is interrupted in some areas so that the vacuolar-apoplastic continuum is separated only by a single thin membrane, which looks as a valve. On the basis of ultrastructural morphological data (two shapes of the extracellular channels, narrow and extended, are found in basal cells), the hypothesis on the mechanical nature of the salt pump in the basal cell of Distichlis leaf salt gland is proposed. According to the hypothesis, a driving force giving ordered motion to salt solution from the vacuole of the collecting cell through the basal cell of the salt gland to cap cell arises from the impulses of a mechanical compression-expansion of plasma membrane, which penetrates the basal cell in the form of extracellular channels. The acts of compression-expansion of these extracellular channels can be realized by numerous microtubules present in the basal cell cytoplasm.

  8. Salt glands in the Jurassic metriorhynchid Geosaurus: implications for the evolution of osmoregulation in Mesozoic marine crocodyliforms.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marta; Gasparini, Zulma

    2008-01-01

    The presence of salt-excreting glands in extinct marine sauropsids has been long suspected based on skull morphology. Previously, we described for the first time the natural casts of salt-excreting glands in the head of the Jurassic metriorhynchid crocodyliform Geosaurus araucanensis from the Tithonian of the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina). In the present study, salt-excreting glands are identified in three new individuals (adult, a sub-adult and a juvenile) referable to the same species. New material provides significant information on the salt glands form and function and permit integration of evolutionary scenarios proposed on a physiological basis in extant taxa with evidence from the fossil record. G. araucanensis represents an advanced stage of the basic physiological model to marine adaptations in reptiles. G. araucanensis salt glands were hypertrophied. On this basis, it can be hypothesized that these glands had a high excretory capability. This stage implies that G. araucanensis (like extant pelagic reptiles, e.g. cheloniids) could have maintained constant plasma osmolality even when seawater or osmoconforming prey were ingested. A gradual model of marine adaptation in crocodyliforms based on physiology (freshwater to coastal/estuarine to estuarine /marine to pelagic life) is congruent with the phylogeny of crocodyliforms based on skeletal morphology. The fossil record suggests that the stage of marine pelagic adaptation was achieved by the Early Middle Jurassic. Salt gland size in the juvenile suggests that juveniles were, like adults, pelagic.

  9. Effect of colchicine on sensitivity of duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase to Na+.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, S S; Kumskova, E M; Rubtsov, A M; Lopina, O D

    2008-09-01

    Low molecular mass proteins of the FXYD family that affect the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ and K+ are known to be present in Na,K-ATPases in various tissues. In particular, in Na,K-ATPase from kidney a gamma-subunit (with electrophoretic mobility corresponding to molecular mass of about 10 kD) is present, and Na,K-ATPase preparations from heart contain phospholemman (electrophoretic mobility of this protein corresponds to molecular mass of 13-14 kD), which provides for the interaction of heart Na,K-ATPase with cytoskeletal microtubules. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine removes phospholemman from heart Na,K-ATPase preparations. The goal of the present study was to reveal a low molecular mass protein (probably a member of FXYD family) in preparation of Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase using antibodies against alpha1-subunit results in the coprecipitation of a 13 kD protein with the Na,K-ATPase complex. Treatment of homogenate from duck salt glands with colchicine removes this protein from the purified preparation of Na,K-ATPase. Simultaneously, we observed a decrease in the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ at pH 6.5. However, colchicine treatment of homogenate from rabbit kidney does not affect either the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase obtained from this homogenate to Na+ or the content of 10 kD protein (presumably gamma-subunit). The data suggest that phospholemman (or a similar member of the FXYD family) tightly interacts with Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands and binds it to microtubules, simultaneously participating in the regulation of the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+. PMID:18976215

  10. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ... device or a Water Pik® with a nasal irrigation nozzle. Warm water with baking soda or salt ( ...

  11. K(+) accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the salt gland cells of Limonium bicolor accompanies increased rates of salt secretion under NaCl treatment using NanoSIMS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhong-Tao; Deng, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Shi-Chao; Liang, Xue; Yuan, Fang; Hao, Jia-Long; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Sun, Shu-Feng; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Recretohalophytes with specialized salt-secreting structures (salt glands) can secrete excess salts from plant, while discriminating between Na(+) and K(+). K(+)/Na(+) ratio plays an important role in plant salt tolerance, but the distribution and role of K(+) in the salt gland cells is poorly understood. In this article, the in situ subcellular localization of K and Na in the salt gland of the recretohalophyte Limonium bicolor Kuntze is described. Samples were prepared by high-pressure freezing (HPF), freeze substitution (FS) and analyzed using NanoSIMS. The salt gland of L. bicolor consists of sixteen cells. Higher signal strength of Na(+) was located in the apoplast of salt gland cells. Compared with control, 200 mM NaCl treatment led to higher signal strength of K(+) and Na(+) in both cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells although K(+)/Na(+) ratio in both cytoplasm and nucleus were slightly reduced by NaCl. Moreover, the rate of Na(+) secretion per salt gland of L. bicolor treated with 200 mM NaCl was five times that of controls. These results suggest that K(+) accumulation both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells under salinity may play an important role in salt secretion, although the exact mechanism is unknown.

  12. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  13. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysisof leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. under NaCl salinity.

    PubMed

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Abdallah, Atia; Najla, Trabelsi; Wahbi, Djebali; Wided, Chaïbi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderazzak, Smaoui

    2015-11-01

    Leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) system, after growing for three months on sandy soil with or without 300 mM NaCl. Results showed that salt glands were irregularly scattered on both leaf sides and sunk under the epidermal level. Salt excretion occurred in both conditions and is mainly composed of calcium and magnesium in control plants, and essentially sodium and chloride in plants subjected to salt treatment. A salt gland is comprised of collecting, accumulating, and central compartments, and is made up of total thirty-two cells. The collecting cells were characterized by large central vacuoles. Accumulating cells contain numerous, large, and unshaped vacuoles and rudimentary chloroplasts. The central compartment was comprised of four basal cells and each one is surmounted by an apical cell. The basal cells are granulated, containing large nucleus, numerous mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, and small vacuoles or vesicles. Equally, the apical cells are rich in organelles. Application of 300 mM NaCl to the culture medium increased vacuoles number and size, and organelles density especially the mitochondria which suggests energy requirement for ions transport. The reduction in size and number of vacuoles toward the interior of salt glands of treated plants and the fusion of the smallest ones with the plasma membrane substantiate the implication of such vacuoles in salt excretion process. The current study which is the first report on L. guyonianum salt gland has provided an in-depth understanding on structure-function relationship in the multicellular salt glands.

  14. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer.

  15. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  16. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  17. Denervation of nasal mucosa induced by posterior nasal neurectomy suppresses nasal secretion, not hypersensitivity, in an allergic rhinitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity. PMID:27322954

  18. Surviving in a semi-marine habitat: Dietary salt exposure and salt secretion of a New Zealand intertidal skink.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Jordi; Towns, David R; Duxbury, Mark; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2015-11-01

    Species that inhabit marine and intertidal ecosystems face osmoregulatory challenges, risking dehydration and increased ion concentrations in the body. Lizards need to either tolerate or regulate these increased ion concentrations. In this study, we aim to understand how Suter's skink (Oligosoma suteri), an intertidal skink restricted to shoreline habitats, is able to cope with the physiological stress of living in an extreme salt environment. We determined the diet, prey species' salt content, and nasal and cloacal salt excretion on Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands in northern New Zealand, where the skinks have contrasting access to terrestrial invertebrates. Analysis of stable isotopes suggests inter- and intra-population variability in Suter's skink diets. Intertidal invertebrates under washed up seaweed appear to compose a major part of the diet of the Rangitoto population, while the Motutapu population showed evidence for a mixed diet of terrestrial and intertidal invertebrates. Sodium content of prey species decreased with an increasing distance from the seawater. Field secretion of cations through nasal glands consisted primarily of Na(+), which is consistent with other marine and intertidal species. Sodium was also the primary cation in urine. In contrast, fecal cations consisted primarily of K(+). This first study into the salt secretion of an intertidal skink species provides evidence of Suter's skink's plasticity in secreting excess ions through nasal salt glands. This likely enables it to deal with the challenges of living in a semi-marine habitat.

  19. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  20. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose is constantly exposed to inhaled debris and microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungus). The respiratory system has ... Mucus is designed to trap inhaled particles (including microbes) that are subsequently cleared from the airways. Nasal ...

  1. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, K T

    1982-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the mucous membrane of a nasal turbinate is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limited process characterized by necrosis and squamous metaplasia of the salivary or mucous glands. Typically, the lesion manifests as an ulcer of the hard palate. Nonulcerated lesions and involvement of sites other than the hard palate have also been reported. This case appears to be the second reported case of involvement of the nasal cavity by necrotizing sialometaplasia.

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate causing epiphora.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bekir; Selçuk, Ömer Tarik; Gürses, Cemil; Osma, Üstün; Köroğlu, Mert; Süren, Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. A 62-year-old female patient presented with epiphora and was suffering from breathing difficulties. With the diagnostic nasal endoscopy, a mass, originating from right inferior nasal turbinate and filling the entire nasal cavity, was seen. Originating from the inferior nasal turbinate is a very rare entity. Paranasal sinus computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a mass that fills and expands the right nasal cavity. Mass was hypoechoic in B-mode ultrasonography and hypovascular in color Doppler ultrasonography, and rate of tissue stiffness was high in sonoelastography. These were helpful for the diagnosis.

  3. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

  4. A novel defensive mechanism against acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse lateral nasal gland: role of CYP2A5-mediated regulation of testosterone homeostasis and salivary androgen-binding protein expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wei, Yuan; Xie, Fang; Laukaitis, Christina M; Karn, Robert C; Kluetzman, Kerri; Gu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Roberts, Dean W; Ding, Xinxin

    2011-04-01

    To identify novel factors or mechanisms that are important for the resistance of tissues to chemical toxicity, we have determined the mechanisms underlying the previously observed increases in resistance to acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the lateral nasal gland (LNG) of the male Cyp2g1-null/Cyp2a5-low mouse. Initial studies established that Cyp2a5-null mice, but not a newly generated strain of Cyp2g1-null mice, were resistant to APAP toxicity in the LNG; therefore, subsequent studies were focused on the Cyp2a5-null mice. Compared with the wild-type (WT) male mouse, the Cyp2a5-null male mouse had intact capability to metabolize APAP to reactive intermediates in the LNG, as well as unaltered circulating levels of APAP, APAP-GSH, APAP-glucuronide, and APAP-sulfate. However, it displayed reduced tissue levels of APAP and APAP-GSH and increased tissue levels of testosterone and salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) in the LNG. Furthermore, we found that ABP was able to compete with GSH and cellular proteins for adduction with reactive metabolites of APAP in vitro. The amounts of APAP-ABP adducts formed in vivo were greater, whereas the amounts of APAP adducts formed with other cellular proteins were substantially lower, in the LNG of APAP-treated male Cyp2a5-null mice compared with the LNG of APAP-treated male WT mice. We propose that through its critical role in testosterone metabolism, CYP2A5 regulates 1) the bioavailability of APAP and APAP-GSH (presumably through modulation of the rates of xenobiotic excretion from the LNG) and 2) the expression of ABP, which can quench reactive APAP metabolites and thereby spare critical cellular proteins from inactivation.

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Jassar, P; Stafford, N D; MacDonald, A W

    1999-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumour of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in minor salivary glands, mainly in the oral cavity, but also in other sites in the head and neck both within and outwith the upper aerodigestive tract. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with consideration of the clinical management and a review of the literature.

  6. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies. It is also used to treat nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone ... are using mometasone nasal spray to treat nasal polyps, it is usually sprayed in each nostril once ...

  7. Tumoral mass presenting in the nasomalar region arising from the lateral nasal wall: pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Mustafa Zafer; Onal, Kazim; Demiray, Utku; Ekinci, Neşe

    2007-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Although the major salivary glands are the most common sites of its origin, it can also occur in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity and rarely in the neck, ear, nasal cavity and larynx. We report a rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma arising from lateral nasal wall and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment approaches with the review of the literature.

  8. Desmopressin Nasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... to stop bleeding in people who have certain bleeding disorders. Desmopressin is in a class of medications called hormones. It works by replacing vasopressin, a hormone that is normally produced in the body to help balance the amount of water and salt.

  9. The formation and continuous turnover of a fraction of phosphatidic acid on stimulation of NaC1 secretion by acetylcholine in the salt gland.

    PubMed

    Hokin, M R; Hokin, L E

    1967-03-01

    Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by (32)P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 micromoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-(14)C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT(32)P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O(2) uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total (32)P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process.

  10. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  12. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Located above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by ... messages. In response to hormonal messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH ( ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  14. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: Adrenal Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid

  15. Necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Maisel, R H; Johnston, W H; Anderson, H A; Cantrell, R W

    1977-03-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a disease process which affects minor salivary glands. It may clinically and microscopically resemble squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma but is histologically benign. Thirteen patients with this process occurring on the hard palate have been reported in the past two years. We describe two cases in the nasal cavity and propose that compromise of the blood supply contributed to the occurrence of these lesions. This apparently benign lesion may represent nonspecific reaction of salivary and mucous glands to ischemic injury and must be distinguished from carcinoma.

  16. [One case of pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang; Xu, Xuehai

    2014-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. Originating from the nasal cavity is very rare. This paper reports one case of pleomorphic adenoma of the inferior nasal turbinate to analyze the clinic characteristic of this disease. Although these tumors are rarely seen in everyday practice, one should consider this possibility as an uncommon aetiology when confronted with an intranasal mass.

  17. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  18. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  19. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  20. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  1. [Myoepithelioma of nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Hongqun

    2015-03-01

    Myoepithelioma is an uncommon benign tumor that most likely occurs in the salivary gland. Extra-salivary myoepithelioma are sporadic and rare, especially the quantities occur in the sinonasal cavity are fewer in related literature reported. In this paper, we present a rare case of benign myoepithelioma that occurred in the nasal cavity, and the related process of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  2. A case of myoepithelioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Watanabe, Mika; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Higashi, Kenjiro; Honkura, Yohei; Hara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2010-10-01

    Myoepithelioma is a rare tumor, most frequently located in the salivary gland. Case reports of extra-salivary myoepithelioma are sporadic, with only one case in the nasal cavity. A 68-year-old male patient presented with a myoepithelioma of the nasal cavity manifesting as nasal obstruction and epistaxis, which was treated successfully with endoscopic excision. Histological examination revealed myoepithelial cells and myxoid stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of myoepithelioma. The behavioral pattern is similar to if not identical with that of the mixed tumor, pleomorphic adenoma, which is benign, but the potential for recurrence is always present, especially if complete resection is not achieved.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate.

    PubMed

    Unlu, H Halis; Celik, Onur; Demir, M Akif; Eskiizmir, Gorkem

    2003-12-01

    Although pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary glands, it has also been reported to be present in the neck, ear, mediastinum, external nose and nasal cavity. Intranasal localization of this lesion is very rare and mainly originates from the nasal septum. From wherever the lesion originates, the main treatment modality should be surgical. We presented a very rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate. Due to the expansile nature of the lesion, a midfacial degloving approach was preferred.

  4. Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, G D; Jeney, E V; Baraniuk, J N; Kim, I; Meredith, S D; Kaliner, M A

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Ly) are invariably found in nasal secretions. To investigate the cellular sources and the secretory control of these nasal proteins in vivo, 34 adult subjects underwent nasal provocation tests with methacholine (MC), histamine (H), and gustatory stimuli. Nasal lavages were collected and analyzed for total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), Lf, and Ly. MC (25 mg), H (1 mg), and gustatory stimuli (spicy foods) all increased the concentrations of TP, Alb, Lf, and Ly. However, when each protein was assessed as a percentage of TP (i.e., Alb% = Alb/TP; Lf% = Lf/TP; Ly% = Ly/TP), MC and gustatory stimuli, which both induce glandular secretion, selectively augmented Lf% and Ly% without changing Alb%, while H, which primarily increases vascular permeability, increased Alb% without significantly affecting Lf% or Ly%. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis of nasal secretions demonstrated both Lf and Ly in cholinergically induced secretions. Furthermore, histochemical analyses of nasal turbinate tissue revealed Lf and Ly colocalization within the serous cells of submucosal glands, providing evidence that both proteins are strictly glandular products within the nasal mucosa. Therefore, both Lf and Ly are produced and secreted from the glands, and their secretion may be pharmacologically regulated in attempts to improve host defenses. Images PMID:2681268

  5. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant; Singla, Saurabh; Mane, Ranoji; Jagdeesh, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma. PMID:24228209

  6. [The differential diagnosis of benign neoplasms of the nasal septum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, A; Städtler, F

    1981-04-01

    More than 90 per cent of neoplasms of the nasal septum are malignant. A 37 year old man with a bleeding nasal cavity neoplasm, which histologically was a pleomorphic adenoma is reported. These benign lesions usually occur in the salivary glands and this case is discussed with due regard to the unusual site of origin. The rare reports of pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal septum, especially regarding management and prognosis, are reviewed.

  7. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  8. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  9. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  10. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  11. [Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Cwalina, Piotr; Skorek, Andrzej; Narozny, Waldemar; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, a benign tumor often seen in ENT practice, arises either from minor as well from major salivary glands. 5-14% of tumors occur in minor glands. Sixteen cases of minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas are studied. Eight of them originate from the oral cavity: 6 from the palate, one from the lower lip and one from the cheek. Two oral adenomas were malignant. In 4 patients tumors occur in the nasal cavity and in two other patients--in the neck. The clinical and pathological features of these patients are presented. Special attention is given to malignant transformation and the rate of recurrence of the tumors.

  12. Role of allergy in nasal polyposis: a review.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J M; Gorfien, J; Noble, B

    1995-12-01

    We propose a multivariate theory for the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Turbulent flow of air in the lateral wall of the nose or viral-bacterial-host interactions produce an inflammatory change in the mucosa of the lateral wall of the nose. Ulceration and prolapse of the submucosa with reepithelialization and new gland formation may then follow. The structural cells of the nasal polyp, including epithelial cells and fibroblasts, have the ability to produce messenger RNA for granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and other cytokines. Stimulation of such an effector capability by structural cell-derived cytokines would undoubtedly represent a major amplification pathway of the inflammatory response in nasal polyps. Allergy may be one mechanism for the development of this cascade of events. This microenvironmental structural inflammatory response in the nasal polyp, in turn, can affect the bioelectric integrity of the Na+ and Cl- channels at the luminal surface of the respiratory epithelial cell. The change in the Na+ absorption, which has been demonstrated in our studies, may result in an increased movement of water into the cell and into the interstitial fluid. The resultant edema can lead to growth and enlargement of the nasal polyp. Finally, the rapid recurrence of nasal polyps despite adequate surgery may reflect some intrinsic phenotypic characteristic of nasal epithelial cells in the lateral wall of the nose, which is likely to be under genetic control.

  13. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  14. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  15. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S B; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; Tatum, S A

    1990-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of glandular tissue occurring in the head and neck region. There have been several reports of metastasis of this benign-appearing tumor from the salivary glands to distant sites, suggesting hematogenous spread and implantation. Although occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma on the nasal septum has been described, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent septal pleomorphic adenoma with histologically benign tissue in an enlarged metastatic ipsilateral submandibular lymph node, suggesting lymphatic spread. The literature concerning the subject is reviewed. Wide septal excision and modified neck dissection is the recommended treatment.

  16. Nose, Nasal Cavities & Paranasal Sinuses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  17. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be sure you only use distilled, boiled, or filtered water. While rare, some tap water may contain small ... pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every use and let it dry. Use ...

  18. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in ... bottles at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Discard used ...

  19. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Nasacort® Allergy 24HR ... watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not be used to ... the release of certain natural substances that cause allergy symptoms.

  20. Nasal disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. PMID:22032779

  1. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or ... this date passes.Naloxone nasal spray may not reverse the effects of certain opiates such as buprenorphine ( ...

  2. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  3. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  4. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction. PMID:27400845

  5. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking, or ...

  6. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... hour period. Follow the directions on the package label or on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to ... prescribed by your doctor or directed on the label.If you use oxymetazoline nasal spray for more ...

  7. Nasal tip angiolipoma: the "Pinocchio" nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    De Poortere, David A; De Poortere, Boris M; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-10-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare, benign variant of lipoma; its distinctive feature is its prominent vascularity. It presents as a subcutaneous nodule of white adipose tissue; pain, which may be exacerbated by pressure, is the chief symptom. The anatomic distribution predominantly involves the trunk and extremities. Because of the rarity of this condition in otorhinolaryngology, our understanding of its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up is limited. Microscopically, two different histopathologic forms of angiolipomas exist: circumscribed and infiltrating. The diagnosis of angiolipoma can be aided by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. Sites of previously reported otolaryngologic cases include the cheek, palate, mandible, nasal septum, and cervical area. We describe what we believe to be the second case of a nasal tip angiolipoma in a 78-year-old woman complaining of progressive aesthetic deformity.

  8. The effects of oxymetazoline on lysozyme secretion from the human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Browning, S; Housley, D; Richards, R; Eccles, R

    1997-11-01

    Lysozyme is a protein secreted by nasal submucosal glands. Its secretion is under cholinergic control. It is considered important in nasal defence as it enzymatically hydrolyses peptidoglycan bonds in bacterial cell walls and has specific activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. Oxymetazoline is freely available as a non-prescription nasal decongestant. Some recent work has shown that it has no effect on histamine-induced plasma exudation but little is known about its effects on glandular secretion. The current study is a randomized controlled study that investigates the effect of topical oxymetazoline on the total protein and lysozyme content of nasal fluid. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either a normal saline nasal spray (placebo) or an active spray of oxymetazoline, 0.05% (w/v) in saline. NAR was assessed in all subjects using posterior rhinomanometry and nasal lavage before the application of the spray and again 10 min later. The results were analysed using non-parametric statistics. There was a significant decrease in both the lysozyme and total protein content of nasal lavage after application of oxymetazoline when compared with placebo (p < 0.05). A possible mechanism for the observed decease in total protein and lysozyme would be that the vasoconstrictor effects of oxymetazoline also apply to the vessels supplying nasal submucosal glands and that this decrease in blood supply is reflected by a decrease in secretion.

  9. Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

    2014-06-01

    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Salivary gland anlage tumor in a neonate presenting with respiratory distress: radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, M A; Lin, A C; Chang, K W; Berry, G J; Barnes, P D; Fischbein, N J

    2009-05-01

    We present a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT) of the nasal septum in a 2-week-old infant who had difficulty breathing through her nose since birth. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a circumscribed mass within the nasal cavity that did not communicate with the intracranial compartment. Differential diagnosis and clinical significance of recognizing this rare lesion are reviewed.

  11. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  12. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia

    2010-01-01

    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  13. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  14. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  15. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  16. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  17. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use zolmitriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or liver or ...

  18. Sumatriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use sumatriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, seizures, or liver ...

  19. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.

