Science.gov

Sample records for nasicon-type conductors nasub

  1. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ► The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ► Higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}- and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R{sub 2}O–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} or RTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M{sup 2+} or R{sup +} ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} precipitated glass ceramics.

  2. Studies on tetragonal Na{sub 2}CoP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a novel ionic conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, F.; Rojo, J.M.; Ruiz-Valero, C.; Parada, C.; Saez-Puche, R.

    1999-07-01

    Crystals of the tetragonal form of Na{sub 2}CoP{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been grown and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group P4{sub 2}/mnm with a = 7.7058(12), c = 10.301(2) {angstrom}, and Z = 4. The structure was solved by Patterson and Fourier methods, and refined to final agreement factors R(F{sup 2}) = 5.8%, Rw(F{sup 2}) = 12.4%, S(F{sup 2}) = 1.07. Their structure can be described as layered since it is formed by slabs of [CoP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} with Na cations lying between the layers. The Co{sup 2+} cation adopts a tetrahedral coordination geometry unusual in inorganic solids. CoO{sub 4} tetrahedra share four oxygens with P{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrophosphate groups and the Na{sup +} cations appear in a NaO{sub 8} quadrangular prismatic coordination geometry. Magnetic measurements reveal the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the Co{sup 2+} sublattice, at about 10 K. Magnetic correlations are also studied from the analysis of possible superexchange pathways in the structure. Impedance measurements (frequency range: 1--5 {times} 10{sup 6} Hz; temperature range: 90--540 C) show Na{sub 2}CoP{sub 2}O{sub 7} an ionic conductor being the conductivity at 300 C 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Scm{sup {minus}1} and the activation energy 0.61 eV. The possible motion of the Na{sup +} ions in the interlayer surface plane and through adjacent layers (c axis) is discussed.

  3. An air-stable Na>3SbS4 superionic conductor prepared by a rapid and economic synthetic procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Hood, Zachary D.; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; Keum, Jong Kahk; An, Ke; Sahu, Gayatri; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium batteries, using abundant sodium resources and solid electrolyte, hold much promise for safe, low cost, large-scale energy storage. To realize the practical applications of all solid Na-ion batteries at ambient temperature, the solid electrolytes are required to have high ionic conductivity, chemical stability, and ideally, easy preparation. Ceramic electrolytes show higher ionic conductivity than polymers, but they often require extremely stringent synthesis conditions, either high sintering temperature above 1000 C or long-time, low-energy ball milling. Herein, we report a new synthesis route for Na>3SbS4, a novel Na superionic conductor that needs much lower processing temperature below 200 C and easy operation. This new solid electrolyte exhibits a remarkable ionic conductivity of 1.05 mS cm-1 at 25 °C and is chemically stable under ambient atmosphere. In conclusion, this synthesis process provides unique insight into the current state-of-the-art solid electrolyte preparation and opens new possibilities for the design of similar materials.

  4. Porous NASICON-Type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 Thin Film Deposited by RF Sputtering as Cathode Material for Li-Ion Microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiawati, Vinsensia Ade; Vacandio, Florence; Eyraud, Marielle; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    We report the electrochemical performance of porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin films to be used as a cathode for Li-ion microbatteries. Crystalline porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 layers were obtained by radio frequency sputtering with an annealing treatment. The thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and electrochemical techniques. The chronoamperometry experiments showed that a discharge capacity of 88 mAhg-1 (23 μAhcm-2) is attained for the first cycle at C/10 to reach 65 mAhg-1 (17 μAhcm-2) after 10 cycles with a good stability over 40 cycles.

  5. Porous NASICON-Type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 Thin Film Deposited by RF Sputtering as Cathode Material for Li-Ion Microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Sugiawati, Vinsensia Ade; Vacandio, Florence; Eyraud, Marielle; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    We report the electrochemical performance of porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin films to be used as a cathode for Li-ion microbatteries. Crystalline porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 layers were obtained by radio frequency sputtering with an annealing treatment. The thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and electrochemical techniques. The chronoamperometry experiments showed that a discharge capacity of 88 mAhg(-1) (23 μAhcm(-2)) is attained for the first cycle at C/10 to reach 65 mAhg(-1) (17 μAhcm(-2)) after 10 cycles with a good stability over 40 cycles. PMID:27535695

  6. Porous NASICON-Type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 Thin Film Deposited by RF Sputtering as Cathode Material for Li-Ion Microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Sugiawati, Vinsensia Ade; Vacandio, Florence; Eyraud, Marielle; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    We report the electrochemical performance of porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin films to be used as a cathode for Li-ion microbatteries. Crystalline porous NASICON-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3 layers were obtained by radio frequency sputtering with an annealing treatment. The thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and electrochemical techniques. The chronoamperometry experiments showed that a discharge capacity of 88 mAhg(-1) (23 μAhcm(-2)) is attained for the first cycle at C/10 to reach 65 mAhg(-1) (17 μAhcm(-2)) after 10 cycles with a good stability over 40 cycles.

  7. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopy properties of Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) and Li{sub 2.6}Na{sub 0.4}NiZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Chakir, M. . E-mail: fachakir@yahoo.fr; El Jazouli, A.; Waal, D. de

    2006-06-15

    Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates were prepared at 750 deg. C by coprecipitation route. Their crystal structures have been refined at room temperature from X-ray powder diffraction data using Rietveld method. Li{sub 2.6}Na{sub 0.4}NiZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was synthesized through ion exchange from the sodium analog. These materials belong to the Nasicon-type structure. Raman spectra of Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates present broad peaks in favor of the statistical distribution in the sites around PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the presence of octahedrally coordinated Ni{sup 2+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates. Display Omitted.

  9. Synthesis and structural study of a new NASICON-type solid solution: Li 1-xLa x/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, M.; Crosnier-Lopez, M. P.; Le Berre, F.; Suard, E.; Fourquet, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    A new complete solid solution of NASICON-type compounds between LiZr 2(PO 4) 3 and La 1/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 was evidenced with the general formula Li 1-xLa x/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 (0⩽ x⩽1). These phases were synthesized by a complex polymerizable method and structurally characterized from Rietveld treatment of their X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. This solid solution results from the substitution mechanism Li +→1/3La 3++2/3□ leading to an increase of the vacancies number correlated to an increase of the La content. According to this substitution mechanism, the general formula can then be written Li 1-xLa x/3□ 2x/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 (0⩽ x⩽1) in order to underline the correlation between the La content and the vacancies rate. For all the compounds, the structure is clearly related to that of the NASICON family with three crystallographic domains evidenced. For 0⩽ x⩽0.5, all the members adopt at high temperature the typical NASICON-type structure (s.g. R3¯ c), while at lower temperature, their structure distorts to a triclinic form (s.g. C 1¯), as observed for LiZr 2(PO 4) 3 prepared above 1100 °C. Moreover, in this domain, the reversible transition is clearly soft and the transition temperature strongly depends of the x value. For 0.6⩽ x⩽0.9, the compounds crystallize in a rhombohedral cell (s.g. R3¯), while for x=1, the phase La 1/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 is obtained (s.g. P3¯, Z=6, a=8.7378(2) Å, c=23.2156(7) Å). This paper is devoted to the structure analysis of the series Li 1-xLa x/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 (0⩽ x⩽1), from X-ray and neutron powder thermo diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

  10. A single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction study on NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) crystals: Implications on ionic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhammer, G. J.; Rettenwander, D.; Pristat, S.; Dashjav, E.; Kumar, C. M. N.; Topa, D.; Tietz, F.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of NASICON-type material Li1+xTi2-xAlx(PO4)3 (LATP) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 were successfully grown using long-term sintering techniques. Sample material was studied by chemical analysis, single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction. The Ti4+ replacement scales very well with the Al3+ and Li+ incorporation. The additional Li+ thereby enters the M3 cavity of the NASICON framework at x, y, z ∼ (0.07, 0.34, 0.09) and is regarded to be responsible for the enhanced Li+ conduction of LATP as compared to Al-free LTP. Variations in structural parameters, associated with the Ti4+ substitution with Al3+ + Li+ will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. New double molybdate Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6}: Synthesis, structure, properties

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, Aleksandra A.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Basovich, Olga M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Belov, Dmitry A.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.; Lazoryak, Bogdan I.; Khaikina, Elena G.

    2013-09-15

    A new double molybdate Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group R3{sup ¯}, a=14.8264(2), c=19.2402(3) Å, V=3662.79(9) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, R=0.0132). The structure is related to that of sodium ion conductor II-Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The basic structure units are polyhedral clusters composed of central FeO{sub 6} octahedron sharing edges with three Na(1)O{sub 6} octahedra. The clusters share common vertices with bridging MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework where the cavities are occupied by Na(2) and Na(3) atoms. The compound melts incongruently at 904.7±0.2 K. Arrhenius type temperature dependence of electric conductivity σ has been registered in solid state (σ=6.8×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 800 K), thus allowing considering Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} as a new sodium ion conductor. - Graphical abstract: A new double molybdate Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} was synthesized and structurally characterized, its physicochemical properties were studied. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A new compound Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} was synthesized as ceramics and single crystals. • Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} structure is related to that of sodium-ion conductor II-Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • Physicochemical properties of the compound were studied. • Arrhenius plot for conductivity showed 6.8×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 800 K, E{sub a}∼0.8 eV. • Thus, Na{sub 9}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} may be considered as a new sodium ion conductor.

  12. Optically pumped Na/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kanorskii, S.I.; Kaslin, V.M.; Yakushev, O.F.

    1980-10-01

    A pulsed copper vapor laser emitting the 578.2 nm line was used as the pump source in achieving stimulated emission as a result of the electronic A/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub u/ to X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/ transitions in the Na/sub 2/ molecule in the spectral range 0.765 to 0.804 ..mu... The average power of all the emission lines was 10 mW when the pulsed pump power was 150 W and the efficiency of conversion of the optical pump energy was about 3%. The pulse repetition frequency was 3.3 kHz. Violet diffuse radiation of the Na/sub 2/ molecules, generated by pumping with the copper vapor laser, was observed. The superradiance regime was found for some of the lines.

  13. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol-gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    We report a direct sol-gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N2 sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts.

  14. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  15. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  16. Fast Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    Fast ion conductors, sometimes referred to as superionic conductors or solid electrolytes, are solids with ionic conductivities that are comparable to those found in molten salts and aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, i.e., 10-2-10 S cm-1. Such materials have been known of for a very long time and some typical examples of the conductivity are shown in Fig. 1, along with sodium chloride as the archetypal normal ionic solid. Faraday [1] first noted the high conductivity of solid lead fluoride (PbF2) and silver sulphide (Ag2S) in the 1830s and silver iodide was known to be unusually high ionic conductor to the German physicists early in the 1900s. However, the materials were regarded as anomalous until the mid 1960s when they became the focus of intense interest to academics and technologists and they have remained at the forefront of materials research [2-4]. The academic aim is to understand the fundamental origin of fast ion behaviour and the technological goal is to utilize the properties in applications, particularly in energy applications such as the electrolyte membranes in solid-state batteries and fuel cells, and in electrochemical sensors. The last four decades has seen an expansion of the types of material that exhibit fast ion behaviour that now extends beyond simple binary ionic crystals to complex solids and even polymeric materials. Over this same period computer simulations of solids has also developed (in fact these methods and the interest in fast ion conductors were almost coincidental in their time of origin) and the techniques have played a key role in this area of research.

  17. Conditioning flat conductors for flat conductor cable production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus can straighten, anneal, clean, and a tension to stretch a cable one percent to assure uniform cross-sectional area. A conductor passes through temperature controlled distilled water and through a toroid coil. As The conductor enters the water, steam performs the cleaning action. Quenching and annealing also take place.

  18. 66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  20. Intercalated graphite electrical conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    For years NASA has wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft and aircraft. Experiments are conducted to find a lightweight synthetic metal to replace copper. The subject of this paper, intercalated graphite, is such a material. Intercalated graphite is made by heating petroleum or coal to remove the hydrogen and to form more covalent bonds, thus increasing the molecular weight. The coal or petroleum eventually turns to pitch, which can then be drawn into a fiber. With continued heating the pitch-based fiber releases hydrogen and forms a carbon fiber. The carbon fiber, if heated sufficiently, becomes more organized in parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in the form of graphite. A conductor of intercalated graphite is potentially useful for spacecraft or aircraft applications because of its low weight.

  1. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  2. 33 CFR 183.445 - Conductors: Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conductors: Protection. 183.445 Section 183.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Conductors: Protection. (a) Each conductor or group of conductors that passes through a bulkhead,...

  3. 33 CFR 183.445 - Conductors: Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conductors: Protection. 183.445 Section 183.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Conductors: Protection. (a) Each conductor or group of conductors that passes through a bulkhead,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  5. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  6. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  7. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  8. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  9. Transparent oxides forming conductor/insulator/conductor heterojunctions for photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Duy Dao, Thang; Chen, Kai; Nagao, Tadaaki

    2015-05-01

    Photoexcited hot electrons from conductors can be injected into the conduction bands of wide-bandgap materials, thus enabling the visible and near-infrared (NIR) photoactivities of light-harvesting devices. While metals have been dominantly used as conductors to excite hot electrons, we demonstrate that transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) can also be used for this purpose. Trilayer structures consisting of a thin dielectric layer sandwiched by TCOs show photoresponsiveness in UV, visible, as well as NIR wavelength range. As these trilayer structures are transparent, they can be used to monitor light without blocking it.

  10. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  11. Conductor shears as iceberg encroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    Operators in the Arctic regions must protect wellheads from encroaching icebergs and icepack sheets. Diverting ice masses and excavating large holes below scour depth is expensive. Now an alternate approach allows the conductor to shear, shuts in the well, and provides a method of re-entering the well. The new system has been successfully used by Mobil on two exploratory wells in the Hibernia field off eastern Canada. The wells used 18 3/4-in. wellheads rated at 10,000 psi with 36-in. conductor pipe. The performance of the system is discussed.

  12. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  15. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  16. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  17. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  18. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  19. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment; electronic circuits having a current flow of less than one ampere; conductors which are totally inside an equipment housing; resistance conductors that control circuit amperage; high voltage secondary... surges each conductor must not carry a current greater than that specified in Table 5 for the...

  20. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment; electronic circuits having a current flow of less than one ampere; conductors which are totally inside an equipment housing; resistance conductors that control circuit amperage; high voltage secondary... surges each conductor must not carry a current greater than that specified in Table 5 for the...

  1. Preparing the Conductor as Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    While music is as old as humanity, conducting as a profession is relatively new. Although a nineteenth-century model has served as the template for the training of conductors, many undergraduate conducting students will spend their teaching careers working with inexperienced and/or amateur musicians. Additionally, the size of many ensembles in…

  2. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Register on November 10, 2010. See 75 FR 69166. In the NPRM, FRA solicited public comment on the... (75 FR 69166, 69170 (Nov. 10, 2010)) and in the section-by-section analysis to this final rule: Under....105(c)(1)-(3), a railroad may test and evaluate its designated conductors under subpart B before...

  3. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  4. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  5. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  6. Metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}: Photoemission spectromicroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Sanhita Ghosh, Anirudha Raj, Satyabrata

    2014-04-24

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}.

  7. Interaction of uranyl molybdate with the Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 4} melt

    SciTech Connect

    Smolenskii, V.V.; Bove, A.L.; Martem`yanova, Z.S.

    1994-06-01

    Behavior of uranyl molybdate in molten Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} salt mixture at 1073 K in air was studied using cyclic linear voltammetry and potentiometric titration techniques. Uranyl complexes of two types ([UO{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2{minus}} and UO{sub 3}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) were shown to be formed in the solution upon the addition of UO{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. The composition of a cathodic product was found to be determined by the molar ratio of these two complexes in the melt.

  8. Coated Conductor Processing: Copper Stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floegel-Delor, U.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Rothfeld, R.; Schirrmeister, P.; Werfel, F. N.; Usoskin, A.; Rutt, A.

    We present here a report about a copper stabilizer processing unit and the function on IBAD - HPLD coated conductor properties. A continuous reel - to- reel Cu plating stabilizer manufacturing technology was developed and will be transferred to Bruker HTS. The quality and performance of one- side and double- side 20 μm Cu layers are evaluated with respect to critical current behavior and conductor joint fabrication. By current pulse plating technology in copper sulphate CuSO4 we have gained to optimize the plating speed to more than 30 m/h by variation the electrical, electrode and solution parameters. With the new 6 m long Cu reel plating unit improved production yield and reproducible Cu stabilizer performance is demonstrated. The non-vacuum deposition unit has a high flexibility in processing a homogeneous Cu stabilizer of thickness of 5 - 50 μm. Using the Cu layer face -to -face joints with resistances of 10-7 Ωcm2 level by standard soldering are becoming routine. We will provide an overall analysis of our construction and results in the PLD Cu - HTS hybrid conductor engineering and processing.

  9. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar; Harold J. , Harris; Christopher Kelvin

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  10. Method for making conductors for ferrite memory arrays. [from pre-formed metal conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H.; Baba, P. D.; Bhiwandker, N. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The ferrite memory arrays are made from pre-formed metal conductors for the ferrite arrays. The conductors are made by forming a thin sheet of a metallizing paste of metal alloy powder, drying the paste layer, bisque firing the dried sheet at a first temperature, and then punching the conductors from the fired sheet. During the bisque firing, the conductor sheet shrinks to 58 percent of its pre-fired volume and the alloy particles sinter together. The conductors are embedded in ferrite sheet material and finally fired at a second higher temperature during which firing the conductors shrink approximately the same degree as the ferrite material.

  11. The chemical instability of Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} in air

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, J.W. Roudebush, J.H.; Fox, G.M.; Cava, R.J.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} decomposes rapidly in laboratory air. • The decomposition requires the simultaneous presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. • Decomposition results in a dramatic change in the magnetic properties. • Second 5 K feature in magnetic susceptibility not previously reported. - Abstract: We report that Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}, which has a layered honeycomb iridium oxide sublattice interleaved by Na planes, decomposes in laboratory air while maintaining the same basic crystal structure. The decomposition reaction was monitored by time-dependent powder X-ray diffraction under different ambient atmospheres, through which it was determined that it occurs only in the simultaneous presence of both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. A hydrated sodium carbonate is the primary decomposition product along with altered Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}. The diffraction signature of the altered Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} is quite similar to that of the pristine material, which makes the detection of decomposition difficult in a sample handled under ordinary laboratory conditions. The decomposed samples show a significantly decreased magnetic susceptibility and the disappearance of the low temperature antiferromagnetic transition considered to be characteristic of the phase. Samples that have never been exposed to air after synthesis display a previously unreported magnetic transition at 5 K.

  12. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  13. National accelerated coated conductor initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Peterson, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The national Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative (ACCI) is committed to assuring continued U.S. leadership in the development of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wire for electric power and other applications of national interest. Increased energy efficiency, power density, and power-to-weight ratio are just a few of the tangible benefits that will be possible if today's meter lengths of HTS wire based upon the compound yttrium-barium-copper-oxygen (YBCO) can be scaled up by U.S. industry to kilometer lengths. This paper presents an evaluation of the current state of the development of coated conductor technology and a vision for its future. The challenges that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and their industrial and university partners face will be presented against the backdrop of the history of superconductivity program achievements. It is the purpose of this initiative to accelerate the development, commercialization, and application of high temperature superconductors through joint efforts among DOE laboratories, American industry, and universities, so that future challenges of the electric power industry can be met. Based on their advances in HTS coated conductor development in a program funded by the DOE's Office of Power Technologies, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories lead and support this effort by improving their own capabilities, including equipment, facilities, and technical expertise. Each laboratory has, in 2001, acquired new laboratory space, new capital equipment, and new personnel with the goal of working closely with U.S. companies to take technologies invented in the labs and demonstrated in 1-m lengths and transfer these technologies to the commercial sector. The present status of the performance of the second-generation YBCO wires will be described, and the future plans of the national laboratories will be presented. Opportunities for collaboration are discussed, as well. .

  14. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Complex high-temperature phase transitions in Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Verdal, Nina; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Stavila, Vitalie; Soloninin, Alexei V.; Babanova, Olga A.; Skripov, Alexander V.; Udovic, Terrence J.; Rush, John J.

    2014-04-01

    conductors. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} undergoes a phase transformation from an ordered monoclinic structure at low temperature to a partially disordered body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure at ≈529 K, and finally to a more-fully disordered bcc structure by ≈545 K. - Highlights: • Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} undergoes a high-temperature hysteretic phase transformation at ≈615 K. • Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12} undergoes a high-temperature hysteretic phase transformation at ≈529 K. • Increased anion mobility is observed with NMR upon these H-T phase transformations. • Three high temperature phases are observed for Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}, with increasing disorder.

  17. Resolution of supernumerary rotational rainbows in Na/sub 2/-Ne scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hefter, U.; Jones, P.L.; Mattheus, A.; Witt, J.; Bergmann, K.; Schinke, R.

    1981-04-06

    The resolution of the supernumerary rotational rainbow structure in state-to-state differential cross sections for Na/sub 2/-Ne collisions which had been predicted by infinite-order-sudden theory. These data, by proving the existence of such structure in quantitative agreement with infinite-order-sudden theory, answer one of the major remaining questions in the physics of rotationally inelastic scattering.

  18. Synthesis, structure and properties of new chain cuprates, Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect

    Sofin, Mikhail; Peters, Eva-Maria; Jansen, Martin . E-mail: jansen@fkf.mpg.de

    2005-12-15

    Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} were prepared via the azide/nitrate route from stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors CuO, NaN{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Single crystals have been grown by subsequent annealing of the as prepared powders at 500 deg. C for 2000h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dried Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structures (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: P2{sub 1}/n, Z=4, a=5.7046(2), b=11.0591(4), c=8.0261(3)A, {beta}=108.389(1){sup o}, 2516 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0813, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.1223; Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: Cm, Z=2, a=8.228(1), b=13.929(2), c=5.707(1)A, {beta}=111.718(2){sup o}, 2949 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0349, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.0850), the main feature of both crystal structures are CuO{sub 2} chains built up from planar, edge-sharing CuO{sub 4} squares. From the analysis of the Cu-O bond lengths, the valence states of either +2 or +3 can be unambiguously assigned to each copper atom. In Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} these ions alternate in the chains, in Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} the periodically repeated part consists of five atoms according to Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}. The magnetic susceptibilities show the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions. At high temperatures the compounds exhibit Curie-Weiss behaviour (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: {mu}=1.7{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-160K, Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: {mu}=1.8{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-58K, magnetic moments per divalent copper ion). Antiferromagmetic ordering is observed to occur in these compounds below 13K (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and 24K (Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10})

  19. Comparison of hyperbolic and hyperboloid conductor electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekner, John

    2006-01-01

    The potentials and fields of hyperbolic and hyperboloidal conductors are available analytically. A detailed comparison of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems shows strong similarities, but also interesting differences. The electric field near a hyperboloidal needle is stronger (ceteris paribus) than near a hyperbolic blade, and dies off faster. The field at the hyperbolic conductor varies as the 1/3 power of the local curvature. At the hyperboloid conductor the field varies as the 1/4 power of the local Gaussian curvature (which is the product of the two principal curvatures).

  20. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of P-doped Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jialing; Sen, Sabyasachi; Yu Ping; Browning, Nigel D.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-11-15

    Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4} is a Zintl salt composed of Na{sup +} cations and Si{sub 4}{sup 4-} tetrahedral anions and is a unique solid-state precursor to clathrate structures and nanomaterials. In order to provide opportunities for the synthesis of complex materials, phosphorus was explored as a possible substituent for silicon. Phosphorus doped sodium silicides Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4-x}P{sub x} (x{<=}0.04) were prepared by reaction of Na with the mechanically alloyed Si{sub 4-x}:P{sub x} (x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12) mixture in a sealed Nb tube at 650 {sup o}C for 3 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms the presence of P in all products. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns are consistent with the retention of the Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4} crystal structure. As the amount of P increases, a new peak in the diffraction pattern that can be assigned to black phosphorus is apparent above the background. Raman and solid-state NMR provide information on phosphorus substitution in the Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4} structure. Raman spectroscopy shows a shift of the most intense band assigned to the Si{sub 4}{sup 4-} {nu}{sub 1} (A{sub 1}) mode from 486.4 to 484.0 cm{sup -1} with increasing P, consistent with P replacement of Si. Differential nuclear spin-lattice relaxation for the Si sites determined via {sup 29}Si solid-state NMR provides direct evidence for Si-P bonding in the (Si{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sup 4-} tetrahedron. The {sup 23}Na NMR shows additional Na...P interactions and the {sup 31}P NMR shows two P sites, consistent with P presence in both of the crystallographic sites in the (Si{sub 4}){sup 4-} tetrahedron. - Graphical abstract: P-doped Na{sub 4}Si{sub 4} has been prepared and Raman spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 31}P multinuclear NMR show that P dopes into both crystallographic sites for Si. Display Omitted

  1. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  2. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  3. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  4. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  5. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  6. Power conductor rail expansion joint

    SciTech Connect

    Plichta, D.G.

    1993-07-06

    A power conductor rail system is described, comprising: a first rail section linearly aligned with a second rail section, the first and second rail sections each having a rail web, the rail web having an upper flange, a lower flange, an intermediate portion connecting the upper flange and the lower flange, and metal cladding on the intermediate portion between the upper flange and the lower flange; a first half rail web extending longitudinally from the first rail section, the first half rail web including an elongated first slot extending in a longitudinal direction of the rail section; a second half rail web extending from the second rail section, the second half rail including an elongated second slot extending in longitudinal direction of the rail section; a slide plate; and a means for securing the first and second half rail webs longitudinally slidably together wherein a portion of the first half rail web and the second half rail web overlap and sandwich the slide plate therebetween.

  7. Muon dynamics in superprotonic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikedo, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Matsuo, Yasumitsu; Lord, James S.

    2009-04-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of high proton conductivity ( σ) for superprotonic conductors, MHXO4, where M=Cs and Rb, X=S and Se, μ+SR experiments have been performed in the temperature range between 250 and 450 K using single crystal samples. Here, MHXO4 exhibits extraordinary high σ at T above its structural phase transition ( Tc=414 K for CsHSO4) from a low- T monoclinic phase (Phase II) to a high- T tetragonal phase (Phase I). Since the asymmetry of weak transverse field (wTF) spectrum does not reach its maximum at ambient T, muonium (Mu) state is found to exist in both CsHSO4 and CsHSeO4. The Mu fraction in wTF spectrum for CsHSO4 is still a finite value even in Phase I, while the Mu state disappears in Phase I of CsHSeO4. The longitudinal field μ+SR measurements for observing the Mu state and its dynamics in CsHSO4, show fast Mu diffusion and the conversion from Mu to diamagnetic μ+ in whole T range measured. Considering the fact that the σ in Phase I of CsHSO4 is about 10 times larger than that of CsHSeO4, the Mu formation in Phase I implies the presence of the atomic hydrogen state and play a possible crucial role for the high σ in Phase I of CsHSO4.

  8. A Psychophysiological Case Study of Orchestra Conductors.

    PubMed

    Jaque, S Victoria; Karamanukyan, Isabel H; Thomson, Paula

    2015-12-01

    The psychological and physiological effects of performance were investigated in two professional orchestral conductors, with data collected prior to, during, and after a rehearsal and a public performance. The participants were given a battery of psychological self-report tests (anxiety, dissociation, health inventory, fantasy proneness, shame, and flow). Ambulatory physiological monitoring (Vivometric LifeShirt® system) was conducted during both a rehearsal and public performance to gather information about the autonomic nervous system and heart rate variability (HRV). One conductor had a history of asthma and anxiety, and the second conductor had coronary artery disease. The results revealed within-subject and between-subject differences in autonomic nervous system responses and HRV during several conditions (pre-performance rest, stair-climbing, rehearsal, and performance). Based on heart rate, the physiological demands of professional conducting are reflective of work intensities considered "hard." Both conductors experienced high flow states. Anxiety and coronary artery disease may have attenuated HRV resilience in this study. It is recommended that noninvasive methods be implemented to assess cardiac autonomic activity in professional conductors, particularly during engagement in their professional activities. The findings suggest a need to further study anxiety, respiratory conditions, and cardiovascular risks for conductors. PMID:26614972

  9. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal Na{sub 3}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Zhongkai; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Zhou, Bo; Kim, Yeongkwan; Hussain, Zahid; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-21

    We report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of Na{sub 3}Bi single-crystal thin films on two different substrates—epitaxial bilayer graphene terminated 6H-SiC(0001) and Si(111). Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, we found that the lattice orientation of the grown Na{sub 3}Bi thin film was rotated by 30° respect to the surface lattice orientations of these two substrates. An in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy clearly revealed the 3-dimensional Dirac-cone band structure in such thin films. Our approach of growing Na{sub 3}Bi thin film provides a potential route for further studying its intriguing electronic properties and for fabricating it into practical devices in future.

  11. Lithium insertion processes of orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2}-based electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Richardson, T.J.; Kepley, L.

    1996-08-01

    Electrochemical, thermal, and structural characterization of lithium insertion processes into orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2}-based materials is presented. Chimie douce oxidation, reduction, and/or exchange reactions of the precursor Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} can be used to prepare high capacity (180 mAh/g), high potential compounds for use in secondary lithium batteries. Lithiated Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} is quite stable; formation of spinel phases occurs only under conditions of prolonged severe abuse during cycling in electrochemical cells, or upon heating to 500 C. The lithium-ion intercalation process is considerably more complex than that for sodium ions; features are seen in the electrochemical potential-step experiments that may be attributed to several phase transitions. These results are interpreted in terms of the unusual structure, and implications for future use of these materials in lithium batteries are discussed.

  12. Bulk crystal growth and electronic characterization of the 3D Dirac semimetal Na{sub 3}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Satya K.; Krizan, Jason W.; Cava, R. J.; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Gyenis, András; Randeria, Mallika T.; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Su-Yang; Alidoust, Nasser; Belopolski, Ilya; Liang, Tian; Zahid Hasan, M.; Ong, N. P.; Yazdani, A.

    2015-04-01

    High quality hexagon plate-like Na{sub 3}Bi crystals with large (001) plane surfaces were grown from a molten Na flux. The freshly cleaved crystals were analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, allowing for the characterization of the three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal (TDS) behavior and the observation of the topological surface states. Landau levels were observed, and the energy-momentum relations exhibited a linear dispersion relationship, characteristic of the 3D TDS nature of Na{sub 3}Bi. In transport measurements on Na{sub 3}Bi crystals, the linear magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations are observed for the first time.

  13. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  14. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Joseph A.; Domroese, Michael K.; Lindeman, David D.; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Roger; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  15. Electronic structure and ground-state properties of Na{sub 2}Po: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Eithiraj, R. D.

    2015-06-24

    Self-consistent scalar-relativistic band structure calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic structure and ground-state properties of Na{sub 2}Po in cubic antifluorite (anti-CaF{sub 2}-type) structure using the linear muffin-tin orbital in its tight-binding representation (TB-LMTO) method. Ground state properties such as equilibrium lattice constant and bulk modulus were calculated. The results of the electronic structure calculations show that Na{sub 2}Po is direct bandgap semiconductor.

  16. Persistent modification of Na{sub v}1.9 following chronic exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, Thomas J. Cooper, Brian Y.

    2014-06-15

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) returned from that conflict with a widespread chronic pain affecting deep tissues. Recently, we have shown that a 60 day exposure to the insecticides permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and pyridostigmine bromide (NTPB) had little influence on nociceptor action potential forming Na{sub v}1.8, but increased K{sub v}7 mediated inhibitory currents 8 weeks after treatment. Using the same exposure regimen, we used whole cell patch methods to examine whether the influences of NTPB could be observed on Na{sub v}1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. During a 60 day exposure to NTPB, rats exhibited lowered muscle pain thresholds and increased rest periods, but these measures subsequently returned to normal levels. Eight and 12 weeks after treatments ceased, DRG neurons were excised from the sensory ganglia. Whole cell patch studies revealed little change in voltage dependent activation and deactivation of Na{sub v}1.9, but significant increases in the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 were observed 8 weeks after exposure. Cellular studies, at the 8 week delay, revealed that NTPB also significantly prolonged action potential duration and afterhyperpolarization (22 °C). Acute application of permethrin (10 μM) also increased the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 in skin, muscle and vascular nociceptors. In conclusion, chronic exposure to Gulf War agents produced long term changes in the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. The reported increases in K{sub v}7 amplitude may have been an adaptive response to increased Na{sub v}1.9, and effectively suppressed behavioral pain measures in the post treatment period. Factors that alter the balance between Na{sub v}1.9 and K{sub v}7 could release spontaneous discharge and produce chronic deep tissue pain. - Highlights: • Rats were treated 60 days with permethrin, chlorpyrifos and pyridostigmine bromide. • 8 weeks after treatments, Nav1.9 activation and deactivation were

  17. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  18. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  19. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  20. Stators with improved conductor assembly and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Dang, Dang Dinh; Blissenbach, Rolf; Schauer, David; Wattleworth, John; Milani, Michael; Hatch, Erik

    2013-07-30

    A stator includes a stator core, a plurality of slots, and a conductor. The plurality of slots are formed within the stator core. The conductor is disposed continuously within at least two of the plurality of openings.

  1. Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications

    DOEpatents

    Hirayama, Chikara; Wagner, George R.

    1982-05-18

    This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu.sub.2 S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors.

  2. Method and apparatus for preparing multiconductor cable with flat conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcell, G. V. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preparing flat conductor cable having a plurality of ribbon-like conductors disposed upon and adhesively bonded to the surface of a substrate is described. The conductors are brought into contact with the substrate surface, and while maintained in axial tension on said substrate, the combination is seated on a yieldably compressible layer to permit the conductor to become embedded into the surface of the substrate film.

  3. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  8. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. 75.513 Section 75.513 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient...

  9. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. 75.513 Section 75.513 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient...

  10. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. 75.513 Section 75.513 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient...

  11. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. 75.513 Section 75.513 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient...

  12. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. 75.513 Section 75.513 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient...

  13. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  14. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  15. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  16. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  17. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1 Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  18. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1 Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  19. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1 Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  20. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1 Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  1. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  2. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  3. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  4. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1 Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  5. Full tape thickness feature conductors for EMI structures

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Knudson, Richard T.; Smith, Frank R.; Barner, Gregory

    2014-06-10

    Generally annular full tape thickness conductors are formed in single or multiple tape layers, and then stacked to produce an annular solid conductive wall for enclosing an electromagnetic isolation cavity. The conductors may be formed using punch and fill operations, or by flowing conductor-containing material onto the tape edge surfaces that define the interior sidewalls of the cavity.

  6. Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

  7. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to meet the minimum current carrying capacity provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. All...

  8. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to meet the minimum current carrying capacity provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. All...

  9. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to meet the minimum current carrying capacity provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. All...

  10. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.425...) Temperature rating of conductor insulation 60 °C (140 °F) 75 °C (167 °F) 80 °C (176 °F) 90 °C (194 °F) 105...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12004...

  20. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  1. Dipole ordering, ionic conductivity, and cold nuclear fusion: Three types of cation mobility in the orthophosphates KTiOPO{sub 4} Na{sub 3}M{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (M=Sc,Fe,Cr), NaTh{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, KD{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, V.B.

    1995-05-01

    As shown in earlier studies, crystals whose structures contain closely located positions statistically occupied by metal cations (split positions) may exhibit anomalies in physical properties, such as ferroelectric (FE) or antiferroelectric (AFE) ordering, superionic conduction (SIC), low thermal expansion coefficients, ultrarapid nuclear relaxation, etc. For example, splitting of Na positions lead to Fe ordering in low-temperature structures of Na{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and NaTh{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and to AFE ordering in Na{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}PO{sub 12} (stoichiometric NASICON - one of the best three-dimensional superionic conductors). The coexistance of two types of split cation positions in KFeFPO{sub 4} was reported by Belokoeneva et al.; later, these splittings were shown to be accompanied by FE and AFE ordering. In this paper, the authors report an attempt to establish inter-relations between various physical phenomena related to cation mobility. They discuss three manifestations of cation mobility in orthophosphates with split cation positions: dipole ordering of both FE and AFE types, superionic conduction, and cold nuclear fusion (CNF).

  2. Investigation of SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, N.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A.

    2013-11-27

    The silicate is one of the potential compounds used as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys. The mixture between silica and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) succeeded to produce the silicate product. The formulation of a silicate product normally variable depended by the different ratio of SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O. This research utilized the agriculture waste product of paddy using its rice husk. In this study, the amorphous silica content in rice husk ash was used after rice husk burnt in a muffle furnace at a certain temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to determine the existence of amorphous phase of silica in the rice husk ash. There are several studies that recognized rice husk as an alternative source that obtained high silica content. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to clarify the percentage amount of Si and O elements, which referred the silica compound in rice husk ash. The preparation of sodium silicate formulation were differ based on the SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio (SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio = 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00). These silicate based corrosion inhibitors were tested on several testing samples, which were copper (99.9%), aluminum alloy (AA 6061) and carbon steel (SAE 1045). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio and understand how this SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio can affect the corrosion rate of each metal alloys immersed in acidic medium. In order to investigate this study, weight loss test was conducted in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 24 hours at room temperature.

  3. EDITORIAL: Coated conductors and their applications Coated conductors and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhardt, Herbert C.; Lee, Dominic; Izumi, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The attractive perspectives offered by coated conductors, known as the 2nd generation of high temperature superconductors (2G-HTS), have triggered broad and fruitful R&D efforts to make them ready for the marketplace. The anisotropic features of YBCO and its weak-link behavior require the processing of almost single crystalline thin films into flat tapes of coated conductors by basically two different methods: RABiTS—rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates; and IBAD—ion-beam assisted deposition. Reliable processing technologies are now at hand, and critical current carrying capacities can be raised to almost 10-20% of the theoretically possible limit by optimizing current transfer through grain boundaries as well as flux pinning through control and design of the microstructural landscapes. The optimization of the in-field properties of the 2G-HTS wires, as well as the manufacturing of coated conductors with low ac losses and of assembled conductors for high current application remain active development areas. Cost reduction and more economic processing are still an issue. However, coated conductors are now beginning to penetrate the market, particularly for power and electrical applications, where savings in energy are essential and where the unique features of high temperature superconducting materials can be utilized. Major international conferences have followed up the progress in this exciting realm, and important workshops and discussion meetings have been held on this topic. Nonetheless, it was felt that a concise and up-to-date issue of Superconductor Science and Technology would be most welcome to summarize and collect the latest developments in processing and characterizing coated conductors, as well as drawing attention to the most innovative applications. The Guest Editors of this focus issue owe great thanks to those colleagues who were willing to contribute with their most recent findings to this issue on 'Coated conductors and their

  4. Preparation and properties of transparent conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Transparent, electrically conductive films have been prepared from several different metal oxides, including those of tin, indium and zinc. Deposition methods for these materials are reviewed, and their properties summarized and compared. A figure of merit for a transparent conductor may be defined as the ratio of the electrical conductivity to the optical absorption coefficient of the film. The figure of merit for fluorine-doped zinc oxide is shown to be larger than that of other transparent conductors, such as boron-doped zinc oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and tin-doped indium oxide. Physical, chemical and thermal durability, deposition temperature, and cost are other factors which may also influence the choice of material for a particular application.

  5. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  6. Spin Transport in Multiply Connected Fractal Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ray; Chang, Ching-Ray; Klik, Ivo

    2014-12-01

    We consider spin and charge transport in a Sierpinski planar carpet; the interest here is its unique geometry. We analyze the fractal conductor as a combination of multiply connected quantum wires, and we observe the evolution of the transmission envelope in different fractal generations. For a fractal conductor dominated by resonant modes the transmission is characterized by strong fluctuations and conduction gaps. We show that charge and spin transport have different responses both to the presence of defects and to applied bias. At a high bias, or in a high-order fractal generation, spin accumulation is separated from charge accumulation because the larger drift velocity needs a longer polarization length, and the sample may turn into an insulator by the action of the defects. Our results are calculated numerically using the Keldysh Green function within the tight-binding framework.

  7. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  8. Local noise in a diffusive conductor.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, E S; Shovkun, D V; Ercolani, D; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Sorba, L; Roddaro, S; Khrapai, V S

    2016-07-28

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  9. Current diffusion in rail-gun conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    A method has been developed to analyze one- and two-dimensional, nonlinear current diffusion in rail-gun conductors. A nonlinear current-diffusion equation that accounts for the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has been developed from Maxwell's equations. A finite-difference heat-transfer computer program was adapted to solve the current-diffusion and thermal-diffusion problems for rail-gun conductors in one and two dimensions. The nonlinear current-diffusion equation was also extended to account for the magnetic-field dependence of the magnetic permeability, thus allowing ferromagnetic materials to be considered. A one-dimensional finite-difference technique was developed for ferromagnetic materials. Two one-dimensional test problems that compare results with other analyses are discussed. A series of calculations of current density and rail temperature was done for various size rectangular rails. One analysis of current diffusion in a ferromagnetic material was also performed.

  10. Local noise in a diffusive conductor.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, E S; Shovkun, D V; Ercolani, D; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Sorba, L; Roddaro, S; Khrapai, V S

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  11. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bloom, Ira D.; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  12. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  13. Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradors, Xavier; Puig, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript reports on the recent progress and the remaining materials challenges in the development of coated conductors (CCs) for power applications and magnets, with a particular emphasis on the different initiatives being active at present in Europe. We first summarize the scientific and technological scope where CCs have been raised as a complex technology product and then we show that there exists still much room for performance improvement. The objectives and CC architectures being explored in the scope of the European project EUROTAPES are widely described and their potential in generating novel breakthroughs emphasized. The overall goal of this project is to create synergy among academic and industrial partners to go well beyond the state of the art in several scientific issues related to CCs’ enhanced performances and to develop nanoengineered CCs with reduced costs, using high throughput manufacturing processes which incorporate quality control tools and so lead to higher yields. Three general application targets are considered which will require different conductor architectures and performances and so the strategy is to combine vacuum and chemical solution deposition approaches to achieve the targeted goals. A few examples of such approaches are described related to defining new conductor architectures and shapes, as well as vortex pinning enhancement through novel paths towards nanostructure generation. Particular emphasis is made on solution chemistry approaches. We also describe the efforts being made in transforming the CCs into assembled conductors and cables which achieve appealing mechanical and electromagnetic performances for power systems. Finally, we briefly mention some outstanding superconducting power application projects being active at present, in Europe and worldwide, to exemplify the strong advances in reaching the demands to integrate them in a new electrical engineering paradigm.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, Yohji

    2009-04-01

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a β-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the β-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT)3Au(CN)2 as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced π-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt)2 (M = Ni, Au).

  15. A self-activated silicate phosphor of Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18}

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Ying; Qin, Lin; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Chuanxiang; Wei, Donglei; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Self-activated Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18} shows a bright green luminescence. It presents obvious LLP afterglow with duration time >3 h after the removal of excitation. The substitution of Y{sup 3+} by rare earth ions except Yb{sup 3+} cannot prolong the afterglow. It is proposed that the disorder in the lattices can result in different trap centers attributing to the long last phosphorescence. - Highlights: • Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18} was firstly developed to be a new bluish green-emitting silicate. • Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18} presents unusual properties: efficient excitation and longer emission wavelength. • Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18} shows long-lasting phosphorescence with duration time above 3 h. - Abstract: A new self-activated silicate phosphor of Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18} was prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The phase formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction measurement. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, X-ray-excited luminescence, decay curves, quantum efficiencies and the color coordinates were investigated. It can be efficiently excited by UV light and X-ray and presents unusual green emission (centered at 475 nm) from Zr{sup 4+} to O{sup 2−} charge transfer transition. Meanwhile, the phosphor shows long-lasting phosphorescence with duration time above 3 h after the removal of excitation. The afterglow curves and thermo-luminescence were measured for pure and rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Ho, Dy, Tb, Sm, Nd) doped Na{sub 5}YZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 18}. The possible defects and the mechanism of long-lasting phosphorescence were suggested on the base of the strong disorder of the multiply cation sites in the lattices.

  16. Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5}, a new noncentrosymmetric sodium borate

    SciTech Connect

    Penin, N.; Touboul, M. . E-mail: marcel.touboul@sc.u-picardie.fr; Nowogrocki, G.

    2005-03-15

    Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) single crystals were obtained by heating, melting and appropriately cooling borax, Na{sub 2}[B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}].8H{sub 2}O. Its formula has been determined by the resolution of the structure from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic Iba2 space group, with the following unit cell parameters: a=33.359(11)A, b=9.554(3)A, c=10.644(4)A; V=3392.4(19)A{sup 3}; Z=8. The crystal structure was solved from 3226 reflections until R{sub 1}=0.0385. It exhibits a three-dimensional framework built up from BO{sub 3} triangles ({delta}) and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra (T). Two kinds of borate groups can be considered forming two different double B{sub 3}O{sub 3} rings: two B{sub 4}O{sub 9} (linkage by two boron atoms) and one B{sub 5}O{sub 11} (linkage by one boron atom); the shorthand notation of the new fundamental building block (FBB) existing in this compound is: 13: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+2(4: 2{delta}+2T)]. The discovery of this new borate questions the real number of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} varieties. The existence of Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) and of another recently discovered borate, Na{sub 3}B{sub 7}O{sub 12} (B/Na=2.33; FBB 7: {infinity}{sup 3} [(3: 2{delta}+T)+(3: {delta}+2T)+(1: {delta})], with a composition close to the long-known borate {alpha}-Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (B/Na=2; FBB 8: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+(3: 2{delta}+T)], may explain the very complex equilibria reported in the Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase diagram, especially in this range of composition.

  17. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  18. Networks of icosahedra in the sodium-zinc-stannides Na{sub 16}Zn{sub 13.54}Sn{sub 13.46(5)}, Na{sub 22}Zn{sub 20}Sn{sub 19(1)}, and Na{sub 34}Zn{sub 66}Sn{sub 38(1)}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Faessler, Thomas F.