  20. Rational design of nasal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Hagenaars, Niels; Jiskoot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Nasal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. However, the protective efficacy of nasally administered antigens is often impaired because of delivery problems: free antigens are readily cleared from the nasal cavity, poorly absorbed by nasal epithelial cells and generally have low intrinsic immunogenicity. In this review paper, we describe the main physiological hurdles to nasal vaccine delivery, survey the progress made in technological approaches to overcome these hurdles and discuss emerging opportunities for improving nasal vaccines. According to current insights, encapsulation of the antigen into bioadhesive (nano)particles is a promising approach towards successful nasal vaccine delivery. These antigen-loaded particles can be tailor made by supplying them with targeting ligands, adjuvants or endosomal escape mediators to form the desired vaccine that provides long-lasting protective immunity.

  1. Metabolism of tobacco-specific nitrosamines by cultured rat nasal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Brittebo, E.B.; Castonguay, A.; Furuya, K.; Hecht, S.S.

    1983-09-01

    The metabolism of two nasal carcinogens, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), was investigated using cultured nasal septa of F344 rats. The explants were cultured with 14C-labeled N-nitrosamines, and unbound metabolites present in the medium were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the mucosa of the nasal septum had a marked capacity to metabolize NNN and NNK to hydroxylated products which were released into the culture media. Extensive activation by alpha-carbon hydroxylation of NNN (preferentially 2'-carbon hydroxylation) and NNK was observed, whereas no deactivation by pyridine N-oxidation could be detected. Microautoradiographic studies of explants showed that binding of radioactivity occurred preferentially in the respiratory and olfactory epithelia and in the subepithelial glands of the nasal mucosa. The results suggest that reactive metabolites of NNN and NNK are formed within the target tissue rather than being transported from the liver to the nasal mucosa. The results also show that the culture of nasal septa can be used to ascertain the role of the nasal mucosa in the activation of nasal-specific carcinogens.

  2. [Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity].

    PubMed

    Deubel, M; Meister, F; Podvinec, M; Stamm, B

    1994-11-01

    In the present paper we report two cases of "necrotizing sialometaplasia" in uncommon locations. The relevant literature is reviewed. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is self-limiting and is characterized by necrosis and squamous pseudohypertrophy. Typically occurring in the minor salivary glands of the oral mucosa, our cases appear to be the sixth and seventh cases of involvement of the nasal cavity reported in the literature. Owing to the similarity of histological findings, the term "sialometaplasia" is also used for this disorder. This rare disease is a benign process but may be misdiagnosed as mucoepidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the possibility of this disease in the nose should again be presented. Both of our cases show that with a histological examination considering defined morphological findings, the diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia can be verified and a diagnosis of a carcinoma can be excluded. Especially with regard to radical and possibly unnecessary invasive therapeutic procedures we emphasize the importance of considering "necrotizing sialometaplasia" as part of the differential diagnosis of nasal lesions.

  3. Management of the Nasal Valve.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dane M; Casanueva, Fernando J; Cook, Ted A

    2016-08-01

    The nasal valve is an important consideration in patients presenting with nasal obstruction. Controversy exists regarding the anatomy, terminology, evaluation, and management of the nasal valve. Innumerable techniques with variable effects have been described in the literature. The evidence qualifying these techniques has been plentiful, though often lacking in quality. This article reviews the controversial aspects of nasal valve management applying the best available evidence to help clarify potential areas of confusion. Future research using standardized definitions, consistent methodologies, and validated outcome measures are necessary to improve the quality of evidence and impact surgical decision-making. PMID:27400837

  4. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  5. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Hamir Basah, Zulkifli; Ramza Ramli, Ramiza; Gayadh, Maha Khadum; Mutum, Samarendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and histologically confirmed as intramuscular hemangioma. PMID:25709848

  6. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  7. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  8. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  9. Visual exploration of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Stefan; Muigg, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Doleisch, Helmut; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rhinologists are often faced with the challenge of assessing nasal breathing from a functional point of view to derive effective therapeutic interventions. While the complex nasal anatomy can be revealed by visual inspection and medical imaging, only vague information is available regarding the nasal airflow itself: Rhinomanometry delivers rather unspecific integral information on the pressure gradient as well as on total flow and nasal flow resistance. In this article we demonstrate how the understanding of physiological nasal breathing can be improved by simulating and visually analyzing nasal airflow, based on an anatomically correct model of the upper human respiratory tract. In particular we demonstrate how various Information Visualization (InfoVis) techniques, such as a highly scalable implementation of parallel coordinates, time series visualizations, as well as unstructured grid multi-volume rendering, all integrated within a multiple linked views framework, can be utilized to gain a deeper understanding of nasal breathing. Evaluation is accomplished by visual exploration of spatio-temporal airflow characteristics that include not only information on flow features but also on accompanying quantities such as temperature and humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth visual exploration of the physiological function of the nose over several simulated breathing cycles under consideration of a complete model of the nasal airways, realistic boundary conditions, and all physically relevant time-varying quantities. PMID:19834215

  10. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  11. Mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swab specimens in Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Danielle Caldeira Martins; da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Alves, Fábio Aguiar; de Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona

    2015-06-01

    The isolation of mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs is reported. Among the 59 isolates, 9 (15%) isolates were mannitol-negative; all of these isolates were categorized as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa. This report emphasizes that mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar should not be used as the sole criterion when screening nasal swab specimens for S. aureus.

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date. PMID:27541944

  14. Tumours of minor salivary glands--a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Nag, Dipanwita; Biswas, Pranab Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Gautam, Dibyendu; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-08-01

    The salivary gland system comprises 3 pairs of major glands ie, parotid, submandibular and sublingual and also thousands of lobules of minor salivary glands dispersed in oral cavity, nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses and upper airways. Most of the studies on salivary gland tumours included both major and minor salivary glands. Objectives of this study were to see the age, sex and site distribution of minor salivary gland tumours as well as cytohistologic correlation during their diagnosis. The study is a retrospective one and done in the pathology department of Medical College, Kolkata taking the cases referred from ENT and Surgery departments in the period from April 2008 to March 2011. There were 123 cases of salivary gland tumours including both major and minor salivary glands in this study. Out of these, 21 cases of minor salivary gland tumours were selected and further analysed. There were 9 cases of benign and 12 cases of malignant tumours. Most benign cases were pleomorphic adenoma and most of malignant were adenoid cystic carcinoma affecting maximally males above 40 years of age. For malignant cases the cytohistologic correlation was 100% whereas in benign it was 70%. We had no need of using immunohistochemistry as histologic diagnosis were clear-cut. Pathologic staging were done in most of malignant cases thus helping the clinicians to adopt better treatment protocol.

  15. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  16. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies.

  17. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  18. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  19. The pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Paquette, H

    2000-04-01

    The pineal gland is located posterior to the midbrain and is the site of melatonin production. Research on pineal gland function in neonates is very limited. This article will discuss pineal gland development and the possible relationship between melatonin production and sudden infant death syndrome. Further research on pineal gland function is needed in order to establish its significance for the neonate.

  20. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  2. Keratoacanthoma: an unusual nasal mass.

    PubMed

    Sazafi, M S; Salina, H; Asma, A; Masir, N; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of keratoacanthoma in a non-sun-exposed nasal vestibule of an 84-year-old man. He presented with a progressively growing left nasal mass that had been present for 8 months. Examination showed a non-tender protruding mass arising from medial vestibular wall of the left nostril. Histopathology indicated it was a keratoacanthoma. In an elderly patient with a history of a progressively growing mass in the nose, a differential diagnosis of malignancy should be ruled out, and histological conformation is essential. To our knowledge, only a very small number of cases of nasal vestibular keratoacanthoma have been reported. PMID:24376301

  3. Mitek Suspension of the Lateral Nasal Wall.

    PubMed

    White, James R; Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    The nasal valve has long been described as the anatomical boundary most likely to inhibit nasal airflow and lead to subsequent nasal obstruction. Although many procedures can address this area to improve the nasal airway, for over 20 years, suture lateralization of the external nasal valve has been described as a minimally invasive technique that can improve nasal breathing. We report our modification of the standard technique in which we lateralize the placement of the bone-anchored suture and incorporate Gore-Tex within the nasal vestibular incision to prevent tissue migration. PMID:26862966

  4. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  5. Cytomorphologic Attributes of Epithelial Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity - A Rare Tumor with Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayshankar, Shivshankar; Abhishek, MG; Kumari, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma (EMC) is a rare low grade epithelial malignancy of major Salivary Glands (SG). Though the histomorphology of this tumor is distinct, unusual location and clinical presentation may pose diagnostic difficulties especially when this lesion is first encountered at cytology. We report a case of 60-year-old female presenting with nasal obstruction of three months duration. At FNAC the diagnosis of EMC was suggested and it was confirmed on histopathology. We present this case highlighting the cytomorphologic attributes of this rare tumor occurring at an extremely uncommon location – Nasal cavity. PMID:27790447

  6. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Nasal Cavity: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, George Ani; Ashish, Gaurav; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Chandrashekharan, Ramanathan; Paul, Roshna Rose

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) of the nose and paranasal sinuses are extremely rare. These were originally described as neoplasms of the pleura originating from spindle cells. It is further sub-classified as a benign type of mesothelial tumour. Its occurrence in many extra pleural sites have been reported earlier, mainly in the liver, parapharyngeal space, sublingual glands, tongue, parotid gland, thyroid, periorbital region, and very occasionally in the nose and paranasal sinus area. Case Report: A 28-year-old man with a 6 month history of persistent progressive left nasal obstruction and watering of the left eye is reported. Further imaging by CT and MRI revealed a large, left-sided, highly vascular, nasal cavity mass (Figs.1-4) pushing laterally on the medial wall of the maxilla. The patient underwent a lateral rhinotomy, which proceeded with the excision of the mass. Histopathological analysis of the specimen was consistent with SFT. Conclusion: This case is reported to develop insights regarding diagnosis and management of such rare tumours. PMID:26788480

  8. Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Lower Eyelid Reconstructed with a Composite Flap: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Alagar Raja; Kothandaraman, Kanmani; Rajamanohar, Vimal Chander; Prabakaran, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinomas are skin adnexal tumours occurring in the periocular region of elderly females. It is an uncommon malignancy usually involving the upper eyelid and has an indolent course. Mainstay of treatment is surgical excision. Here we present a case of a sebaceous gland carcinoma of the lower eyelid for which wide local excision was done and the lower eyelid reconstructed using a composite flap of nasal chondromucosal graft with a nasolabial flap. PMID:27504351

  9. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Chen, D; Wang, P H; Chen, J; Deng, J

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  10. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  12. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  14. Management of the nasal dorsum.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Tapias, Vanesa; Kim, Ji-Eon

    2011-04-01

    Profile alignment, including nasal dorsal reduction, is one of the most common maneuvers in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Techniques often include cartilaginous excision and bony hump reduction with a chisel or a rasp. Cartilaginous nasal vault excision can result in separation of the junction between the upper lateral cartilages and the dorsal septum. This separation can cause an inferior-medial repositioning of the upper lateral cartilages and overall weakening of middle vault infrastructure. Furthermore, surgical interruption of this key region can also damage the internal nasal valve configuration and function and create static and dynamic airway obstruction. This article outlines the anatomy and function of the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valve. In addition, it provides an overview of aesthetic complications of dorsal hump removal including inverted-V deformity, saddle nose deformity, hourglass deformity, and their functional consequences. Preoperative individual risk factors for middle-third deformities are mentioned. Preventive and corrective surgical techniques including cartilage grafting and reconstructive sutures are also detailed.

  15. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits

    PubMed Central

    Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M.; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  16. Surgery of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2006-11-01

    Long-term results after septoplasty are not satisfactory. Apart from a recurrence of deviation, there are various reasons for this: false preoperative analysis, complete straightening of the septum, and a disturbed nasal cycle. Preoperative functional diagnostics with a combination of rhinoresistometry, acoustic rhinometry, and long-term rhinoflowmetry are necessary for differentiating between "physiological" and "pathological" septal deviations and recognizing other causes for obstruction. The surgical procedure of septoplasty includes approach, mobilization, resection, reposition, and finally reconstruction of all three layers. The goal of the operation should not be complete straightening of the nasal septum. The space between the septum and turbinates is of utmost importance. It should not be enlarged as much as possible; rather, it must be shaped in such a way as to allow freely congestion and decongestion reciprocal on the two sides during the nasal cycle. PMID:17131264

  17. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Farid; Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  18. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  19. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  20. Nasal Retinoschisis Associated with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Kaines, Andrew; Law, Simon

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe a case of nasal and macular retinoschisis in a patient with open angle glaucoma. A 75 year-old female with optic nerve head damage secondary to chronic open angle glaucoma developed macular schisis and a separate area of retinoschisis nasal to her optic disk. There were no other identifiable causes for her retinoschisis. Glaucoma related structural defects offer a plausible explanation for multiple cavities of retinoschisis in favor of multiple occult congenital pits of the optic nerve head. PMID:20337311

  1. Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

    2005-06-01

    Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process.

  2. Correlation between nasal membrane permeability and nasal absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Lin, Chih-Wei; Donovan, Maureen D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between in vitro permeability (Papp) values obtained from isolated nasal tissues and the absorption rates (ka) of the same compounds following nasal administration in animals and humans. The Papp of a set of 11 drug compounds was measured using animal nasal explants and plasma time-concentration profiles for each of the same compounds following intravenous (IV) and intranasal (IN) administration were experimentally determined or obtained from literature reports. The plasma clearance was estimated from the IV plasma time-concentration profiles, and ka was determined from the IN plasma time-concentration profiles using a deconvolution approach. The level of correlation between Papp and ka was established using Pearson correlation analysis. A good correlation (r=0.77) representing a point-to-point relationship for each of the compounds was observed. This result indicates that the nasal absorption for many drug candidates can be estimated from a readily measured in vitro Papp value. PMID:23225081

  3. Effect of lithium salts on the microstructure of the thymus and on vitamin C content in some lymphatic organs, the liver and suprarenal glands in F1 mouse crosses (CBA x C57BL).

    PubMed

    Ficek, W; Lesniewska, J; Mrowca, D

    1993-01-01

    The administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) to mice by intraperitoneal injection caused involution in the thymus, both in the cortex and medulla. Lithium also considerably decreased vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content in all of the organs that were studied: thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, suprarenal glands, and liver.

  4. Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Afşin; Yildiz, Kaya; Kankaya, Yüksel; Oruç, Melike; Sungur, Nezih; Koçer, Uğur; Ozer, Elif

    2007-11-01

    Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal tip deformity is a rare situation that develops secondary to the soft tissue tumors underneath. In literature, there is only one case reported with Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to cavernous lymphangioma. In this study, we present a Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal deformity with skin involvement secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  5. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding. PMID:21425063

  6. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

  7. The total nasal defect and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Cook, Ted A; Wax, Mark K

    2009-05-01

    The structures of the nose are arguably the most complex within the face to reconstitute when absent. Total nasal reconstruction has evolved to encompass advanced surgical techniques in an effort to achieve increasingly satisfactory cosmetic results while restoring nasal function that mimics the function of a patient's natural nose. In this article, the history of total nasal defects and their reconstruction, relevant nasal anatomy, etiologies of the defect, and the surgical approaches to reconstructing each of the three-layered structure of the nose (ie, nasal skin, cartilage/bone, and lining mucosa) are explored.

  8. Pathogenesis of nasal polyps: an update.

    PubMed

    Pawliczak, Rafal; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2005-11-01

    The cause of nasal polyp formation is still unknown. Genetic predisposition has been suggested, but there are scanty data to support such theories. Activated epithelial cells may be the major source of mediators inducing influx of inflammatory cells (mostly eosinophils) and proliferation and activation of fibroblasts leading to nasal polyp formation. Infectious agents (including viruses, bacteria, or fungi) may be potential primary factors activating nasal epithelial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors play important roles in the persistence of mucosal inflammation associated with nasal polyps. Arachidonic acid metabolites seem to be particularly important in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps in patients with aspirin hypersensitivity rhinosinusitis/asthma syndrome. PMID:16216171

  9. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  10. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide.

  11. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Submandibular gland excision.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, G M; Yarington, C T

    1988-10-01

    A review of 107 submandibular gland excisions was made to determine the relative frequency of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. The results show a preponderance of non-neoplastic pathology. Benign tumors were found in 6% of glands, primary glandular and metastatic carcinoma in 3%. Timely treatment of a submandibular gland mass is indicated due to the relatively aggressive behavior of malignancies originating in this location.

  13. Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Driver, P J; Lemp, M A

    1996-01-01

    Blepharitis is probably the most common disease entity seen in the general ophthalmologist's office. A significant proportion of these cases are secondary to meibomian gland disease. This review outlines our knowledge of the histopathology, lipid abnormalities and role of microorganisms in meibomian gland dysfunction. We will also review the physiology of meibomian gland secretion and present models of meibomian gland dysfunction which have enhanced our knowledge of this condition. The importance of diagnosing associated conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, contact lens intolerance, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis is emphasized. Although this condition causes significant morbidity in the population, there are effective treatments available and these will be discussed.

  14. Unilateral and bilateral nasal resistances: a supplement.

    PubMed

    Naito, K; Cole, P; Humphrey, D

    1990-06-01

    Three hundred and thirty-four measurements of bilateral and unilateral nasal resistance (at delta P 1.0 cm H2O and by time averaging) in 233 adults were carried out by posterior rhinomanometry with a head-out body plethysmograph. Total nasal resistances, calculated by the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors from measured unilateral resistances, were compared with measured total nasal resistances. The time averaged total nasal resistances calculated by use of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors were closer to direct measurements than resistances at delta P 1.0 cm H2O calculated from the same equation. We attempted to fit calculated total nasal resistance with direct measurements by modification of the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors to T = 0.96[R x L/(R + L)]0.92 in the time averaged nasal resistance and T = 1.07[R x L/(R + L)]0.77 in resistance at delta P 1.0 cm H2O (T: total nasal resistance, R: nasal resistance on the right side, L: nasal resistance on the left side). Calculated total nasal resistances from the above equations agreed closely with direct measurements.

  15. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  16. Nasal diseases and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deping; Luo, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of ENT doctors were murdered by nasal disordered patients in China recently. It is obviously important and urgent to find out whether there is any potential relationship between nasal diseases (ND) and psychological distress that might contribute to violent behavior. For this purpose, we carried out this literature review. There is a complex relationship between ND and psychiatric distress, which is mainly considered as a bidirectional causal relationship with other controversy opinions. However, most of the previous studies were found to be focused on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis, while reports about other ND were rare. Further study is still needed to uncover the secret aspects in this field, and more attentions need to be paid to other ND. PMID:26095351

  17. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. PMID:27173595

  18. CT and MRI of congenital nasal lesions in syndromic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel T; Robson, Caroline D

    2015-07-01

    Congenital malformations of the nose can be associated with a variety of syndromes, including solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Bosma syndrome, median cleft face syndrome, PHACES association, Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, Binder syndrome, duplication of the pituitary gland-plus syndrome and syndromic craniosynsotosis (e.g., Apert and Crouzon syndromes) among other craniofacial syndromes. Imaging with CT and MRI plays an important role in characterizing the nasal anomalies as well as the associated brain and cerebrovascular lesions, which can be explained by the intimate developmental relationship between the face and intracranial structures, as well as certain gene mutations. These conditions have characteristic imaging findings, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:25573243

  19. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  20. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. [Unilateral nasal obstruction in children: Pai syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle; Oviedo, Maricruz; Tiscorni, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Unilateral obstruction of the nasal cavity in children is mainly caused by the introduction of foreign bodies further stated with rhinorrhea and fetid odor. Less commonly, it can be traumatic, neoplastic, due to congenital malformation or iatrogenic. Symptoms of congenital intranasal mass may present at birth, or go unnoticed and be a finding in a routine pediatric examination. Patient evaluation should include imaging studies to guide the diagnosis and rule out intracranial extension. A syndrome associated with congenital nasal tumor should be suspected when other abnormalities are present. Pai syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. Its manifestations are craniofacial being congenital nasal polyp his main marker. We present a patient with unilateral nasal respiratory failure secondary to congenital nasal lipoma, with craniofacial anomalies belonging to Pai syndrome. Nasal obstruction was successfully surgically resolved. PMID:22042063

  3. Vasomotor rhinitis: neglected cause of nasal congestion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T W

    1980-01-01

    Vasomotor rhinitis is a condition of chronic nasal congestion which is noninfectious and nonallergic. Its cause is thought to be an imbalance of autonomic control to the nasal mucosa. This disorder is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of chronic nasal obstruction must be considered first. Treatment measures include avoidance of nonspecific stimuli which exacerbate symptoms and, for symptomatic relief, use of oral sympathomimetics. Antihistamine-decongestant combinations may be effective in some patients. Topical vasoconstrictors should not be used.

  4. Lessening the Misery of Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Nasal polyps are characterized by progressive nasal obstruction, postnasal drip, rhinorrhea, and anosmia. Although their pathogenesis is unknown, key diagnostic signs include appearance, bilaterality, mobility, and insensitivity. Treating allergies and infections is important, while surgery is aimed at maintaining normal nasal structure and improving the airway so that intranasal steroids can be administered to keep the chronic disease under control. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21229039

  5. Oncocytoma of minor salivary gland involving the retromolar region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Bansal, Vishal; Reddy, Vandana; Kamarthi, Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic neoplasms comprise a group of rare tumors of salivary glands. Histologically, World Health Organization (WHO) (1991) classified them into three distinct types: Oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytoma is also known by the more descriptive and less confusing terms of oxyphilic adenoma and oxyphilic granular cell adenoma. Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm composed of large epithelial cells with characteristic bright eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytic cells). It accounts for approximately 0.4-1% of all salivary gland neoplasms, occurring primarily in parotid glands, with only a small percentage occurring in minor salivary glands of palate, tonsillar fossi, larynx, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and the lacrimal gland. It occurs primarily in persons older than 50 years of age. According to some authors, the biologic behavior of oncocytomas arising from minor salivary glands is that of an aggressive nature and should be considered as low-grade malignancies. Only 17 cases of histologically verified oncocytoma of an intraoral minor salivary gland are reported in literature, the current case being the 18th. Owing to the lack of large series, assiduous study of the cases reported in the literature may lead to better understanding of this rare entity. We herein describe a rare and probably the first case of minor salivary gland oncocytoma involving retromolar area in a 32-year-old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  6. Does oral prednisolone increase the efficacy of subsequent nasal steroids in treating nasal polyposis?