    2009-04-15

    The three new ternary phases Na{sub 16}Zn{sub 13.54}Sn{sub 13.46(5)} (I), Na{sub 22}Zn{sub 20}Sn{sub 19(1)} (II), and Na{sub 34}Zn{sub 66}Sn{sub 38(1)} (III) were obtained by direct fusion of the pure elements and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments: I, Ibam, Z=8, a=27.401(1), b=16.100(1), c=18.431(1) A, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2} (all data)=0.051/0.088; II, Pnma, Z=4, a=16.403(1), b=15.598(1), c=22.655(6) A, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2} (all data)=0.038/0.071; III, R3-bar m, Z=3, a=16.956(1), c=36.861(1) A, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2} (all data)=0.045/0.092. The structures consist of complex 3D cluster networks made of Zn and Sn atoms with the common motif of Kagome nets of icosahedra. Additionally to the new heteroatomic {l_brace}Zn{sub 12-x}Sn{sub x}{r_brace} icosahedra that are omnipresent, triangular units, cages, and pairs of triply fused icosahedra fill the cavities of the Kagome nets in compounds I, II, and III, respectively. Whereas I crystallizes in a new structure type, II and III have structural analogs in trielide chemistry. All three compounds closely approach the electron numbers expected for valence compounds according to the extended 8-N rule. The concept of achieving an isovalent situation to triel elements by combination of electron poorer and richer elements and the readily mixing of Zn and Sn allow the formation of icosahedral and triangular clusters without the participation of a group 13 element. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds Na{sub 16}Zn{sub 13.54}Sn{sub 13.46(5)} (I), Na{sub 22}Zn{sub 20}Sn{sub 19(1)} (II), and Na{sub 34}Zn{sub 66}Sn{sub 38(1)} (III) were obtained from the elements and were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their structures have in common Kagome layers of {l_brace}Zn{sub 12-x}Sn{sub x}{r_brace} icosahedra. Additional building units, such as triangles, 15-atom spacer, and triply fused icosahedra fill the structures of I, II, and III, respectively. The structures and the electron requirements are

  19. Size effects on thermoelectric behavior of ultrathin Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Brinks, Peter; Rijnders, Guus; Huijben, Mark

    2014-11-10

    Size effects in thermoelectric Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} thin films are studied, focusing on the electrical resisitivity and Seebeck coefficient. For very thin films below 10 nm, we have observed an increase in resistivity, which is in agreement with theoretical models. In contrast to a predicted simultaneous suppression of the Seebeck coefficient for ultrathin films, we observe a constant Seebeck coefficient as a function of layer thickness due to changes in the structural properties as well as the presence of strong electron correlations. This preserved high Seebeck coefficient opens up new directions for Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} ultrathin films as basic building blocks in thermoelectric superlattices with enhanced phonon scattering.

  20. Electronic structure of hyper-kagome Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M. R.; Micklitz, T.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of the frustrated magnet Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8} using density-functional theory. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling, the hyper-kagome lattice is characterized by a half-filled complex of d states, making it a cubic iridium analog of the high-temperature superconducting cuprates. The implications of our results for this unique material are discussed.

  1. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2)...

  2. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2)...

  3. The structure of Na{sub 3}SbTe{sub 3}: How ionic and covalent bonding forces work together

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jianhua; Miller, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    The compound Na{sub 3}SbTe{sub 3} has been synthesized from the elements and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Na{sub 3}SbTe{sub 3} is cubic, crystallizing in the cP28 structure type (isomorphous with Na{sub 3}AsS{sub 3}); space group P2{sub 1}3 (No. 198); a=9.6114(9) {angstrom}; Z = 4; R1 = 0.0324; wR2 = 0.0561 (I {le} 2{sigma}(I)). The structure consists of isolated sodium cations and trigonal pyramidal [SbTe{sub 3}]{sup {minus}3} anions with a Sb-Te bond length of 2.787(1) {angstrom} and a Te-Sb-Te bond angle of 100.0(1){degrees}. The structure is related to both the Li{sub 3}Bi and K{sub 3}AsS{sub 4}-type structures. Both lattice energy and semiempirical electronic structure calculations are utilized to evaluate various local and long-range structural aspects of this Zintl phase.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} for alkali metal polymer batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Ding, Lie; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1995-04-01

    Electrochemical potential spectroscopy (ECPS) has been used successfully to observe and explain ordering transitions in orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} as it is discharged in a sodium/polymer cell. Features can be assigned on the basis of sequential filling of sites in the small and then the large tunnels of the structure as the reduction progresses. Intercalation of lithium into Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} may be less straightforward than that of sodium, and is worthy of investigation by ECPS. Li/Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cells have a greater discharge capacity than Na/Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cells, suggesting that more than four lithiums per large tunnel can be inserted. (It is also possible, but less likely that more than one lithium can be placed inside the small tunnels.) This implies that the sites for lithium occupancy might be somewhat different than that for sodium. Further investigation into the properties of orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and its utility as a positive electrode for rechargeable sodium and lithium cells is presently underway in this laboratory.

  5. Flat conductor cable connectors with individually sealed contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Information is presented on flat conductor cable connectors, a series with individually sealed contacts. Data are concerned with connector historical development, design requirements, and testing and costs.

  6. Actuating dielectric elastomers in pure shear deformation by elastomeric conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yin; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-10

    Pure shear experiments are commonly used to characterize dielectric elastomer (DE) material properties and to evaluate DE actuator/generator performance. It is increasingly important for many applications to replace conventional carbon grease electrodes with stretchable elastomeric conductors. We formulate a theory for DE with elastomeric conductors, synthesize transparent hydrogel as ionic conductors, and measure actuation of DE in pure shear deformation. Maximum 67% actuation strain is demonstrated. The theory agrees well with our measurement and also correlates well with reported experiments on DE with electronic conductors.

  7. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pleva, E. F.; Mehrotra, V.; Schwenterly, S W

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  8. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  9. Conversion of Oxyfluoride Based Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wesolowski

    2006-11-01

    Direct measurements of HF pressure in equilibrium with the film during the BaF2 process are sorely needed. It is the HF partial pressure that governs the rate at which the film composition is changing and is, therefore, an important factor in controlling the composition/time trajectory of the film. Establishing the composition/time trajectory of both MOD-derived and e-beam derived films for a given set of conditions is another goal for the project. These studies will provide a fundamental understanding of the ex situ process for producing coated conductors.

  10. Method for preparing a thick film conductor

    DOEpatents

    Nagesh, Voddarahalli K.; Fulrath, deceased, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for preparing a thick film conductor which comprises providing surface active glass particles, mixing the surface active glass particles with a thermally decomposable organometallic compound, for example, a silver resinate, and then decomposing the organometallic compound by heating, thereby chemically depositing metal on the glass particles. The glass particle mixture is applied to a suitable substrate either before or after the organometallic compound is thermally decomposed. The resulting system is then fired in an oxidizing atmosphere, providing a microstructure of glass particles substantially uniformly coated with metal.

  11. NASA Test Conductor Monitoring DIME competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA test conductor at the top of the 2.2-second Drop Tower monitors a student lecture at a lower level. This was part of the Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  12. Miniaturized bendable 400 MHz artificial magnetic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Anthony; Tarot, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    A bendable artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with a resonant frequency of 400 MHz is proposed. The dimensions of the unit cell are 50 × 50 mm2 or 0.07 × 0.07 λ0. The miniaturization is achieved with closely coupled patches printed on each side of a 0.127-mm-thick dielectric substrate. This last one is stacked on a flexible 3-mm-thick silicone over a ground plane. An AMC prototype is simulated and manufactured. Also, a printed inverted-F antenna is used to highlight the bandwidth of the AMC.

  13. Noise and entanglement in quantum conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.

    2009-05-14

    In this article we discuss our two recent proposals on producing and detecting of entangled states in quantum conductors. First we analyze a setup where two electrons are scattered on a quantum dot with Coulomb repulsion and became orbitally entangled. Second, for identical noninteracting particles we suggest an operating scheme for the deliberate generation of spin-entangled electron pairs in a normal-metal mesoscopic structure with a fork geometry. The spin-entangled pair is created through a post-selection in the two branches of the fork. We also make comments on different ways of producing and quantifying the degree of entanglement.

  14. Estimating the hydrogen ion concentration in concentrated NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Juracich, S.P.; Rao, F.

    1995-06-01

    Combination glass electrodes were tested for determining H{sup +} concentrations in concentrated pure and mixed NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, as well as natural brine systems. NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and mixtures of NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were analyzed. Correction factors for estimating pC{sub H}{sup +} (negative logarithm of H{sup +} concentration) were determined from measured/observed pH values. Required Gran-type titrations were done with HCl and/or NaOH. The titration method is described and a step-by-step procedure provided; it has been used previously for determining pC{sub H}{sup +} values of synthetic chloride-dominated brines. Precautions are required to determine correction factors for electrolytes that react with H{sup +} or OH{sup {minus}} [sulfate brines for titration with acid; magnesium brines for titration with base because of precipitation of Mg(OH)2]. Correction factors A (pC{sub H}{sup +} = pH{sub ob} + A) from HCl titrations were similar to those from NaOH titrations where the concentration of free H{sup +} was calculated using a thermodynamic model. These values should be applicable to solns with a very large range in measured pH values (2 to 12). Because a large number of solns were titrated with HCl and the A values are similar for HCl and NaOH titrations, the A values for NaCl and Na2SO4 solns were fit as a function of molality to allow extrapolation. For NaCl solns 0 to 6.0 M, A can be obtained by multiplying the molality by 0.159. For Na2SO4 solns 0 to 2.0 M, the values of A can be obtained from (0.221 {minus} 0.549X + 0.201X{sup 2}), where X is the molality of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Orion-Ross electrode evaluations indicated that the A values did not differ significantly for different electrodes. Results suggest that the data in this report can be used to estimate A values for different NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solns even for noncalibrated electrodes.

  15. Calorimetric measurements on Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} and Na{sub 4}C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Akira; Miyazaki, Yuji; Michałowski, Paweł P.; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Wågberg, Thomas; Sundqvist, Bertil

    2015-04-28

    We show specific heat data for Na{sub 4}C{sub 60} and Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} in the range 0.4-350 K for samples characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. At high temperatures, the two different polymer structures have very similar specific heats both in absolute values and in general trend. The specific heat data are compared with data for undoped polymeric and pristine C{sub 60}. At high temperatures, a difference in specific heat between the intercalated and undoped C{sub 60} polymers of 100 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1} is observed, in agreement with the Dulong-Petit law. At low temperatures, the specific heat data for Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} and Na{sub 4}C{sub 60} are modified by the stiffening of vibrational and librational molecular motion induced by the polymer bonds. The covalent twin bonds in Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} affect these motions to a somewhat higher degree than the single intermolecular bonds in Na{sub 4}C{sub 60}. Below 1 K, the specific heats of both materials become linear in temperature, as expected from the effective dimensionality of the structure. The contribution to the total specific heat from the inserted metal ions can be well described by Einstein functions with T{sub E} = 386 K for Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} and T{sub E} = 120 K for Na{sub 4}C{sub 60}, but for both materials we also observe a Schottky-type contribution corresponding to a first approximation to a two-level system with ΔE = 9.3 meV for Li{sub 4}C{sub 60} and 3.1 meV for Na{sub 4}C{sub 60}, probably associated with jumps between closely spaced energy levels inside “octahedral-type” ionic sites. Static magnetic fields up to 9 T had very small effects on the specific heat below 10 K.

  16. Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Se{sub 5}: A highly nonlinear optical material

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Joon I.; Freeman, Arthur J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2012-11-15

    We report an integrated experimental and theoretical study of the two-dimensional polar selenogermanate compound Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Se{sub 5}, which exhibits strong nonlinear optical (NLO) second harmonic generation response in the visible and infrared region. The compound is type-I phase-matchable with a large SHG coefficient {chi}{sup (2)} Almost-Equal-To 290 pm V{sup -1}, which is the second highest among the phase-matchable NLO materials. It also performs as an NLO frequency mixer to produce radiation via difference frequency generation. The compound is optically transparent from the visible (0.521 {mu}m) to the far IR (18.2 {mu}m) and melts congruently. Ab initio density functional theory band structure calculations show that the unusually large second-order optical nonlinearity is attributed to the two-dimensional character of the crystal structure. Raman, IR and optical absorption spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, NLO properties of derivatives of Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Se{sub 4.55}Te{sub 0.45} and Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 1.64}Sn{sub 0.36}Se{sub 5} and thermal expansion behavior studies are also reported. - Graphical Abstract: Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Se{sub 5} is a new second-order nonlinear optical material for IR applications. It is type-I phase-matchable with a large SHG coefficient {chi}{sup (2)} Almost-Equal-To 290 pm V{sup -1}, which is the second largest among the phase-matchable NLO materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Se{sub 5} is a new second-order nonlinear optical material for IR applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is type-I phase-matchable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its SHG coefficient {chi}{sup (2)} Almost-Equal-To 290 pm V{sup -1} is the second largest among the phase-matchable NLO materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its DFG performance allows the development of a multiple IR frequency source with tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ab initio density functional theory band structure calculations

  17. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  18. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  19. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D. S.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Baughman, R. J.; Bourcier, R. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.; Halloran, J. W.; Neal, M. J.; Capone, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. In this paper we report on two promising processing technologies that have been utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors. First, melt spun YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} fibers rapid thermal processed for 1--8 sec at 950 to 1075{degree}C have {Tc}'s to 92 K, J{sub c}'s to 1100 A/cm{sup 2} and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting compositions give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} have been made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100K and improved magnetic hysteresis above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneals near 850{degree}C appears to significantly improve these materials. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity. PMID:25104944

  1. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  2. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. 77.503 Section 77.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and...

  3. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. 77.503 Section 77.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and...

  4. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. 77.503 Section 77.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and...

  5. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. 77.503 Section 77.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. 77.503 Section 77.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and...

  7. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in the conductor or conductor insulation. A... NEC 2002 or IEC 60092-202 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), then the next larger... overcurrent protective device. (e) Thermal devices. No thermal cutout, thermal relay, or other device...

  8. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in the conductor or conductor insulation. A... NEC 2002 or IEC 92-202 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), then the next larger... overcurrent protective device. (e) Thermal devices. No thermal cutout, thermal relay, or other device...

  9. Interplay of Ehrenfest and dephasing times in ballistic conductors.

    PubMed

    Altland, Alexander; Brouwer, Piet W; Tian, Chushun

    2007-07-20

    Quantum interference corrections in ballistic conductors require a minimal time: the Ehrenfest time. In this Letter, we investigate the fate of the interference corrections to quantum transport in bulk ballistic conductors if the Ehrenfest time and the dephasing time are comparable.

  10. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111.05-31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-31 Grounding conductors for systems. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111.05-31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-31 Grounding conductors for systems. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111.05-31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-31 Grounding conductors for systems. (a)...

  13. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  14. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  15. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  20. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in the conductor or conductor insulation. A... NEC 2002 or IEC 92-202 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), then the next larger... overcurrent protective device. (e) Thermal devices. No thermal cutout, thermal relay, or other device...

  1. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  2. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.H.

    1984-04-24

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly. 7 figs.

  3. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  4. Alternative fiber optic conductor for laboratory practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon Ocampo, Juan F.; Jaramillo Florez, Samuel A.; Amaya Rodriguez, Juan C.

    1995-10-01

    Due to the high cost and difficulty in obtaining an optical fiber sample to be used in laboratory tests, we have given ourselves the task of looking for an adequate optical-fiber alternative for laboratory practices. We have as a result, found an object that can be used as an alternate optical conductor. This object called 'Venoclisis Hose', is a cylindrical plastic tube, hollow inside, whose main use has been in medical applications as a conveyor of liquids going in or coming out of the human body. In this document, the tests carried out and the results obtained to characterize the venoclisis as an optical fiber are described. This project was undertaken in order to propose the use of Venoclisis as an alternate optical fiber for laboratory work, due primarily to its low costs, as well as how easy it to acquire and measure its parameters as an optical fiber.

  5. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  6. Conductor system for well bore data transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Galle, E.M.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes an improved electrical transmission system for use in a fluid filled well bore. It comprises: a tubular member with threaded ends for connection in a drill string in a wellbore, having a transmitting end adapted for transmitting data signals, and a receiving end adapted for receiving data signals; a partition releasably carried by the transmitting end of the tubular member for mating with the tubular member; a compartment bounded in part by the partition and in part by the tubular member; a transmitter disposed in the compartment of the tubular member; seal means for sealing the compartment where the partition mates with the tubular member to protect the transmitter from the fluid in the well bore; and a flexible planar conductor.

  7. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-03-28

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics.

  8. Cyclic CO{sub 2} chemisorption–desorption behavior of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}: Structural, microstructural and kinetic variations produced as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-dlCruz, Lorena; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2013-08-15

    A structural, microstructural and kinetic analysis of the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}–CO{sub 2} system was performed over 20 chemisorption–desorption cycles. Different cyclic experiments were performed between 500 and 800 °C. Although the best results were obtained in Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} sample treated at 550 °C, all the samples treated between 500 and 700 °C presented good CO{sub 2} chemisorption efficiencies and stabilities. On the contrary, Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} sample treated at 800 °C presented a continuous decrement of the CO{sub 2} chemisorption. After 20 cycles all the samples presented a partial Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} decomposition, determined by the ZrO{sub 2} formation, which was associated to sodium sublimation. Additionally, the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} microstructural analysis showed a systematic morphological evolution. It was microscopically observed that Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} particles tend to fracture due to the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} formation. Later, after several cycles these tiny fractured particles sinter producing new polyhedral and dense Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} particles. Finally, an exhaustive kinetic analysis showed a high CO{sub 2} chemisorption–desorption stability at different temperatures. - Graphical abstract: A CO{sub 2} chemisorption–desorption analysis was performed in the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}–CO{sub 2} system. Different cyclic experiments were performed between 500 and 800 °C and the results showed high CO{sub 2} chemisorption efficiencies. Nevertheless the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} composition and microstructure evolved during the cycles. Highlights: • Different CO{sub 2} chemisorption–desorption cycles were performed in the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} phase. • Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} presents interesting microstructural changes depending on temperature. • At T≤550 °C, Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} presents the best cyclability due to microstructural factors. • At T≥600 °C, Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} presents a partial decomposition after 20 cycles

  9. Plasma bullets behavior in a tube covered by a conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Xian, Y. B.; Xu, H. T.; Lu, X. P. Pei, X. K.; Gong, W. W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2015-06-15

    In this work, for better applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets, the physics of plasma streamers in a glass tube with a part of it covered by a conductor is investigated. To better understand the propagation mechanism of plasma bullets in capillary tubes passing through a curved or narrow passage for some biomedical or material applications, the propagation of plasma streamers in a tube covered by a floating conductor is investigated. For a plasma streamer propagating in a tube covered by a conductor, the plasma streamer is suppressed and becomes shorter, and a secondary streamer is generated in the tube at the downstream end of the conductor. The larger the area covered by the conductor, or the thinner the tube, the stronger the plasma streamer is inhibited. The electric potential of the conductor is measured to be as high as 6 kV. On the other hand, a higher voltage applied on the HV electrode, or a higher gas flow rate will make the secondary plasma streamer longer. It is found that the capacitor formed by the conductor outside the tube and the wall of the tube plays an important role in inhibiting the original plasma streamer and generating the secondary streamer. Moreover, the active species generated by the original plasma play important role in generating a secondary plasma streamer.

  10. Spin Hamiltonian of hyper-kagome Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

    SciTech Connect

    Micklitz, T.; Norman, M. R.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the spin Hamiltonian for the quantum spin liquid Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and then estimate the direct and superexchange contributions between near neighbor iridium ions using a tight-binding parametrization of the electronic structure. We find a magnitude of the exchange interaction comparable to experiment for a reasonable value of the on-site Coulomb repulsion. For one of the two tight-binding parametrizations we have studied, the direct exchange term, which is isotropic, dominates the total exchange. This provides support for those theories proposed to describe this quantum spin liquid that assume an isotropic Heisenberg model.

  11. Mechanical behavior of a composite reinforced overhead conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawar, Ahmad

    A new type of overhead conductor with a polymer composite core is evaluated in terms of the mechanical properties and operating characteristics. The conductor is composed of trapezoidal O'-tempered aluminum wires helically wound around a hybrid glass/carbon composite core produced by pultrusion. The conductor is intended for electrical power transmission, and is designated ACCC/TW, for aluminum conductor composite core/trapezoidal wire. Measurements of core properties and conductor sag at high temperatures were compared to conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced) of the same diameter. The mechanical properties of ACCC/TW, such as the tensile strength, CTE and SAG performance, showed superiority to conventional ACSR. The ACCC/TW conductor also exhibited greater ampacity than ACSR conductor at all operating temperatures. A modification to a Numerical Sag Method for predicting conductor sag is presented that accurately predicts the observed bilinear sag behavior of composite conductors. The modified method is called the Hybrid Sag Method (HSM). It is used to predict the sag of conductors with conventional designs. The HSM predictions are compared with those obtained using a conventional graphical sag method. The HSM shows virtually the same accuracy as the graphical method for predicting sag for composite conductors operated under specific conditions. The HSM predictions of sag are validated by comparisons with experimental measurements. Tensile strength and storage modulus were measured to determine the temperature dependence of the composite core from 20°-200°C. The storage modulus was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and showed temperature dependence nearly identical to the tensile strength for both composites. The correlation between storage modulus and tensile strength was analyzed in terms of the temperature-dependent matrix shear strength, and the storage modulus behavior is presented as a basis for projecting the strength

  12. Low-temperature flux syntheses and characterizations of two 1-D anhydrous borophosphates: Na{sub 3}B{sub 6}PO{sub 13} and Na{sub 3}BP{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Dingbang; Chen Haohong; Yang Xinxin; Zhao Jingtai

    2007-01-15

    Two new anhydrous sodium borophosphates with one-dimensional structure, Na{sub 3}B{sub 6}PO{sub 13}(1) and Na{sub 3}BP{sub 2}O{sub 8}(2), were synthesized by low-temperature molten salts techniques using boric acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate as flux, respectively. The crystal structures were solved by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (1, orthorhombic, Pnma (no. 62), a=9.3727(4)A, b=16.2307(7)A, c=6.7232(3)A, Z=4; 2 , monoclinic, C2/c (no. 15), a=12.567(4)A, b=10.290(3)A, c=10.210(3)A, {beta}=92.492(5){sup o}, Z=8). Compound 1 is characterized by an infinite chain of {sub {approx}}{sup 1}{l_brace}[B{sub 6}PO{sub 13}]{r_brace}{sup 3-} containing eight-membered rings in which all vertexes of borate groups contribute to interconnection. Compound 2 reveals an infinite straight chain {sub {approx}}{sup 1}{l_brace}[BP{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{r_brace}{sup 3-} built of vertex-sharing four-membered rings, and chains in neighboring layers arranged along different orientations. The relations between structures and the synthetic conditions with only traced water are discussed.

  13. A new family of superconducting fullerides, Na{sub 3}(NH{sub 3}){sub x}C{sub 60}(x = 2--8)

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, J.A.; Smart, J.L.; Wang, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    A series of A{sub 3}C{sub 60} fulleride superconductors (A is an alkali metal) with superconducting transition temperatures ({Tc}s) between 2.5 and 33 K has been reported. The {Tc}s of these materials are closely correlated to their f.c.c. lattice parameters, with the higher {Tc} materials having larger unit cell lengths. Recently, the {Tc} of the superconducting Na{sub 2}CsC{sub 60} has been raised from 10.5 K to 29.6 K by ammonia intercalation. The resulting intercalated compound, NaCs[Na(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]C{sub 60} has an expanded unit cell compared to the starting material, with a larger cation Na(NH{sub 3}){sub 4+}, occupying the octahedral site. The sodium-doped C{sub 60} with nominal composition Na{sub 3}C{sub 60} however, does not show superconductivity and was reported to undergo a disproportionation reaction into two f.c.c. phases, Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} and Na{sub 6}C{sub 60} below 250 K. Here we report on the ammonia intercalation of Na{sub 3}C{sub 60}. Up to four superconducting phases with {Tc}s occurring near 6.7, 11.5, 13.5 and 16.5 K were observed in the compounds Na{sub 3}(NH{sub 3}){sub x}C{sub 60} (x {approx}2 = 8). All these phases gave significant superconducting shielding fractions (between 15 and 80% at 5 K). These compounds were characterized by use of AC susceptibility and SQUID measurements, TGA and x-ray powder diffraction.