    PubMed Central

    Wongsritrang, Krongthong; Ruttanaphol, Suwalee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although combined oral and nasal steroid therapy is widely used in nasal polyposis, a subset of patients show an unfavorable therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to evaluate whether oral prednisolone produces any additive effects on subsequent nasal steroid therapy and to evaluate if any clinical variables can predict therapeutic outcome. Methods: Using a 3:2 randomization ratio, 67 patients with nasal polyposis received 50 mg of prednisolone and 47 patients received placebo daily for 2 weeks, followed by mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) at 200 micrograms twice daily for 10 weeks. Clinical response was evaluated by nasal symptom score (NSS), peak expiratory flow index (PEFI), and total nasal polyps score (TNPS). Potential predictor variables were assessed by clinical history, nasal endoscopy, allergy skin test, and sinus radiography. Results: At the end of the 2-week oral steroid phase, the prednisolone group showed significantly greater improvements in all nasal symptoms, nasal airflow, and polyp size than the placebo group. In the nasal steroid phase, while the MFNS maintained the outcome improvements in the prednisolone group, all outcome variables in the placebo group showed continuing improvements. At the end of the nasal steroid phase, there were no significant differences of most outcome improvements between the two groups, except in hyposmia, PEFI, and TNPS (p = 0.049, p = 0.029, and p = 0.005, respectively). In the prednisolone group, patients with polyps grade 3 and endoscopic signs of meatal discharge showed significantly less improvement in total NSS, PEFI, and TNPS than patients with grade 1–2 size and negative metal discharge. Conclusion: In the 12-week treatment evaluation of nasal polyposis, pretreatment with oral steroids had no significant advantage for most nasal symptoms other than earlier relief; however, combined oral and nasal steroid therapy more effectively improved hyposmia, polyps size, and nasal airflow. Polyps size

  7. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-01-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis. PMID:24385004

  8. Endoscopic laser treatment for pediatric nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Suzuki, N; Sato, H; Yamaguchi, T; Fujita, H; Umezawa, Y; Suzuki, M

    2000-01-01

    We have used the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser and the gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with flexible fiber delivery instruments for vaporization of the inferior nasal turbinate in pediatric patients since 1993. Under endoscopic control, the whole inferior turbinate was vaporized by 5-10 W laser output delivered via an optical fiber. Generally, the nasal mucosa changes into normal mucosa, and symptoms improve. The greatest symptomatic improvement was in nasal obstruction. The results obtained by the two laser devices were similar although they have had different characteristics. Endoscopic laser surgery is effective in the treatment of pediatric nasal allergy.

  9. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  10. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P < 0.05) because of a reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants. PMID:15270822

  11. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  12. Nasal obstruction in neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Chirico, G; Beccagutti, F

    2010-10-01

    The main functions of the nasal airway are respiration and olfaction. The nose and sinuses condition air before reaching the lower respiratory tract by providing almost 100% humidification, warming, filtering and trapping of foreign particles. The airway epithelium contributes to the host defense system. Any alteration of this clearance system may produce significant problems, particularly in neonates, who are obligate nasal breathers until they are at least two months old. Nasal obstruction, and the inability to remove nasal secretion by nose blowing, may have serious consequences, such as respiratory distress or discomfort, altered sleep cycle, increased risk of obstructive apnoea and feeding difficulties. Most cases of nasal obstruction in neonates and infants are due to generalized nasal airway obstruction associated with neonatal rhinitis, viral upper respiratory tract infections, and possibly milk/soy allergies. Saline nasal lavage is recommended as an adjunct therapy for rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis, and in most cases of nasal congestion or obstruction in newborns, infants and children. In two recent experiences, was deemed to be the Narhinel method safe and effective for treatment of nasal congestion in babies with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, or for the prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute rhinosinusitis (AR) in children. Due to the efficacy, ease of use, tolerability and the lack of alternative medications in children younger than 12 years of age, nasal irrigation with physiological saline solution, followed by gentle aspiration, represent an effective method for the prevention and control of nasal congestion or obstruction in term or preterm neonates, infants and children.

  13. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  14. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  15. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  16. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus. PMID:2319385

  17. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus.

  18. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases.

  19. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  20. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  1. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  2. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

  3. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  7. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  8. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  9. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  10. Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong Ho; Kim, Dae Woo; Gevaert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and nonallergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. In addition, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects, play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. CRSsNP is characterized by histologic abnormalities, including basement membrane thickening (fibrosis) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Neutrophils and several chemokines, TGF-β and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8, play a role in CRSsNP remodeling. However, there are conflicting data about CRSsNP endotypes, for example, whether it is characterized by neutrophilia or eosinophilia or both. In spite of advancements and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, additional study is necessary to better comprehend its underlying mechanisms, endotypes, and evidence-based treatment strategies. PMID:27393771

  11. Evaluation of nasal tip surgery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Biller, H F

    1975-09-01

    Nasal tip surgery has been evaluated with respect to correction of the lower lateral cartilages. Indications, techniques, results, and complications related to three generic approaches to the lower lateral cartilages are described. In 673 consecutive rhinoplasties the commonest type of nasal tip surgery was excisional, utilizing either a marginal or cartilage splitting technique. These techniques were utilized: 1. to accomplish debulking, and 2. to accomplish the installation of facets. The excisional technique found its greatest utility in primary rhinoplasties. The version technique, utilizing a change of direction of the thrust of the lower lateral cartilages was utilized in a variety of situations, particularly for the correction of moderately congenitally hypoplastic tip cartilages. It also found great utility in surgery of the Negro or cleft palate nose, increasing tip projection, correcting unacceptable bifidity, and in revision rhinoplasty. Augmentation rhinoplasty, utilizing conchal cartilage as an elastic strut was particularly useful for severe hypoplastic cartilage deficits, the Negro nose, columellar retraction, and alar rim deficits. The overall complication rate of lower lateral rhinoplasty was 17.4 percent. The rate of unacceptable complications related to lower lateral rhinoplasty was 2.7 percent.

  12. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  13. Numerical model of a nasal septal perforation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Orla; Bailie, Neil; Watterson, John; Cole, Jonathan; Gallagher, Geraldine; Hanna, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulation of airflow in a nose with a nasal septal perforation. Diseased airflow is compared to airflow in a healthy nasal model. The healthy model has been generated from CT scans from the Antrim Area Hospital ENT clinic and is close to being anatomically accurate. The nasal septal perforation has been superimposed on the healthy geometry using image manipulation software. The flow is modeled as laminar, steady state, with the flow rates corresponding to quiet breathing at rest approximately 165 ml/sec. Healthy flow patterns show that the majority of the flow travels close to nasal septum, in the region close to the middle turbinate. In the diseased case, high shear stresses concentrated at the posterior region of the perforation explain bleeding associated with nasal perforations.

  14. Salivary gland anlage tumor: a clinicopathological study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Coffinet, Laurent; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bressenot, Aude; Hennequin, Virginie; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Vignaud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases of salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT), a nasopharyngeal lesion that affects newborns. The first case concerned a male newborn, presenting respiratory distress secondary to a nasopharyngeal mass. The second case was diagnosed in a 6-week-old girl, suffering from respiratory difficulties due to a nasal cavity mass. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the second case revealed the presence of several small round and linear fluid-like areas. Histologically, both lesions were suggestive of SGAT, characterized by epithelial structures that blended with spindle-cells, drawing highly cellular nodules. Connective tissue between nodules contained squamous cystic nests and ducts.

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  16. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  17. Subjective Nasal Fullness and Objective Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.

    2011-01-01

    How well do subjective descriptions of the sensation of nasal closure or absence of nasal patency agree with objective measures of nasal geometry and airflow? Problems with this concept begin with terminology. “Congestion” has been applied to both the subjective and objective measures. Therefore, the term “fullness” will be used to describe perceptions of nasal mucosal heaviness or blockage that subjects with allergic rhinitis articulate. “Congestion” will refer to the objective measures used to assess patency. Sensations attributed to the nasal mucosa are highly integrated interpretations summed from multiple subsets of nociceptive and other neurons. Activation of sensor systems is required to depolarize afferent neurons. These sensors and other receptor proteins can be modulated by inflammation as part of the neural plasticity that leads to increased sensitivity to nasal stimuli. This plasticity and hyperalgesia may extend from the afferent neuron to spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, and regulatory and analytical regions of the brainstem and cerebrum. Although glandular hypersecretion can deliver obstructing material into the nasal cavities, the dilation of deep venous sinusoids is the strongest factor regulating nasal airspace volumes. There is a long history of attempts to correlate subjective sensations to objective measurements such as airflow resistance (rhinomanometry), nasal wall geometry (acoustic rhinometry), and peak nasal inspiratory flow. The medical evidence supporting each method has been analyzed on the basis of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. These results provide a starting point for linking the outcomes of pathophysiological processes with a patient's psychometrically calibrated sensation of airflow. PMID:21364223

  18. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  19. Meibomian gland dysfunction. III. Meibomian gland lipids.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, N; Santos, E C; Smith, R E; Jester, J V

    1989-05-01

    The lipid components of meibomian gland excreta were evaluated in rabbits after they received 2% topical epinephrine dropped into their eyes daily for a period of 6 months to a year to induce meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Changes were compared to excreta obtained from seven age-matched, untreated control rabbits. Comparison of the lipids from MGD lids with lipids obtained from control rabbits revealed, for clinically evident MGD, a marked increase in the lipids that are uniquely characteristic of epidermal tissue. These epidermal lipids are free sterols (large amounts) and a group of seven types of ceramides. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the initiating factor of rabbit MGD is hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelia. For clinically apparent MGD some hydrolysis of the sterol esters of the meibomian gland lipids also seems to have occurred. This was evidenced by the formation of an 8-fold increase in a cluster of anteiso fatty acids with chain lengths longer than C20 in the free fatty acid fraction. This group of free fatty acids was the same as the acids esterified to the sterol esters. We could detect no change in the lipid excreta obtained from rabbits that developed only subclinical MGD, consisting of orifice plugging and dilation of the duct.

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal columella.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Alper; Celenk, Fatih; Poyraz, Aylar; Uslu, Sabri

    2008-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor) is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary glands. It is considered to occur primarily in the major salivary glands, such as the parotid and submandibular glands. It is much less common in the minor salivary glands, and rarely occurs at other sites, such as larynx, pharynx, trachea, lacrimal gland, and sinonasal tract. An external nose localization of this lesion is very rare. Irrespective of the site where the lesion originates, its preferred treatment should be surgery. We describe a very rare case of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma originating from the columella.

  1. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  2. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  3. A population-based case-control study of cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Blot, W J; Shu, X O; Diamond, E L; Gao, Y T; Ji, B T; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-10-21

    A population-based case-control study of cancer of the nasal cavity and sinuses, involving interviews of 60 incident cases and 414 controls, was conducted in Shanghai. Cigarette smoking was associated with a mild elevation in risk of squamous-cell carcinoma but not cancers of other cell types. Occupational exposures to wood and silica dusts and to petroleum products, and the use of wood and straw as cooking fuel, were linked to moderate increases in risk, while 4-fold or greater increases were associated with a history of chronic nasal diseases, including those occurring 10 or more years prior to cancer diagnosis. Dietary analyses revealed a significant protective effect of consumption of allium vegetables, oranges and tangerines, with a 50% reduced risk of nasal cancer among individuals in the highest intake group of these foods. Consumption of salt-preserved vegetables, meat and fish was associated with a significantly increased risk of nasal cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a 5-fold excess observed for the heaviest intake of these salted foods. These findings suggest that dietary factors may contribute to the development of nasal cancer. PMID:1399136

  4. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  6. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  7. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made.

  8. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  9. Lymphomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M J; Bennett, M H; Cawson, R A

    1986-08-01

    Primary lymphomas arising in salivary glands are very uncommon. The histologic classification of 40 cases of lymphomas in salivary gland tissue submitted to the British Salivary Gland Tumour Panel is reported, and, for 30 of the patients for whom adequate information was available, the clinical presentation, management, and outcome have been analyzed. Lymphomas in salivary glands represented 1.7% of all reported salivary neoplasms. The majority developed in the parotid glands of patients aged between 50 and 70 years. Only four cases gave a premorbid history compatible with sicca syndrome. In this series, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated; 23 were Grade I, and 13 were Grade II. Treatment regimens were not uniform, but are outlined. Survival ranged from 5 to 111 months. Median survival for the group was 49 months. Prognosis was not influenced by the clinical stage of disease at presentation. Four cases of lymphoma arising in benign lymphoepithelial lesions are included. None had clinical symptoms of sicca complex. Prognosis for this group was found to be as favorable as the others.

  10. Case report: unilateral mydriasis following nasal cautery.

    PubMed

    Koo Ng, Nigel K F; Calder, Nick

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of unilateral mydriasis following nasal electrocautery presumed to be the result of retrograde flow of adrenaline and/or xylometazoline hydrochloride (Otrivine) through the nasolacrimal duct into the eye. We review the literature and highlight the importance of correct interpretation of finding a dilated pupil post-operatively. To our knowledge. we report the first such case involving xylometazoline hydrochloride and also following nasal electrocautery. Unilateral mydriasis is alarming after nasal surgery but must be interpreted with caution. During minimally invasive procedures it is likely to be due to the effects of topical medication to the nose rather than surgical trauma. PMID:21158576

  11. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  12. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Tiina M; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  13. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  14. Non-pharmacological management of nasal polyp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajiv; Murthy, B T C; Vinudha

    2009-01-01

    Nasal polyp causes difficulty in breathing due to blockage of nasal passage. The pathogenesis of nasal polyposis is not known. The primary medical therapy available for nasal polyposis is steroid administration. Antihistamines, decongestants and cromolyn sodium provide little benefit. With this background of nasal polyp pathophysiology and the existing management, a case of nasal polyp was treated with the cleansing process of yoga i.e. neti kriya and naturopathy with good result. This isolated case report warrants a need for controlled clinical trial of neti kriya to establish its role in the management of nasal polyposis.

  15. Catecholamine concentrations in rat nasal mucus are modulated by trigeminal stimulation of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lucero, M T; Squires, A

    1998-10-01

    Olfactory mucus provides the perireceptor environment in which the initial steps of olfactory signal transduction occur [5]. Extrinsic autonomic and trigeminal innervation controls mucus secretion and may release neurotransmitters into nasal mucus [13]. We quantitated catecholamines in rat nasal mucus and found that catecholamine levels first increased and then declined with trigeminal stimulation. These data indicate that catecholamine levels are regulated in nasal mucus and could modulate the odor sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons.

  16. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.

  17. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  18. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  19. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  20. Nasal toxicity of cocaine: a hypercoagulable effect?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R.; Shah, R.; Baredes, S.; Spillert, C. R.; Lazaro, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal insufflation of cocaine injures the nasal mucosa and can perforate the septum. Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction resulting in ischemia is one of the methods that may be responsible for this damage. We are determining whether cocaine also produces a hypercoagulable state that may compound factors which have been previously established to cause damage to the nasal mucosa and septum. This study uses Modified Recalcification Time (MRT), a test developed in our laboratory that has the ability to measure the overall coagulation process. Our study revealed no connection between cocaine and enhanced platelet function or monocyte-released tissue factor. The coagulation process was unaffected by the addition of the drug, so we conclude that cocaine does not cause a hypercoagulable state and cannot assist in the explanation regarding the ischemic changes of the nasal septum. PMID:10800286

  1. Nasal foreign body: an unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; Stewart, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nasal foreign bodies may result from the abundant availability of tiny objects in our society and a curious child exploring his or her nasal cavities. An inserted object that is not witnessed or retrieved can remain relatively asymptomatic or cause local tissue damage and potentially yield more serious consequences. An unusual case of a young child who presented for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia is described. Immediately prior to the nasotracheal intubation, an unanticipated foreign body was detected and safely removed before any injury occurred. This case report discusses the presentation and pathophysiology of nasal foreign bodies. Moreover, applicable suggestions are provided to aid in the prevention and management of the unexpected discovery of a nasal foreign body after the induction of general anesthesia.

  2. Nasal Mucociliary Transport Before and After Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Anna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)

  3. Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Dutton, J M; Bumsted, R M

    2001-02-01

    Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity offers a unique and ongoing challenge in facial plastic surgery. Although there has been no consensus regarding the optimal timing and technique for surgical repair of this deformity, the authors have found a three-tiered approach to be satisfactory. This approach involves a primary rhinoplasty performed at the time of the initial cleft lip repair to address reconstruction of the nasal floor and sill, columellar lengthening, repositioning of the alar base, and repositioning of the skin and mucosa of the lower lateral cartilage. Following alveolar bone grafting, an intermediate rhinoplasty is often performed at 6 to 10 years of age through an open approach to correct the cartilaginous lower nasal deformity. A delayed rhinoplasty is then performed in the later teenage years to correct the bony dorsal deformity and the various causes of nasal obstruction.

  4. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  5. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  6. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  7. [Diagnostic methods of nasal respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, G; Beule, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective assessment of nasal obstruction may help with preoperative planning for rhinosurgery and indicate different aspects of endonasal pathology. To improve quality control, preoperative and postoperative objective assessment is desirable. This review presents objective functional diagnostic tools and explains their appropriate uses, the information obtained, and their limitations. An algorithm is presented for analysing nasal obstruction by means of objective functional assessment. Examples illustrate how to use this information for preoperative planning in rhinosurgery. PMID:18210011

  8. Powered nasal polypectomy in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Krouse, J H; Christmas, D A

    1996-09-01

    The use of powered instrumentation has revolutionized the practice of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. We have expanded the role of the instrument to the treatment of polypoid disease of the nose within the office setting. We have found the technique to be both safe and effective, and to allow thorough exenteration of nasal polyps with minimal bleeding and discomfort. We recommend the use of the powered device as the primary tool in the surgical treatment of nasal polyps in the office.

  9. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  10. Effect on the nasal mucosa of long-term treatment with oxymetazoline, benzalkonium chloride, and placebo nasal sprays.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H

    1996-05-01

    A parallel, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 30 healthy subjects to investigate the effects on the nasal mucosa of a 1-month treatment with nasal sprays. Ten subjects received oxymetazoline nasal spray; 10 subjects used a nasal spray containing the preservative benzalkonium chloride, and the others were treated with a placebo nasal spray. The three variables that were studied --nasal mucosal swelling, symptom scores, and nasal reactivity-- were estimated by histamine challenge before and after 28 days of treatment. Rhinostereometry was used to measure nasal mucosal swelling and nasal reactivity. After 28 days of use, benzalkonium chloride spray alone induced an increase in nasal mucosal swelling. At the end of the month, the score for nasal stuffiness was significantly higher for the group treated with oxymetazoline than for those treated with benzalkonium chloride. Oxymetazoline nasal spray induced a pronounced increase in nasal reactivity, which was significantly greater than that induced in the placebo group. Long-term use of placebo and benzalkonium chloride nasal sprays also caused an increase in nasal reactivity, but not to the same extent as with the nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline. The authors concluded that long-term use of oxymetazoline induces a sensation of nasal stuffiness, which may be due to unconscious exaggeration of the degree of nasal stuffiness, induced nasal hyperreactivity, or a combination of both. These factors are probably the main reasons for the prolonged use of nasal decongestive sprays and the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. Benzalkonium chloride induces mucosal swelling, which explains why the presence of this preservative in a decongestant spray aggravates rhinitis medicamentosa.

  11. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  12. Hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  13. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  14. [Meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Finis, D; Schrader, S; Geerling, G

    2012-05-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a chronic disease, usually caused by obstruction of the secretory Meibomian glands. The subsequent reduction of gland secretion results in a decreased amount of lipids in the tear film. This results in a faster evaporation of the tear film and thus an evaporative dry eye. MGD alone is responsible for about 60% of all cases in combination with aqueous deficiency for a further 20% of dry eyes. While in Europe up to 20% of the population are suffering from MDD, this is true in Asia for over 60% of the population. MGD is more common in women and it incidence increases with age. It is influenced by the hormonal status as well as chemical and mechanical noxious stimuli. Additional risk factors include various skin diseases such as rosacea, acne or atopy. To diagnose MGD, particular attention should be paid to changes in the lid margin such as plugging or pouting of the ducts, thickening and telangiectasia. However, most important is the diagnostic expression of the glands. At first it should be assessed whether secretion can be caused by pressure to the eyelid against the globe and secondly the quality of the expressed secretions should be evaluated. MGD should be treated according to the severity of the disease. While in mild stages instructions for lid margin hygiene, warming and massage in combination with artificial tears might be sufficient, in more severe stages oral tetracyclin derivatives and anti-inflammatory eye drops such as steroids or CSA are necessary for successful treatment.

  15. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children.

  16. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  17. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  18. Numerical study of the effect of the nasal cycle on unilateral nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gyehwan; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of the nasal cycle on the modification of unilateral nasal resistance using nasal cavity models from 2 different patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. A steady airflow field with an inspiratory flow rate of 250 mL/s was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v14.5. The distribution of local unilateral nasal resistance showed different shapes of variation and magnitudes of resistance depending on the distribution of cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity models. The highest local resistance on the congested side was found near the nasal valve area in the first patient, whereas the highest value was found in the nasal vestibule for the second patient. The relative importance of nasal resistance in the turbinated air passage differed for the 2 patients. The unilateral resistance of the congested state was in the range of 0.0229-0.221 Pas/mL. In the inferior meatus, greater flow rate was allowed during the congested state than during the decongested state if an extensive backflow developed.

  19. Objective Measures in Aesthetic and Functional Nasal Surgery – Perspectives on Nasal Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sachin S.; Garcia, Guilherme J.M.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The outcomes of aesthetic and functional nasal surgery are difficult to assess objectively due to the intricate balance between nasal form and function. Despite historical emphasis on patient-reported subjective measures, objective measures are gaining importance in both research and the current outcomes-driven healthcare environment. Objective measures presently available have several shortcomings which limit their routine clinical use. In particular, the low correlation between objective and subjective measures poses a major challenge. However, advances in computer, imaging, and bioengineering technology are now setting the stage for the development of innovative objective assessment tools for nasal surgery that can potentially address some of the current limitations. Assessment of nasal form following aesthetic surgery is evolving from two-dimensional analysis to more sophisticated three-dimensional analysis. Similarly, assessment of nasal function is evolving with the introduction of computational fluid dynamics techniques, which allow for a detailed description of the biophysics of nasal airflow. In this paper, we present an overview of objective measures in both aesthetic and functional nasal surgery and discuss future trends and applications that have the potential to change the way we assess nasal form and function. PMID:20665410

  20. Effects of an external nasal dilator strip (ENDS) compared to xylometazolin nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Høyvoll, L R; Lunde, K; Li, Henrik S; Dahle, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Steinsvåg, S K

    2007-11-01

    Nasal blockage is a common complaint in Family Practice. Decongestive nosedrops are frequently employed therapeutic measures. Due to a considerable risk of abuse and side effects, alternatives are wanted. The purpose of this study was to elucidate to what extent ENDS might represent an alternative to decongestive nose sprays (DNS). The effects of DNS (xylometazolin) and ENDS (BreatheRight) on subjective and objective nasal blockage were compared in 89 patients. Main outcome measures were recordings of nasal symptom scores on visual analogue scales (VAS), minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA) and nasal cavity volumes (NCV) as measured by acoustic rhinometry (AR), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). ENDS significantly increased the MCA and the NCV in the anterior 0.0-3.0 cm of the nose compared to DNS, but had no effect on MCA from 3.0 to 5.4 cm behind the nostrils. In contrast to DNS, ENDS had no effect on the posterior NCV. ENDS and DNS gave comparable increase in nasal inspiratory flow as measured by PNIF, and in the subject's own experience of nasal obstruction. ENDS may represent an alternative to DNS as a measure against nasal blockage. PMID:17530269

  1. Nasal meatus plasty: a contribution to plastic reconstruction of the nasal valve during midfacial degloving.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kai J; Maier, Heinz; Wilde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Midfacial degloving is a proven method for easily accessing the midface, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, the orbits, as well as the anterior skull base. Indications for this method of access mainly include tumour resections in the area of the midface, the septum, the maxillary sinus, the paranasal to the sphenoidal sinus as well as the clivus. In addition, this method of access allows for the exposure of the bony structures of the midface in the event of extensive fractures. In general, this method of access combines an incision in the oral vestibule and circular incisions in the nasal vestibule area in order to release the nasal pyramid. After removing the facial wall of the maxillary sinus, extensive exposure of the surgical site is possible. One disadvantage of this method of access is the difficult reconstruction of the nasal valve area, which often leads to cicatricial stenoses and difficulties with breathing through the nose. Furthermore, wound healing problems and osteoradionecrosis in the area of the lateral margin of the anterior nasal aperture after replantation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus have been described, because in this area sufficient soft tissue coverage cannot be ensured when a conventional technique is used. We describe a soft tissue flap pedicled in the cranial and caudal directions in the nasal valve area which makes both the reconstruction of the nasal vestibule and sufficient soft tissue coverage of the anterior nasal aperture possible. PMID:26504717

  2. Effects of nasal allergen challenge on dynamic viscoelasticity of nasal mucus.

    PubMed

    Hattori, M; Majima, Y; Ukai, K; Sakakura, Y

    1993-04-01

    The effects of nasal provocation on the rheologic properties of nasal mucus were investigated in patients with allergic rhinitis provoked by house dust. The elastic modulus (G') and the dynamic viscosity (eta') of nasal mucus were determined by an oscillating sphere magnetic rheometer. Before and after the allergen challenge, G' increased, whereas eta' decreased with increasing oscillatory frequency; these findings indicate that the nasal mucus under these conditions is a non-newtonian fluid and has the cross-linked gel-like nature typical of mucus. Both G' and eta' values after nasal provocation were significantly lower than before. The values of G' and eta' after allergen challenge were in the optimal viscoelasticity range for mucociliary transport. PMID:8476173

  3. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  4. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  5. Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin content of nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M; El-Ackad, T; Smith, J M; Brody, M J

    1979-05-01

    Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin were assayed and localized by fluorescence histochemistry in normal mucosa and nasal polyps because of their possible role in the development of inflammation and edema. Histamine was present in greater concentration in nasal polyps than in normal mucosa. Norepinephrine was present primarily in the base of nasal polyps and in greater concentration than in normal mucosa. Patients with aspirin sensitivity and asthma had much lower histamine concentrations in their nasal polyps than all other patients with nasal polyps. A proposal for a possible mechanism of formation of nasal polyps based on vascular and inflammatory mechanisms and incorporative roles for histamine and norepinephrine is presented.

  6. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Morandi, Luca; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Cavazza, Alberto; Brisigotti, Massimo; Damiani, Stefania; Jain, Sanjiv; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-12-01

    Five cases of nasal seromucinous hamartoma were studied and their clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular data are reported. The patients, three females and two males, ranged in age from 49 to 66 years (mean 56 year, SD ± 7.91). All lesions were located in the nasal cavity. In four cases where follow-up was obtained, no recurrence was evident. In all cases, numerous small seromucinous tubules, embedded in a cellular stroma, were present in the lamina propria. Tubules were lined by one layer of cuboidal cells which displayed luminal phenotype positive for lysozyme and EMA in four, and S100 protein in all cases. Collagen IV and laminin positive basal lamina outlined the tubules which lacked basal cells. Stromal spindle cells present among tubules were immunoreactive for calponin in all cases and for alpha-smooth muscle actin in four cases. DNA mutation analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region was performed by direct sequencing in order to verify the mutation rate of these lesions. The tubules of the five seromucinous hamartomas showed a higher mutation rate especially in heteroplasmy (0.52% homoplasmy, 2.02% heteroplasmy) in comparison to normal seromucinous glands which exhibited a lower mutation frequency (0.83%). This is considered a sign of a low cellular proliferation rate consistent with a benign process. It is concluded that nasal seromucinous hamartomas are benign glandular proliferations that may resemble microglandular adenosis of the breast. Their distinction from benign and malignant mimics is discussed.

  7. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  8. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  9. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  10. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  11. Septoplasty and decongestant improve distribution of nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jiaoping; Fan, Yunping; Feng, Shaoyan; Xia, Wentong; Wang, Jingqing; Li, Huabin

    2011-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the intranasal distribution of nasal spray after nasal septal correction and decongestant administration. A cohort of 20 patients was assessed for the distribution of nasal spray before and after nasal septum surgery. Sprays were dyed and administered one puff per nostril when patients hold their head up in an upright position. Before and after decongestant administration, the intranasal distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by nasal endoscopy. The results showed that the dyed drug was preferentially sprayed onto the nasal vestibule, the head of the inferior turbinate, the anterior part of septum and nasal floor. As far as the anterior-inferior segment of the nasal cavity was concerned, the distribution was found to be influenced neither by the decongestant nor by the surgery (P>0.05). However, both the decongestant and surgery expanded the distribution to the anatomical structures in the superior and posterior nasal cavity such as olfactory fissure, middle turbinate head and middle nasal meatus. No distribution was observed in the sphenoethmoidal recess, posterior septum, tail of inferior turbinate and nasopharynx. It was concluded that nasal septum surgery and decongestant administration significantly improves nasal spray distribution in the nasal cavity. PMID:22173509

  12. Diminished levels of nasal S100A7 (psoriasin) in seasonal allergic rhinitis: an effect mediated by Th2 cytokines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S100A7 is an antimicrobial peptide involved in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and regulation of S100A7 in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Methods Nasal lavage (NAL) fluid was obtained from healthy controls before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provocation, from SAR patients before and after allergen challenge, and from SAR patients having completed allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Nasal biopsies, nasal epithelial cells and blood were acquired from healthy donors. The airway epithelial cell line FaDu was used for in vitro experiments. Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine S100A7 expression in nasal tissue and cells. Release of S100A7 in NAL and culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. The function of recombinant S100A7 was explored in epithelial cells, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results Nasal administration of LPS induced S100A7 release in healthy non-allergic subjects. The level of S100A7 was lower in NAL from SAR patients than from healthy controls, and it was further reduced in the SAR group 6 h post allergen provocation. In contrast, ASIT patients displayed higher levels after completed treatment. S100A7 was expressed in the nasal epithelium and in glands, and it was secreted by cultured epithelial cells. Stimulation with IL-4 and histamine repressed the epithelial S100A7 release. Further, recombinant S100A7 induced activation of neutrophils and PBMC. Conclusions The present study shows an epithelial expression and excretion of S100A7 in the nose after microbial stimulation. The levels are diminished in rhinitis patients and in the presence of an allergic cytokine milieu, suggesting that the antimicrobial defense is compromised in patients with SAR. PMID:22230654

  13. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  14. The relationship between particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage and nasal passage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, J; Bascom, R; Laube, B; Swift, D L

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nasal passage characteristics on anterior particle deposition during cyclical breathing. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, adult subjects participated in this study. Nasal passage characteristics such as nostril length, width, angle, ellipticity, and minimum nasal cross-sectional area were measured. The subjects inhaled a polydisperse radioactively tagged aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 5.4 microns, geometric standard deviation [GSD] = 1.3) into the nose and exhaled through the mouth. The amount of radioactivity in the nose was measured immediately after inhalation and thereafter for 54 minutes. At 52.5 minutes, subjects wiped the accessible portion of the anterior nose to remove any remaining activity. The difference in activity at 52 and 54 minutes was used as a measure of activity removed during the nose wipe. Percentage of activity in the nasal passage at 52 minutes and percentage of activity removed with the nose wipe were considered surrogates for particles deposited in the anterior nasal passage. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils was significantly related to particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage. These results suggest that ellipticity of the nostrils may be a determinant of the amount of particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage.

  15. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  16. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  17. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  18. Hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Panogeorgou, T; Tserbini, E; Filou, S; Vynios, D H; Naxakis, S S; Papadas, T A; Goumas, P D; Mastronikolis, N S

    2016-07-01

    Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign lesions of nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa affecting 1-4 % of all adults. Nasal polyposis affects the quality of patient's life as it causes nasal obstruction, postnasal drainage, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia or anosmia, chronic sinusitis, facial pain and snoring. Without treatment, the disease can alter the craniofacial skeleton in cases of extended growth of polyps. The development of NPs is caused by the hyperplasia of nasal or paranasal sinuses mucosa, and edema of extracellular matrix. This is usually the result of high concentration of high molecular mass hyaluronan (HA) which is either overproduced or accumulated from blood supply. The size of HA presents high diversity and, especially in pathologic conditions, chains of low molecular mass can be observed. In NPs, chains of about 200 kDa have been identified and considered to be responsible for the inflammation. The purpose of the present study was the investigation, in NPs and normal nasal mucosa (NM), of the expression of the wild-type and alternatively spliced forms of hyaluronidases, their immunolocalization, and the expression of HA synthases to examine the isoform(s) responsible for the increased amounts of HA in NPs. Hyaluronidases' presence was examined on mRNA (RT-PCR analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels. Hyaluronan synthases' presence was examined on mRNA levels. Hyaluronidases were localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as in the matrix. On mRNA level, it was found that hyal-1-wt was decreased in NPs compared to NM and hyal-1-v3, -v4 and -v5 were substantially increased. Moreover, HAS2 and HAS3 were the only hyaluronan synthases detected, the expression of which was almost similar in NPs and NM. Overall, the results of the present study support that hyaluronidases are the main enzymes responsible for the decreased size of hyaluronan observed in NPs; thus they behave as inflammatory agents. Therefore, they

  19. Nasal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis.

    PubMed

    Koshi, G; Anandi, V; Kurien, M; Kirubakaran, M G; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1987-12-01

    A bilateral nasal phaeohyphomycotic infection caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis in an immunocompromised woman from India is described. Repeated direct microscopic examinations of the nasal scrapings revealed the presence of septate, branched, pigmented hyphal fragments intermingled with cells that divided internally by one transverse septum and a few cells that were chestnut brown dividing internally by septa in different planes to become muriform. Cultures of the scrapings yielded B. hawaiiensis. Local excision of the crusted lesion followed by application of 0.03% nystatin solution four times a day for 3 weeks cured the infection. PMID:3325631

  20. Assessment of Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers From 3 Different Populations.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Philip J; Langat, Robert; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Farah, Bashir; Ouattara, Gina; Park, Harriet; Coutinho, Helen; Laufer, Dagna; Fast, Pat; Verlinde, Carl; Bizimana, Jean; Umviligihozo, Gisele; Nyombayire, Julien; Ingabire, Rosine; Kuldanek, Kristin; Cox, Josephine; McMorrow, Martin; Fidler, Sarah; Karita, Etienne; Gilmour, Jill; Anzala, Omu

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda), and London (United Kingdom) using different collection devices and media (synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti-Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable with samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low- and high-resource settings. These methods may be used in support for future HIV vaccine clinical trials. PMID:27243901

  1. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Sedat; Can, Ilknur Haberal; Unlü, Ilhan; Süngü, Nuran; Gönültaş, Mehmet Alparslan; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2009-05-01

    A 33-year-old male patient with a slow-growing, painless, well-circumscribed soft tissue mass on the left parotid region is presented. The clinical impression was that of a benign salivary gland tumor. The tumor was situated in the superficial lobe of the gland, and a superficial parotidectomy was performed, with preservation of the facial nerve. Histopathologic examination results revealed a sialolipoma of the parotid gland and a lesion that consisted of both mature adipose tissue and glandular elements. Sialolipomas share similar clinical features with conventional lipomas of the salivary glands. Preoperative diagnosis is generally difficult, and computed tomographic scanning is useful in defining these benign parotid gland masses. Superficial parotidectomy is the usual surgical treatment for parotid gland superficial lobe lipomas, with near-total absence of recurrence.

  2. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  3. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  4. Absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the rat nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A A; Iseki, K; Kagoshima, M; Dittert, L W

    1992-04-01

    The fate of salicylate in the plasma of rats was followed after nasal, intravenous, and oral administration of 2.0-mg doses of aspirin. Aspirin was well absorbed following nasal administration of a neutralized, nonirritating solution containing triethanolamine. The rate of absorption was slower than that of other nasally administered drugs, such as propranolol or progesterone. The bioavailability of aspirin following nasal administration was 100%, whereas the oral bioavailability was only 58.8% at the dose studied. PMID:1501071

  5. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  6. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity.

  7. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  8. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  11. [Meibomian gland dysfunction--review].

    PubMed

    Nowińska, Anna; Wylegała, Edward; Tarnawska, Dorota; Janiszewska, Dominika; Dobrowolskia, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction is a common ocular disorder affecting from 39 to 50% of population. Despite that, so far a pathophysiology path of the disease remains unknown, moreover there is no distinct border between physiology and the disease. There has been no clear diagnostic criteria. The purpose of this review was to combine a current knowledge of Meibomian gland anatomy, Meibomian gland dysfunction epidemiology, as well as presenting current definition, nomenclature, classification and diagnostic criteria. The importance of diagnosis associated with conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, seborrheic dermatitis, and rosacea is emphasized. The available treatment methods are discussed. Meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, dry eye syndrome.

  12. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  13. Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  14. Entendre, lire et prononcer les voyelles nasales (Hearing, Reading, and Pronouncing Nasal Vowels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noir, Pascal; Peifer, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Describes techniques used for teaching French language students to recognize, discriminate between, and pronounce the four French nasal vowels. Includes twenty tongue-twisting sentences exemplifying the different vowels. (MSE)

  15. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Results Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43–2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24–2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40–3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92–12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17–2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04–2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04–2.11). Conclusions Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only. PMID:23130889

  16. Four-week use of oxymetazoline nasal spray (Nezeril) once daily at night induces rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H; Juto, J E

    1995-01-01

    A randomized double-blind parallel study with 20 healthy volunteers was performed to examine the effect of oxymetazoline nasal spray on the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. For 30 days, 10 subjects were given oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night and placebo in the morning and at noon, while the others used oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily. Before and after the course of treatment, the mucosal surface positions were determined with rhinostereometry, followed by histamine challenge tests. In the morning and the evening just before use of the nasal spray, symptoms of nasal stuffiness were evaluated on visual analogue scales (0-100). After 30 days, rebound swelling and nasal stuffiness were found in both groups. In the group receiving oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night, the mean rebound swelling was 0.8 mm (p < 0.01) and the estimated mean symptom score for nasal stuffiness in the evening was 43 (p < 0.05). In the group receiving the same nasal spray three times daily, the mean rebound swelling was 1.1 mm (p < 0.01) and the mean evening symptom score was 43 (p < 0.05). The finding of an increase in histamine sensitivity in both groups was taken to indicate nasal hyperreactivity. There was no significant difference in the investigated variables between the two groups. It is concluded that the risk of developing rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity remains, whether oxymetazoline nasal spray is used once or three times a day for 30 days.

  17. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  18. [Nasal drops addiction--the case report].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Simon, Karolina; Jabłecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the case of 34-years old man, who has used nasal drops with xylomethazoline for three years. Health consequence of uncontrolled use of the drops and treatment were prescribed. Described problem confirms the need of physicians and pharmacists cooperation to limit the problem of drug-addiction. PMID:23421118

  19. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  20. Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for treatment of nasal obstruction: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jeong; Kim, Hee Tae; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB. The study design was a retrospective clinical series conducted at a single tertiary medical center. Eight patients underwent coblation NSB reduction. Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales. We also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings. The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images. The mean visual analog scale score for nasal obstruction was decreased from preoperative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (postoperative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (postoperative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (postoperative 1 year). Six out of the eight patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature. Our results show that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.

  1. Frontal mucocoele secondary to nasal polyposis: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Chew, Y K; Noorizan, Y; Khir, A; Brito-Mutunayagam, S; Prepageran, N

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of mucocoeles associated with a non-surgically treated nasal polyposis is rare. We report a rare case of nasal polyposis with asymptomatic frontal mucocoeles in a 28-year-old Malay man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction with anosmia. Physical examination revealed bilateral grade III nasal polyps causing obstruction. Computed tomography revealed paranasal polyposis with a large polyp extending and expanding the posterior table of the frontal sinus causing erosion and thinning of its wall. Marsupialisation of the mucocoele and nasal polypectomy were done. Endoscopic sinus surgery and marsupialisation should be the treatment of choice for asymptomatic frontal mucocoele.

  2. Effect of environmental contaminants on nasal lysozyme secretions.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rudolf E

    2002-02-01

    Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. The methodology given presents a simple and rapid method of collecting nasal secretions and determining their lysozyme content, a technique which can be used for a host of environmental irritants.

  3. Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Presenting as the Rudolph Sign.

    PubMed

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Ucuncu, Harun

    2015-09-01

    Nasal furunculosis is a deep infection of hair follicle within the nasal vestibule. In this report, the authors presented a 49-year-old woman with 4-day history of focal red area and tender swelling on the tip of her nose. On physical examination, together with a swelling at nasal vestibulum, erythema, and edema on the skin of nasal tip were observed, which is called the Rudolph Sign. The patient was treated with intranasal topical mupirocin and oral sodium fusidate. Because nasal furunculosis may lead to serious complications such as ophthalmic vein thrombosis and cavernous sinus thrombosis, early diagnosis and effective treatment is essential. PMID:26335324

  4. External Fixation of Unstable, “Flail” Nasal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anastassov, George E.; Payami, Ali; Manji, Zain

    2012-01-01

    Nasal bone fractures are the most common among facial fractures. Usually these are adequately treated with closed reduction and internal and/or external stabilization with splints. However, there are clinical situations where the nasal bones are severely displaced, the nasal septum fractured and displaced, or there are external drape lacerations which preclude the use of nasal splints. If the nasal bones are reducible but unstable we consider them “flail” and in this case transmucosal, endonasal Kirschner wires are used for dorsal support until sufficient healing occurs. The technique is simple, quick, and predictable and causes minimal discomfort to the patients. PMID:23730426

  5. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  6. Immunobiology of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M; Shafer-Weaver, K; DeRosa, D

    1997-08-01

    The mammary gland is a complex organ that provides neonatal offspring with milk for nourishment and disease resistance. Specific and innate immune factors associated with mammary gland tissues and secretion also play a vital role in protecting the gland from infectious disease. Through genetic selection and technological advances in milk removal, the bovine mammary gland yields for more milk than is needed to nourish the newborn calf. This excess is the basis of the dairy industry. Factors associated with the intense management of dairy cattle can profoundly affect mammary gland immunity and the ability of the host to resist mastitis. Technological advances in immunology have led to the availability of new research tools that can facilitate the study of mammary gland immunity and disease pathogenesis. In recent years, considerable research effort has focused on enhancing the natural defense mechanisms of the mammary gland during periods of heightened susceptibility to disease. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity with special emphasis on the bovine system. The underlying mechanisms of disease susceptibility and development of potential immunoregulatory strategies to control mastitis are discussed.

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  9. Schwannoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Diaz, D D; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; White, V J

    1991-01-01

    Neurilemmomas (schwannomas) are solitary neurogenic tumors that arise from cells of the neural sheath. They are slow growing and represent a proliferation of Schwann cells. Extracranial neurogenic tumors of the head and neck are uncommon, with benign tumors occurring with greater frequency than malignant tumors. These tumors often mimic primary or metastatic disease in the head and neck. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. An unusual case of neurilemmoma of the submandibular gland is presented, and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed. We believe this tumor originated in an autonomic nerve of the submandibular gland. The mass was discrete and well demonstrated on CT scan. Total excision of the gland resulted in complete resolution of symptoms with no cranial nerve deficits.

  10. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  11. Development of chitosan-pullulan composite nanoparticles for nasal delivery of vaccines: in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cevher, Erdal; Salomon, Stefan K; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Brocchini, Steve; Alpar, H Oya

    2015-01-01

    Here, we aimed at developing chitosan/pullulan composite nanoparticles and testing their potential as novel systems for the nasal delivery of diphtheria toxoid (DT). All the chitosan derivatives [N-trimethyl (TMC), chloride and glutamate] and carboxymethyl pullulan (CMP) were synthesised and antigen-loaded composites were prepared by polyion complexation of chitosan and pullulan derivatives (particle size: 239-405 nm; surface charge: +18 and +27 mV). Their immunological effects after intranasal administration to mice were compared to intramuscular route. Composite nanoparticles induced higher levels of IgG responses than particles formed with chitosan derivative and antigen. Nasally administered TMC-pullulan composites showed higher DT serum IgG titre when compared with the other composites. Co-encapsulation of CpG ODN within TMC-CMP-DT nanoparticles resulted in a balanced Th1/Th2 response. TMC/pullulan composite nanoparticles also induced highest cytokine levels compared to those of chitosan salts. These findings demonstrated that TMC-CMP-DT composite nanoparticles are promising delivery system for nasal vaccination. PMID:26480962

  12. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics.

  13. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  14. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  15. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  16. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  17. Efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray for nasal symptoms, quality of life, rhinitis-disturbed sleep, and nasal nitric oxide in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Kubo, Seita; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Susuki, Dai; Narita, Norihiko; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shinji; Terasawa, Yuko; Kayano, Yuichiro; Masada, Mikio; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid therapy has exhibited effectiveness for improving nasal symptoms and quality of life (QOL) scores associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) for improving the total nasal symptom score, QOL score, and sleep quality in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Nasal airway conditions were also objectively assessed by measuring nasal nitric oxide (NO). Fifty-seven patients with PAR were randomized to MFNS or placebo for a 14-day, double-blind, crossover study. The subjects recorded their symptoms on nasal symptom forms and a visual analog scale. QOL and sleep quality were surveyed in accordance with the Japanese version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) and the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Nasal NO was measured during a single exhalation using a chemiluminescence analyzer. MFNS treatment achieved significant reductions versus placebo for total nasal symptoms (p < 0.001). There were significant decreases of the usual daily activity domain (p < 0.005), outdoor activities (p < 0.01), social function (p < 0.05), and the overall QOL score (p < 0.05) of JRQLQ with MFNS therapy versus placebo. A significant reduction of the sleepiness scale was also observed in the MFNS group with high sleep disturbance (p < 0.01). A significant decrease of nasal NO was found in the MFNS group (p < 0.01), especially among patients with severe nasal symptoms (p < 0.005). This prospective study indicated that MFNS therapy significantly improves nasal symptoms, QOL, sleep quality, and upper airway condition in Japanese subjects with PAR.

  18. Alae nasi activation and nasal resistance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Strohl, K P; O'Cain, C F; Slutsky, A S

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the effect of alae nasi (AN) activation on nasal resistance, we monitored AN electromyographic (EMG) activity in 17 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed on either side of the external nares and measured inspiratory nasal resistance utilizing the method of posterior rhinometry. With CO2 inhalation (6 subj), AN EMG activity increased as nasal resistance fell 23 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). In the same subjects, voluntary flaring of the external nares also increased AN EMG and decreased nasal resistance by 29 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). Nasal resistance was altered by nasal flaring and CO2 inhalation even after administration of a topical nasal vasoconstrictive spray (8 subj). In six subjects, voluntary nasal flaring or inhibition with the mouth closed produced a 21 +/- 12% change (P less than 0.01) in total airway resistance as measured by body plethysmography. We conclude that activation of the alae nasi will decrease nasal and total airway resistance during voluntary nasal flaring and during CO2 inhalation and thus should be considered in any studies of upper airway resistance.