  14. Insulation failure and externalized conductor of a single-coil Kentrox lead: an ongoing story?

    PubMed

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Mijic, Dejan; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Winter, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Conductor externalization is a frequent complication with the St. Jude Medical Riata lead. Single case reports also reported externalization of conductors for dual-coil Biotronik leads. Up to now, conductor externalization has not yet been reported for any single coil leads. We report for the first time an externalization of conductors in a Biotronik Kentrox single-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead.

  15. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... secondary windings of instrument transformers must be grounded. (b) On a nonmetallic vessel, where a...

  16. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  17. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-09-01

    When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  18. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  19. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  20. On some characteristic properties of ATR liquid light conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saydov, G. V.; Aleinik, A. I.

    2003-07-01

    Electronic spectra of aqueous solutions of the malachite green dye have been measured by liquid and solid spectroscopy. Particular characteristics of the light conductor itself have been shown to have no considerable effect on the results of the experiment.

  1. Electric and Magnetic Forces between Parallel-Wire Conductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses electric and magnetic forces between parallel-wire conductors and derives, in a simple fashion, order of magnitude estimates of the ratio of the likely electrostatic and electromagnetic forces for a simple parallel-wire balance. (Author/HM)

  2. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... secondary windings of instrument transformers must be grounded. (b) On a nonmetallic vessel, where a...

  3. New resistivity for high-mobility quantum Hall conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceuen, P. L.; Szafer, A.; Richter, C. A.; Alphenaar, B. W.; Jain, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements showing dramatic nonlocal behavior in the four-terminal resistances of a high-mobility quantum Hall conductor are presented. These measurements illustrate that the standard definition of the resistivity tensor is inappropriate, but they are in excellent agreement with a new model of the conductor that treats the edge and bulk conducting pathways independently. This model uses a single intensive parameter, analogous to a local resistivity for the bulk channel only, to characterize the system.

  4. Fabrication of Filamentary YBCO Coated Conductor by Inkjet Printing

    SciTech Connect

    List III, Frederick Alyious; Kodenkandath, Thomas; Rupich, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a potentially low cost, high rate method for depositing precursors for filamentary YBCO coated conductors. The method offers considerable flexibility of filament pattern, width, and thickness. Using standard solution precursors and RABiTSTM substrates, the printing, processing, and properties of some inkjet-derived filamentary YBCO coated conductors for Second Generation (2G) wire are demonstrated on a laboratory scale. Some systematic variations of growth rate and critical transport current with filament width are observed and discussed.

  5. Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigling, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200 C.

  6. Local electron heating in nanoscopic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Sai, Na; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    The electron current density in nanoscale junctions is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding one in bulk electrodes. Consequently, the electron-electron scattering rate increases substantially in the junction. This leads to local electron heating of the underlying Fermi sea [1] in analogy to the local ionic heating that is due to the increased electron-phonon scattering rates [2]. By using a novel hydrodynamic formulation of transport [3], we predict the bias dependence of local electron heating in quasi-ballistic nanoscale conductors [1], its effect on ionic heating [1], and the consequent observable changes in the inelastic conductance [4]. [1] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, accepted in Nano Letters (2006). [2] Y.-C. Chen, M. Zwolak, and M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. 3, 1961 (2003); Nano Lett. 4, 1709 (2004); Nano Lett. 5, 621 (2005). M. J. Montgomery, T. N. Todorov, and A. P. Sutton, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 5377 (2002). [3] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. in press. [4] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, in preparation.

  7. The liver: conductor of systemic iron balance

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Delphine; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for almost all organisms: bacteria, plants, and animals. It is a metal that exists in multiple redox states, including the divalent ferrous (Fe2+) and the trivalent ferric (Fe3+) species. The multiple oxidation states of iron make it excellent for electron transfer, allowing iron to be selected during evolution as a cofactor for many proteins involved in central cellular processes including oxygen transport, mitochondrial respiration, and DNA synthesis. However, the redox cycling of ferrous and ferric iron in the presence of H2O2, which is physiologically present in the cells, also leads to the production of free radicals (Fenton reaction) that can attack and damage lipids, proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. To meet the physiological needs of the body, but to prevent cellular damage by iron, the amount of iron in the body must be tightly regulated. Here we review how the liver is the central conductor of systemic iron balance and show that this central role is related to the secretion of a peptide hormone hepcidin by hepatocytes. We then review how the liver receives and integrates the many signals that report the body’s iron needs to orchestrate hepcidin production and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:24200681

  8. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Steven J.; Price, Harry E.; Smedley, Eric M.; Meals, Cory D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity. PMID:25104944

  9. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-11

    Mixed conductors-single phases that conduct electronically and ionically-enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the 'super-ionic' conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors. PMID:27510217

  10. Safety analysis of the GEM Detector Magnet conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferri, M.A.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1993-08-27

    The safety of the GEM Detector Magnet is analyzed using a computational model to determine current sharing between the cabled conductor and the external aluminum stabilizer. The model includes inductive and transverse conductive effects due to the geometries of the coil and the conductor. A conservative analysis indicates a peak conductor hotspot temperature of {approximately} 50 K at two seconds after the initiation of quench. After this time, additional heating is limited because most of the current in the normal zone region is carried by the aluminum stabilizer and an external protection circuit should have begun to diminish the total current. The analysis shows that conductor safety requires adequate transverse conductivity between the cable and the aluminum stabilizer. The calculated transverse conductance of the GEM conductor, 1 {times} 10{sup 7} mho/m, is at least 100 times greater than the minimum value necessary to limit the hotspot temperature to {approximately} 50 K after two seconds. This report describes the results of calculations based on a realistic assumption of GEM conductor performance during a quench.

  11. Computer simulations of isolated conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Herng-Hua

    2008-11-01

    A computer simulation model is introduced to study the characteristics of isolated conductors in electrostatic equilibrium. Drawing an analogy between electrons and how they move to the surface of isolated conductors, we randomly initialize a large number of particles inside a small region at the center of simulated conductors and advance them according to their forces of repulsion. By use of optimized numerical techniques of the finite-size particle method associated with Poisson's equation, the particles are quickly advanced using a fast Fourier transform and their charge is efficiently shared using the clouds-in-cells method. The particle populations in the simulations range from 50x10;{3} to 1x10;{6} that move in various computation domains equal to 128x128 , 256x256 , and 512x512 grids. When the particles come to an electrostatic equilibrium, they lie on the boundaries of the simulated conductors, from which the equilibrium properties are obtained. Consistent with the theory of electrostatics and charged conductors, we found that the particles move in response to the conductor geometry in such a way that the electrostatic energy is minimized. Good approximation results for the equilibrium properties were obtained using the proposed computer simulation model.

  12. Luminescent properties of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and its potential application in white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingxuan; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor can be effectively excited by an ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light, and produce a bright blue emission centered at 436 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinations (x, y) of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(NSCE)/Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(LSSE) vary with the molar ratio of the two constituents. When NSCE/LSSE is 1:3, the CIE chromaticity coordination is (0.332, 0.346), which is close to that of the natural sunlight (0.33, 0.33). The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a promising blue phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes. Highlights: ► Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} shows the blue emission with a peak at 436 nm and broad excitation band in the UV/n-UV range. ► White light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor with the Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} yellow phosphor. ► Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} would be a promising blue phosphor candidate for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction, and its luminescent properties are systematically studied. Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} can be effectively excited by the 354 nm radiation, and create blue emission (436 nm). The emission intensity of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is influenced by the Eu{sup 2+} doping content, and the optimal doping content is 1.5%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} in Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4} can be attributed to the multipolar interaction. The white light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} with the yellow phosphor Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a potential blue emitting phosphor for UV chip-based multi

  13. High-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of the quasi-one dimensional osmium oxide Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}.

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y. G.; Guo, Y. F.; Yu, S.; Arai, M.; Belik, A. A.; Sato, A.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Varga, T.; Mitchell, J. F.; Materials Science Division; National Inst. for Materials Science; JST, Transformative Research Project on Iron Pnictides; Hokkaido Univ.

    2010-02-01

    Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} crystals were grown by a NaCl flux method under high pressure. It crystallizes in the Ca{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}-type structure without having additional elements or metal vacancies, which are usually accommodated. It appears that Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} is a metal-stoichiometric Ca{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}-type compound never been synthesized to date. Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} has the octahedral environment of Os{sup 6+}O{sub 6} so that the electronic configuration is 5d{sup 2}, suggesting the magnetic S=1 ground state. However, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements indicated that the non-magnetic S=0 state is much likely for Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} than the S=1 state. Band structure calculations and the structure analysis found that the disagreement is probably due to the statically uniaxial compression of the OsO{sub 6} octahedra, resulting in splitting of the t{sub 2{sub g}} band.

  14. Thermoelectric conversion via laser-induced voltage in highly textured polycrystalline Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, G. W.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Yu, L.; Zhang, P. X.; Habermeier, H.-U.

    2011-11-15

    We have studied and analyzed the laser-induced voltage effect in highly c-axis-oriented polycrystalline Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. The textured and layered stacking Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.7) bulks were prepared by a solid-state reaction process. Under the irradiation on Na{sub 0.67}CoO{sub 2} bulk surface with pulsed laser ({lambda} = 248 nm), the induced voltage signals were observed on the inclined surface with rise time 30 ns-43 ns and peak voltage 200 mV-500 mV; the voltage peak values show a linear dependence of laser energy densities. The crystal grains orientation plays a critical role in voltage peak value whether in film or texture bulk. The transverse voltage signal brings the information of thermoelectric anisotropy. In Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} band structure, the Fermi surface is different in the ab plane and along the c axis, leading to anisotropy of Seebeck coefficient. Additionally, the artificial structure of the inclined surface for highly textured bulk enables us to obtain a transverse voltage on inclined surface. These results demonstrated the layered textured bulk has potential applications in waste-heat conversion via transverse thermoelectric effect.

  15. Rechargeable Na/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] and Na[sub 15]Pb[sub 4]/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yanping; Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; Jonghe, L.C. De . Materials Sciences Div.)

    1993-10-01

    Cells using polyethylene oxide as a sodium ion conducting electrolyte, P2 phase Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] as the positive electrode and either sodium or sodium/lead alloy as the negative electrode were assembled, discharged, and cycled. Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] intercalates sodium over a range of x = 0.3--0.9, giving theoretical energy densities of 1,600 Wh/liter (for sodium) or 1,470 Wh/liter (for sodium/lead alloy). Cells could be discharged at rates up to 2.5 mA/cm[sup 2] corresponding to 25% depth of discharge and typically were discharged and charged at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] (100% depth of discharge) or approximately 1--2 C rate. Over one hundred cycles to 60% utilization or more, and two hundred shallower cycles at this rate have been obtained in this laboratory. Experimental evidence suggests that the cathode is the limiting factor in determining cycle life and not the Na/PEO interface as previously thought. Estimates of practical energy and power densities based on the cell performance and the following configuration are presented: 30--45 w/o electroactive material in the positive electrode, a twofold excess of sodium, 10 [mu]m separators, and 5 [mu]m current collectors composed of metal coated plastic. On the basis of these calculations, practical power densities of 335 W/liter for continuous discharge at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] and up to 2.7 kW/liter for short periods of time should be attainable. This level of performance approaches or exceeds that seen for some lithium/polymer systems under consideration for electric vehicle applications, but with a lower anticipated cost.

  16. Theoretical prediction of the fundamental properties for the ternary Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ghebouli, M.A.; Choutri, H.; Bouarissa, N.; Ghebouli, B.; Bouhemadou, A.; Soyalp, F.; Ucgun, E.; Ocak, H.Y.

    2012-12-15

    Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} are good candidate for hydrogen storage. The structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} compounds have been investigated using pseudo-potential plane-wave method based on the density functional theory. Computed lattice constant and H atom positional parameter at equilibrium agree well with the available experimental data. A quadratic pressure dependence of the elastic stiffness is found. A set of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties, namely bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature are numerically estimated in the framework of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation for Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} polycrystalline aggregate. The analyses of the band structure indicates that Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} are indirect gap semiconductors. The static dielectric constant and static refractive index are inversely proportional to the fundamental gap. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predict elastic moduli, energy gaps and optical parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron effective mass is anisotropic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}PtH{sub 6} are indirect gap semiconductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contribution to the optical spectra from main transitions are predicted.

  17. Effect of ruthenium substitution in layered sodium cobaltate Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}: Synthesis, structural and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, Pierre; Muguerra, Herve; Hebert, Sylvie; Pachoud, Elise; Colin, Claire; Julien, Marc-Henri

    2009-07-15

    Solid-state synthesis of Na{sub 0.71}Co{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 2} compositions shows that ruthenium can be substituted for cobalt in the hexagonal Na{sub 0.71}CoO{sub 2} phase up to x=0.5. The cell expands continuously with increasing ruthenium content. All mixed Co-Ru phases show a Curie-Weiss behaviour with no evidence of magnetic ordering down to 2 K. Unlike the parent phase Na{sub 0.71}CoO{sub 2}, ruthenium-substituted phases are all semiconducting. They exhibit high thermoelectric power, with a maximum of 165 muV/K at 300 K for x=0.3. The Curie constant C and Seebeck coefficient S show a non-monotonic evolution as a function of ruthenium content, demonstrating a remarkable interplay between magnetic properties and thermoelectricity. The presence of ruthenium has a detrimental effect on water intercalation and superconductivity in this system. Applying to Ru-substituted phases the oxidative intercalation of water known to lead to superconductivity in the Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} system yields a 2-water layer hydrate only for x=0.1, and this phase is not superconducting down to 2 K. - Graphical Abstract: Effect of ruthenium substitution on thermoelectric power in Na{sub 0.71}Co{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 2} (left) and on low-temperature ac susceptibility in hydrated derivative (right).

  18. High-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of the quasi-one dimensional osmium oxide Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.G.; Guo, Y.F.; Yu, S.; Arai, M.; Belik, A.A.; Sato, A.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2010-02-15

    Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} crystals were grown by a NaCl flux method under high pressure. It crystallizes in the Ca{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}-type structure without having additional elements or metal vacancies, which are usually accommodated. It appears that Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} is a metal-stoichiometric Ca{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}-type compound never been synthesized to date. Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} has the octahedral environment of Os{sup 6+}O{sub 6} so that the electronic configuration is 5d{sup 2}, suggesting the magnetic S=1 ground state. However, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements indicated that the non-magnetic S=0 state is much likely for Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} than the S=1 state. Band structure calculations and the structure analysis found that the disagreement is probably due to the statically uniaxial compression of the OsO{sub 6} octahedra, resulting in splitting of the t{sub 2{sub g}} band. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4} crystals were grown by a NaCl flux method under high pressure. It crystallizes in the Ca{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}-type structure comprising infinite Os{sup 6+}O{sub 6} octahedra (5d{sup 2}) chains. The crystal growth, the crystal structure, and the magnetic and electrical properties are reported.

  19. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Na{sub 2}Ni{sup II}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Maalej, Wassim; Vilminot, Serge; Elaoud, Zakaria; Mhiri, Tahar; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2010-11-15

    Na{sub 2}Ni(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}, obtained as light yellow-green crystals under mild hydrothermal conditions, crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pnma space-group with lattice parameters: a=11.9886(3), b=5.3671(2), c=9.0764(3) A, V=584.01 A{sup 3}, Z=4. The structure consists of zig-zag chains of NiO{sub 6} octahedra bridged by two HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and the chains are further connected through HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to four nearest chains to form a three dimensional framework, delimiting intersecting tunnels in which the sodium ions are located. The Na cations reside in the irregular Na(1)O{sub 5}, Na-O of 2.276-2.745 A, and Na(2)O{sub 9}, Na-O of 2.342-2.376 A, environments. The presence of the phosphite monoanion has been further confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Due to the 3D framework of Ni connected by O-P-O bridges, the magnetic susceptibility behaves as a paramagnet above 100 K (C=1.49(2) emu K mol{sup -1}, {mu}{sub eff}=3.45 {mu}{sub B}, {Theta}=-39(2) K) and below 6 K, it orders antiferromagnetically as confirmed the sharp drop and the non-Brillouin behavior of the isothermal magnetization at 2 K. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Na{sub 2}Ni(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2} consists of zig-zag chains of NiO{sub 6} octahedra bridged by two HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and the chains are further connected through HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to four nearest chains to form a three dimensional framework, delimiting intersecting tunnels in which the sodium ions are located. It orders antiferromagnetically at 6 K. Display Omitted

  20. The fate of sounds in conductors' brains: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Nager, Wido; Kohlmetz, Christine; Altenmüller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2003-06-01

    Professional music conductors are required to home in on a particular musician but at the same time have to monitor the entire orchestra. It was hypothesized that this unique experience should be reflected by superior auditory spatial processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained, while conductors, professional pianists, and non-musicians listened to sequences of bandpass-filtered noise-bursts presented in random order from six speakers, three located in front and three to the right of the subjects. In different runs, subjects either attended the centermost or the most peripheral speaker in order to detect slightly deviant noise-bursts. For centrally located speakers, the ERPs showed a typical Nd attention effect for the relevant location with a steep decline for the neighboring speakers in all subject groups. For peripheral speakers, only the conductors showed attentional selectivity, while the Nd effect was of similar size for all three peripheral speakers in the other two groups. These ERP effects were paralleled by an enhanced behavioral selectivity in peripheral auditory space in conductors. Moreover, the pre-attentive monitoring of the entire auditory scene indexed by the mismatch negativity was superior in musicians compared to non-musicians. In conductors, the MMN was followed by a positivity suggesting an attention shift towards the deviant stimuli in this group only.

  1. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

  2. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO.sub.2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a .beta.-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca.degree. used for reducing UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to U and Pu.

  3. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Mixed conductors—single phases that conduct electronically and ionically—enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the ‘super-ionic’ conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors.

  4. Current distribution and inductance calculations for rail-gun conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1981-11-01

    A method has been developed to calculate the current-density distribution, magnetic field, and inductance of rail-gun or flux-compression generator rails, or other long, parallel conductors of arbitrary cross section, in the high-frequency limit. The results represent initial estimates of these quantities in rail-gun circuits before current or magnetic-field diffusion has significantly changed the current distribution. The numerical procedure determines the current-density distribution using an existing technique originally developed for calculation of charge distribution on equipotential surfaces. The inductance and magnetic field are calculated from the current distribution. Calculations were performed for four systems: two cylindrical conductors, two rectangular conductors, two rectangular conductors in a tube, and flux-compression generators used at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Inductances of two rectangular conductors and of flux-compression generators were fitted to empirical equations to simplify their further use. Calculated current distributions and inductances were compared with other theoretical calculations and with measured data. The comparisons indicate that results from this method accurately predict the current-density distribution and inductance of these systems in the high-frequency limit.

  5. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Results Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups. PMID:24204021

  6. Search for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions: Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five conductors of three structure types were discovered which, as solids, can transport Na(+) or K(+) ions with conductivities of approximately .00001/(omega cm) at 300 K. These compounds are: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F, both with an activation energy for conduction delta E of 21 kJ/mole; (2) the bodycentered cubic form of NaSbO3, with delta E = 42 kJ/mole; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O with 3Nb2O5 and 2K2O with 3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the incompletely determined structure; delta E = 17 kJ/mole. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, some generalizations were made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  7. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-07-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb{sub 3}Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements.

  8. Mobility propagation and dynamic facilitation in superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Annamareddy, Ajay Eapen, Jacob

    2015-11-21

    In an earlier work [V. A. Annamareddy et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 010301(R) (2014)], we showed the manifestation of dynamical heterogeneity (DH)—the presence of clustered mobile and immobile regions—in UO{sub 2}, a model type II superionic conductor. In the current work, we demonstrate the mechanism of dynamic facilitation (DF) in two superionic conductors (CaF{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}) using atomistic simulations. Using the mobility transfer function, DF is shown to vary non-monotonically with temperature with the intensity of DF peaking at temperatures close to the superionic transition temperature (T{sub λ}). Both the metrics quantifying DH and DF show remarkable correspondence implying that DF, in the framework of kinematically constrained models, underpins the heterogeneous dynamics in type II superionic conductors.

  9. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  10. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.

    PubMed

    Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-29

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  11. Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)

    1999-05-01

    For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.

  12. Conductor design for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Kashikhin, V.; McAshan, M.; Mazur, P.O.; Piekarz, H.; Volk, J.T.; Walker, R.

    1999-03-01

    The transmission line magnet [1] is under development for the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) at Fermilab with the expectation that it’s cost will be several times less (per Tesla-meter) than conventional superconducting magnets. It is a dual-aperture warm-iron superferric magnet built around an 80kA superconducting transmission line. The superconductor consists of 8 Rutherford (SSC Outer) cables in an Invar pipe jacket. The conductor design requirements and development program is described. A 100kA conductor test facility based on inductive coupling is described.

  13. Persistent currents in a magnetic bearing with coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, F.; Ramos de Castro, André; Gonçalves Sotelo, Guilherme; de Andrade, R.

    2015-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic bearings are normally built with bulk superconductors. Since coated conductors properties are far superior, we have proposed in a previous work the replacement of bulks for stacks of 2G wires in magnetic levitation devices. A major limitation of this replacement lies in the fact that the induced current is constrained in narrow loops along the available commercial widths of 2G wires. This work presents a technique to achieve wider loops of persistent current without the need of increasing the coated conductors width. As a result, the use of 2G wires in magnetic bearings took a step towards its economical feasibility.

  14. Scaling theory of phase-coherent metallic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macêdo, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a scaling theory for describing the smooth crossover from ballistic to diffusive transport in phase-coherent metallic conductors. The theory confirms a recent conjecture by Beenakker [Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 731 (1997)], and represents a substantial improvement in the two-terminal version of Nazarov's circuit theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 134 (1994); 73, 1420 (1994)]. In addition, our approach allows for the explicit inclusion of interfaces of arbitrary transparency, which are described using the supersymmetric nonlinear σ model. The problem of two identical barriers separated by a diffusive conductor is solved exactly, and expressions for both the normal and Andreev conductances are presented.

  15. A base-metal conductor system for silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, M. G.; Pryor, R. A.; Sparks, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Solder, copper, and silver are evaluated as conductor layer metals for silicon solar cell metallization on the basis of metal price stability and reliability under operating conditions. Due to its properties and cost, copper becomes an attractive candidate for the conductor layer. It is shown that nickel operates as an excellent diffusion barrier between copper and silicon while simultaneously serving as an electrical contact and mechanical contact to silicon. The nickel-copper system may be applied to the silicon by plating techniques utilizing a variety of plating bath compositions. Solar cells having excellent current-voltage characteristics are fabricated to demonstrate the nickel-copper metallization system.

  16. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M.