  19. Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    London, Nyall R; Reh, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Nasal polyps are semi-translucent mucosal outgrowths of the paranasal sinuses which typically arise in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal polyps are also associated with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFS). The majority of nasal polyps are bilateral and characterized by tissue edema and eosinophil infiltration. Patients with nasal polyps often present with complaints including nasal obstruction, congestion, rhinorrhea or altered sense of smell. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign masses such as schneiderian papilloma, antrochoanal polyp, angiofibroma and encephalocele to malignant neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), esthesioneuroblastoma, nasal lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. These lesions may have a similar appearance as nasal polyps and particular attention to an alternative diagnosis for nasal polyps should be entertained if the mass is unilateral or congenital in nature. Workup for patients with a unilateral mass should include radiographic imaging, possible biopsy and careful follow-up when appropriate. Here, we review the disease etiology of nasal polyps and describe the approach to the patient with nasal polyps with emphasis on differential diagnosis and workup. PMID:27466841

  20. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P<.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients using nasal MO believed it to be somewhat or very helpful in reducing surgical site infections, compared with 71% of patients receiving PI (P>.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. PMID:24972440

  1. Airflow patterns in a human nasal model

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, D.E.; Leopold, D.A.; Youngentob, S.L.; Sheehe, P.R.; Gagne, G.M.; Thomas, F.D.; Mozell, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Nasal airflow patterns were studied by using xenon 133 gas to image the course taken by air as it flowed through a plastic model of the human nasal cavity. The model was produced from the head of a human cadaver, and was anatomically correct. A needle catheter was used to infuse the radioactive xenon into a continuous flow of room air maintained through the model by a variable vacuum source connected to the nasopharynx. The radioactive gas was infused at one of five release sites in the nostril, and the distribution of the radioactivity was imaged in the sagittal plane with a scintillation camera. The data were organized to show the activity in six contiguous regions of the midnose. For each catheter, release site activity patterns were determined for three flow rates. The results of this experiment showed that both catheter position and flow rate had significant and reproducible effects on the distribution of radioactivity within the model.

  2. Surgery of the nasal septum and turbinates

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The following article presents nasal septum and turbinate surgery. First an overview with special consideration of the anatomical and physiological background is given followed by indications for surgical procedures. Key steps of the gold standard procedure first described by Cottle and common variations are presented. Furthermore, some techniques dealing with special problems of the septumplasty are discussed followed by an overview on complications and long term results. However, it should be mentioned that studies on surgical procedures of the nasal septum are still not sufficient as higher evidence levels are very rare. Within a separated chapter techniques for closure of septum perforations are presented and indications particularly in the background of the standard procedure of bridge flaps forwarded by Schultz-Coulon are discussed. The second part focusses on turbinate surgery. Accordingly, anatomical and physiological basics are presented followed by indications for surgical procedures and the surgical steps of different procedures as well as postsurgical treatment and long term results. PMID:22073086

  3. 133 Corticosteroid Rreatment Reduces Tissue Eosinophilia and the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9) and Their Tissue Inhibitor (TIMP-1) in Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    de Borja Callejas, Fco; Martínez-Antón, Asunción; Roca-Ferrer, Jordi; Alobid, Isam; Picado, César; Mullol, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) may play an important role in both inflammation and remodeling of nasal polyposis. The aim of the current study was to compare the expression levels of MMPs and TIMP-1 between nasal mucosa and polyps, and to evaluate the effect of corticosteroid treatment in their expression in nasal polyps. Methods Nasal mucosa (NM, n = 12) were obtained from patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery while nasal polyp biopsies (NP, n = 33) were obtained from patients before (week 0) and after 2 (week 2) and 12 (week 12) weeks of corticoisteroid treatment (oral prednisone for 2 weeks and intranasal budesonide for 12 weeks). Matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP-1) expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue structural cells (epithelium, glands, vessels) and eosinophils. Results MMP and TIMP-1 expression were found in the epithelium, glands, vessels (in both NM and NP), and in eosinophils (only in NP). Expression of MMP-7 in epithelium (34% of tissues) and MMP-9 (19%) in glands was lower (P < 0.05) in NP than in NM (78 and 67%, respectively). Corticoisteroid treatment reduced tissue eosinophilia (Eos/5 fields) at week 2 (8.0 ± 2.9, P = 0.001) and week 12 (10.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.003) compared to week 0 (25.5 ± 8.4); and also decreased the expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 in eosinophils at week 2 and week 12 compared to week 0 (P < 0.05). In the epithelium, corticosteroids increased MMP-7 and TIMP-1 at week 2 and week 12, while decreased MMP-9 at week 12 (P < 0.05). In vessels, corticosteroids increased MMP-9 at week 2 and decreased MMP-1 at week 12 (P < 0.05). No effects were found in the glands. Conclusions Treatment of nasal polyposis with corticosteroids reduces both tissue eosinophilia and MMP expression in eosinophils while modifying the expression of remodeling markers in nasal polyp structural cells.

  4. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  5. Superficial nasal mucosal blood flow and nasal patency following topical oxymetazoline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Witek, T J; Canestrari, D A; Hernandez, J R; Miller, R D; Yang, J Y; Riker, D K

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline on nasal mucosal blood flow (NMBF) measured by laser Doppler velocimetry. Nasal airflow (measured by anterior rhinomanometry) and subjectively perceived airflow (measured by visual analog scales) were also evaluated. A reduction of NMBF (mL/100 g tissue/min) was observed following local application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline that was not observed after the vehicle was applied. For example, NMBF at baseline was measured at 78.8 +/- 10.3 mL/100 g tissue/min (mean +/- SEM). During the five minutes following vehicle application, mean values remained at 81.8 +/- 8.8 mL/100 g tissue/min. Five minutes after topical oxymetazoline treatment, NMBF was reduced 49% to 38.3 +/- 10.2 mL/100 g tissue/min. Nasal airflow (mL/sec), which was measured before and after LDV probe placement, was not significantly increased in either the ipsilateral (281.4 +/- 33.1 to 314.3 +/- 31.6) or contralateral nostril (335.7 +/- 26.9 to 262.1 +/- 36.4), probably due to the limited surface application of drug. Subjective assessments of congestion by both the investigator and the subject showed significant improvements in the ipsilateral nostril. We conclude that, under the conditions of our study, localized application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline significantly reduces superficial nasal blood flow and provides subjectively perceived improvements in nasal stuffiness.

  6. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  7. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  8. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity. PMID:27167480

  9. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  10. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Ioannis George-Akrivos; Stefanopoulos, Panagiotis Konstantinos; Sambaziotis, Demetrios; Zahos, Marios Alexandros; Papadimitriou, George Alexandros

    2006-01-01

    A case of slow-enlarging mass of the parotid region in a 44-year-old male is presented, which proved to be a lipomatous tumour of the parotid gland. The clinical impression was that of a benign salivary gland tumour. The tumour was situated in the deep lobe of the gland, thus a total parotidectomy was performed, with preservation of the facial nerve. Microscopically the lesion was described as consisting of mature adipose tissue, which, however, encompassed both glandular elements and nerve bundles within it. This tumour has been recently recognized as a separate entity under the term 'sialolipoma'.

  11. Imaging of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gaenor K; Miszkiel, Katherine A

    2006-12-01

    The lacrimal gland is situated superolateral to the eye and produces tears that moisten, lubricate, and protect the delicate corneal and conjunctival epithelium. Anatomically related to the orbit but embryologically and functionally more closely related to the salivary glands, radiological imaging has proven invaluable in delineation and differentiation of the unique range of pathological processes affecting the lacrimal gland. This article details traditional and new imaging techniques used in investigating such pathology and discusses the imaging findings and patterns of spread characteristic of various neoplastic, inflammatory, and structural processes ranging from benign adenomas, adenocarcinomas, and lymphomas to sarcoidosis, Mickulicz's syndrome, histiocytosis, and benign dacrocysts.

  12. Salivary gland neoplasia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bull, P D

    1999-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours, benign or malignant, are rare in childhood and as a result may be misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. Ten children with salivary gland tumours have been treated by the author over a period of 18 years. Four tumours were benign and six malignant. Treatment in all cases was by surgical excision. There has been one recurrence, treated by further surgery, in an acinic cell carcinoma. Three cases had inadequate surgery or biopsy before referral. These findings reflect other series, which demonstrate that a solid tumour in a salivary gland in childhood is more likely to be malignant than to be benign.

  13. Sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti; Ponzoni, Daniela; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Demétrio, Marcos Rogério; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes

    2011-05-01

    Sialolithiasis of the salivary gland is a benign pathology that occurs most frequently in the submandibular gland because of its anatomic features. Depending on the sialolith size and calcification degree, it can be visible in radiographic examinations. Commonly, patients may experience pain and/or edema, when the ducts are obstructed. The authors report the case of sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland in a 42-year-old, female, white-skinned patient, noticed during routine dental examination. Following diagnosis confirmed by clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan consisted of surgery for removal of the calcified mass. The prognosis is often good, and generally there is no recurrence.

  14. Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    Vitezić, D; Rozmanić, V; Franulović, J; Ahel, V; Matesić, D

    1994-03-01

    Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable.

  15. Minimally Invasive Procedures for Nasal Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Alessio; Limardo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA) and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients. PMID:23060706

  16. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery. PMID:27680520

  17. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  18. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:24504481

  19. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  20. Basal cell adenoma of nasal septum: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasm, presenting isomorphic basaloid cells with a prominent basal cell layer. Basal cell adenoma arising from the nasal septum is exceptionally rare. Reports on positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-fluorine-18-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG-PET) imaging for basal cell adenoma are limited. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who had the symptoms of intermittent repeated bleeding from the left nose for half a year. 18FDG-PET scanning showed increased accumulation of 18FDG with its characteristic benign pathology has a potential to malignancy. After removal of the mass, the patient became symptom free. Pathology showed basal cell adenoma. The evidence of active and growing cells was present in the specimen.

  1. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  2. Postrhinoplasty nasal cysts and the use of petroleum-based ointments and nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Edmund S; Kridel, Russell W H

    2003-07-01

    Nasal cysts are rare complications of rhinoplasty, and numerous theories exist regarding their cause. The term "paraffinoma" has been used to describe cyst formation observed after topical antibiotic ointment application with nasal packing in the immediate postoperative period. Such complications are rare but may occur because of the inherent properties of the agent used or a lack of meticulous technique (in the placement of incisions and nasal packing). Three cases of postrhinoplasty cysts with a variety of presentations, including incidental intraoperative findings, bilateral medial canthal masses, and a draining dorsal cyst, are described. Although such cysts are uncommon, techniques to prevent these unwanted sequelae should routinely be used, with the judicious application of non-petroleum-based topical antibiotic preparations.

  3. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs) as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. PMID:25419156

  4. [Language tests for the examination of nasal resonance].

    PubMed

    Gasiorek, J; Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A

    1996-01-01

    A set of 7 word tests with different number of nasal phonemes was prepared. These tests are adjusted to technical possibilities of nasal resonance examination by means of own construction apparatus. The VII-th test consisting only oral speech sounds appeared to be most important for estimating physiological nasal resonance characteristic for the Polish language and gave individual timbre of the voice. For Polish language these resonance rate is 15.2%. It is useful as reference data to evaluate patients with pathological nasal resonance. The VII-th test together with the V-th one which contain 6.3% of nasal consonants, and the VI-th with 33.3% of them were used for detailed evaluation of nasal resonance.

  5. [Bilateral sarcoidosis of parotid glands].

    PubMed

    Hahn, Pernille; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2012-04-23

    We describe an unusual case of sarcoidosis in which the patient presented with a bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands and no other manifestation of the disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause in which there may be multiple exocrine involvement, including the salivary glands. This case emphasises the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling. PMID:22533935

  6. Tubuloalveolar adenoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, D R; Reed, R J; Megehee, J A

    1985-06-01

    An unusual monomorphic salivary gland adenoma, occurring in a 57-year-old woman, is described. The lesion was histologically similar to the so-called tubular adenoma; however, occasional microscopic foci of serous (acinar cell) differentiation were present. The term tubuloalveolar adenoma is proposed to describe salivary gland tumors that are histologically benign and composed of cells resembling those of normal intercalated ducts and secretory units (acini).

  7. [Myoepithelioma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Almela Cortés, R; García-Hirschfeld García, J M; Ramos López, B

    2002-01-01

    Myoepithelioma of the salivary gland is a benign tumor set up almost exclusively for myoepithelial cells. It is considered as the terminal form of the histopathologic spectrum of mixed tumors, but owing to its monomorphic appearance is considered an aside form. In this article is reported one myoepithelial case of the parotid gland and are also reviewed the published literature of this sort of neoplasms.

  8. Web-based analysis of nasal sound spectra.

    PubMed

    Seren, Erdal

    2005-10-01

    The spectral analysis of the nasal sound is an indicator of the nasal airflow pattern. We investigated a new technique for nasal sound analysis via Internet. This study includes 27 patients and 22 healthy people. Patients were treated by septoplasty operation for septal deviation. Postoperation 10(th) day, this technique was applied to follow nasal airflow course. The patients recorded the nasal sound by microphone into the computer as a .wav file and sent us via internet, all those records were evaluated by us. The results were sent back to themselves. The 11 patients who had nasal obstruction symptoms (group A) were called to the hospital to check. In the nasal sound analyses e-mails of those patients, the sound intensity was at high frequencies (2-4 kHz, 4-6 kHz) above 30 dB, but low (500-1000 Hz) and medium frequencies (1-2 kHz), are below then 10 dB. In the patients without nasal obstruction symptom (group B), the sound intensity was at high frequencies below 10 dB, but low and medium frequencies are above 20 dB. There was a statistically significant difference in sound intensity between group A and group B. In the endoscopical examination of those obstructions, which decreases the nasal airway, crusting formation in the nasal cavity was found. Web-based nasal sound analysis is an important method to follow the postoperative course and the nasal airflow evaluation. The new method will save time and money, avoiding a return visit to the hospital unnecessarily.

  9. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  10. Salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, P M; Barrett, A W

    2002-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Although most clinicians and pathologists will have encountered the more common benign neoplasms, few have experience of the full range of salivary cancers, which are best managed in specialist centres. This review considers some current areas of difficulty and controversy in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms. The classification of these lesions is complex, encompassing nearly 40 different entities, but precise classification and terminology is essential for an accurate diagnosis and for the allocation of tumours to prognostic groups. For many salivary tumours diagnosis is straightforward but the wide range of morphological diversity between and within tumour types means that a diagnosis may not be possible on small incisional biopsies and careful consideration of the clinical and pathological features together is essential. Although tumour grading is important and helpful, it is not an independent prognostic indicator and must be considered in the context of stage. Large malignancies tend to have a poor prognosis regardless of grade and even high-grade neoplasms may do well when they are small. A helpful guide to management of salivary cancers is the '4 cm rule'.

  11. Nasal airway impairment: the oral response in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Warren, D W; Hairfield, W M; Dalston, E T

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the oral response to severe nasal airway impairment in patients with cleft palate. Inductive plethysmography was used to measure the percent of nasal breathing, and the pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal area in 15 persons with severe nasal airway impairment. Mean nasal area was 0.17 cm2, and the average percent of nasal breathing was 20%. Analysis revealed a strong correlation (0.87) between nasal size and percent of nasal breathing in this selected group. Modeling studies based on the mean values from the subjects' data indicated that the model "mouth" would have to open 0.5 cm2 to shunt 80% of the airflow orally, an amount equivalent to the mean value of the subjects' respiratory mode. More important, the extrapolated data revealed that upper-airway resistance decreased in the model from 8.7 cm H2O/L/sec to a level of 3.2 cm H2O/L/sec, which is an average value for healthy adults. These data support the concept that the mouth acts as a variable resistor to maintain an optimal respiratory tract resistance when the nasal airway is impaired. PMID:2008894

  12. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  13. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers What’s new in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer research ... Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research? ...

  14. Parameters of nasal airway anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging correlate poorly with subjective symptoms of nasal patency.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Jones, N S; Kabala, J E

    1999-09-01

    Forty-four patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans for non-nasal disease were asked to complete a questionnaire immediately after the scan. Subjective patency was scored for each nasal airway, patients were also asked about other nasal symptoms, hay fever, upper respiratory tract infections, medication and any history of nasal surgery or trauma. The following measurements from MRI scans were made: the cross-sectional area of the nasal airway at the anterior end of the middle turbinate, the horizontal width of the inferior turbinate and maximum septal mucosal thickness. In addition the presence of any septal deviation and the thickness or the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses was assessed. Correlation between subjective airway patency and the anatomical parameters studied was generally very weak. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening on MRI scanning had significantly lower subjective patency scores (left P = 0.003, right P = 0.029) for both nasal airways. Assessment of the nasal airway on MRI correlates poorly with symptoms of nasal obstruction. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening (> 5 mm) had significantly more symptoms of nasal obstruction on both sides.

  15. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  16. Comparative genomics in salt tolerance between Arabidopsis and aRabidopsis-related halophyte salt cress using Arabidopsis microarray.

    PubMed

    Taji, Teruaki; Seki, Motoaki; Satou, Masakazu; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Ishiyama, Kanako; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Narusaka, Mari; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2004-07-01

    Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila), a halophyte, is a genetic model system with a small plant size, short life cycle, copious seed production, small genome size, and an efficient transformation. Its genes have a high sequence identity (90%-95% at cDNA level) to genes of its close relative, Arabidopsis. These qualities are advantageous not only in genetics but also in genomics, such as gene expression profiling using Arabidopsis cDNA microarrays. Although salt cress plants are salt tolerant and can grow in 500 mm NaCl medium, they do not have salt glands or other morphological alterations either before or after salt adaptation. This suggests that the salt tolerance in salt cress results from mechanisms that are similar to those operating in glycophytes. To elucidate the differences in the regulation of salt tolerance between salt cress and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in salt cress by using a full-length Arabidopsis cDNA microarray. In salt cress, only a few genes were induced by 250 mm NaCl stress in contrast to Arabidopsis. Notably a large number of known abiotic- and biotic-stress inducible genes, including Fe-SOD, P5CS, PDF1.2, AtNCED, P-protein, beta-glucosidase, and SOS1, were expressed in salt cress at high levels even in the absence of stress. Under normal growing conditions, salt cress accumulated Pro at much higher levels than did Arabidopsis, and this corresponded to a higher expression of AtP5CS in salt cress, a key enzyme of Pro biosynthesis. Furthermore, salt cress was more tolerant to oxidative stress than Arabidopsis. Stress tolerance of salt cress may be due to constitutive overexpression of many genes that function in stress tolerance and that are stress inducible in Arabidopsis. PMID:15247402

  17. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice.

  18. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  19. A guide to salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    McEwen, D R; Sanchez, M M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses salivary gland disorders and provides nurses with a broad base of knowledge for use in planning and implementing perioperative patient care. Salivary gland disorders may be caused by nonneoplastic conditions or neoplasms. Nonneoplastic conditions generally are related to inflammatory processes or are secondary to existing disease processes. Neoplasms manifest themselves as benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands. Patients with nonneoplastic conditions may undergo surgical procedures for health problems unrelated to their salivary gland disorders; however, patients with salivary gland neoplasms usually undergo surgical excisions of their tumors and affected glands. Patients in both categories require skilled perioperative nursing care.

  20. The Mammary Glands of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

  1. Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

    1989-10-01

    Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors.

  2. Tenascin in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Pääkkö, P; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.

  3. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls.

  4. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. PMID:24818769

  5. MRSA nasal colonization burden and risk of MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, Edward; Rimland, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization burden has been identified as a risk factor for infection. This study evaluates methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) nasal burden, as defined by the cycle threshold (Ct) and risk of subsequent infection. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, United States veterans were classified into 3 MRSA nasal colonization groups: noncarriers, low burden (Ct > 24 cycles), and high burden (Ct ≤ 24 cycles). MRSA infections were identified prospectively, and clinical information was obtained by chart review. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of MRSA nasal burden and risk of MRSA infection. Results During 4-years of follow-up, 4.3% of noncarriers, 18.5% of low burden, and 17.2% of high burden developed a MRSA infection. In multivariate analysis, MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection (P = .008) with low burden (risk ratio [RR], 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47–8.93) and high burden (RR, 2.71; 95% CI: 0.95–7.72) associated with subsequent MRSA infection when compared with noncarriers. When compared with low burden, high burden nasal carriers were not at increased risk of infection (RR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.36–1.55). Conclusion MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection. High nasal burden of MRSA did not increase the risk of infection. PMID:23261345

  6. NASAL FILTERING OF FINE PARTICLES IN CHILDREN VS. ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  7. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Ding, Xinxin

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  8. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  9. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  10. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  11. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  12. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  18. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations.

  19. Correlation between Objective and Subjective Assessment of Nasal Patency

    PubMed Central

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Gera, Roberto; Bulgheroni, Chiara; Ambrogi, Federico; Schindler, Antonio; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the correlation between the objective and subjective sensation of nasal patency, assessed through a validated questionnaire, the Italian version of the NOSE scale, and the rhinomanometric results in a large cohort of patients complaining about nasal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from a total of 233 adult patients, (123 males, 110 females, with a mean age of 43.7 years) with a diagnosis of septal deviation and complaining about nasal obstruction. Anterior active rhinomanometry was used for objective assessment, while the I-NOSE scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) were used for subjective evaluation. Results: Positive correlations between I-NOSE scores and VAS and rhinomanometric results were found. The higher correlation was demonstrated between the HUNR (higher unilateral nasal resistance) parameter of rhinomanometry and the second item of the I-NOSE scale (Nasal blockage or obstruction). No significant correlation was found between the fourth item of the I-NOSE (Trouble sleeping) and the VAS score. The VAS score appeared mildly, but still significantly, correlated with the HUNR parameter of rhinomanometry. Conclusion: The correlation between the subjective sensation of nasal patency and the rhinomanometric data proved to be significant. No correlation between subjective sensation of trouble sleeping and rhinomanometric assessment was found. In counselling with patients complaining of nasal obstruction trouble in sleeping should not be considered as a symptom related to nasal obstruction. PMID:27738607

  20. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  1. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  2. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  3. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  4. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  5. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  6. Dialectical Effects on Nasalance: A Multicenter, Cross-Continental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Bressmann, Tim; Poburka, Bruce; Roy, Nelson; Sharp, Helen; Watts, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nasalance in speakers from six different dialectal regions across North America using recent versions of the Nasometer. It was hypothesized that many of the sound changes observed in regional dialects of North American English would have a significant impact on measures of nasalance. Method: Samples of the Zoo…

  7. SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION OF THE RETROPHARYNGEAL SPACE DURING NASAL INTUBATION.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Mumin; Cartabuke, Richard S; Krishna, Senthil G; Veneziano, Giorgio; Syed, Ahsan; Lind, Meredith N Merz; Tobias, Qoseph D

    2015-10-01

    Various complications have been reported with nasal endotracheal intubation including bleeding, epistaxis, bacteremia, damage to intranasal structures, and even intracranial penetration. We present two cases that required general anesthesia for dental surgery. Submucosal dissection of the retropharyngeal tissues occurred during attempted nasal endotracheal intubation. Previous reports of this complication are reviewed, treatment strategies presented, and potential maneuvers to prevent this complication suggested. PMID:26860021

  8. Angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass: how rare a presentation?

    PubMed

    Rao, Sridhara Suryanarayan; Panda, Naresh K; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Saravanan, Karuppiah

    2008-07-01

    Angiolipomas are benign adipose tumors. There are two types: infiltrating and noninfiltrating. An angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass is rare. To our knowledge, this is only the second documented case of angiolipoma presenting in the nasal dorsum. Total surgical excision by an external rhinoplasty technique with close follow-up is advised. Recurrence is not common.