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  17. Divergent actions of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin, and deltamethrin on rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2010-09-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}{sub 1} and {beta}{sub 2} auxiliary subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, deltamethrin, and tefluthrin on expressed sodium currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. S-Bioallethrin, a type I structure, produced transient modification evident in the induction of rapidly decaying sodium tail currents, weak resting modification (5.7% modification at 100 {mu}M), and no further enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation by high-frequency trains of depolarizing pulses. By contrast deltamethrin, a type II structure, produced sodium tail currents that were {approx} 9-fold more persistent than those caused by S-bioallethrin, barely detectable resting modification (2.5% modification at 100 {mu}M), and 3.7-fold enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation. Tefluthrin, a type I structure with high mammalian toxicity, exhibited properties intermediate between S-bioallethrin and deltamethrin: intermediate tail current decay kinetics, much greater resting modification (14.1% at 100 {mu}M), and 2.8-fold enhancement of resting modification upon repetitive activation. Comparison of concentration-effect data showed that repetitive depolarization increased the potency of tefluthrin {approx} 15-fold and that tefluthrin was {approx} 10-fold more potent than deltamethrin as a use-dependent modifier of Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels. Concentration-effect data from parallel experiments with the rat Na{sub v}1.2 sodium channel coexpressed with the rat {beta}{sub 1} and {beta}{sub 2} subunits in oocytes showed that the Na{sub v}1.6 isoform was at least 15-fold more sensitive to tefluthrin and deltamethrin than the Na{sub v}1.2 isoform. These results implicate sodium channels containing the Na{sub v}1.6 isoform as potential targets for the central neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 242 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Conductor Certification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Conductor Certification Programs B Appendix B to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Conductor Certification Programs This appendix establishes procedures for the submission and approval of a... Conductor Certification Program The final section of the request must contain a summary of how the...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 242 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Conductor Certification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Conductor Certification Programs B Appendix B to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Conductor Certification Programs This appendix establishes procedures for the submission and approval of a... Conductor Certification Program The final section of the request must contain a summary of how the...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 242 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Conductor Certification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Conductor Certification Programs B Appendix B to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Conductor Certification Programs This appendix establishes procedures for the submission and approval of a... Conductor Certification Program The final section of the request must contain a summary of how the...

  1. Structure, stability, and photoluminescence in the anti-perovskites Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F (0≤x≤1)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Eirin; Avdeev, Maxim; Blom, Douglas A.; Gahrs, Casey J.; Green, Robert L.; Hamaker, Christopher G.; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    Single-phase ordered oxyfluorides Na{sub 3}WO{sub 4}F, Na{sub 3}MoO{sub 4}F and their mixed members Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F can be prepared via facile solid state reaction of Na{sub 2}MO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O (M=W, Mo) and NaF. Phases produced from incongruent melts are metastable, but lower temperatures allow for a facile one-step synthesis. In polycrystalline samples of Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F, the presence of Mo stabilizes the structure against decomposition to spinel phases. Photoluminescence studies show that upon excitation with λ=254 nm and λ=365 nm, Na{sub 3}WO{sub 4}F and Na{sub 3}MoO{sub 4}F exhibit broad emission maxima centered around 485 nm. These materials constitute new members of the family of self-activating ordered oxyfluoride phosphors with anti-perovskite structures which are amenable to doping with emitters such as Eu{sup 3+}. - Graphical abstract: Directed synthesis of the ordered oxyfluorides Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F (0≤x≤1) has shown that a complete solid solution is attainable and provides the first example of photoluminescence in these materials. - Highlights: • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F is a complete solid solution with hexagonal anti-perovskite structure. • The presence of even small amounts of Mo stabilizes the structure against decomposition. • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F has broad emissions centered ≈485 nm (λ{sub ex}=254 nm and λ{sub ex}=365 nm). • These materials constitute a new family of self-activated oxyfluoride phosphors. • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F materials are amenable to doping with emitters such as Eu{sup 3+}.

  2. Development of flat conductor cable for commercial and residential wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The overall spectrum of the space technology spin-off development project: development of Flat Conductor Cable (FCC) for commercial and residential wiring, is presented. A discussion of the background, program milestones, industry participants, system outgrowth, hardware availability, cost estimates, and overall status of the program is presented for the 1970-to-present time period.

  3. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120.372 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. Conductor and Ensemble Performance Expressivity and State Festival Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.; Chang, E. Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study is the second in a series examining the relationship between conducting and ensemble performance. The purpose was to further examine the associations among conductor, ensemble performance expressivity, and festival ratings. Participants were asked to rate the expressivity of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts from a…

  10. Undergraduate Conductors' and Conducting Teachers' Perceptions of Basic Conducting Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Baumgartner, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate conductors' and conducting teachers' perceptions about basic conducting efficacy. At the beginning and end of the semester, undergraduate students (N = 19) enrolled in a basic conducting course (a) were surveyed about the importance of certain skills necessary for being an effective conductor…

  11. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920...

  16. Improved Writing-Conductor Designs For Magnetic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Writing currents reduced to practical levels. Improved conceptual designs for writing conductors in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access integrated-circuit memory reduces electrical current needed to magnetize micromagnet in each memory cell. Basic concept of micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memory presented in "Magnetic Analog Random-Access Memory" (NPO-17999).

  17. Exploring a Metamorphosis: Identity Formation for an Emerging Conductor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchione, Cayenna

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the manner in which professional identity formation in emerging conductors is entangled with the cultural context of orchestras, I focus on the amorphous evolution from a student identity to that of a professional, illuminating some underlying social conditions of the ever-elusive profession of conducting. Prevailing assumptions about…

  18. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Subpart 111.30. (c) Fuses and circuitbreakers. If the allowable current-carrying capacity of the conductor does not correspond to a standard rating for fuses or circuitbreakers that meets Section 240.6 of NFPA NEC 2002 or IEC 92-202 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), then the next...

  19. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-31... grounding the neutral of an alternating-current system must meet Table 111.05-31(b). Table...

  20. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-31... grounding the neutral of an alternating-current system must meet Table 111.05-31(b). Table...

  1. Universality of Shot Noise in Mesoscopic Diffusive Conductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Eugene; Loss, Daniel

    1998-03-01

    Shot noise is the time-dependent fluctuations in the electrical current caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. In mesoscopic conductors the shot noise is suppressed below the noise of a Poisson process due to correlations in the electron transmission imposed by the Pauli principle. In diffusive conductors with purely elastic scattering the suppression factor is 1/3, and in the case of strong electron-electron scattering it is √3/4 (C.W.J. Beenakker and M. Büttiker, Phys. Rev. B46, 1889 (1992); K.E. Nagaev, Phys. Lett. A169, 103 (1992); Phys. Rev. B52, 4740 (1995)). Subsequently, it has been proven by Nazarov that the 1/3 suppression is universal and holds for an arbitrary two-terminal geometry of the conductor and distribution of impurities. Using a different approach, we confirm the universality of the 1/3 and prove the universality of the √3/4 suppressions. A possible generalization of our results to the case of multiterminal conductors is discussed.

  2. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  3. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... NEC 2002 or IEC 60092-202 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), then the next...

  4. Glass ceramic ionic conductor materials and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Badzioch, S.

    1985-03-26

    Solid, crystalline glass ceramic compositions which are useful as ionic conductor materials, especially for use as solid electrolytes in high temperature, high energy density storage batteries. The glass ceramics are derived from sodium or calcium borates containing one or more metal halide, preferably the chlorides and bromides of the metals from Group 2 to 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

  5. The Review on the Charge Distribution on the Conductor Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matehkolaee, M. Jafari; Asrami, A. Naderi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have a full review on the surface charge density at disordered conductor surfaces. Basically, reading text books does not resolve ambiguities in this field. As far as is possible, we have tried to the concepts easier to turn. In fact we will answer two questions. One of them is that why do charges tend to go where the curvature is…

  6. Diffusion of fast rising strong magnetic fields into conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labetskaya, N. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Kuskova, N. I.; Rud, A. D.

    2014-11-01

    The basic processes occurring in a conductor exploding in a current skinning mode are the propagation of a nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave in the conductor and the formation of low-temperature plasma at its surface. An experimental study of the phenomenon of nonlinear magnetic diffusion into conductors in magnetic fields of induction rising at a rate up to 3·109 T/s was carried out on the MIG generator capable of producing a peak current up to 2.5 MA within a rise time of 100 ns. It has been found experimentally that the average velocity of a nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave in an aluminum conductor placed in a strong magnetic field (up to 300 T) rising at a high rate (on average, 3·109 T/s) is (2.7÷3.3)·105 cm/s. This is comparable to the velocity of sound in aluminum under normal conditions and reasonably agrees with predictions of numerical simulations.

  7. Overview of Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Taneda, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    There are high expectations for coated conductors in electric power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables, and transformers owing to their ability to contribute to stabilizing and increasing the capacity of the electric power supply grid as well as to reducing CO2 emission as a result of their high critical-current characteristics. Research and development has been performed on wires/tapes and electric power devices worldwide. The Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) Project is a five-year national project in Japan started in 2008, supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), to develop both coated conductors that meet market requirements and basic technologies for the above-mentioned power applications using coated conductors. In this article, research and development results are reviewed and compared with the interim/final targets of the project, and future prospects are discussed.

  8. Magnetic and ferroelectric orders in strained Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}: First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P. X.; Dong, S.; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-05-07

    The emergent magnetic and ferroelectric orders in A-site ordered Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} under lattice strain are investigated using the first-principles calculations. It is revealed that the lattice prefers the perovskite structure with alternatively stacked Ga-O and Na-O layers along the b-axis and the ground spin state favors the G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) order. The ac-plane biaxial strain can remarkably tune the amplitude of ferroelectric polarization, while the G-AFM spin structure is robustly unaffected. The ±4% strains can trigger the change of polarization up to ±50% relative to the polarization value of unstrained structure. The present work suggests a possible scenario to control emergent multiferroic behaviors in Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} via lattice strain.

  9. Ferroelectric domain structures in <001>-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} lead-free single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Wong, Chi-Man; Yau, Hei-Man; Dai, Jiyan; Deng, Hao; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Danyang; Yan, Zhibo; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, ferroelectric domain structures of <001 >-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} single crystal are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed high-density of laminate domain structures in the crystal and the lattices of the neighboring domains are found to be twisted in a small angle. Superlattice diffraction spots of 1/2 (eeo) and 1/2 (ooe) in electron diffraction patterns are observed in the crystal, revealing the a{sup +}a{sup +}c{sup −} tilting of oxygen octahedral in the perovskite structure. The piezoresponse of domains and in-situ poling responses of K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} crystal are observed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and the results assure its good ferroelectric properties.

  10. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Rayaprol, S.; Siruguri, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket

    2015-06-24

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO{sub 6} phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}.

  11. Synthesis, characterizations, and field emission studies of crystalline Na{sub 2}V{sub 6}O{sub 16} nanobelt paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, S. H.; Lin, J. Y.; Zhu, Y. W.; Sow, C. H.; Ji, W.

    2006-07-01

    Crystalline Na{sub 2}V{sub 6}O{sub 16}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O nanobelts have been synthesized by refluxing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NaF and self-weaved into a sheet of paper via a vacuum filtration process. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the nanobelt papers. The dehydrated Na{sub 2}V{sub 6}O{sub 16} nanobelts are excellent field emission candidates, with a low turn-on field of 6.8 V/{mu}m, a large current density up to 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2} at an electric field of 10 V/{mu}m, and a very uniform distribution of emission sites.

  12. ARPES on Na>0.6CoO2: Fermi Surface and Unusual Band Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. B.; Wang, S. -C.; Sekharan, A. K. P.; Matsui, H.; Souma, S.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Campuzano, J. C.; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Wang, Z.; Ding, H.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structure of single crystals Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}, which are closely related to the superconducting Na{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2} {center_dot} yH{sub 2}O (T{sub c}-5 K), is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. While the measured Fermi surface (FS) is consistent with the large FS enclosing the {Gamma} point from the band theory, the predicted small FS pockets near the K points are absent. In addition, the band dispersion is found to be highly renormalized, and anisotropic along the two principal axes ({Gamma}-K, {Gamma}-M). Our measurements also indicate that an extended flatband is formed slightly above EF along {Gamma}-K.

  13. Test results and analyses of conductor short samples for China first PF conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yu; Long, Feng; Li, Shaolei

    2011-02-01

    The first China PF conductor sample (CNPF1) which was made of one single cable section with hairpin configuration and without bottom joint was fabricated with Chinese NbTi strands and assembled at ENEA and CEA according to the requirements of the SULTAN test facility. The sample was equipped with temperature sensors and voltage taps at CEA according to the test program. The test program included DC performance, cyclic loading, AC loss, and MQE test. The sample exhibited a good performance which fit well with the requirement in the procurement arrangement (PA). But most of the current sharing temperature ( T cs) tests showed a suddenly voltage take-off or fast voltage transition with take-off electric field below the threshold of 10 μV/m. The temperature could be considered as quench temperature ( T q) but not exactly T cs. At 35 kA and background field of 3.5 T, the temperature T q was 6.94 K. Even after 2000 cycles at the condition of 6.5 T and 19 kA, the T q remained unchanged.

  14. Growth mechanism and magnetic and electrochemical properties of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods as cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, S.; Oz, E.; Altin, E.; Altin, S.; Bayri, A.; Kaya, P.; Turan, S.; Avci, S.

    2015-07-15

    Nanorods of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} are a promising cathode material for Na-ion batteries due to their large surface area and single crystalline structure. We report the growth mechanism of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via solid state synthesis and their physical properties. The structure and the morphology of the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and tunneling electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The growth mechanism of the rods is investigated and the effects of vapor pressure and partial melting of Na-rich regions are discussed. The magnetic measurements show an antiferromagnetic phase transition at 25 K and the μ{sub eff} is determined as 3.41 and 3.24 μ{sub B} from the χ–T curve and theoretical calculation, respectively. The electronic configuration and spin state of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} are discussed in detail. The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated and the peaks in the voltammogram are attributed to the diffusion of Na ions from different sites. Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models. - Highlights: • We synthesized Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via a simple solid state reaction technique. • Our studies show that excess Na plays a crucial role in the nanorod formation. • Magnetization measurements show that Mn{sup 3+} ions are in LS and HS states. • The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated. • Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models.

  15. Molecular dynamics investigation of Na{sup +} in Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Sau, Kartik Kumar, P. Padma

    2014-04-24

    An inter-atomic potential for Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} in the Parrinello- Rahman-Vashishta (PRV) model is parameterized empirically. The potential reproduces variety of structural and transport properties of that material in good agreement with recent experimental results. The study provides fresh insights on the migration channels and mechanism of Na{sup +} in the system.

  16. Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} and Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63}: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold symmetries in the Na–Au–Ga system

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D. Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-11-15

    The Na-rich part (∼30% Na) of the Na–Au–Ga system between NaAu{sub 2}, NaGa{sub 4}, and Na{sub 22}Ga{sub 39} has been found to contain the ternary phases Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} (I) and Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63} (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) Å, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, R3{sup ¯}m, a=16.325(2), c=35.242(7) Å, and contains building blocks that are structurally identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin–tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au–Ga and Au–Au bonds in I and by Ga–Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na–Au and Na–Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, ∼20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Na{sub 13}Au{sub 12}Ga{sub 15} quasicrystal approximant. - Graphical abstract: Multiply-endohedral Bergman-related clusters in the structure of Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.9(1)}Ga{sub 46.6.} Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two new compounds with the local 5-fold symmetry have been investigated. • Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} is an orthorhombic approximant of the Na{sub 13}Au{sub 12}Ga{sub 15} quasicrystal. • Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63} represents a rhombohedral distortion of the Bergman-type phases.

  17. Phase relation of Na{sub 1-x}K{sub x}MgF{sub 3} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) perovskite-type solid-solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Okudera, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Makio; Ota, Ken'ich

    2003-02-20

    Na{sub 1-x}K{sub x}MgF{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}1) solid-solutions were synthesized and the phase diagram of NaMgF{sub 3}-KMgF{sub 3} system was determined by high temperature X-ray powder diffraction experiments and differential thermal analysis (DTA). This system is characterized by a complete series of solid solutions, with a minimum in the solidus at 30 mol% KMgF{sub 3} and 1279 K. No immiscibility gap was found. The crystal system changes from orthorhombic to cubic at x=0.22 at room temperature. The volume change of the unit cell as a function of composition shows a large deviation (excess volume) from Vegard's law for solid solution. The transition temperatures of NaMgF{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.9}K{sub 0.1}MgF{sub 3} from orthorhombic to cubic are 1043 and 723 K, respectively. The transition temperature decreases rapidly by the effect of replacing Na by K. Axial ratios of b/a and c/{radical}2a in orthorhombic NaMgF{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.9}K{sub 0.1}MgF{sub 3} decrease linearly with temperature toward the transition and then discontinuously changes to cubic at the transition point.

  18. Crystallization and microstructure of glasses in the system Na{sub 2}O/MnO/SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Harizanova, Ruzha; Voelksch, Guenter; Ruessel, Christian

    2011-01-15

    Glasses with the compositions (100 - x)(0.16Na{sub 2}O/0.10MnO/0.74SiO{sub 2})/xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (x = 5-30) and 16Na{sub 2}O/10MnO/(74 - y)SiO{sub 2}/yFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (y = 5-30) were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the chemical composition and the thermal history on the phase formation and the resulting microstructure was investigated. During cooling, the precipitation of ferrimagnetic solid solutions Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} was observed. These crystals show dendritic or platelet shape, whereby the platelets are ferromagnetic and the dendrites - mainly paramagnetic. The tendency towards crystallization can be suppressed by increasing the Na{sub 2}O-concentration. In contrast to glasses without manganese oxide, the precipitation of hematite is not observed. Therefore, the addition of reducing agents is not required, in order to crystallize large volume concentrations of the ferrimagnetic phase.

  19. Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl

    1984-02-14

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

  20. Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

  1. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  2. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Suenaga, Masaki

    1984-01-17

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu.sub.5 Sn.sub.6 with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  3. Study on Quench Protection of Coil Wound of Copper or Silver Stabilized YBCO Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Fu, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Furuse, M.

    2004-06-01

    We investigated necessary amount of copper or silver stabilizer added to YBCO conductor by numerical calculation to protect the conductor in a coil of dry windings from damages caused by quenches. The coil is assumed to be operated at 20K, 40K and 77K and hot-spot temperature of the conductor during energy dump sequence is calculated. The necessary amount of the stabilizer and overall conductor current density of the conductor including the stabilizer were calculated to suppress the hot spot temperature below a certain threshold depending on the operation temperature.

  4. Influence of structural distortions upon photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-06-15

    The comparative study of the structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, with Ln=Y, Gd, showed the important role of the host lattice structure upon PL. Higher emission intensities of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are observed for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} than for Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, through direct Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 395 nm for Eu{sup 3+} doped borates, and through Gd{sup 3+} excitation around 280 nm for Tb{sup 3+} doped borates. This higher performance for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is due to the less regular environment of Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+}) in the Gd sites than in the Y sites and to energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}(Tb{sup 3+}). The smaller critical concentration in Na{sub 3}Ln{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} observed for Ln=Gd, x=0.5, compared to x=0.6 for Ln=Y, is explained by shorter Ln-Ln distances (4.11 A for Gd-Gd vs. 4.59 A for Y-Y). Both Na{sub 3}Y{sub 0.4}Tb{sub 0.6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show intense green emission under UV excitation. - Graphical abstract: The PL properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are studied in Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates. Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}exhibits higher emission intensity in Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compared to Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to the less regular environment of the Gd{sup 3+} ion. Energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} by X-ray powder diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to an irregular environment of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of Na{sub 3}NbO(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hizaoui, K.; Jouini, T.; Jouini, N.

    1999-04-01

    The compound Na{sub 3}NbO(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2} was prepared by a solid-state reaction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/n, with a = 9.637(3) {angstrom}, b = 8.509(2) {angstrom}, c = 10.593(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.67(2){degree}, M = 455.72, V = 822.9(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4, {rho} = 3.687 g cm{sup {minus}3}. The crystal structure was refined (137 variables) from 1440 independent reflections collected on a Nonius CAD4 automatic diffractometer with MoK{alpha} radiation. The final R index and weighted wR index are 0.022 and 0.045, respectively. The three-dimensional network is built up from NbO{sub 6} octahedra and AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra-sharing corners; each NbO{sub 6} octahedron is bonded to five AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra. This arrangement delimits three different tunnels running along [100], [010], and [001], respectively, at the intersection of which the sodium ions are located in a six-coordination model. This structure is compared with those of the A{sub 3}MX{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A = Na, K; M = Nb, Sb; X = P, As).

  6. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-01

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  7. The performance test and analysis of the third and fourth China PF conductor for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yu; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Qin, Jinggang; Long, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The third Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF5 (PFCN3) and the fourth Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF2/3/4 (PFCN4) conductor in Phase II were manufactured in ASIPP and tested in the SULTAN facility. This paper introduces the PFCN3 and PFCN4 sample manufacture, including strand, sample preparation, current sharing temperature (Tcs), AC loss and Minimum Quench Energy (MQE) test performance of PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductors. The Tcs test result of PFCN4 conductor is consistent with the calculated result used the strand scaling and the Tcs test result of PFCN3 conductor is a little larger than calculated result, whose maximum difference is about 0.2 K. According to the SULTAN test result, the Tcs performance of both PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductor sample could meet the ITER requirement.

  8. A Testing Platform for Validation of Overhead Conductor Aging Models and Understanding Thermal Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Starke, Michael R; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Young II, Marcus Aaron; Rizy, D Tom; Stovall, John P; Overholt, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Power system equipment manufacturers and researchers continue to experiment with novel overhead electric conductor designs that support better conductor performance and address congestion issues. To address the technology gap in testing these novel designs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory constructed the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) facility to evaluate the performance of novel overhead conductors in an accelerated fashion in a field environment. Additionally, PCAT has the capability to test advanced sensors and measurement methods for accessing overhead conductor performance and condition. Equipped with extensive measurement and monitoring devices, PCAT provides a platform to improve/validate conductor computer models and assess the performance of novel conductors. The PCAT facility and its testing capabilities are described in this paper.

  9. Highlights in R&D for coated conductors in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Kitoh, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo

    2006-10-01

    The current 5-year national project since 2003 for development of coated conductors (CC) using Y-system superconductors has passed for almost a half term and has achieved satisfactory results. In this paper, the current status and the future prospect are reviewed. The group of Fujikura Ltd. and SRL-ISTEC has worked on the long tape with high performance in the PLD-YBCO superconducting tapes on the IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 buffered substrates. The highest value on the product of Ic × L in the world was marked by the result which were 51,940 A m (212 m × 245 A) by the SRL group. Fujikura Ltd. also realized the longest tape of 200 m with a reasonable high Ic value of 100 A. The values have been steadily improved and the trend is going to be continued, since the large equipments for both IBAD and PLD have been installed, and ready to work on large tapes with a high production rate. In another group, the long tape processing has been developed focusing on lowering the production cost. The extremely high Ic value of 470 A was obtained in the film by the TFA-MOD method on CeO2 (PLD)/GZO(IBAD)/hastelloy substrate. In the efforts for the long tape in the process, a 25 m long tape with its Ic value of 100 A was realized by a continuous reel-to-reel system. Additionally, 100 m class long tapes were also obtained by the MOCVD and PLD-HoBCO processes. Both groups are aiming to achieve the final goals of 500 m long tapes with the high Ic value of 300 A/cm-w by the production rate of 5 m/h. Furthermore, the feasibility study for applications using coated conductors has been already started due to the above-mentioned success of long tape production. Several kinds of coils using long coated conductors such as a solenoid and a pancake coils and the spiral shaped conductors for cable applications were firstly made. Reasonable high performances were confirmed in the trials. For the future plans of coated conductor applications, the following power devices using coated conductors have been

  10. Structure and electrochemistry of NaFePO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F cathode materials prepared via mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Kosova, N.V.; Podugolnikov, V.R.; Devyatkina, E.T.; Slobodyuk, A.B.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F is prepared by mechanochemically assisted solid state synthesis. • The crystal and local structure are studied by XRPD, FTIR, Mössbauer, and NMR. • Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} ion exchange is completed with the formation of NaLiFePO{sub 4}F. • The average D{sub Li} (10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}) is determined from GITT measurements. - Abstract: Nanostructured NaFePO{sub 4} (space group Pmnb) and Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F (space group Pbcn) were prepared by a quick and facile mechanochemically assisted solid state synthesis. Low-crystalline Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F was formed as a result of direct mechanochemical reaction of NaFePO{sub 4} with NaF. It crystallizes upon subsequent heating to 600 °C and decomposes at higher temperatures. Crystal and local structure were analyzed by XRD using Rietveld refinement, FTIR, Mössbauer, and NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties were studied by galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells and GITT. Although NaFePO{sub 4} showed some electrochemical activity, neither electrochemical nor chemical Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} exchange was observed by XRD. On contrary, electrochemical and chemical Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} ion exchange occurred in the case of Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F and accomplished with the NaLiFePO{sub 4}F formation. Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient in NaLiFePO{sub 4}F at different delithiated/lithiated states was determined from GITT. Carbon-coated Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F shows discharge capacity of 116 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate within the 2.0–4.2 V voltage range and a good cyclability.