  9. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  10. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  11. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  12. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Pure Human Airway Gland Mucus Reveals a Large Component of Protective Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Evans, Idil Apak T.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Engelhardt, John F.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269–319 proteins per subject). We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38%) had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican). A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment. PMID:25706550

  14. Epidemiology and differential diagnosis of nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Walsh, Erika M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, with a significant impact on patient quality of life. CRS is broadly classified into two groups: CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). Clinically, the major subtypes of CRSwNP may be divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (e.g., allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease [AERD]) and nasal polyps associated with neutrophilic inflammation (e.g., cystic fibrosis [CF]). CF is characterized by mutation of the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is usually required for most NP patients with increased frequency in patients with AERD. This study provides a review of the epidemiology and major classification of CRSwNP. Methods: A review was performed of the literature regarding different subtypes of CRSwNP. Results: Many definitions of CRSwNP exist and estimates of prevalence vary. Conclusion: CRSwNP is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous inflammatory profile. Of the subtypes associated with eosinophilic inflammation, AERD remains the most recalcitrant to medical and surgical therapeutic interventions. PMID:24274222

  15. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  16. Sphenochoanal polyp presenting with concomitant nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Tysome, James R; Saleh, Hesham A

    2007-01-01

    A sphenochoanal polyp is a rare lesion that originates in the sphenoid sinus. It occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. We present what to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of a sphenochoanal polyp associated with concomitant nasal polyps. The patient was a 54-year-old man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, possible obstructive sleep apnea, and an altered voice, all of which had likely been caused by the presence of a massive left sphenochoanal polyp and bilateral grade III anterior and posterior ethmoid polyps. Because the patient had dilated cardiomyopathy, he was not a good candidate for general anesthesia. Therefore, the polyps were removed endoscopically under local anesthesia. The sphenochoanal polyp measured 7.5 cm in its greatest dimension and weighed 41 g. The patient remained symptom-free at the 1-year follow-up. The presentation of a sphenochoanal polyp is similar to that of the more common antrochoanal polyp, but the two can usually be differentiated on computed tomography. Endoscopic sinus surgery allows for complete removal of the polyp, including its site of origin, which minimizes the risk of recurrence.

  17. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  18. [Pharmacological and clinical evalutation of nasal obstruction: application to xylometazoline].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, André

    2006-01-01

    Nasal obstruction, a prominent feature of rhinitis, may be quantified in humans by haemodynamic techniques (measuring local blood flux), static methods (measuring the geometry of nasal cavities) and dynamic methods (assessing the patency of nasal airways through the measure of resistance to air flow). These methods demonstrated the nasal decongestant activity of xylometazoline in healthy volunteers and rhinitis patients. Controlled double-blind studies established the clinical efficacy of xylometazoline in infectious and allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis versus placebo and in comparison with various reference substances. The effects on nasal epithelium ciliary activity which are observed in vitro are modest and even less pronounced in vivo owing to dilution in situ and protective physiological processes. PMID:16792148

  19. New maneuver for fixation of pediatric nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N

    2011-07-01

    Surgical treatment of nasal bone fractures in children is a complex and challenging task not only to maxillofacial surgeons but exceeding to ears, nose, and throat and plastic surgeons. Twelve child patients including 9 boys (75%) and 3 girls (25%) with nasal bone fractures were seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period of December 2009 to December 2010. Fractured nasal bone is reduced to its anatomic position with Walsham forceps, and the dislocated or disrupted nasal septum with Asch forceps. The most common cause of the injury was road traffic accident and motorcycle accident 5 (42%); nasal deviation was found in 9 cases (75%), and depression in 2 (17%). In 9 patients (75%), injuries were isolated, and 3 (25%) were associated with other facial bone fractures. Significant advances have been made in the management of these injuries, decreasing the incidence of secondary deformities.

  20. Early reexploration after closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Hong Sik

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cases that were reexplored shortly after closed reduction of the nasal bone fracture. From 1996 to 2009, 955 patients (757 males and 198 females) were operated on for the nasal bone fractures. The nasal splints were applied and removed 1 week postoperatively, and the results of nasal reduction were reviewed. Indications for reexploration were undercorrection or deviation of the reduced nasal bone.Of the 955 patients, 13 (11 males and 2 females; 1.36%) were reexplored. The recorrection was done 7.78 +/- 4.77 days after the initial surgery. Mostly local anesthesia was carried out on the reoperation of 11 patients. All 13 patients were satisfied with the final result.If any undercorrection or deviation is persistent, the corrective reexploration should be discussed with the patient in detail and corrective reexploration should be planned soon.

  1. Prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hom, M M; Martinson, J R; Knapp, L L; Paugh, J R

    1990-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to determine which patient profile factors might be associated with the syndrome. Patients were randomly selected, apparently normal patients presenting for routine vision examinations. Of the 398 patients for whom Meibomian gland expression was performed and a detailed history obtained, 155 patients or 38.9% exhibited MGD based on the principal clinical criterion of an absent or cloudy Meibomian gland secretion upon expression. Patient profile factors of gender, age, allergy occurrence, and contact lens wear were analyzed for correlation with MGD. Age was found to be the only significant correlating factor (positive correlation, p less than 0.0001).

  2. [Tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Tresserra, L; Tresserra, F

    1997-09-01

    Tumors of the parotid are the most frequently encountered salivary gland tumors. Knowledge of the histology and anatomy of the salivary gland is important when considering the histiogenesis of salivary gland tumors, requiring close cooperation between the pathologist and the surgeon. Most tumors are benign epithelial formations. Pleomorphous adenomas predominate. Superficial lobectomy is adequate treatment. When the tumor involves a deep lobe, total parotidectomy is indicated. Treatment of malignant tumors depends on the histology, its TNM stage and other factors. Total parotidectomy with lymphadectomy and radiotherapy are needed in case of high grade malignancy. In children, vascular neoplasias are the most frequent, followed by malignant tumors. Their histological features and treatment are the same as for adults.

  3. Ultrasound in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, J N; Mourou, M Y

    1993-01-01

    This text reviews the normal ultrasound (US) anatomy of the salivary glands along with tumoral, lithiasic, and inflammatory pathologies. For salivary gland tumors, US does have limitations (failure to visualize the entire parotid gland, relations with the nerve plexus, in-depth spread of large tumors, false-negative errors of malignancy for small encapsulated tumors). However, US is a simple technique allowing correct identification of the benign nature of a lesion in over 80% of the cases. For lesions under 3 cm in diameter, US is generally the only imaging technique used; for larger lesions, CT or MR is required. Sialolithiasis and inflammatory diseases are being documented by US more and more and the indications for sialography have strongly decreased.

  4. Advances in salivary gland pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K C

    2007-07-01

    This review summarizes the new findings on salivary gland pathology under the following categories: immunohistochemistry; molecular genetics; newly recognized tumour types; known tumour entities with new findings; and progression of salivary gland tumours. In the application of immunohistochemistry, CD117 can aid in highlighting the luminal cell component of various salivary gland tumours, whereas p63 or maspin can aid in highlighting the abluminal cell component. A high Ki67 index remains the most useful marker to predict adverse outcome in salivary gland carcinoma. Specific chromosomal translocations are recognized in pleomorphic adenoma (with translocation involving PLGA1 or HMGA2 gene) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with MECT1-MAML2 gene fusion). Newly recognized entities include: sclerosing polycystic adenosis (with recent molecular evidence supporting its neoplastic nature), sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, keratocystoma, adenoma with additional stromal component (lymphadenoma, lipoadenoma and adenofibroma), cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and signet ring adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. Known tumour entities with new findings include: salivary duct carcinoma (with newly recognized mucinous, micropapillary and sarcomatoid variants), intraductal carcinoma (with controversies in terminology), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with newly proposed grading parameters and oncocytic variant), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (with newly recognized morphological variants), small cell carcinoma (with most cases being related to Merkel cell carcinoma), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (with specific chromosomal translocation) and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (being a component of IgG4-related sclerosing disease). Progression of salivary gland tumours can take the form of malignant transformation of a benign tumour, progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma, dedifferentiation, or stromal invasion of an in situ carcinoma.

  5. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. PMID:27509293

  6. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery.

  7. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  8. Salivary gland tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; el-Naggar, A K

    1991-10-01

    Fewer than 5% of all primary salivary gland neoplasms occur in children, but if benign supporting tissue tumors are excluded, a higher proportion than in adults are malignant. The first decade of life, and particularly the first 2 years of life, has a preponderance of benign neoplasms. Commencing with the second decade, carcinomas rise in incidence and are most often mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial salivary tumor throughout childhood. The embryoma may be a uniquely childhood epithelial salivary gland tumor.

  9. Cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mandeep S; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; R, Balasubramanya

    2002-12-01

    Cystadenoma is a benign cystic tumor predominantly affecting the major and minor salivary glands. We present a case of bilateral cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland, which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported earlier. The patient had slowly increasing, painless, bilateral upper eyelid swelling. On examination, the tumors were multilobulated, mobile and transilluminant. Ultrasonography and CT-scan revealed cystic lesions with multiple septations in the region of both lacrimal fossae. Complete excision of the tumors was performed because of their potential for malignant transformation. The histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis.

  10. Embryoma (sialoblastoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Frankenthaler, R

    1992-11-01

    There are four clinicopathologic categories of the exclusively major salivary gland tumors that present in the perinatal period. The two with the smallest representation among the 20 cases reported to date are those with a hamartomalike appearance and those with benign adult equivalents--the pleomorphic and monomorphic adenomas. Five cases have been undifferentiated or basaloid salivary carcinomas. Embryomas (sialoblastomas) are the most numerous. These tumors manifest a histologic phenotype like that of the epithelial anlage of the salivary glands, albeit in an arrested state of differentiation.

  11. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goode, R K; Corio, R L

    1988-01-01

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is established on the basis of oncocytic cellular features in conjunction with dysplastic change. These dysplastic changes may occur in benign oncocytomas or arise de novo. The tumor occurs most commonly in the parotid glands of persons over 60 years of age. Tumors that measure less than 2 cm at the initial surgical procedure appear to have a better prognosis than larger tumors. Aggressive surgical intervention at the initial presentation of the neoplasm, compared to simple enucleation, seems to offer a more favorable prognosis. Recurrence is an ominous feature. Metastasis, when it occurs, is widespread.

  12. Cyclodextrin solubilization of benzodiazepines: formulation of midazolam nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, T; Gudmundsdóttir, H; Sigurjónsdóttir, J F; Sigurdsson, H H; Sigfússon, S D; Másson, M; Stefánsson, E

    2001-01-01

    The cyclodextrin solubilization of three benzodiazepines, i.e. alprazolam, midazolam and triazolam, was investigated. The cyclodextrin solubilization was enhanced through ring-opening of the benzodiazepine rings and ionization of the ring-open forms. Additional enhancement was obtained through interaction of a water-soluble polymer with the cyclodextrin complexes. The ring-opening was pH-dependent and completely reversible, the ring-open forms dominating at low pH but the ring-closed forms at physiologic pH. The ring-closed forms were rapidly regenerated upon elevation of pH. In freshly collected human serum in vitro at 37 degrees C, the half-life for the first-order rate constant for the ring-closing reaction was estimated to be less than 2 min for both alprazolam and midazolam. Midazolam (17 mg/ml) was solubilized in aqueous pH 4.3 nasal formulation containing 14% (w/v) sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin, 0.1% (w/v) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, preservatives and buffer salts. Six healthy volunteers received 0.06 mg/kg midazolam intranasally and 2 mg intravenously, and blood samples were collected up to 360 min after the administration. Midazolam was absorbed rapidly reaching maximum serum concentrations of 54.3+/-5.0 ng/ml at 15+/-2 min. The elimination half-life of midazolam was 2.2+/-0.3 h and the absolute availability was 73+/-7%. All mean values+/-SEM. PMID:11165818

  13. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Meibomian gland function and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Billborough, M

    1992-08-15

    We examined 42 contact lens-wearing patients for clinical evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis and for meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout. Fifteen patients were free of clinical signs and symptoms of giant papillary conjunctivitis, whereas 27 had clinical symptoms and evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis had significantly more gland dropout with an average of 0.6 +/- 1.2 gland absent in both lower eyelids compared with 0.2 +/- 0.4 gland absent in patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis. Additionally, the viscosity of meibomian gland excreta was greater in the giant papillary conjunctivitis group. There was no difference in tear osmolarity or in the Schirmer test results between the two groups. These results indicated patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis were more likely to have meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout than patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis.

  15. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  16. Basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Huang, Shun-Chen; Su, Chih-Ying

    2003-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute about 3% to 4% of all head and neck neoplasms. Approximately 80% originate in the parotid gland, and they rarely present in the sublingual gland; however, a disproportionately large majority of sublingual gland tumors are malignant. Basal cell adenoma is a benign epithelial salivary gland tumor that appears to have unique histologic characteristics, different from those of mixed tumors, and has a predilection for development in the parotid and minor salivary glands. No case has ever been reported as arising from the sublingual gland in the otolaryngology literature. We report here a case of a middle-aged woman with basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland. The clinical presentation, pathological features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for this relatively rare tumor are discussed.

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3-5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  18. Localization of the primordial vomeronasal organ and its relationship to the associated gland in lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The lungfish, the closest fish to tetrapods, has two types of sensory epithelia in the olfactory organ: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. The former resembles the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the latter resembles the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods with respect to the G-protein expressions and the morphological properties of olfactory receptor cells. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium covering the surface of olfactory lamella, the recess epithelium, together with the glandular epithelium, lines the recesses at the base of olfactory lamellae and is separated from the surrounding tissues by nonsensory epithelium. In the present study, we examined the distribution of these recesses and the relationship between the recess epithelium and the associated gland in the nasal sac of lungfish. We found that the posterior part of the nasal sac contained more recesses than the anterior one, and the medial one contained more recesses than the lateral one. In addition, virtually all recesses consisted of both the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, the glandular epithelium was invariably situated proximal to the midline raphe of the nasal sac, and the recess epithelium distal to it. Possible roles of the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium are discussed.

  19. Deep-lobe parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1984-01-01

    Fewer than 10% of all parotid gland tumors arise from the deep portion of the gland. The great majority are benign and are mixed tumors. Their clinical presentation in the parapharyngeal space is uncommon, but in the event, the principal differential diagnosis is the elimination of an oropharyngeal primary salivary gland tumor.

  20. Medial Femoral Condyle Free Flap for Nasal Reconstruction: New Technique for Full-Thickness Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Paolo; Turri-Zenoni, Mario; Tamborini, Federico; Giudice, Marco; Sallam, Davide; Corno, Martina; Pietrobon, Giacomo; Valdatta, Luigi; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The nose is a functionally complex organ implicated in breathing, olfaction, and phonation, with a critical role also in the aesthetic appearance of a person. This latter aspect should be carefully considered whenever a total or subtotal rhinectomy is performed for resection of locally advanced nasal cancer. To reconstruct large nasal defects, several techniques were described, including the use of cartilaginous grafts, bony grafts, local flaps, and free flaps. In cases of extensive full-thickness resections, free flaps probably represent the most adequate option. The aim of this report is to present the functional and aesthetical outcomes of a reconstruction of the nose after rhinectomy, using the medial femoral condyle free flap associated with the forehead flap. PMID:27757320

  1. Salted fish and inhalants as risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Henderson, B E

    1983-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among Malaysian Chinese to test inhalants, salted fish consumption, and use of tobacco, alcohol, and nasal ointments as risk factors for the disease. Interviews with 100 cases and 100 controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk factor (relative risk, 3.0; p = 0.04); childhood daily consumption of this food item compared to nonconsumption carried a relative risk of 17.4 [95% confidence interval = (2.7, 111.1)]. Occupational exposure to smokes (relative risk, 6.0; p = 0.006) and to dusts (relative risk, 4.0; p less than 0.001) was also significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The two risk factors (consumption of salted fish and exposure to smoke and/or dust) were independent of each other. There was no association between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and tobacco, alcohol, or nasal ointments.

  2. Phenylephrine as an alternative to cocaine for nasal vasoconstriction before nasal surgery: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    AlHaddad, Sawsan T; Khanna, Ashish K; Mascha, Edward J; Abdelmalak, Basem B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine is often used topically to provide the profound vasoconstriction required for nasal surgery; however, it has been associated with intraoperative cardiac adverse effects. We compared cocaine with phenylephrine as an alternative to ascertain their relative efficacy as vasoconstrictors in nasal septoplasty. Methods: Adult patients, presenting for elective nasal septoplasty, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-III, were randomised to either 0.5% phenylephrine or 4% cocaine. The primary outcome was quality of vasoconstriction on a 5-point scale (1=unacceptable, 5=excellent), rated by the surgeon at the end of the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients received phenylephrine and 26 received cocaine. The median rating for quality of the vasoconstriction was 4.0 (good) in both the phenylephrine and cocaine groups (P=0.84). Median blood loss was 50 ml in the phenylephrine group and 62.5 ml in the cocaine group (P=0.49). In secondary analyses, phenylephrine was shown to be non-inferior to cocaine on both quality of vasoconstriction (non-inferiority delta of 1 point, P=0.009) and estimated blood loss (non-inferiority delta of 25 ml, P=0.028). The frequency of ventricular ectopy, ST segment changes or blood pressure changes after nasal packing was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Phenylephrine in a concentration of 0.5% is not different from 4% cocaine on the quality of vasoconstriction in septoplasty. Given the abuse potential of cocaine and the added administrative burden associated with its handling, phenylephrine might serve as an alternative. PMID:23825816

  3. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  4. Therapy for meibomian gland disease.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Deval Reshma; Foulks, Gary N

    2003-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the past half-century in our understanding of meibomian gland function and of the many inflammatory, hormonal, and infectious processes leading to its dysfunction. These advances have led to an exploration of exciting new avenues for treatment of this common but frustrating disease entity.

  5. Tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the role of imaging in the management of tumors of the salivary glands, discussing tumor localization, extent, and, where possible, characterization. The relative benefits of the different modalities and the typical features of benign and malignant lesions are discussed for each modality. Characteristic appearances of specific tumors are highlighted.

  6. An approach to the nasal septum in children.

    PubMed

    Healy, G B

    1986-11-01

    Surgery of the nasal septum has long been discouraged in the pediatric population. Concerns about growth and development of the nose have led surgeons to adopt an extremely cautious attitude toward the correction of nasal septal deformities in childhood. More recently, studies have shown that with proper preservation of septal cartilage, surgery can be safely undertaken in this area. Frequently, however, exposure to the nasal septum is limited in small children due to the size of the nasal vestibule. Sublabial septoplasty has been safely carried out now in ten patients ranging in age from 4 to 9 years. This approach allows for complete access to the nasal septum while avoiding any external cosmetic deformity. The nasal septum has been preserved in all cases through morsalization and repositioning. Growth and development of the nose has been followed for up to 60 months without evidence of deformity or alteration. Sublabial septoplasty would, therefore, appear to be a safe and cosmetically acceptable approach to the correction of severe nasal septal deformities of childhood. PMID:3773624

  7. Epstein-barr virus induced cellular changes in nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Gelardi, Matteo; Tomaiuolo, Marilena; Cassano, Michele; Besozzi, Gaspare; Fiorella, Maria Luisa; Calvario, Agata; Castellano, Maria Antonia; Cassano, Pasquale

    2006-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with nasal obstruction of the right nasal fossa of 1 year duration. Nasal endoscopy revealed in the right inferior turbinate head a rounded neoplasm about 1 cm in diameter. Cytologic study of a nasal scraping specimen disclosed numerous clusters containing columnar cells with cytomegaly, prominent multinucleation, markedly sparse shortened cilia; the cytoplasm contained an acidophil area and a small round area that stained poorly; cells with a large intracytoplasmic vacuole that was acidophil and PAS+. Serology tests using the nested polymer chain reaction (PCR) technique on serum, nasal and pharyngeal smears revealed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection that was confirmed at electron microscopy. The clinical and cytological features resolved 19 months after the initial evaluation. Conclusion The authors advise carrying out clinical (endoscopy, serology, etc.) evaluation of all endonasal neoplasms and to routinely perform cytological study on nasal scraping specimens. When samples test positive for EBV, nasal and nasopharyngeal endoscopy should be performed regularly to detect possible evidence for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). PMID:16451721

  8. Relationships between indoor environments and nasal inflammation in nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Smedbold, Hans Thore; Ahlen, Catrine; Unimed, Sintef; Nilsen, Asbjørn M; Norbäck, Dan; Hilt, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors sought to address the relationships between measured indoor environmental factors and nasal patency (i.e., minimum cross-sectional area) and volume and markers of nasal inflammation in nasal lavage fluid. Clinical data were obtained for 115 females who worked at 36 geriatric nursing departments. The indoor climates in the nursing departments were characterized by high room temperatures (median = 23 degrees C), low relative air humidities (median = 24%), and high air exchange rates indicated by low carbon dioxide levels (median = 570 ppm). Evidence of microbial amplification was observed in the ventilation unit in 3 of the departments. Decreased nasal patency was observed relative to microbial amplification in the ventilation units (minimum cross-sectional area 1 = 0.80 cm2 vs. 0.64 cm2, p = .003, minimum cross-sectional area 2 = 0.80 cm2 vs. 0.67 cm2, p = .02) and in relation to elevated indoor temperature (volume 1 = 3.46 cm3 vs. 3.22 cm3, p = .03). The authors concluded that the indoor environment may have affected the nasal mucosa of nursing personnel, thus causing nasal mucosal swelling. The results support the view that fungal contamination of air-supply ducts may be a source of microbial pollution, which can affect the nasal mucosa.