  11. Vacuum-surface flashover switch with cantilever conductors

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2001-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  12. Bi-2212/Ag tape conductor and coil development

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, G.W.; Leung, E.M.; Zhou, R.; Salazar, K.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent progress by Los Alamos National Laboratory/Superconductivity Technology Center (LANL/STC) and Lockheed Martin Corporation/Advanced Development Operations (LMQADO) Energy and Power Systems group to jointly develop and test high temperature superconductor coils for practical applications such as motors, generators, magnetic bearings, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), MAGLEV trains, or electrical inductors. Critical currents of 105 A/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in a Bi-2212/Ag tape conductor using a patented Ag addition process to improve core morphology and uniformity. Results of testing to measure key conductor parameters are presented along with design and analysis details of a general-purpose multi-layer HTS coil.

  13. Sprayable Elastic Conductors Based on Block Copolymer Silver Nanoparticle Composites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% strain. Stretchable elastic conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a strain sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates. PMID:25491507

  14. Microstructure development and interface studies in thick film conductor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, V. K.

    1980-03-01

    A thick film conductor system which used acid treated (.01N HCl) lead borosilicate glass particles with chemically coated metal (silver) film was developed. Using only 40 wt percent metal (silver), sheet resistivities as low as 45 milliohms/sq were obtained. Microstructure was studied. Effect on the acid treatment of the glass particles prior to the metal coating was analyzed. X-ray photoelectron spectra studies showed preferential leaching of lead and boron from the surface of the glass. Good bonding between silver film and the glass was attributed to the oxidation of silver in the presence of oxygen and H+ ions on the glass surface (from acid treatment) and subsequent diffusion of Ag+ into the glass to form a continuous chemical interface. A model to predict sheet resistivities of the new thick film conductors was developed.

  15. Electrical magnetochiral anisotropy in a bulk chiral molecular conductor.

    PubMed

    Pop, Flavia; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Canadell, Enric; Rikken, Geert L J A; Avarvari, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    So far, no effect of chirality on the electrical properties of bulk chiral conductors has been observed. Introduction of chiral information in tetrathiafulvalene precursors represents a powerful strategy towards the preparation of crystalline materials in which the combination of chirality and conducting properties might allow the observation of the electrical magnetochiral anisotropy effect. Here we report the synthesis by electrocrystallization of both enantiomers of a bulk chiral organic conductor based on an enantiopure tetrathiafulvalene derivative. The enantiomeric salts crystallize in enantiomorphic hexagonal space groups. Single crystal resistivity measurements show metallic behaviour for the enantiopure salts down to 40 K, in agreement with band structure calculations. We describe here the first experimental evidence of electrical magnetochiral anisotropy in these crystals, confirming the chiral character of charge transport in our molecular materials. PMID:24796572

  16. Non-stripe charge order in dimerized organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates charge order is important in dimerized β - and κ -phase organic conductors similar to the uniform θ - and α -phase conductors. Here the magnitude of the dimerization represents the deviation from the ideal triangular lattice in analogy with the anisotropy in the θ phase. Since the ratio of the intradimer transfer integral to the interdimer transfer integral is as large as ˜2.6 , these dimerized phases lead to a dimer Mott insulator, whereas the Coulomb repulsion is closer to the triangular lattice because the ratio of the intradimer Coulomb repulsion to the interdimer Coulomb repulsion is comparatively small (˜1.7 ). Accordingly, in the static-limit calculation, non-stripe charge order with threefold periodicity appears between the uniform and the stripe phases, and the analogy with the θ phase suggests the first-order nature of the metal-insulator transition.

  17. Physical and Electronic Isolation of Carbon Nanotube Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeeffe, James; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-walled nanotubes are proposed as a method to electrically and physically isolate nanoscale conductors from their surroundings. We use tight binding (TB) and density functional theory (DFT) to simulate the effects of an external electric field on multi-wall nanotubes. Two categories of multi-wall nanotube are investigated, those with metallic and semiconducting outer shells. In the metallic case, simulations show that the outer wall effectively screens the inner core from an applied electric field. This offers the ability to reduce crosstalk between nanotube conductors. A semiconducting outer shell is found not to perturb an electric field incident on the inner core, thereby providing physical isolation while allowing the tube to remain electrically coupled to its surroundings.

  18. Magnetic flux-trapping experiment with a moving conductor.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, J

    1969-11-14

    An aluminum conductor moving into and out of a magnetic field of 75 gauss traps within itself for varying lengths of time a detectable fraction of the encountered flux, which subsequently decays. A time constant of about 0.005 second, which is the order of magnitude predicted by classical electrodynamics, is measured. The result is of interest in connection with the "frozen-in field" concept of Babcock's sunspot model.

  19. Effects of particle size distribution in thick film conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of particle size distribution in thick film conductors are discussed. The distribution of particle sizes does have an effect on fired film density but the effect is not always positive. A proper distribution of sizes is necessary, and while the theoretical models can serve as guides to selecting this proper distribution, improved densities can be achieved by empirical variations from the predictions of the models.

  20. Study, selection, and preparation of solid cationic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, W. L.; Mitoff, S. P.; King, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Crystal chemical principles and transport theory were used to predict structures and specific compounds which might find application as solid electrolytes in rechargeable high energy and high power density batteries operating at temperatures less than 200 C. More than twenty compounds were synthesized or obtained and screened by nuclear magnetic resonance and conductivity. Many were densified by sintering or hot pressing. Encouraging results were obtained for nine of these materials but none have yet been good ionic conductors at low temperature.

  1. Electrostatic forces on two almost touching nonspherical charged conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Aditya S.

    2013-10-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the electrostatic forces on two almost touching nonspherical conductors held at unequal voltages or carrying dissimilar charges in an insulating medium. Each conductor is a body of revolution whose surface is defined by the equation rn+zn=an, where r and z are radial and axial cylindrical co-ordinates, respectively, 2a is the equatorial width, and n is a parameter that controls the particle shape. The two objects are of identical shape and placed in a coaxial configuration, in which case the electrostatic forces are solely along their line of centers. The calculation of the forces is performed via a local analysis of the electrostatics in the thin gap region separating the particles. At a fixed potential difference, the magnitude of the attractive force F on the particles scales with the minimum gap height h0 as F ˜h02(1/n-1) for n > 1 and F ˜ln h0 for n = 1, to leading order as h0/a→0. The force increases as the gap region becomes flatter (increasing n), due to the intense electric field in the gap acting over a larger surface area. The opposite is found for particles carrying fixed charges: here, F ˜h0-2/n for n > 2 and F ˜h0-1[ln(a/h0)]-2 for n = 2. In this case, the potential difference between the conductors diminishes as the gap region becomes flatter, which overpowers the increase in gap area. Our results demonstrate that like-charge attraction occurs for a broad class of nonspherical conductors at close separations. The predicted sensitivity of the electrostatic force to particle shape is relevant to probe-based microscopy: specifically, to quantify the influence of tip-geometry on the force experienced by a charged probe near a conducting surface.

  2. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26280225

  3. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions. PMID:25644712

  4. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J.; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li+ conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm-1) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  5. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    SciTech Connect

    ROSENTHAL,STEPHEN E.; DESJARLAIS,MICHAEL P.; SPIELMAN,RICK B.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.; ASAY,JAMES R.; DOUGLAS,M.R.; HALL,C.A.; FRESE,M.H.; MORSE,R.L.; REISMAN,D.B.

    2000-08-29

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model.

  6. Study on Quench Protection of HTS Coil Wound of YBCO Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Youkun; Tsukamoto, Osami; Furuse, Mitsuho

    Recent progress of long YBCO coated conductors is remarkable and coils wound of YBCO conductors will be developed in near future. YBCO coated conductors that are made by deposition of thin YBCO film on high resistance metal substrates such as Hastelloy and nickel tapes are highly resistive when they are quenched. Therefore, measures for stabilization and quench protection are more important for YBCO conductors than for Bi/Ag sheathed tapes which have low resistive silver matrix. Though HTS conductors working at liquid nitrogen temperature are hard to be quenched, the conductors still have possibilities of quenches due to local defects for example. We studied necessary amount of copper stabilizer to protect the YBCO conductors in coils from damages caused by hot spots due to quenches. In the work we numerically calculated maximum hot spot temperature of a YBCO conductor quenched by a local disturbance during the sequence of quench detection and energy dump. In the analysis, necessary amounts of copper to keep the maximum hot spot temperature below a threshold are calculated. Based on the analysis, optimum conductor design is discussed to obtain safe and high current density conductors.

  7. The Conductor-Dielectric Junctions in a Low Density Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale; deGroot, Wim; Thomson, Clint; Dennison, J. R.; Davies, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A conductor-dielectric junction exposed to the space environment is a frequent spacecraft design feature. Due to spacecraft charging and/or solar array operation, the conductor can acquire a high potential with respect to the surrounding plasma. If this potential is positive the insulators adjacent to exposed conductors can collect current as if they were conductors themselves. This phenomenon, called snapover, results in a substantial increase in current collection, and may even result in a glow discharge if the potential is high enough. If a conductor has a negative potential, arcing can occur at the site of a junction. Both of these phenomena negatively affect spacecraft operation. To prevent negative consequences, the physical mechanisms of snapover and arc inception require investigation. In this paper, results are presented of an experimental and theoretical study of snapover, glow discharge, and arc phenomena for different materials immersed in argon or xenon plasmas. The effect of snapover is investigated for several metal-dielectric junctions: copper-teflon, copper-Kapton, copper-glass, aluminum-teflon, aluminum-Kapton, steel-teflon, anodized aluminum with pinholes, and copper-ceramics. I-V curves are measured and snapover inception voltages, essential parameters (increase in current and collection area due to secondary electrons), and glow discharge inception thresholds are determined. Optical spectra are obtained for glow discharges in both argon and xenon plasmas. These spectra provide information regarding atomic species entrapped in the glow region. Some spectral lines can be used to estimate plasma parameters in the discharge area. A video-camera and linear array were used to confirm that snapover inception is accompanied by very low intensity visible light emission. This result seems to be important for the estimate of the light pollution around spacecraft. Optical spectra (wavelengths 380-650 nm) of arcs are also obtained on a negatively biased

  8. Microstructural and strength improvements through the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in a cementless Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated Class F fly ash system

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Dongho; Jun, Yubin; Jeong, Yeonung; Oh, Jae Eun

    2015-01-15

    This study explores the beneficial effects of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an additive for microstructural and strength improvements in a Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated fly ash system. NaOH-activated fly ash samples were also tested to compare the effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Compressive strength testing, XRD, SEM/BSE/EDS, {sup 29}Si/{sup 27}Al MAS-NMR, MIP and TGA were performed. The testing results indicate that the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for Ca(OH){sub 2}-activation led to a noticeable improvement in strength and microstructure, primarily due to (1) more dissolution of raw fly ash at an early age, (2) more formation of C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)], (3) porosity reduction, and (4) pore-size refinement. We also found that (1) an early high alkalinity from the NaOH formation was not a major cause of strength, (2) geopolymer was not formed despite the early NaOH formation, and (3) no visible pore-filling action of CaCO{sub 3} was observed. However, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not produce any improvement in strength for NaOH-activated fly ash. -- Highlights: •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly improved strength and microstructure. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} induced more dissolution of raw fly ash at early ages. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted more C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)] formation. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reduced total porosity and refined pore-size distribution. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} produced neither geopolymer formations nor pore-filling actions from CaCO{sub 3}.

  9. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  10. Solution phase synthesis of Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts into nanorings and the electrochemical performance in Li battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, Ganganagappa; Chandrappa, Gujjarahalli Thimmanna

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal method has been adopted first time to prepare Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorings/nanobelts without using any organic surfactant/solvents at 130–160 °C for 1–2 days. TEM analyses reveal that the products consist of nanorings of width about 500 nm and thickness of about 100 nm with inner diameter of 5–7 m. Nanobelts of width 70–100 nm and several tens of micrometers in length are observed. The electrochemical results show that Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 320 mAh g{sup −1} and its capacity still retained 175 mAh g{sup −1} even after 69 cycles. Highlights: ► We are the first to report Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorings/nanobelts by solution method. ► Synthesis via hydrothermal method at 130–160 °C/1–2d in acidic medium. ► We have carried out without using any surfactant/templates/organic solvents. ► Shows discharge capacity of 320 mAh g{sup −1} and reach 175 mAh g{sup −1} after 69 cycles. ► A probable reaction mechanism for Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorings formation is also proposed. -- Abstract: In this paper, we are the first to report a simple one step hydrothermal method to synthesize Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorings/nanobelts without using any organic surfactant/solvents at 130–160 °C for 1–2 days. The obtained products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical discharge–charge test for lithium battery. XRD pattern exhibit a monoclinic Na{sub 0.28}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure. FTIR spectrum shows band at 958 cm{sup −1} is assigned to V=O stretching vibration, which is sensitive to intercalation and suggests that Na{sup +} ions are inserted between the vanadium oxide layers. TEM analyses reveal that the

  11. Sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit)-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of uniform spindle-like SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yu; Li, Qiuyu; Yu, Min

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile hydrothermal method for the synthesis of uniform spindle-like SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors with the assistance of sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit). - Highlights: • Well-crystallized spindle-like SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors have been synthesized. • The influence of the reaction temperature and reaction time were clearly shown. • The dosage of Na{sub 3}Cit has a strong effect on the spindle-like SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors. • The growth mechanism for the formation of final samples was proposed. - Abstract: Highly uniform spindle-like SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) as the chelating reagent. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) were used to characterize the resulting samples. The dosage of sodium citrate, reaction temperature and reaction time play key roles in the formation of the final samples. The possible formation mechanism for SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors has been proposed. Upon excitation by ultraviolet radiation, the as-synthesized SrMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors show the characteristic {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) emission lines with red emission {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2} (613 nm) as the most prominent group.

  12. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Na{sub 8}Eu{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2} and Na{sub 8}Eu{sub 2}(Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}: Europium(II) quaternary chalcogenides that contain an ethane-like (Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sup 6−} or (Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sup 6−} moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Amitava; Ghosh, Kartik; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J.; Dorhout, Peter K.

    2015-03-15

    Two isostructural europium(II) quaternary chalcogenides, Na{sub 8}Eu{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}, 1, and Na{sub 8}Eu{sub 2}(Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}, 2, containing an ethane-like (Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sup 6−} or (Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sup 6−} moiety have been synthesized by employing the polychalcogenide molten flux method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that both compounds crystallize in the C2/m space group, and their structures contain layers of ([Na{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}]{sup 6−}){sub ∞} or ([Na{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}(Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}]{sup 6−}){sub ∞} anions held together by six interlayer sodium cations to yield (Na{sub 6}[Na{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}]){sub ∞} and (Na{sub 6}[Na{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}(Ge{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2}]){sub ∞}. Compound 2 is a semiconductor with an optical band gap of 2.15(2) eV. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicates that compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic with μ{sub eff}=7.794(1) μ{sub B} per Eu and g=1.964(1) for 1 and μ{sub eff}=8.016(1) μ{sub B} per Eu and g=2.020(1) for 2, moments that are in good agreement with the europium(II) spin-only moment of 7.94 μ{sub B}. The europium-151 Mössbauer isomer shift of 2 confirms the presence of europium(II) cations with an electronic configuration between [Xe]4f{sup 6.81} and 4f{sup 7}6s{sup 0.32}. - Graphical abstract: TOC figure caption: structure of Na{sub 8}Eu{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}S{sub 6}){sub 2} viewed along the a-axis showing the filling of A–B and B–A types of anion layers with two different types of cations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of quaternary europium chalcogenides containing ethane-like dimer. • Structural characterization employing single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements confirm presence of Eu(II)

  13. Manufacture of the hollow supercritical He cooled conductor for the ECN/Sultan project

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, W.; de Vries, A.; de Winter, T.; ter Beeke, H.; Brieko, M.; Strauss, B.; Torrey, S.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing process for the conductor used in the ECN contribution to the Sultan project. This conductor which is cooled by forced flow supercritical helium is composed of a 16 strand Rutherford Cable continuously soldered to a rectangular copper tube. The requirements of the magnet design criteria on the choice of materials and manufacturing methods is discussed. In particular the final manufacturing method of joining the conductors by a ''continuous casting'' process is described in detail.

  14. Scattering by a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Khalid Khan, Muhammad; Rehman, Atta Ur

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we develop an analytic theory for a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium. The duality transformation introduced by Lindell and Sihvola is applied to study the electromagnetic wave scattering by a PEMC plate. Perfect electric conductor and perfect magnetic conductor are the limiting cases of PEMC media. Here, we study monoscattering by PEMC plate embedded in four different soil models. Numerical results are discussed and compared with the available literature.

  15. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

  16. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

  17. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  18. Unique edge-sharing sulfate-transition metal coordination in Na{sub 2}M(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (M=Ni and Co)

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, Allyson M.; Sweeney, Owen T.; Adam Phelan, W.; Drichko, Natalia; Siegler, Maxime A.; McQueen, Tyrel M.

    2015-02-15

    Two compounds, Na{sub 2}Ni(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}Co(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, were synthesized and their structure and properties were characterized. They adopt a structure that contains a bidentate coordination of sulfate to the transition metal center, which was determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction combined with model refinements to both laboratory X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. The compounds were both found to crystallize in the C2/c space group with Z=24 and a unit cell of a=23.3461(3) Å, b=10.3004(1) Å, c=17.4115(2) Å, β=98.8659(9)°, and V=4136.99(8) Å{sup 3} for the cobalt analog and a=23.2253(1) Å, b=10.26155(6) Å, c=17.3353(1) Å, β=99.0376(5)°, and V=4080.20(5) Å{sup 3} for the nickel analog. Magnetization measurements show that the transition metal centers have negligible interactions with neighboring sites. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to further probe the unique sulfate-transition metal coordination, and confirm the bidentate binding motif. The resulting pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal coordination produces vivid violet, Na{sub 2}Co(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and yellow, Na{sub 2}Ni(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, colors that were probed by diffuse reflectance. - Graphical abstract: Two blue distorted transition metal octahedra (oxygen in red) bridged by two sulfate tetrahedra are shown here. Each bridging sulfate tetrahedra shares an edge with one octahedron and a corner with the other. All of the remaining corners of the octahedra are corner sharing with four tetrahedra forming a polyhedral network. - Highlights: • Structure of Na2Ni(SO4)2 and Na2Co(SO4)2 is determined. • Unique sulfate-transition metal binding observed in the new structure. • Combined diffraction and spectroscopic techniques were used. • Magnetization measurements show negligible interactions between sites.

  19. Structure-activity relationships for the action of 11 pyrethroid insecticides on rat Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.-S.; Soderlund, David M. . E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu

    2006-03-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-sensitive sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting nerve function. This paper describes the action of 11 structurally diverse commercial pyrethroid insecticides on the rat Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channel isoform, the principal carrier of the tetrodotoxin-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive sodium current of sensory neurons, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All 11 compounds produced characteristic sodium tail currents following a depolarizing pulse that ranged from rapidly-decaying monoexponential currents (allethrin, cismethrin and permethrin) to persistent biexponential currents (cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin). Tail currents for the remaining compounds (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and tefluthrin) were monoexponential and decayed with kinetics intermediate between these extremes. Reconstruction of currents carried solely by the pyrethroid-modified subpopulation of channels revealed two types of pyrethroid-modified currents. The first type, found with cismethrin, allethrin, permethrin and tefluthrin, activated relatively rapidly and inactivated partially during a 40-ms depolarization. The second type, found with cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin and fenvalerate, activated more slowly and did not detectably inactivate during a 40-ms depolarization. Only bifenthrin did not produce modified currents that fit clearly into either of these categories. In all cases, the rate of activation of modified channels was strongly correlated with the rate of tail current decay following repolarization. Modification of Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channels by cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin was enhanced 2.3- to 3.4-fold by repetitive stimulation; this effect appeared to result from the accumulation of persistently open channels rather than preferential binding to open channel states. Fenpropathrin was the most effective compound against

  20. Analytical model for the dynamic resistivity of electrically-exploded conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.S.

    1986-10-10

    A detailed model for the dynamic resistivity of an exploding conductor presents many difficulties. An electrically-exploded conductor undergoes significant hydrodynamic expansion as it is heated. Resistivity is a function of both the temperature and density of a conductor and realistic models for resistivity over the range of parameter space experienced by an exploding conductor are quite complex. See for example, the model of Lee and More (1984). Calculation of the hydrodynamic expansion of the conductor during and subsequent to the explosion is likewise dependent on detailed knowledge of the equation of state for the conductor in a range where few experimental data exist. A further complication is the strong magnetic field which couples the hydrodynamic expansion to the currents flowing in the expanding material. In spite of the difficulties, progress is being made on detailed modeling of fuses and exploding conductors (Lidemuth and co-workers, 1985). A simpler approach has proved to be quite useful for modeling the electrical behavior of exploding bridgewire and slapper detonators and for modeling the explosionss of large conductors exploded with large capacitor banks. In the work described here, a simple, empirical model was developed which can be expressed as a closed-form algebraic expression involving four parameters. This model has been used in a computer code which will calculate the burst times and burst currents for up to 15 conductors exploded in series in a capacitor-discharge circuit.

  1. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  2. High temperature superconducting composite conductor and method for manufacturing the same

    DOEpatents

    Holesinger, Terry G.; Bingert, John F.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting composite conductor is provided including a high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, the high temperature superconducting composite conductor characterized as having a fill factor of greater than about 40. Additionally, the conductor can be further characterized as containing multiple cores of high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, said multiple cores characterized as having substantially uniform geometry in the cross-sectional dimensions. Processes of forming such a high temperature superconducting composite conductor are also provided.

  3. Formation of 2D nanoparticles with block structure in simultaneous electric explosion of conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. E-mail: kost@ispms.ru; Zolnikov, Konstantin P. E-mail: kost@ispms.ru; Abdrashitov, Andrei V.; Lerner, Marat I.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2014-11-14

    A molecular dynamics simulation of nanoparticle formation in simultaneous electric explosion of conductors is performed. Interatomic interaction is described using potentials calculated in the framework of the embedded atom method. High-rate heating results in failure of the conductors with the formation of nanoparticles. The influence of the heating rate, temperature distribution over the specimen cross-section and the distance between simultaneously exploded conductors on the structure of formed nanoparticles is studied. The calculation results show that the electric explosion of conductors allows the formation of nanoparticles with block structure.