  9. The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Niinimaa, V; Cole, P; Mintz, S; Shephard, R J

    1980-10-01

    The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during incrementally graded submaximal exercise was determined in 30 (14 M, 16 F) healthy adult volunteers. Nasal airflow was measured by a pneumotachograph attached to a nasal mask. Oral airflow was determined as the difference between nasal airflow and total pulmonary airflow, the latter being measured by a head-out exercise body plethysmograph. The airflow and pressure signals were sampled every 20 msec by a micropressor, which calculated respiratory volumes and nasal work of breathing, and produced an on-line print-out. Twenty of the 30 subjects (normal augmenters) switched from nasal to oronasal breathing at submaximal exercise of 105.0 W (SD = 30.1), four subjects (mouth breathers) breathed habitually oronasally, five subjects (nose breathers) persistently breathed through the nose only, and one subject showed no consistent nose/mouth breathing pattern. In normal augmenters, the onset of oronasal breathing (VE 35.3 +/- 10.81 . min-1) was quite consistent individually, but varied considerably between inividuals without showing a significant sex difference. The factors most closely related to the switching point were rating of perceived exertion of breathing and nasal work of breathing. PMID:7444224

  10. May nasal hyperreactivity be a sequela of recurrent common cold?

    PubMed

    Cassano, M; Cassano, P; Ciprandi, G

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections may worsen bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there is no data on the possible role of recurrent infectious rhinitis in nose hyperreactivity. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether subjects suffering from recurrent common cold have nasal hyperreactivity, assessed by histamine nasal challenge. This study included a group of 40 patients (19 males, mean age 34.1 years) with history of at least five episodes of common cold in the previous year, but without documented allergy, and twenty healthy subjects (8 males, mean age 32.3 years) were enrolled as control group, all of whom were non-allergic. Nasal provocation test with histamine was performed in all subjects. Nasal provocation test with histamine induced a 200% increase in nasal resistance after provocation in 24 (60%) patients suffering from recurrent viral rhinitis. No normal subject had an increase >180% in nasal resistance. There was a significant difference between the patient group and the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that nasal hyperreactivity might be a sequela of recurrent common cold. Further studies should be conducted to confirm this preliminary finding.

  11. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  12. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  13. Gland-preserving surgery can effectively preserve gland function without increased recurrence in treatment of benign submandibular gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Min, Ruan; Zun, Zhang; Siyi, Li; Wenjun, Yang; Jian, Sun; Chenping, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    The most widely accepted treatment for neoplasms of the submandibular gland usually involves excision of the entire gland. Our aim was to establish a gland-preserving operation for benign tumours of the submandibular gland and evaluate its efficacy. We treated 40 patients from January 2007 to December 2008 with benign submandibular gland tumours who were listed to have an operation that either preserved the gland or sacrificed it. Duration of operation, extent of injury to the nerve, postoperative function of the gland, aesthetic appearance, and recurrence were assessed. We found no significant difference in baseline characteristics among the 20 patients in each group (19 men; 21 women, mean (SD) age of 34 (33.8 ± 5.72) years. The extent of injury to the lingual nerve and submandibular branch, together with deformities of the facial contour, were significantly less in the group in which the gland was preserved. Postoperative salivary production and overall patients' satisfaction were also better in that group. There was no recurrence in either group during the follow up period of 38 months-5 years. The gland-preserving procedure has advantages over the typical approach in which the gland is sacrificed. There is less risk of injury to the nerve, less deformity of the facial contour, better preservation of function, and patients are more satisfied. The gland-preserving technique should therefore be the first choice for management of benign submandibular tumours.

  14. Surgical Approaches to the Nasal Cavity and Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Alyssa Marie; Degner, Daniel Alvin

    2016-07-01

    The nasal cavity and sinuses may be exposed primarily via a dorsal or ventral surgical approach. Surgical planning involves the use of advanced imaging, such as computed tomography or MRI. Surgical treatment of lesions of the nasal cavity usually is limited to benign lesions or can also be used in combination with adjunctive therapy, such as radiation therapy. Extreme caution must be exercised with a dorsal approach to the nasal cavity to avoid complications of inadvertent penetration into the brain case. Gentle tissue handling and careful closure of the mucoperiosteum must be exercised following a ventral approach to minimize the risk of oronasal fistula formation. PMID:27217006

  15. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  16. Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Wolf, Michael; Keck, Tilman

    2008-11-30

    Healthy humans normally breathe through their nose even though its complex geometry imposes a significantly higher resistance in comparison with mouth breathing. The major functional roles of nasal breathing are defense against infiltrating particles and conditioning of the inspired air to nearly alveolar conditions in order to maintain the internal milieu of the lung. The state-of-the-art of the existing knowledge on nasal air-conditioning will be discussed in this review, including in vivo measurements in humans and computational studies on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Areas where further studies will improve our understanding and may help medical diagnosis and intervention in pathological states will be introduced. PMID:18565805

  17. Bilateral congenital lacrimal sac mucoceles with nasal extension and drainage.

    PubMed

    Divine, R D; Anderson, R L; Bumsted, R M

    1983-02-01

    A newborn infant with bilateral mucoceles of the lacrimal sacs also had submucosal masses along the floor of the nose beneath the inferior turbinates communicating with the mucoceles. Drainage of the mucoceles was performed by needle aspiration and wide marsupialization of the nasal masses into the nose under direct visualization. To our knowledge, this is the first time that intranasal extension of mucoceles has been reported, and the first time that lacrimal sac mucoceles have been successfully treated via direct nasal drainage. We advocate careful nasal evaluation in cases of congenital lacrimal sac mucoceles to determine whether intranasal extension is common and whether intranasal drainage can be curative.

  18. Deformities of the nasal septum in human foetuses.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Gil, D; Montserrat-Viladiu, J M; Vilanova-Trías, J; Burgés-Vila, J

    1980-06-01

    In a seris of 50 embryos and foetuses ranging from 20 mm to 190 mm in length two foetuses of 34 and 37 mm (48 to 50 days old) were found, that presented deformities of the septum of the cartilaginous nasal capsule, representing 4% of our material. The deformities consisted of curves of the nasal septum, located to both vomeronasal nerves. We therefore think that this study is interesting because it adds a new factor, the congenital one, to the etiology of deformities of the nasal septum.

  19. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  20. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  1. Effects of endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues on inhaled formaldehyde dosimetry predictions in the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Jeffry D; Campbell, Jerry; Kimbell, Julia S; Conolly, Rory B; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a nasal carcinogen in rodents at high doses and is an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde have relied on internal dose estimates in the upper respiratory tract. Dosimetry calculations are complicated by the presence of endogenous formaldehyde concentrations in the respiratory mucosa. Anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages were used to simulate uptake of inhaled formaldehyde. An epithelial structure was implemented in the nasal CFD models to estimate formaldehyde absorption from air:tissue partitioning, species-specific metabolism, first-order clearance, DNA binding, and endogenous formaldehyde production. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppm, predicted formaldehyde nasal uptake was 99.4, 86.5, and 85.3% in the rat, monkey, and human, respectively. Endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues did not significantly affect wall mass flux or nasal uptake predictions at exposure concentrations > 500 ppb; however, reduced nasal uptake was predicted at lower exposure concentrations. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppb, predicted nasal uptake was 17.5 and 42.8% in the rat and monkey; net desorption of formaldehyde was predicted in the human model. The nonlinear behavior of formaldehyde nasal absorption will affect the dose-response analysis and subsequent risk estimates at low exposure concentrations. Updated surface area partitioning of nonsquamous epithelium and average flux values in regions where DNA-protein cross-links and cell proliferation rates were measured in rats and monkeys are reported for use in formaldehyde risk models of carcinogenesis.

  2. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  3. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  4. Composition of nasal airway surface liquid in cystic fibrosis and other airway diseases determined by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Vanthanouvong, V; Kozlova, I; Johannesson, M; Nääs, E; Nordvall, S L; Dragomir, A; Roomans, G M

    2006-04-01

    The ionic composition of the airway surface liquid (ASL) in healthy individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been debated. Ion transport properties of the upper airway epithelium are similar to those of the lower airways and it is easier to collect nasal ASL from the nose. ASL was collected with ion exchange beads, and the elemental composition of nasal fluid was determined by X-ray microanalysis in healthy subjects, CF patients, CF heterozygotes, patients with rhinitis, and with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In healthy subjects, the ionic concentrations were approximately isotonic. In CF patients, CF heterozygotes, rhinitis, and PCD patients, [Na] and [Cl] were significantly higher compared when compared with those in controls. [K] was significantly higher in CF and PCD patients compared with that in controls. Severely affected CF patients had higher ionic concentrations in their nasal ASL than in patients with mild or moderate symptoms. Female CF patients had higher levels of Na, Cl, and K than male patients. As higher salt concentrations in the ASL are also found in other patients with airway diseases involving chronic inflammation, it appears likely that inflammation-induced epithelial damage is important in determining the ionic composition of the ASL. PMID:16586482

  5. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1986-04-01

    The experiments were performed on anaesthetized dogs which breathed spontaneously or were artificially ventilated and paralysed. The spontaneous nasal arterial blood flow was measured on one side of the nose while nasal vascular resistance was determined on the other side simultaneously. Nasal arterial blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow sensor placed around the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery, the main arterial supply to the nasal mucosa. Nasal vascular resistance was measured by constant-flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery. Nasal airway resistance was assessed by monitoring the transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Hypercapnic gas challenge (8% CO2, 30% O2 in N2) to the lungs increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance. Hypoxic gas challenge (6% O2 in N2) to the lungs did not affect the nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance only when the nasal vascular bed was under controlled perfusion. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect either nasal vascular or airway resistance. Arterial chemoreceptor stimulation by intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. The nasal vascular response to hypercapnia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being abolished by nasal sympathectomy. The nasal airway response to hypercapnia, hypoxia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being partially or completely abolished by nasal sympathectomy. Hypercapnia probably induced a local vasodilatatory effect on the capacitance vessels whereas hypoxia had no direct action on the vasculature.

  6. The effect of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Kern, E B

    1978-12-01

    A group of 51 patients was studied by a technique of active posterior rhinomanometry that assessed the influence of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance. Breath hodling of 30 seconds or longer produced a decrease in nasal resistance in most of the subjects tested. Hyperventilation had variable effects on nasal resistance, and exercise consistently decreased nasal resistance. These observations are consistent with the proposed effect of chemoreceptor stimulation on nasal airway resistance.

  7. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N.; Rito, Helen Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca). It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users. PMID:25991946

  8. [Analysis of the projection of the nasal tip].

    PubMed

    Vertu-Ciolino, D; Disant, F

    2007-01-01

    The success of a rhinoplasty is conditioned by a detailed preoperative analysis of the morphology of the nose and face of the patient. A good knowledge of the characteristic reference marks and nasal proportions authorize a detailed description of the nose. The position of the nasal tip is one of the principal characteristics of the nose. It is expressed by the combination of its projection and its height. A reflexion on the position of the tip and its ideal position post-operatively enabled us to work out a conceptual approach aiming at guiding the surgical project. The drawing of two circles centered on the nasal pyramid is the expression of this concept. Thus, a detailed analysis of the nasal pyramid and a biomechanical approach are the key to a relevant surgical plan.

  9. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ... other structures such as the skin of the cheek, the front part of the eye socket, the ...

  10. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  11. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to choanal atresia: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Rodríguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Víctor; Cuestas, Giselle; Tiscornia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potential fatal condition because of their exclusive nasal breathing. The most common congenital causes include choanal atresia, dermoid cyst, glioma and encephalocele. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. When bilateral, it presents with respiratory distress at birth. Unilateral atresia is manifested by respiratory failure and unilateral rhinorrhea, and may go along unnoticed. Diagnosis is suspected in the absence of airfow in the nasal cavity and for the inability to advance a nasogastric tube. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination and computed tomography. The definitive treatment is surgical, and there are different techniques and surgical approaches. We describe our experience with 7 patients with this disease, successfully treated by transnasal endoscopic technique. PMID:22451289

  12. Ameloblastoma of the Nasal Septum Origin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zatoński, Tomasz; Roszkowska, Anna; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor. It represents about 1% of all tumors of the jaw. Extragnathic location of the ameloblastoma is typical and extremely rare. Case Report. We report a case of ameloblastoma of the nasal septum origin, causing nasal obstruction. According to our information, this is the first reported case of ameloblastoma coming from the nasal septum as a primary tumor without maxillary sinus involvement. Conclusions. Ameloblastoma can not only locate in the maxilla and mandible, but also in other regions of the craniofacial. Ameloblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors causing nasal obstruction. Nonspecific clinical features of sinonasal ameloblastoma make it extremely important to perform accurate diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination. PMID:24171127

  13. Histopathology of meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gutgesell, V J; Stern, G A; Hood, C I

    1982-09-01

    We conducted a histopathologic study of he meibomian glands of seven patients (all men, ranging in age from 58 to 83 years) who had severe or moderately severe meibomian dysfunction and who were undergoing ectropion or entropion repair. Abnormal features included signs of obstruction and dilatation of ducts, enlargement of acini with cystic degeneration and squamous metaplasia, foreign-body reaction and granuloma formation, a mild increase in inflammatory cells, and abnormal keratinization. Demodex organisms were found in both acini and ducts of one patient. These findings were similar to those reported in other entities involving meibomian duct obstruction, probably related to abnormalities of keratinization, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of meibomian gland dysfunction.

  14. Sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Claudia M; Mooney, Julia E; Luna, Mario A

    2003-08-01

    Primary sebaceous neoplasms of the salivary glands are extremely rare occurrences; furthermore, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma has only been reported in three patients. We report a case of sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma arising in a lymphadenoma of the parotid gland. The patient was a 55-year-old man who presented with a parotid mass of 3 years' duration. Histologically, the lesion consisted of a sebaceous lymphadenoma with transition to a sebaceous carcinoma. The cytologic touch-preparation at the time of frozen section showed clusters of benign sebaceous cells in a rich lymphocytic background together with tridimensional clusters of malignant epithelial cells, strongly raising the suspicion of a malignant neoplasm arising in a benign sebaceous lesion. Malignant transformation of the sebaceous lymphadenoma, although rare, should be considered in enlarging, locally invasive parotid lesions, considering that clinical behavior and prognosis will be determined by the nature of the malignant component.

  15. Nasal solitary fibrous tumor arising from the anterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David L; Moe, Kris S

    2004-11-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal, spindle cell neoplasm that was originally found in pleural tissue. Recently, however, numerous extrapleural sites have been discovered, including the nasal cavity. We present the 15th case of a nasal SFT, and the first such tumor to arise from the cribriform plate and extend into the anterior cranial fossa. In addition to highlighting the aggressive nature of this tumor, we review its clinical features and the diagnostic difficulties posed by SFT.

  16. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  17. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  18. Overview of Nasal Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Keeping It Simple

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Koshy, John C.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of nasal soft tissue reconstruction and of the senior author's practice. Nasal soft tissue reconstruction is a challenging endeavor as the nose is one of the most prominent and complex facial features. A multitude of surgical repair options exist, which can make the decision-making process unnecessarily complicated. It is advisable that the reconstructive surgeon become facile with a handful of surgical techniques versus trying to master many techniques. PMID:24872747

  19. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  20. Transfixion incision as an initial technique in nasal tip deprojection

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Philip; Rival, Richard; Mabini, Aimee; Boyd, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overprojected nasal tip presents a significant challenge to the surgeon performing rhinoplasty. Full transfixion incision as a means of dealing with this deformity has been studied only in combination with other surgical methods. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transfixion incision alone would result in significant nasal tip deprojection, and if skin thickness had an effect on the extent of deprojection the procedure yielded. METHOD: Seventy-two consecutive patients with an aesthetic goal of nasal tip deprojection were enrolled. The sole surgical means of deprojection used was transfixion incision. Subjects were categorized as thin-, medium- or thick-skinned based on the surgeon’s analysis. These groups were compared in terms of their postprocedural nasal tip deprojection. RESULTS: Using transfixion incision as the sole means of correcting this deformity resulted in a mean nasal tip deprojection of 1.6 mm (ranging from 0 mm to 3 mm). Patients in the thin skin group had a mean deprojection of 2.12 mm. This was significantly greater than for both the medium- and thick-skinned groups. There was no significant difference between the medium- and thick-skinned groups. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons may use skin thickness when planning interventions for correcting nasal tip overprojection. When used alone, transfixion incision resulted in tip deprojection comparable with that achieved when combined with other methods, particularly for thin-skinned patients. Surgeons can thus use a graduated approach in which transfixion incision, the least destructive method, is used before proceeding with other interventions. PMID:19949502

  1. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during neonatal transfers

    PubMed Central

    Bomont, R K; Cheema, I U

    2006-01-01

    Objective To review all cases in which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was used as a means of respiratory support during land based ambulance transfers by a regional neonatal transport service. Design Retrospective study based on review of transport records. Results A total of 1175 transfer requests were received over the 21 month period. The infant in 163 of these cases was receiving nasal CPAP. Ninety two referrals were accepted by the doctor/nurse practitioner led team. Of these, 84 were transported while receiving nasal CPAP. Intervention during transport was required in three of these cases. Fifty five referrals were accepted by the nurse led team. Of these, 16 were transported while receiving nasal CPAP. Intervention was required in two cases. Conclusion There is a small but significant demand for transferring infants who are receiving nasal CPAP. Nasal CPAP appears to be a safe method of respiratory support for a carefully selected group of infants during land based ambulance transfers. PMID:16204357

  2. Treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior with ectoine containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Scherner, Olaf; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages.

  3. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages. PMID:24822072

  4. Treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior with ectoine containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Scherner, Olaf; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages. PMID:24822072

  5. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  6. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, N; Agarwal, A; Raj, V; Chandra, S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  7. Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; D’Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

  8. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes.

  9. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes. PMID:26817690

  10. Nasalance and nasality at experimental velopharyngeal openings in palatal prosthesis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    LIMA-GREGIO, Aveliny Mantovan; MARINO, Viviane Cristina de Castro; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês; BARBOSA, Plinio Almeida; AFERRI, Homero Carneiro; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cassia Rillo

    2011-01-01

    The use of prosthetic devices for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is an alternative treatment for patients with conditions that preclude surgery and for those individuals with a hypofunctional velopharynx (HV) with a poor prognosis for the surgical repair of VPI. Understanding the role and measuring the outcome of prosthetic treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction requires the use of tools that allow for documenting pre- and post-treatment outcomes. Experimental openings in speech bulbs have been used for simulating VPI in studies documenting changes in aerodynamic, acoustic and kinematics aspects of speech associated with the use of palatal prosthetic devices. The use of nasometry to document changes in speech associated with experimental openings in speech bulbs, however, has not been described in the literature. Objective This single-subject study investigated nasalance and nasality at the presence of experimental openings drilled through the speech bulb of a patient with HV. Material and Methods Nasometric recordings of the word "pato" were obtained under 4 velopharyngeal conditions: no-opening (control condition), no speech bulb, speech bulb with a 20 mm2 opening, and speech bulb with 30 mm2 opening. Five speech-language pathologists performed auditory-perceptual ratings while the subject read an oral passage under all conditions. Results Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant difference among conditions (p=0.0002), with Scheffé post hoc test indicating difference from the no-opening condition. Conclusion The changes in nasalance observed after drilling holes of known sizes in a speech bulb suggest that nasometry reflect changes in transfer of sound energy related to different sizes of velopharyngeal opening. PMID:22230996

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.

    PubMed

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E; Bastholt, L; Løntoft, E

    1999-09-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed recurrence. Of these, 17 (81%) were diagnosed within the first two years of follow up. The recurrence rate was found to be correlated to the anatomic site of the tumour-origin; septal site of origin meant higher risk of recurrence. Five-year disease specific and crude survival of all patients were 87.0% and 58.5%, respectively. Several variables (sex, age, anatomic site of origin, Wang-classification, tumour volume and regional lymphnode metastases at time of diagnosis) were evaluated as possible prognostic indicators. In univariate analysis, regional lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis and anatomic site of origin of the tumour showed a significant influence on survival. In multivariate analysis, septal origin of primary tumour was a significant, independent predictive factor of recurrence and the presence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis showed to be a highly significant prognosticator of both disease specific and crude survival (p < 0.0001). We conclude that patients with primary lymph node metastases and septal location of primary tumour need intensive primary treatment and close follow up. PMID:10567990

  12. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422121

  13. Oral Therapeutics for Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Alt, Jeremiah A

    2016-01-01

    Oral therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) include oral corticosteroids (OCS), antibiotics, antifungals and anti-leukotrienes. Of these treatments, the strongest evidence exists to support the use of a short course of OCS for treatment of CRSwNP, and OCS are the most consistently recommended oral therapy in practice guidelines. Antibiotics have demonstrated some utility, which appears more likely related to an anti-inflammatory rather than antimicrobial effect. The non-macrolide antibiotics lack sufficient evidence to support their use, though among this class doxycycline has some limited evidence of benefit in CRSwNP. Greater evidence exists for the use of macrolide antibiotics which have shown reduction of subjective and objective measures of CRSwNP severity. A short course of a macrolide should be considered as an option. Oral antifungals are not recommended in the treatment of CRSwNP given disappointing results and known potential adverse effects, except in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis where they may play a role. Leukotriene antagonists have demonstrated some promise in the treatment of CRSwNP, though studies are limited, but should be considered a potentially useful oral therapeutic. The current level of evidence for these oral therapeutic options for CRSwNP is reviewed in this chapter. PMID:27466856

  14. Undiagnosed Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting as Nasal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hassen; Sheikh, Rashid; Rahman, Waheed; Sheta, Sally; Dogan, Zeynel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with up to half of cases suffering from extrahepatic metastasis in the later stages of the disease. Commonly reported and encountered metastatic sites include the lymph nodes, lung, bone, and adrenal glands. This is an effort to throw a spotlight on a rare case of metastatic HCC which presented to us as two distinct lesions in the nose. It focuses on the presentation and the steps that were taken to reach this rare and unusual diagnosis. It sparks interest from a clinical and histopathology perspective. Our cynosure is the findings of the case coupled with a probe on the possible routes of spread of HCC to sinonasal region. PMID:26618018

  15. Metabolism of diethylnitrosamine by nasal mucosa and hepatic microsomes from hamster and rat: species specificity of nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Longo, V; Citti, L; Gervasi, P G

    1986-08-01

    The oxidative metabolism of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated by acetaldehyde determination using microsomes from nasal mucosa and liver of Sprague-Dawley rats and nasal mucosa and liver of Syrian Golden hamsters, to establish the role of metabolic activation in the organo-targets for the carcinogenicity of the nitrosamine. The hepatic microsomal de-ethylation of DEN followed simple and biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics for rat liver and hamster liver, respectively. Both de-ethylations were inducible by phenobarbital (PB) and the DEN-de-ethylase activities and the Michaelis constants were determined. Microsomes from hamster liver showed a higher metabolic rate (Vmax) and a better affinity (Km) towards DEN with respect to microsomes from rat liver. In hamster, microsomes from nasal tissue biotransformed DEN at a rate and affinity quite similar to those of liver. In contrast, nasal mucosa of rat metabolized DEN poorly. The effect of metyrapone, a classical inhibitor of P-450 monooxygenases, on DEN de-ethylation was studied. It inhibited both hepatic and nasal DEN-de-ethylase activity, with greater affinity towards the latter. In addition metyrapone had a greater inhibitory effect on the hepatic P-450 isozymes induced in PB-treated animals. These results correlate well with the organotrophy of DEN carcinogenesis in the nasal region of hamster, but not of rat. They suggest that for the nose the metabolic activation of DEN in situ is necessary to elicit its carcinogenic effect.