  4. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  5. Ac loss reduction of multilayer superconducting power transmission cables by using narrow coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Li, Quan; Ito, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Nakamura, Taketsune; Okuma, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    The ac loss characteristics of coated conductors are dominated by the magnetic field component normal to their superconductor layer. Multilayer cables as well as monolayer cables consisting of 4 mm-wide coated conductors (named 4 mm cables) and those consisting of 2 mm-wide coated conductors (named 2 mm cables) were designed, and numerical electromagnetic field analyses were performed in their cross sections to calculate their ac losses. Trapezoidal lateral critical current density Jc distributions with shoulders as well as uniform ones were assumed in coated conductors for the analyses. The former models the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors. In the case of the monolayer, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were comparable to those of the 4 mm cables. In the cases of the multilayers, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were obviously less than those of the 4 mm cables. The degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors more seriously affects the ac loss characteristics of the 2 mm cables than those of the 4 mm cables. However, even if we consider the influence of the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors, 2 mm-wide coated conductors are more profitable than 4 mm-wide coated conductors in multilayer cables from the viewpoint of ac loss reduction.

  6. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of the NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte in alkaline aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Yuta; Zhang, Tao; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Im, Dongmin; Lee, Dong Joon; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu; Sammes, Nigel

    The stability of the high lithium ion conducting glass ceramics, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xSi yP 3- yO 12 (LTAP) in alkaline aqueous solutions with and without LiCl has been examined. A significant conductivity decrease of the LTAP plate immersed in 0.057 M LiOH aqueous solution at 50 °C for 3 weeks was observed. However, no conductivity change of the LTAP plate immersed in LiCl saturated LiOH aqueous solutions at 50 °C for 3 weeks was observed. The pH value of the LiCl-LiOH-H 2O solution with saturated LiCl was in a range of 7-9. The molarity of LiOH and LiCl in the LiOH and LiCl saturated aqueous solution were estimated to be 5.12 and 11.57 M, respectively, by analysis of Li + and OH -. The high concentration of LiOH and the low pH value of 8.14 in this solution suggested that the dissociation of LiOH into Li + and OH - is too low in the solution with a high concentration of Li +. These results suggest that the water stable LTAP could be used as a protect layer of the lithium metal anode in the lithium/air cell with LiCl saturated aqueous solution as the electrolyte, because the content of OH - ions in the LiCl saturated aqueous solution does not increase via the cell reaction of Li + 1/2O 2 + H 2O → 2LiOH, and LTAP is stable under a deep discharge state.

  7. Study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Jian; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu

    The water stability of the fast lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 (LATP), has been examined in distilled water, and aqueous solutions of LiNO 3, LiCl, LiOH, and HCl. This glass-ceramics are stable in aqueous LiNO 3 and aqueous LiCl, and unstable in aqueous 0.1 M HCl and 1 M LiOH. In distilled water, the electrical conductivity slightly increases as a function of immersion time in water. The Li-Al/Li 3- xPO 4- yN y/LATP/aqueous 1 M LiCl/Pt cell, where lithium phosphors oxynitrides Li 3- xPO 4- yN y (LiPON) are used to protect the direct reaction of Li and LATP, shows a stable open circuit voltage (OCV) of 3.64 V at 25 °C, and no cell resistance change for 1 week. Lithium phosphors oxynitride is effectively used as a protective layer to suppress the reaction between the LATP and Li metal. The water-stable Li/LiPON/LATP system can be used in Li/air secondary batteries with the air electrode containing water.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  9. Preparation of porous glass-ceramics with a skeleton of NASICON-type crystal CuTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kousuke, Kasuga, Toshihiro; Abe, Yoshihiro

    1997-03-01

    A novel porous glass-ceramic with a skeleton of CuTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was prepared by controlled crystallization of a glass and subsequent chemical leaching of the resulting dense glass-ceramic. A volume-crystallized dense glass-ceramic composed of CuTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} whose surface was covered by a CuO thin layer was prepared by reheating a glass with a nominal composition of 50 CuO{center_dot}20TiO{sub 2}{center_dot}30P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (in mol%) glass in air. When the resultant glass-ceramic was leached with dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and CuO phases were dissolved out selectively, leaving a crystalline CuTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} skeleton. The specific surface area and the average pore radius of the porous glass-ceramic obtained were approximately 45 m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1} and 9 nm, respectively. The porous glass-ceramic showed catalytic activity in the conversion reaction of propene into acrolein.

  10. Microstructure of Ice Accretions Grown on Aluminum Conductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforte, Jean-Louis; Phan, Luan C.; Felin, Béatrice

    1983-07-01

    In order to study the microstructure of glaze and rime deposits formed on the conductors of power lines, ice accretions are grown on a slowly rotating aluminum cylinder placed in the working section of a wind tunnel. The growth conditions cover both dry and wet regimes in the air temperature interval between 2 and 15°C and are close to those commonly prevailing in natural icing storms near the ground: liquid water contents vary from 0.4 to 0.8 g m3 and wind speed from 4 to 20 m s1; thew values are lower than those usually used in hail simulation studies. Four droplet spectra of 12, 22, 38 and 98 m mean volume diameter were used. The air bubble features of glaze and rime deposits grown in the abovementioned conditions show that the degree of transparency and the layering of the fine air bubbles strongly depend on the deposit temperatures and the intensity of accretion. On the other hand, crystal textures reveal that the mean width of ice crystals depends mainly on the ambient temperature and to a lesser degree on the wind velocity, particularly at low wind speeds. Mean droplet size and liquid water content seem to have little effect upon the crystal mean width. In addition, it is found that in the layer of ice closest to the aluminium cylinder, the crystal mean width increases with the radial distance from the conductor surface and this increase is more marked at low air temperatures. This effect cannot be attributed to the thermal conductivity of the substrate, but probably to the nucleation rate of ice crystals near the ice-conductor interface.

  11. Thermally Stable Super Ionic Conductor from Carbon Sphere Oxide.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Saidul; Karim, Mohammad Razaul; Hatakeyama, Kazuto; Takehira, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaaki; Koinuma, Michio; Hayami, Shinya

    2016-08-19

    A highly stable proton conductor has been developed from carbon sphere oxide (CSO). Carbon sphere (CS) generated from sucrose was oxidized successfully to CSO using Hummers' graphite oxidation technique. At room temperature and 90 % relative humidity, the proton conductivity of thin layer CSO on microsized comb electrode was found to be 8.7×10(-3)  S cm(-1) , which is higher than that for a similar graphene oxide (GO) sample (3.4×10(-3)  S cm(-1) ). The activation energy (Ea ) of 0.258 eV suggests that the proton is conducted through the Grotthuss mechanism. The carboxyl functional groups on the CSO surface are primarily responsible for transporting protons. In contrast to conventional carbon-based proton conductors, in which the functional groups decompose around 80 °C, CSO has a stable morphology and functional groups with reproducible proton conductivity up to 400 °C. Even once annealed at different temperatures at high relative humidity, the proton conductivity of CSO remains almost unchanged, whereas significant change is seen with a similar GO sample. After annealing at 100 and 200 °C, the respective proton conductivity of CSO was almost the same, and was about ∼50 % of the proton conductivity at room temperature. Carbon-based solid electrolyte with such high thermal stability and reproducible proton conductivity is desired for practical applications. We expect that a CSO-based proton conductor would be applicable for fuel cells and sensing devices operating under high temperatures. PMID:27411089

  12. Stretchable nanoparticle conductors with self-organized conductive pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonseob; Zhu, Jian; Yeom, Bongjun; di Prima, Matthew; Su, Xianli; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jo; Uher, Ctirad; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2013-08-01

    Research in stretchable conductors is fuelled by diverse technological needs. Flexible electronics, neuroprosthetic and cardiostimulating implants, soft robotics and other curvilinear systems require materials with high conductivity over a tensile strain of 100 per cent (refs 1, 2, 3). Furthermore, implantable devices or stretchable displays need materials with conductivities a thousand times higher while retaining a strain of 100 per cent. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate during material deformation and stiffening make stretchability and conductivity fundamentally difficult properties to combine. The macroscale stretching of solids elongates chemical bonds, leading to the reduced overlap and delocalization of electronic orbitals. This conductivity-stretchability dilemma can be exemplified by liquid metals, in which conduction pathways are retained on large deformation but weak interatomic bonds lead to compromised strength. The best-known stretchable conductors use polymer matrices containing percolated networks of high-aspect-ratio nanometre-scale tubes or nanowires to address this dilemma to some extent. Further improvements have been achieved by using fillers (the conductive component) with increased aspect ratio, of all-metallic composition, or with specific alignment (the way the fillers are arranged in the matrix). However, the synthesis and separation of high-aspect-ratio fillers is challenging, stiffness increases with the volume content of metallic filler, and anisotropy increases with alignment. Pre-strained substrates, buckled microwires and three-dimensional microfluidic polymer networks have also been explored. Here we demonstrate stretchable conductors of polyurethane containing spherical nanoparticles deposited by either layer-by-layer assembly or vacuum-assisted flocculation. High conductivity and stretchability were observed in both composites despite the minimal aspect ratio of the nanoparticles. These materials also demonstrate the

  13. Magnetophonon oscillations caused by acoustic phonons in bulk conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons under a magnetic field leads to a remarkable kind of magnetophonon oscillation of transport coefficients, recently discovered in two-dimensional electron systems. The present study shows that similar oscillations exist in bulk conductors and provides a theory of this phenomenon for the case of spherical Fermi surfaces. The resonance peaks occur when the product of the Fermi surface diameter by the sound velocity is a multiple of the cyclotron frequency. Theoretical predictions may facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon.

  14. Application of solution deposition techniques to coated conductor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan

    2000-12-01

    Coated conductors offer a viable alternative to the BSCCO PIT tapes. However, at the current juncture, results are being reported for conductors with buffer layers and superconductor layers processed using conventional thin film deposition which are vacuum based. Also these conductors are fabricated using four or five buffer layers between the superconductor and the metal substrate. These aspects of the fabrication route drive the cost of the process to prohibitively high values. This work is directed at the development of fabrication routes for cube textured nickel substrates, and metallorganic decomposition (MOD) routes for buffer layers and Y123 layers using simple solution based techniques which can be readily scaled. Studies of cube texturing of nickel using rolling and recrystallization showed that it is possible to produce textured nickel substrates with a FWHM of 8--10°. The substrate quality of the nickel is determined by the purity of the cube texture and the cleanliness of the surface. Processing of oriented buffer layers of barium zirconate and strontium titanate using simple metal organic decomposition routes have been studied. These processes, which use precursor solutions made by dissolution of simple acetates in common solvents like acetic acid and methanol, produce highly oriented buffer layers even when processed in a partially reducing atmosphere. Therefore, these MOD routes for buffer layer processing are compatible with nickel substrates and produce buffer layers oriented as sharply as the underlying nickel substrate. Y123 processing using fluorinated precursors, as in the TFA process, effectively circumvents the BaCO3 problem associated with most MOD routes for Y123 processing. This route, under optimized process conditions, yields Y123 films with Jc of the order of 106 A/cm2 on single crystal substrates. Studies of the compatibility of the TFA process with the MOD buffer layers showed that current density of the order of 106 A/cm 2 can be

  15. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-10-09

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed.

  16. Non Equilibrium Quantum Transport in a model of molecular conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro', Marco; Fabrizio, Michele

    2010-03-01

    We investigate non equilibrium effects in quantum transport through a simple model of molecular conductor where a single electronic level coupled to a vibrational mode is hybridized with biased metallic contacts. Using a recently developed numerical method [1] we compute the time dependent current and extract steady state properties such as I-V characteristic, differential conductance and phonon distribution function. We also discuss transient effects and comment on the onset of bistability in the strong coupling regime. [4pt] [1] M. Schiro', M. Fabrizio, Phys.Rev.B 79 153302 (2009)

  17. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Karthikeyan, Annamalai; Hengdong, Cui

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  18. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  19. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  20. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of the novel sodium cobalt tellurate Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36}

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Yue Jin; Yoshioka, Yuta; Wakeshima, Makoto; Tezuka, Keitaro; Imoto, Hideo

    2014-03-15

    The novel single crystal oxide Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} had been successfully synthesized by a self-flux method. Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} crystallizes in hexagonal symmetry, space group P6{sub 3}/m (No.176), with lattice parameters a=9.359 (3) Å, c=9.096 (8) Å, and Z=1. The structure is composed of combining the edge-sharing chains of octahedra, [TeO{sub 6}]{sup 6−} and [Co(1)O{sub 6}]{sup 10−} with the face-sharing chains of triangular prisms, [Co(2)O{sub 6}]{sup 10−} and [Co(3)(Na(3))O{sub 6}]{sup 10−}. Sodium ions partially occupy hexagonal channels along the c-axis that are formed by the connection of the chains. The magnetic susceptibility data show a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with a Neel temperature of 52 K along the c axis. At temperatures above 200 K, the susceptibility corrected for the diamagnetic contribution can be fit to the Curie–Weiss law for Co{sup 2+} (S=3/2). The anisotropic ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic feature of Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} was obtained through field-dependent magnetization measurements at low temperature. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviors can be considered from the interactions between the Co ions in 1D zig-zag chains formed by sharing the edges of the Co(1)O{sub 6} octahedra, and the interactions between the interchain Co ions, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: The unit cell (a) and perspective view along [001] (b) of novel single crystal oxide, Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36}. Highlights: • A single crystal of Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} has been synthesized by a self-flux method. • Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} crystallizes in hexagonal symmetry with a space group P6{sub 3}/m. • Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} has an antiferromagnetic ordering with a Neel temperature of 52 K. • Na{sub 5}Co{sub 15.5}Te{sub 6}O{sub 36} shows anisotropic ferro- and antiferromagnetism at low temperatures.

  1. Studies on solid solutions based on layered honeycomb-ordered phases P2-Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn)

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelot, Romain; Schmidt, Whitney; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2012-12-15

    Three complete solid solutions between the layered phases P2-Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn) have been prepared by conventional solid state method and investigated through X-ray diffraction, magnetism and optical measurements. All compositions are characterized by a M{sup 2+}/X{sup 6+} honeycomb ordering within the slabs and crystallize in a hexagonal unit cell. However, a structural transition based on a different stacking is observed as nickel (space group P6{sub 3}/mcm) is substituted by zinc or cobalt (space group P6{sub 3}22). All compositions exhibit a paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperatures; and the magnetic moment values confirm the presence of Ni{sup 2+} and/or Co{sup 2+} cations. The low-temperature antiferromagnetic order of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Co{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is suppressed by zinc substitution. The color of the obtained compositions varies from pink, to light green and white when M=Co, Ni, Zn, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The comparison between the structure of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (left) and Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Zn) (right) evidences the stacking difference with distinct atom sequences along the hexagonal c-axis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solutions between lamellar phases Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn) are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A M{sup 2+}/X{sup 6+} honeycomb ordering characterized all the compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural transition is shown when Ni is replaced by Co or Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low-temperature AFM ordering of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Co{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is suppressed by zinc substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Color changes from pink to light green and white when M=Co, Ni, Zn, respectively.

  2. Na{sub 27}Ru{sub 14}O{sub 48}: A new mixed-valence sodium ruthenate with magnetic heptameric plaquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.M.; Wang, L.M.; Khalifah, P.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-01-15

    Na{sub 27}Ru{sub 14}O{sub 48} has been synthesized in air at 700 {sup o}C. The composition and crystal structure of the phase were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic crystal structure contains isolated planar Ru{sub 7}O{sub 24} plaquettes made from seven edge-sharing RuO{sub 6} octahedra. The complex Na:Ru ratio is a result of tilting of the plaquettes to disrupt the packing of nominally hexagonal close packed planes made of Na ions and RuO{sub 6} octrahedra. Resistivity measurements show that the material is semiconducting with an activation energy of 0.53 eV. The observed magnetic moment of 3.11 {mu}{sub B} per Ru is lower than the expected spin only value, but is within the range seen in other compounds and is too large to indicate that the fundamental magnetic entities are the isolated Ru{sub 7}O{sub 24} plaquettes. Small, reproducible deviations in the Curie-Weiss behavior occur below 200 K and the onset of a broad magnetic transition is seen between 40 and 32 K. -- Graphical abstract: The basic building block in Na{sub 27}Ru{sub 14}O{sub 48} is a heptameric plaquette. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate the presence of antiferromagnetic correlations. Display Omitted

  3. Interaction of low-expansion NZP ceramics with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Cooley, K.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Joslin, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    The interaction between several low-expansion NZP materials and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000{degrees}C in pure O{sub 2} was studied. Ba{sub 1.25}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 5.5}Si{sub 0.5}O{sub 24} experienced extensive cracking and delamination upon reaction with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. On the other hand, Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} remained intact in terms of visual appearance, and had no significant weight loss or gain. However, the ion exchange between Na{sup +} ions and Ca{sup +2} ions was observed to be sufficiently rapid to allow the penetration of the Na{sup +} ions into the test specimens in 100h. The segregation of Ca to the specimen surface was observed due to the ion exchange. Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} was also tested, but its stability could not properly be assessed because the as-received specimens contained a significant amount of MgZr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} as an impurity phase.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and charge distribution of Na{sub 7}As{sub 11}O{sub 31}: An oxygen-deficient layered sodium arsenate

    SciTech Connect

    Guesmi, Abderrahmen . E-mail: abderrahmen.guesmi@ipeim.mu.tn; Nespolo, Massimo; Driss, Ahmed

    2006-08-15

    A new sodium arsenate with layer structure has been synthesized and its crystal structure solved and refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is trigonal, space group P3-bar m1, a=11.199(3)A, c=5.411(2)A, V=587.80(3)A{sup 3}, Z=1; the refinement converged to R=0.0282 and wR=0.0751 for 590 reflections with (I)>2sigma(I). The structural model gives the formula Na{sub 7}As{sub 11}O{sub 32}, which would be non-neutral; besides, the structural model is not validated by the charge distribution (CD) analysis, which gives an unsatisfactory agreement on the computed charges of the cations. The CD analysis suggest incomplete (5/6) occupation of the O5 site, which leads to the deficiency of an oxygen atom per unit cell and to formula Na{sub 7}As{sub 11}O{sub 31}: this new structural model corresponds to a neutral compound, is validated by the CD analysis, and results in better displacement parameters for O5 than its non neutral counterpart. The (001) anionic layers are built up from corner and edge sharing of As1 and As2 distorted octahedra and As3 distorted tetrahedra, the sodium cations playing the role of interlayer cations. The effects of the oxygen deficiency on the crystal structure are discussed.

  5. Orthorhombic Na[sub x]MnO[sub 2] as a cathode material for secondary sodium and lithium polymer batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Jonghe, L.C. de . Materials Sciences Div.)

    1994-11-01

    The use of orthorhombic Na[sub x]MnO[sub 2] as a cathode material for alkali metal polymer electrolyte batteries is described for the first time. This sodium manganese bronze has a tunnel structure and can reversibly intercalate up to 0.55 to 0.6 alkali metal ions (Li[sup +] or Na[sup +]) per manganese at moderate current densities, corresponding to capacities of 160 to 180 mAh/g. Li/PEO/Na[sub 0.2]Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2] cells [PEO = poly(ethylene oxide)] to date have been cycled over ninety times at 0.1 mA/cm[sup 2], with excellent capacity retention. Na/PEO/Na[sub x]MnO[sub 2] and Na[sub x]MnO[sub 2]/PEO/Na[sub x]MnO[sub 2] cells have been cycled over sixty times to date at the same rate, showing moderate capacity fading.

  6. Distinct interactions of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions with the selectivity filter of the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Song; Zangerl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Ca{sup 2+} translocates slowly in the filter, due to lack of “loose” knock-on mechanism. ► Identification of a high affinity binding site in Na{sub V}Ab selectivity filter. ► Changes of EEEE locus triggered by electrostatic interactions with Ca{sup 2+} ions. -- Abstract: Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to investigate how the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab (Arcobacter butzleri) differentiates between Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Multiple nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed distinct binding patterns for these two cations in the selectivity filter and suggested a high affinity calcium binding site formed by backbone atoms of residues Leu-176 and Thr-175 (S{sub CEN}) in the sodium channel selectivity filter.

  7. Interaction of low-expansion NZP ceramics with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Stinton, D.P.; Joslin, D.L.

    1996-06-01

    The interaction between several low-expansion NZP materials and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000{degrees}C in pure O{sub 2} was studied. Ba{sub 1.25}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 5.5}Si{sub 0.5}O{sub 24} experienced extensive cracking and delamination upon reaction with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. On the other hand, Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} remained intact in terms of visual appearance, and had no significant weight loss or gain. However, the ion exchange between Na{sup +} ions and Ca{sup +2} ions was observed to be sufficiently rapid to allow the penetration of the Na{sup +} ions into the test specimens in 100 h. The segregation of Ca to the specimen surface was observed due to the ion exchange. Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} was also tested, but its stability could not properly be assessed because the as-received specimens contained a significant amount of MgZr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} as an impurity phase.

  8. Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Takashi Hayashi, Tsugumi Takahashi, Hideyuki Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2013-12-10

    Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell.

  9. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  10. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate ‘weak links’ where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  11. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Fontecchio, Adam K.; Visell, Yon

    2016-01-01

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  12. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (˜40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  13. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  14. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors. PMID:25626170

  15. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  16. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  17. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  18. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite weak conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzelt, J.; Nuzhnyy, D.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss broadband dielectric spectroscopy from mHz up to the infrared range mainly for materials with inhomogeneous weak conductivity, including conductor-dielectric nanocomposites. Our discussion is based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) and experiments modeled by this approach are reviewed. We discuss core-shell composites modeled by coated-spheres (Hashin-Shtrikman model) and normal composites with a possible percolation of the conductor component resulting in sharp or smeared percolation threshold of the DC conductivity and diverging static permittivity in the former case. The sharp percolation threshold is modeled by the Bruggeman EMA or by general EMA with arbitrary percolation threshold and arbitrary critical exponents of the DC conductivity and static permittivity. For the case of smeared percolation threshold in the case of complex topologies, we use the Lichtenecker model allowing for partial percolation of both the components. Finally, numerous papers reporting negative permittivity in weakly conducting materials are criticized and concluded to be due to spurious effects.

  19. Amorphous carbon interlayers for gold on elastomer stretchable conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Tuinea-Bobe, C. L.; McKavanagh, F.; Byrne, C. P.; Dixon, D.; Maguire, P. D.; Lemoine, P.

    2011-06-01

    Gold on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stretchable conductors were prepared using a novel approach by interlacing an hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C : H) layer between the deposited metal layer and the elastomer. AFM analysis of the a-C : H film surface before gold deposition shows nanoscale buckling, the corresponding increase in specific surface area corresponds to a strain compensation for the first 4-6% of bi-axial tensile loading. Without this interlayer, the deposited gold films show much smaller and uni-directional ripples as well as more cracks and delaminations. With a-C : H interlayer, the initial electrical resistivity of the metal film decreases markedly (280-fold decrease to 8 × 10-6 Ω cm). This is not due to conduction within the carbon interlayer; both a-C : H/PDMS and PDMS substrates are electrically insulating. Upon cyclic tensile loading, both films become more resistive, but return to their initial state after 20 tensile cycles up to 60% strain. Profiling experiments using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the a-C : H layer intermixes with the PDMS, resulting in a graded layer of decreasing stiffness. We believe that both this graded layer and the surface buckling contribute to the observed improvement in the electrical performance of these stretchable conductors.