  16. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niyanta N; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Wolak, Daniel J; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13-17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  17. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niyanta N.; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J.; Wolak, Daniel J.; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13–17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  18. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  19. Meibomian gland dysfunction in chronic blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Shields, W J; Sachdev, M S; Petroll, W M; Jester, J V

    1991-07-01

    We examined 57 patients with symptoms of chronic blepharitis using meibomian gland expression, meibography, tear osmolarity, and the Schirmer's test. We also performed meibography on 20 normal patients free of chronic blepharitis. We found that 42 blepharitis patients (74%) had evidence of meibomian gland loss, whereas only four of 20 normal patients (20%) had any gland dropout. We performed cluster analysis on the data from the patients with blepharitis and found that these patients tended to fall into distinct groups with clinically relevant characteristics. We also found that tear osmolarity correlated positively with gland dropout (+0.413) and negatively with excreta volume (-0.499). This study demonstrates that an objective analysis of meibomian gland function may be used to assess chronic blepharitis and define subsets of blepharitis with measurable differences. It also supports the significance of meibomian gland dysfunction on tear osmolarity and the evaporative state of the eye.

  20. The treatment of sublingual gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Sun, G; Yang, X; Tang, E; Wen, J; Lu, M; Hu, Q

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the clinical and histological features and therapeutic efficacy of 25 cases of sublingual gland tumours from 1998 to 2008. There were 17 female patients and 8 male, the ratio of females to males was 2.1:1. The mean age was 48.6 years. 4 cases were benign tumours (16%). 21 cases were malignant sublingual gland tumours (84%) and of these, 18 were adenoid cystic carcinoma (86%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was mainly of the histological type, and the other histological classifications included mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, oncocytoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Sublingual gland tumours are rare and most are malignant. For malignant sublingual gland tumours, early diagnosis and aggressive surgical treatment, especially for tumours with nerve involvement, is the key to improving prognosis. Free radial forearm flap or pectoralis major myocutaneous flap are appropriate methods for mouth floor reconstruction. For benign sublingual gland tumours, the resection of tumour and sublingual gland is the preferred treatment.

  1. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed.

  2. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A; Tetè, S

    1995-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the parotid gland are not common and are often erroneously diagnosed as benign tumors. Lymphoepithelial cysts are only rarely diagnosed in the parotid gland. The term "lymphoepithelial cyst" is used because it is a descriptive term and takes no account of the origin and development of these cysts. An origin from sequestered lymph nodes epithelium in the parotid gland may be a feasible explanation for the origin of these cysts.

  3. Oncocytoma of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Yarmand, Fateme

    2015-05-01

    Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor, which mostly occurs in the parotid gland. In this article, we describe an early onset of oncocytoma of minor salivary gland in a 36-year, white male. On clinical examination, we encounter with a painless, granular, sessile mass. After Excisional biopsy, the histopathological features revealed sheets of cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large, round nuclei that are known as "Oncocyte".

  4. Canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Carl M; Kendall, Charles; Murty, George E

    2005-01-01

    Canalicular adenomas are a rare form of benign tumour that occur in salivary glands, occurring mainly in the upper lip and minor salivary glands of the buccal mucosa. The authors report the fifth case and the first in the otorhinolaryngological literature of a canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland. Its specific histological features are difficult to detect on fine needle aspiration and its multifocal nature can lead to recurrence and this must be considered in the clinical management.

  5. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  6. Parotid gland biopsy for investigation of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J W; Edwards, J L; Christmas, P I; Ferguson, M M

    1990-08-01

    A technique is described for biopsy of the parotid salivary gland under local anaesthesia, which has been undertaken for a series of 59 patients who presented with suspected inflammatory exocrinopathy. The procedure is reliable and is associated with negligible postoperative discomfort. The advantages of the technique suggest that parotid gland biopsy is an acceptable alternative to conventional lower lip biopsy of minor salivary glands in the investigation of xerostomia.

  7. Comparative morphology and morphometry of the nasal fossae of four species of North American shrews (Soricinae).

    PubMed

    Larochelle, R; Baron, G

    1989-11-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the nasal conchae and the relative development (i.e., surface area and neurosensory cell number) of the olfactory epithelium between four species of shrews occupying different ecotopes (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, S. fumeus, S. palustris). The number of olfactory cells was corrected for split cell error. Data were analyzed by using size indices based on the allometric method. The convoluted shape of the maxilloturbinal in Blarina, with large respiratory epithelial surface area, could not be related with certainty to the subterranean ecotope. From the comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae, one major difference concerned the shape and attachment of ectoturbinal 3. Differences in the relative development of the olfactory organ are discussed with regard to differences in the use of chemical signals. The semi-fossorial B. brevicauda, with the more developed olfactory organ, is reported to possess more scent-glands and to manifest active scent-marking behaviors and fecal deposits associated with territoriality. The two terrestrial species, S. cinereus and S. fumeus, have olfactory epithelia showing an intermediate development. Published accounts of fewer scent-glands and a lack of active scent-marking behavior indicate a lesser use of olfactory communication in these two species where mutual avoidance seems the rule. Indication of an even more reduced use of olfactory signals in social interactions by the semiaquatic S. palustris is suggested by its least-developed olfactory epithelium. The comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae supports a relationship between the development of the olfactory organ and the relative use of olfactory communication known to occur in social interactions. PMID:2618929

  8. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development.

    PubMed

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke

    2014-06-15

    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  9. Nasal patency is related to dust exposure in woodworkers

    PubMed Central

    Schlunssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Andersen, N; Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A cross sectional study of 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to investigate the relation between subjective and objective nasal obstruction and exposure to wood dust. Methods: Acoustic rhinometry was performed on 161 woodworkers and 19 controls. For each person, four measuring rounds were performed: before work, after 4 hours of work, and after 7 hours of work before and after decongestion. Before the first and third measuring round, each person rated the current feeling of nasal obstruction in the left and right nostril separately, using a visual analogue scale. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 140 woodworkers. Results: The mean (SD) of equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low, 1.17 (0.62) mg/m3, range 0.17–3.44 mg/m3. The exposure was divided into four levels: controls, low exposure, medium exposure, and high exposure. For the two highest concentrations of exposure, a significant increase in congestion—decreased nasal cavity volume and cross sectional areas—was found after 4 and 7 hours of work, compared with before work. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between concentration of dust and change in mucosal swelling. A significant increase in self rated nasal obstruction was found after work compared with before work for the two highest exposure groups. No correlation between objective nasal variables and self rated nasal obstruction was found. Conclusion: Exposure to wood dust was related in a dose dependent manner to acute nasal obstruction measured by acoustic rhinometry and self reported obstruction, but no correlation was found between measured and self reported obstruction. PMID:11836465

  10. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007.

    PubMed

    Fokkens, Wytske; Lund, Valerie; Mullol, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a significant and increasing health problem which results in a large financial burden on society. This evidence based position paper describes what is known about rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, offers evidence based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, and considers how we can make progress with research in this area. Rhinitis and sinusitis usually coexist and are concurrent in most individuals; thus, the correct terminology is now rhinosinusitis. Rhinosinusitis (including nasal polyps) is defined as inflammation of the nose and the paranasal sinuses characterised by two or more symptoms, one of which should be either nasal blockage/obstruction/congestion or nasal discharge (anterior/posterior nasal drip), +/- facial pain/pressure, +/- reduction or loss of smell; and either endoscopic signs of polyps and/or mucopurulent discharge primarily from middle meatus and/or; oedema/mucosal obstruction primarily in middle meatus, and/or CT changes showing mucosal changes within the ostiomeatal complex and/or sinuses. The paper gives different definitions for epidemiology, first line and second line treatment and for research. Furthermore the paper describes the anatomy and (patho)physiology, epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, evidence based diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis in adults and children. Evidence based schemes for diagnosis and treatment are given for the first and second line clinicians. Moreover attention is given to complications and socio-economic cost of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Last but not least the relation to the lower airways is discussed. PMID:17844873

  11. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals.

    PubMed

    Sunderman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposures to inhalation of certain metal dusts or aerosols can cause loss of olfactory acuity, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, mucosal ulcers, perforated nasal septum, or sinonasal cancer. Anosmia and hyposmia have been observed in workers exposed to Ni- or Cd-containing dusts in alkaline battery factories, nickel refineries, and cadmium industries. Ulcers of the nasal mucosa and perforated nasal septum have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating, or to As(III) in arsenic smelters. Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium has been observed in rodents following inhalation of NiSO4 or alphaNi3S2. Cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses have been reported in workers exposed to Ni compounds in nickel refining, cutlery factories, and alkaline battery manufacture, or to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating. In animals, several metals (eg, Al, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) have been shown to pass via olfactory receptor neurons from the nasal lumen through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. Some metals (eg, Mn, Ni, Zn) can cross synapses in the olfactory bulb and migrate via secondary olfactory neurons to distant nuclei of the brain. After nasal instillation of a metal-containing solution, transport of the metal via olfactory axons can occur rapidly, within hours or a few days (eg, Mn), or slowly over days or weeks (eg, Ni). The olfactory bulb tends to accumulate certain metals (eg, Al, Bi, Cu, Mn, Zn) with greater avidity than other regions of the brain. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal translocation in olfactory neurons and deposition in the olfactory bulb are unclear, but complexation by metal-binding molecules such as carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) may be involved. PMID:11314863

  12. Diagnostic problems of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

    2015-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland is a popular technique with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the interpretation of FNAC smear of salivary gland lesions is a great challenge to the cytologists. The cytological features of the various tumors of the salivary gland have overlapping cytological features and many other lesions in the head neck region may mimic salivary lesions. Moreover, at times it may be difficult to differentiate benign from malignant tumor of the tumor with same cell of origin. In this article, we have discussed the various problems in the diagnosis of FNAC of the salivary gland lesions.

  13. [Diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Zagólski, Olaf; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    An intracellular metabolic disturbance associated with mitochondriopathy, due to an age dependent metabolic defect, is suggested to cause metaplasia of salivary gland cells into oncocytes. The WHO classification of salivary gland diseases considers 3 oncocytic lesions: oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. In case of diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, extensive metaplasia of acinic and ductal cells leads to transformation of nearly all cells of the gland into oncocytes, which is clinically characterised by swelling of the parotid gland, and is an extremely rare condition. A 82-year-old man (the eldest of all reported) presented with a 2-month history of increasing diffuse swelling of the left parotid gland, 6 cm in diameter. The mass was soft, painless to palpation and grew in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. The patient underwent surgical removal of the lesion with wide margins of healthy tissue. Histopathological examination of the operative specimen disclosed oncocytosis of the salivary gland. The patient has been followed-up for 6 months. He is doing well without recurrence. Surgical removal of the diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, with indications and extent of the resection like in benign tumors, was effective in the presented patient.

  14. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  15. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, M; Shimizu, M; Manabe, T; Ito, J; Ogawa, S

    1998-04-01

    We report a case of oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, previously unrecognized benign tumor of the salivary gland. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman with a left submandibular mass, measuring 11 x 7.5 x 5 cm. Microscopically, the mass was completely surrounded by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule, and was composed of an intimate admixture of mature fat cells and oncocytes. There have been no English reports of such a neoplasm in the salivary gland with the exception of one recent case report of lipoadenoma of the parotid gland without oncocytic features. We propose the diagnostic term "oncocytic lipoadenoma" for this benign tumor.

  16. Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Harimaya, A; Somekawa, Y; Sasaki, M; Ohuchi, T

    2006-12-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the salivary gland is a rare malignant neoplasm. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. As far as we know, only one report, written in the French language, has been published concerning cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland, but no report is available in the English language. In this report, we describe a case of cystadenocarcinoma arising from the submandibular gland of a 54-year-old male patient. The neoplasm is a low-grade carcinoma, and pre-operative examination may not show typical characteristics of malignant neoplasms. Therefore, as was true in this case, the differential diagnosis from benign lesions is sometimes difficult. This is the first report on cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland in the English language and the first to show a computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this neoplasm in the submandibular gland.

  17. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  18. PySALT: SALT science pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, S. M.; Still, M.; Schellart, P.; Balona, L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Pickering, T. E.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Wiliams, T.; Zietsman, E.

    2012-07-01

    The PySALT user package contains the primary reduction and analysis software tools for the SALT telescope. Currently, these tools include basic data reductions for RSS and SALTICAM in both imaging, spectroscopic, and slot modes. Basic analysis software for slot mode data is also provided. These tools are primarily written in python/PyRAF with some additional IRAF code.

  19. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    PubMed

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  20. Nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-H; Huang, I-S

    2007-06-01

    Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess is rare, commonly seen in patients with poor immunity, and presents as isolated nasal septal abscess. Further, nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis is rather rare. Very little literature has been generated for non-traumatic nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis in healthy patients. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment will help to prevent the complications associated with nasal septal abscess such as saddle nose and intracranial involvement. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first case involving an otherwise healthy little girl with nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis.

  1. Rileyella petauri gen. nov., sp. nov. (Pentastomida: Cephalobaenida) from the lungs and nasal sinus of Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia: Petauridae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D M

    2003-09-01

    A new cephalobaenid pentastome, Rileyella petauri gen: nov., sp. nov. from the lungs and nasal sinus of the petaurid marsupial, Petaurus breviceps, is described. It is the smallest adult pentastome known to date, represents the first record of a mammal as the definitive host of a cephalobaenid and may represent the only pentastome known to inhabit the lungs of a mammal through all its instars, with the exception of patent females. Adult males, non-gravid females and nymphs moulting to adults occur in the lungs; gravid females occur in the nasal sinus. R. petauri is minute and possesses morphological features primarily of the Cephalobaenida but the glands in the cephalothorax and the morphology of the copulatory spicules are similar to some members of the remaining pentastomid order, the Porocephalida. This unusual combination of features distinguish the new genus from other genera in the Cephalobaenida. The occurrence of only seven fully-formed larvae in eggs in the uterus, each representing about 10% of the length of the patent female, and her presence in the nasal sinus of a dependent juvenile P. breviceps (36 gm) implies a direct life cycle.

  2. Tumors of the submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R H; Hajdu, S I; Strong, E W

    1976-10-01

    This study reviews a thirty year experience with 217 patients who had a tumor of the submaxillary gland, comprising about 9 per cent of all patients with salivary neoplasms seen during the same period. Most of the tumors were malignant (56 per cent), with adenoid cystic carcinoma predominating, but the histologic type most frequently encountered was benign mixed tumor (43 per cent). Median age was fifty-four years in patients with malignant tumors compared with forty-six years in those with benign tumors, and 58 per cent were women. Asymptomatic swelling was the usual presenting complaint, and the clinical findings are summarized using a staging system recently proposed for patients with parotid tumors. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in at least 50 per cent of patients who had an adenocarcinoma or epidermoid, mucoepidermoid, or anaplastic carcinoma. Treatment was surgical and complete gland excision proved adequate in those with benign tumors. Radical neck dissection was performed in conjunction with submaxillary resection in most patients with malignant lesions, but radical en bloc resection was reserved for those few who had extensive or fixed disease. Net determinate "cure" rates at five and ten years (30 and 20 per cent, respectively) are distressingly low and compare unfavorably with those previously reported in patients treated for carcinoma of the parotid. The high local recurrence rate and the greater incidence in the submaxillary gland of more aggressive tumor types which metastasize readily suggest that current treatment should be more radical. It seems reasonable to expect that results might be improved if en bloc resections were more often performed in patients with less advanced disease, possibly in conjuction with intensive postoperative irradiation in selected cases.

  3. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from foods that are always high in salt. Some common ones are: Processed foods, such as cured or smoked meats, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bologna, ham, and salami ... salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon ...

  4. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  5. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  6. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  7. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  8. Angiolipoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Dimosthenous, Kypros; Righi, Alberto; Puccetti, Maurizio; Lorenzini, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    This is a report of an angiolipoma of the thyroid gland, an extremely rare entity. A thorough search of the literature revealed only one previously reported example. The patient was a 77-year-old woman with a history of a nodular lesion of the thyroid in the context of a multinodular goiter. A fine needle aspiration highlighted the presence of abundant adipocytes associated with numerous dilated vessels. Histopathologic examination of the lobectomy specimen documented the presence of a tumor composed of two main elements, namely, mature adipocytes and proliferating vessels, some of the latter containing fibrin thrombi.

  9. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  10. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  11. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  12. Effect of NaCl on leaf salt secretion and antioxidative enzyme level in roots of a mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sujatarani; Das, A B

    2003-02-01

    Short-term salt (NaCl) treatment on Aegiceras corniculatum in roots and leaves showed no change in fresh and dry weight of leaves, roots and leaf area. There was no significant change in total soluble root protein, photosynthetic pigments of leaves and spectral characteristics of thylakoids. However, the activity of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase) in roots decreased by 72, 58 and 80% respectively after 96 hr of treatment (300 mM of NaCl). Secretion of salts from the leaf salt glands and salt accumulation on upper surface of the leaves were quantified that revealed linear increase of salt secretion of leaf with increase in period of salt treatment. It was concluded that loss of activities of antioxidative enzymes at high salt treatment, caused leaf senescence in spite of high rates of salt secretion by Aegiceras corniculatum. PMID:15255609

  13. Human nasal mucosal changes after exposure to urban pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Garcia, R; Sanchez, G; Barragan, G; Camacho, R; Ramirez, L

    1994-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are living in areas where ozone (O3) concentrations exceed health standards (an hourly average of 235 micrograms/m3/0.12 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year). Ozone induces acute nasal inflammatory responses and significant epithelial lesions in experimental animals and humans. To determine the nasal effects of a 15-day exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere with O3 as the main pollutant, we studied a population of healthy, young males newly arrived to southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC). The study included 49 non-smoking residents in an unpolluted port, Veracruz City; 14 subjects stayed in the port and served as controls, while 35 subjects traveled to SWMMC and had serial nasal lavages at different times after arriving in SWMMC. Subjects had exposures to ambient O3 an average of 10.2 hr/day, with a total cumulative O3 exposure of 10.644 ppm.hr. Nasal inflammatory responses, polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMN-CD11b surface expression, rhinoscopic changes, and respiratory symptoms were evaluated. Exposed subjects had massive nasal epithelial shedding and significant responses in PMN nasal influx (p < 0.00001) and in PMN-CD11b expression (p < 0.05). Cumulative O3 exposure correlated with respiratory symptoms, PMNs (rs = 0.2374, p < 0.01), and CD11b (rs = 0.3094, p < 0.01); 94% of exposed subjects experienced respiratory symptoms, and 97% left the city with an abnormal nasal mucosa by rhinoscopy. Nasal epithelial changes persisted 2 weeks after the exposed subjects returned to their nonpolluted environment. Exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere induces significant and persistent nasal epithelial alterations in healthy subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 2. E Figure 2. F Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:7713020

  14. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases.

    PubMed

    Prousskaia, E; El-Muttardi, N; Philp, B; Dziewulski, P; Shelley, O P

    2015-06-30

    Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns.

  15. Optimization of Thermoreversible In Situ Nasal Gel of Timolol Maleate

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Nirupama; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism (80%). The drug has half-life of 4 hrs. Oral bioavailability of timolol maleate is 61%. The aim of the present study was to optimize controlled release in situ nasal delivery for timolol maleate. HPMC and Poloxamer 407 were selected as polymer in formulation of thermoreversible in situ nasal gel. Optimization was carried out using 32 factorial design. It was observed that formulations f1 and f4 revealed the highest % drug release, that is, 93.57% and 91.66%, respectively. Factorial design study indicated that the drug release and viscosity were most significant dependent factors. Ex vivo diffusion study through nasal mucosa indicated 67.26 ± 2.10% and 61.07 ± 2.49% drug release for f1 and f4 formulations. f1 was the optimized batch. This batch thus can act as a potential nasal delivery with enhanced bioavailability for the drug. PMID:27293975

  16. Comparative morphometry of the nasal cavity in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, E A; Swenberg, J A; Fields, S; Popp, J A

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of the various epithelial types lining the nasal cavity in normal 7 and 16 weeks old male Fischer-344 rats and male B6C3F1 mice has been mapped at the light microscopic level. Photographs of transverse sections of the nose were analysed using a Zeiss Videoplan computerized image analysis system programmed for measurement and evaluation of count, area, perimeter and length. In rats, the volumes of the nasal cavity at 7 and 16 weeks are 156 and 257 mm3 respectively; while in mice the nasal cavity volume is essentially the same (32 . 5 and 31 . 5 mm3) at the same two ages. Total surface areas of the nasal cavity in rats at 7 and 16 weeks are 799 and 1344 mm2 respectively; and in mice 278 and 289 mm2. The percentages of the nasal cavity surface lined by squamous, respiratory and olfactory epithelium are similar at both ages in both species. Applications and significance of these data are discussed. PMID:7130058

  17. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR) (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis) in the case of non-characterised stimuli. An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications. Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed. PMID:22073046

  18. Modeling the pharyngeal pressure during adult nasal high flow therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Haribalan; Spence, Callum J T; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2015-12-01

    Subjects receiving nasal high flow (NHF) via wide-bore nasal cannula may experience different levels of positive pressure depending on the individual response to NHF. In this study, airflow in the nasal airway during NHF-assisted breathing is simulated and nasopharyngeal airway pressure numerically computed, to determine whether the relationship between NHF and pressure can be described by a simple equation. Two geometric models are used for analysis. In the first, 3D airway geometry is reconstructed from computed tomography images of an adult nasal airway. For the second, a simplified geometric model is derived that has the same cross-sectional area as the complex model, but is more readily amenable to analysis. Peak airway pressure is correlated as a function of nasal valve area, nostril area and cannula flow rate, for NHF rates of 20, 40 and 60 L/min. Results show that airway pressure is related by a power law to NHF rate, valve area, and nostril area.

  19. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use.

  20. The effect of xylometazoline spray for expansion of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun-Sung; Park, Sang-Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Kwon, Eunjung; Shim, Woo Sub

    2013-01-01

    Background During nasotracheal intubation it is important to have proper pretreatment for nasal mucosa constriction and nasal cavity expanding. Nasal packing of epinephrine gauze is widely used as well as xylometazoline. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic intranasal spray of xylometazoline against epinephrine gauze packing in expanding the nasal cavity. Methods Volunteers (n = 32) in their twenties without nasal disease such as septal deviation or rhinitis were enrolled in the study. The more patent nostril in each subject was measured by acoustic rhinometry as the base value. After intranasal spray of xylometazoline, the same nostril was remeasured by same method. Twenty four hours later, intranasal packing of epinephrine gauze was done and the same treatment was done. Subject preferences about the procedures were asked. Results There were significant difference among treatments (base value: 0.582 ± 0.164 cm2, xylometazoline spray: 0.793 ± 0.165 cm2, epinephrine gauze packing: 0.990 ± 0.290 cm2) in acoustic rhinometry. While the epinephrine gauze packing showed more efficient mucosa constriction, subjects preferred xylometazoline spray. Conclusions Even though xylometazoline spray was less effective than epinephrine gauze packing, the simplicity and convenience compensated. In patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation, xylometazoline spray can be an alternative to epinephrine gauze packing. PMID:24023995