  20. Interacting Electrodynamics of Short Coherent Conductors in Quantum Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altimiras, C.; Portier, F.; Joyez, P.

    2016-07-01

    When combining lumped mesoscopic electronic components to form a circuit, quantum fluctuations of electrical quantities lead to a nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between the components, which is generally not understood. The Landauer-Büttiker formalism that is frequently used to describe noninteracting coherent mesoscopic components is not directly suited to describe such circuits since it assumes perfect voltage bias, i.e., the absence of fluctuations. Here, we show that for short coherent conductors of arbitrary transmission, the Landauer-Büttiker formalism can be extended to take into account quantum voltage fluctuations similarly to what is done for tunnel junctions. The electrodynamics of the whole circuit is then formally worked out disregarding the non-Gaussianity of fluctuations. This reveals how the aforementioned nonlinear interaction operates in short coherent conductors: Voltage fluctuations induce a reduction of conductance through the phenomenon of dynamical Coulomb blockade, but they also modify their internal density of states, leading to an additional electrostatic modification of the transmission. Using this approach, we can quantitatively account for conductance measurements performed on quantum point contacts in series with impedances of the order of RK=h /e2 . Our work should enable a better engineering of quantum circuits with targeted properties.

  1. Internal pressure effects in the AIRCO-LCT conductor sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Luton, J.N.; Clinard, J.A.; Lue, J.W.; Gray, W.H.; Summers, L.T.; Kershaw, R.

    1985-01-01

    The large Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting test coil produced by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the international Large Coil Task (LCT) utilizes a conductor composed of cabled multifilamentary strands immersed in flowing supercritical helium contained by a square structural sheath made of the high-strength stainless alloy JBX-75. Peak pressures of a few hundred atmospheres are predicted to occur during quench, and measurement of these pressures seems feasible only through penetrations of the sheath wall. Fully processed short lengths of conductor were taken from production ends, fitted with pressure taps and strain gauges, and pressurized with helium gas. Failure, at 1000 atm at liquid nitrogen temperature, was by a catastrophic splitting of the sheath at a corner. Strain measurements and burst pressure agreed with elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations made for the sheath alone. Neither the production seam weld nor the pressure tap penetrations or their fillet welds contributed to the failure, although the finite element calculations show that these areas were also highly stressed, and examination of the failed sample showed that the finite welds were of poor quality. Failure was by tensile overload, with no evidence of fatigue.

  2. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-11

    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 °C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire. PMID:23919513

  3. High current DyBCO-ROEBEL Assembled Coated Conductor (RACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldacker, W.; Nast, R.; Kotzyba, G.; Schlachter, S. I.; Frank, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Schmidt, C.; Komarek, P.

    2006-06-01

    Low AC loss high transport current HTS cables (>1 kA) are required for application in transformers, generators and are considered for future generations of fusion reactors coils. 2G coated conductors are suitable candidates for high field application at quite high operation temperatures of 50-77 K, which is crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. As a feasibility study we present the first ROEBEL bar cable of approx. 35 cm length made from industrial DyBCO coated conductor (THEVA GmbH, Germany). Meander shaped ROEBEL strands of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 180 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. The strands carried in average 157 Amps/cm-width DC and were assembled to a subcable with 5 strands and a final cable with 16 strands. The 5 strand cable was tested and carried a transport current of >300 Amps DC at 77 K, equivalent to the sum of the individual strand transport critical currents. The 16 strand cable carried 500 A limited through heating effects and non sufficient stabilisation and current sharing. A pulse current load indicated a current carrying potential of >1 kA for the 16 strand cable.

  4. VAMAS Nb{sub 3}Sn test conductor

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    A bronze-process Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor was measured as part of the second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international critical-current round robin. The conductor specifications are given in Table 15. The critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and axial tensile strain. The measured data are presented in Table 16 and in Figs. 23 and 24. The I{sub c} and J{sub c} values are based on an electric field criterion (E{sub c}) of 1 {mu}V/cm. In the first VAMAS round robin tests, differences in the test specimens` axial strain, caused by variations in the thermal contraction of different test fixtures, was a major source of interlaboratory variation in the critical-current data. Consequently, electromechanical characterization of the test specimen is important for data interpretation and error analysis. In the second round robin, the test apparatus and procedure were more rigidly specified. This increased experimental control reduced the critical-current variation by a factor of 3.5. The results of our measurements will be published in the final VAMAS report.

  5. A Systematic Inventory of Motives for Becoming an Orchestra Conductor: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makris, Ioannis; Mullet, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the various motives (reasons) that may have led an individual to become an orchestra conductor interpreting classical works, using Apter's (2001) Metamotivational Theory framework. Questionnaires derived from the theory, consisting of 92 possible motives for becoming an orchestra conductor, were presented to 101 orchestra…

  6. Analytical model for the dynamic resistivity of electrically-exploded conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. S.

    1986-10-01

    A detailed model for the dynamic resistivity of an exploding conductor presents many difficulties, since it undergoes significant hydrodynamic expansion as it is heated. Resistivity is a function of both the temperature and density of a conductor and realistic models for resistivity over the range of parameter space experienced by an exploding conductor are quite complex. Calculation of the hydrodynamic expansion of the conductor during and subsequent to the explosion is likewise dependent on detailed knowledge of the equation of state for the conductor in a range where few experimental data exist. A further complication is the strong magnetic field which couples the hydrodynamic expansion to the currents flowing in the expanding material. In spite of the difficulties, progress is being made on detailed modeling of fuses and exploding conductors. A simpler approach has proved to be quite useful for modeling the electrical behavior of exploding bridgewire and slapper detonators and for modeling the explosions of large conductors exploded with large capacitor banks. In the work described here, a simple, empirical model was developed which can be expressed as a closed-form algebraic expression involving four parameters. This model has been used in a computer code which will calculate the burst times and burst currents for up to 15 conductors exploded in series in a capacitor-discharge circuit.

  7. The Connoisseurship of Conducting: A Qualitative Study of Exemplary Wind Band Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Nancy; Henry, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to gain an in-depth perspective through examining how the conducting pedagogy of three selected exemplary high school and college instrumental music conductors function within the context of an actual rehearsal. A typical rehearsal was video recorded, followed by a "think-aloud" session in which the conductor viewed the…

  8. Ceramic to metal attachment system. [Ceramic electrode to metal conductor in MHD generator

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    1983-06-10

    A composition and method are described for attaching a ceramic electrode to a metal conductor. A layer of randomly interlocked metal fibers saturated with polyimide resin is sandwiched between the ceramic electrode and the metal conductor. The polyimide resin is then polymerized providing bonding.

  9. Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

  10. Effects of Conducting Plane on Band and Choral Musicians' Perceptions of Conductor and Ensemble Expressivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Fisher, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether one aspect of conducting technique, the conducting plane, would affect band and/or choral musicians' perceptions of conductor and ensemble expressivity. A band and a choral conductor were each videotaped conducting 1-min excerpts from Morten Lauridsen's "O Magnum Mysterium" while using a…

  11. Galloping of iced quad-conductors bundles based on curved beam theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhitao; Savory, Eric; Li, Zhengliang; Lin, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Galloping refers to wind-induced, low-frequency, large-amplitude oscillations that have been more frequently observed for a bundle conductor than for a single conductor. In the present work two different models are built to investigate the galloping of a bundle conductor: (1) a finite curved beam element method and (2) a hybrid model based on curved beam element theory. The finite curved beam element model is effective in dealing with the spacers between the bundled conductors and the joint between the conductors and spacers that can be simulated as a rigid joint or a hinge. Furthermore, the finite curved beam element model can be used to deal with large deformation. The hybrid model invokes the small deformation hypothesis and has a high computational efficiency. A hybrid model based on conventional cable element theory is also programmed to be compared with the aforementioned models based on curved beam element theory. Numerical examples are presented to assess the accuracy of the different models in predicting the equilibrium conductor position, natural frequencies and galloping amplitude. The results show that the curved beam element models, involving more degrees of freedom and coupling of translational and torsional motion, are more accurate at simulating the static and dynamic characters of an iced quad-conductor bundle. The use of hinges, rather than rigid connections, reduces the structural response amplitudes of a galloping conductor bundle.

  12. Assignment of Appropriate Conditions for Synthesizing Tungsten Nanopowder by Electric Explosion of Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravkov, S. P.; Pustovalov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, M. A.; Rosliy, I. S.; Zernin, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental research into properties of tungsten nanopowders synthesized by electric explosion of a conductor in argon at various energies, put into the conductor when exploding. The authors have studied how the conditions of synthesizing the tungsten nanopowder influence on the average size of particles.

  13. Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.

    SciTech Connect

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

    2011-09-01

    An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

  14. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems... be sized in accordance with Section 250.122 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  15. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems... be sized in accordance with Section 250.122 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  16. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems... be sized in accordance with Section 250.122 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  17. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems... be sized in accordance with Section 250.122 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  18. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems... be sized in accordance with Section 250.122 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  19. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  20. Testing Short Samples of ITER Conductors and Projection of Their Performance in ITER Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-08-20

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time consuming. To test straight 3-4m long samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short sample may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce behavior of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data.

  1. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaolei; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo; Weng, Peide

    2011-10-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  2. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  3. Development of termination and utilization concepts for flat conductor cables. Volume 3: Cost study comparison, flat versus round conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A cost study comparing flat conductor cable (FCC) with small-gage wire (SGW) and conventional round conductor cable (RCC) is presented. This study was based on a vehicle wiring system consisting of 110,000 ft of conventional RCC equally divided between AWG sizes 20,22, and 24 using MIL-W-81044-type wire and MIL-C-26500 circular connectors. Basic cost data were developed on a similar-sized commercial jet airplane wiring system on a previous company R&D program in which advanced wiring techniques were carried through equivalent installations on an airplane mockup; and on data developed on typical average bundles during this program. Various cost elements included were engineering labor, operations (manufacturing) labor, material costs, and cost impact on payload. Engineering labor includes design, wiring system integration, wiring diagrams and cable assembly drawings, wire installations, and other related supporting functions such as the electronic data processing for the wiring. Operations labor includes mockup, tooling and production planning, fabrication, assembly, installation, and quality control cost impact on payload is the conversion of wiring system weight variations through use of different wiring concepts to program payload benefits in terms of dollars.

  4. Status of high transport current ROEBEL assembled coated conductor cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldacker, Wilfried; Frank, Antje; Kudymow, Andrej; Heller, Reinhard; Kling, Andrea; Terzieva, Stanimira; Schmidt, Curt

    2009-03-01

    Assembling coated conductors (CC) into flat ROEBEL bars (RACC cable) was introduced in 2005 by the authors as a practicable method of reaching high transport currents in a low AC loss cable, which is a cable design suited for application in windings. The transport current of 1.02 kA in self-field at 77 K achieved so far, however, is still too low for several applications in electrical machinery such as larger transformers and generators/motors. A new cable concept for further increased currents was presented just recently. The goal of the new design was primarily to demonstrate the possibility of strongly increased transport currents without changing the important cable features for low AC losses. such as, for example, the transposition length of the strands. We present detailed investigations of the properties of this progressed cable design, which has threefold layered strands, an unchanged transposition pitch of 18.8 cm and finally the application of 45 coated conductors in the cable. A 1.1 m long sample (equivalent to six transposition lengths) was prepared from commercial Cu stabilized coated conductors purchased from Superpower. The measured new record DC transport current of the cable was 2628 A at 77 K in self-field (5 µV cm-1 criterion). The use of three slightly different current carrying batches of strand material (± 10%) was a special feature of the cable, which allowed for interesting investigations of current redistribution effects in the cable, by monitoring a representative strand of each batch during the critical current measurement. Although current redistribution effects showed a complex situation, the behaviour of the cable was found to be absolutely stable under all operational conditions, even above the critical current. The high self-field degradation of the critical current reached the order of 60% at 77 K, and could be modelled satisfactory with calculations based on a proven Biot-Savart-law approach, adapted to the specific boundary

  5. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na>0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na>0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na>0.44MnO2 (Na>0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na>0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  6. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Leuer, James A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented.

  7. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Leuer, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

  8. The Image Potential for Spherical Conductors and Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Balassis, Antonios; Iurov, Andrii; Fekete, Paula

    2013-03-01

    We calculate the image potential for spherical conductors and dielectrics, such as fullerene buckyballs. Our calculations show that these structures can support electronic states which may be localized at some distance away from the surface. These ``spherical image states'' exist within extended surface potentials formed by the competition between the attractive image force, the external electron and its image charge in the spherical shell, and the repulsive centrifugal force arising from the angular motion. The effective potential leads to extended stable states away from the surface of the spherical shell. At low temperatures, this results in long lifetimes for the image states. We expect that spherical image states with binding energies of a few meV. The bound states may be formed with the aid of radiative recombination.

  9. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  10. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Ginley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  11. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-07-28

    A process is described for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  12. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time. PMID:24597525

  13. Non-classical radiation emission by a coherent conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Gasse, Gabriel; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that the microwave electromagnetic field generated by a normal conductor, here a tunnel junction placed at ultra-low temperature, can be non-classical. By measuring the quadratures of the electromagnetic field at one or two frequencies in the GHz range, we demonstrate the existence of squeezing as well as entanglement in such radiation. In one experiment, we observe that the variance of one quadrature of the photo-assisted noise generated by the junction goes below its vacuum level. In the second experiment, we demonstrate the existence of correlations between the quadratures taken at two frequencies, which can be stronger than allowed by classical mechanics, proving that the radiation at those two frequencies are entangled.

  14. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane's model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices. PMID:26612317

  15. Combined Jonker and Ioffe Analysis of Oxide Conductors and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Q.M.; Hopper, E.M.; Ingram, B.J.; Mason, Thomas O.

    2010-09-27

    Jonker plots (Seebeck coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity) have been utilized to obtain the product of the density of states (DOS) and mobility (μ) in oxide semiconductors, from which the maximum electrical conductivity can be estimated for degenerate transparent conducting oxide (TCO) applications. In addition, the DOS–μ product can be utilized to predict the maximum achievable “power factor” (PF, Seebeck coefficient squared times conductivity) for oxide semiconductors. The PF is an important parameter governing the figure of merit for thermoelectric oxide (TEO) applications. The procedure employs an analysis developed by Ioffe, and provides an important screening tool for oxide (and other) thermoelectric materials, based upon data from polycrystalline ceramic specimens. Several oxides, including known transparent conductors, are considered as TCO and TEO case studies in the present work.

  16. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  17. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane’s model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices.

  18. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane’s model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices. PMID:26612317

  19. Entanglement entropy in dynamic quantum-coherent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Konrad H.; Flindt, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement and the Rényi entropies of two electronic leads connected by a quantum point contact. For noninteracting electrons, the entropies can be related to the cumulants of the full counting statistics of transferred charge which in principle are measurable. We consider the entanglement entropy generated by operating the quantum point contact as a quantum switch which is opened and closed in a periodic manner. Using a numerically exact approach we analyze the conditions under which a logarithmic growth of the entanglement entropy predicted by conformal field theory should be observable in an electronic conductor. In addition, we consider clean single-particle excitations on top of the Fermi sea (levitons) generated by applying designed pulses to the leads. We identify a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like suppression of the entanglement entropy by interfering two levitons on a quantum point contact tuned to half transmission.

  20. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time.

  1. Ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators.

    PubMed

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2008-09-01

    This paper covers advances made in connection with ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed biomimetic nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanorobots and artificial muscles. A review of the fundamental properties and characteristics of IPCNCs will be presented first. This summary will include descriptions of the basic materials' molecular structure and subsequent procedure to manufacture the basic material for chemical plating and electroactivation. Further described are chemical molecular plating technologies to make IPCNCs; nanotechnologies of manufacturing and trapping of nanoparticles; SEM, TEM, SPM and AFM characterization of IPMNCs; biomimetic sensing and actuation characterization techniques; electrical characterization; and equivalent circuit modeling of IPCNCs as electronic materials. A phenomenological model of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms is also presented based on linear irreversible thermodynamics with two driving forces, an electric field and a solvent pressure gradient and two fluxes, electric current density and the ionic+solvent flux.

  2. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  3. Solderability Study of RABiTS-Based YBCO Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C; Ha, Tam T; Gouge, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  4. All MOD buffer/YBCO approach to coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parans Paranthaman, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Heatherly, L.; Martin, P. M.; Goyal, A.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Rupich, M. W.

    2006-10-01

    RABiTS based metal-organic deposition (MOD) buffer/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) approach has been considered as one of the potential, low-cost approaches to fabricate high performance second generation coated conductors. The most commonly used RABiTS architectures consisting of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a seed layer of Y2O3, a barrier layer of YSZ, and a CeO2 cap. In this three layer architecture, all the buffers are deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques. Using these PVD deposited templates, 0.8-μm thick MOD-YBCO films with an Ic (critical current) of 250 A/cm have been achieved routinely in short lengths. We have developed a low-cost, non-vacuum, MOD process to grow epitaxial buffer layers on textured Ni-5W substrates. The main challenge in this effort is to match the performance of MOD templates to that of PVD templates. We have recently shown that the properties of MOD-La2Zr2O7 (LZO) layers can be improved by inserting a thin Y2O3 seed layer. Using MOD-CeO2 cap layers, we have demonstrated the growth of high performance MOD-YBCO films with an Ic of 200 A/cm-width on MOD-La2Zr2O7/Y2O3/Ni-5W substrates. This approach could potentially decrease the overall cost of the coated conductor fabrication.

  5. All MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Heatherly Jr, Lee; Martin, Patrick M; Goyal, Amit; Kodenkandath, Thomas; Li, Xiaoping; Thieme, C. L. H.; Rupich, Marty

    2006-01-01

    RABiTS based metal-organic deposition (MOD) buffer/YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) approach has been considered as one of the potential, low-cost approaches to fabricate high performance second generation coated conductors. The most commonly used RABiTS architectures consisting of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a seed layer of Y2O3, a barrier layer of YSZ, and a CeO2 cap. In this three layer architecture, all the buffers are deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques. Using these PVD deposited templates, 0.8-{mu}m thick MOD-YBCO films with an Ic (critical current) of 250 A/cm have been achieved routinely in short lengths. We have developed a low-cost, non-vacuum, MOD process to grow epitaxial buffer layers on textured Ni-5W substrates. The main challenge in this effort is to match the performance of MOD templates to that of PVD templates. We have recently shown that the properties of MOD-La2Zr2O7 (LZO) layers can be improved by inserting a thin Y2O3 seed layer. Using MOD-CeO2 cap layers, we have demonstrated the growth of high performance MOD-YBCO films with an Ic of 200 A/cm-width on MOD-La2Zr2O7/Y2O3/Ni-5W substrates. This approach could potentially decrease the overall cost of the coated conductor fabrication.

  6. Performance analysis of the Nb-Ti conductor qualification samples for the ITER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breschi, M.; Carati, D.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.; Zhou, C.

    2015-11-01

    The ITER machine will require approximately 275 tons of Nb-Ti strands that will be used in poloidal field (PF) coils, correction coils (CC) and feeder busbars. The performance of all these conductors for the ITER machine is qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (T cs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, at the design operating current and peak field. Three ITER domestic agencies participated in PF conductor fabrication (China, the European Union, Russia) while the conductors for feeder busbars and correction coils are entirely produced by the Chinese domestic agency. Each conductor type was qualified by the ITER International Organization after reaching T cs values in excess of ITER specifications. This qualification enabled the launch of procurement and industrial production of the Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductors in each domestic agency. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified Nb-Ti samples of the ITER Project, comparing strand performance with conductor performance. The details of the test results will be discussed in terms of dc performance, ac losses and minimum quench energies of each conductor type.

  7. Skin explosion of double-layer conductors in fast-rising high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikovsky, S. A. Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.

    2014-04-15

    An experiment has been performed to study the electrical explosion of thick cylindrical conductors using the MIG pulsed power generator capable of producing a peak current of 2.5 MA within 100 ns rise time. The experimental goal was to compare the skin explosion of a solid conductor with that of a double-layer conductor whose outer layer had a lower conductivity than the inner one. It has been shown that in magnetic fields of peak induction up to 300 T and average induction rise rate 3 × 10{sup 9} T/s, the double-layer structure of a conductor makes it possible to achieve higher magnetic induction at the conductor surface before it explodes. This can be accounted for, in particular, by the reduction of the ratio of the Joule heat density to the energy density of the magnetic field at the surface of a double-layer conductor due to redistribution of the current density over the conductor cross section.

  8. Electrolysis products in a system formed by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution with Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Epifanov, Y.V.; Kul'skii, L.A.; Matskevich, E.S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper examines the dissolution of aluminum hydroxide gel on the electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte solutions and determine the compositions of the resulting compounds and the current yields. The authors used sodium sulfate to provide equivalent production of acid or alkali in the anode and cathode chambers. There is close correspondence between the anolyte and catholyte potentiometric and conductometric titration curves, which means that the methods can be used to analyze the electrolysis products in electrochemical coagulant regeneration. Data presented for determining the contents of the soluble aluminum compounds in the anolyte and catholyte in relation to the amount of electricity passed. It is shown that electrolysis in the system Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution + Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel in a diaphragmed electrolyzer provides water-soluble aluminum compounds: aluminum sulfate as intermediate and basic salts in the anolyte and an alkaline solution of sodium aluminate in the catholyte.

  9. Diffuse phase transition in Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Supratim; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Prakash, Om

    2013-02-05

    The morphotropic phase boundary composition viz. lithium sodium niobate, Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3}, (LNN-12) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. The temperature dependent permittivity response near transition temperature showed a diffused phase transition (DPT). The degree of diffuseness, {gamma}, using the modified Curie-Weiss law, was found to be 1.92, indicative of almost-complete diffuse phase transition. The planar coupling constant k{sub p}, and mechanical quality factor Q{sub m}, measured by resonance-antiresonance method, were 0.17 and 413 respectively. These parameter values make LNN-12 ceramic an attractive candidate for transducers applications.

  10. Measurement of electrical conductor drag coefficients in a free-air wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, L.

    1992-11-01

    Significant differences between conductor drag coefficients generated in wind tunnel tests and conductor drag coefficients derived from full-scale field load measurements have been reported. Most of these full-scale wind loading experiments measure swing angles and insulator forces on long conductor spans in the open air while wind tunnel tests measure drag force directly on short conductor segments under laboratory conditions. Difficulties arise when attempting to identify the causes of discrepancies in drag coefficients derived from these two different types of testing. The first phase of this research was to build a ``free-air wind tunnel`` to measure conductor drag coefficients in the open air with a wind-tunnel like test setup. This experiment was conducted to see if the same drag coefficients could be obtained by measuring conductor loads in open air as were measured in wind tunnels for similar conductor models. The tests were performed on one smooth cylinder and three conductor models with similar surface roughness. A test frame with necessary instrumentation attached was installed on a platform 20 meters above the ground. The existing wind tunnel drag coefficient data were compared with the drag coefficient data recorded at the TLMRC EPRI`s Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC). The results of this study show that the drag coefficients from the ``free-air wind tunnel`` are comparable to those obtained from quality wind tunnel tests in the wind velocity range that the field data were recorded. This implies that wind tunnel drag data are sufficient to determine the drag forces on a short segment of conductor in open air. Other experiments, are still necessary to resolve the discrepancies between the wind tunnel data and existing field data. This report summarizes the results from the first phase of research.

  11. Measurement of electrical conductor drag coefficients in a free-air wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, L. )

    1992-11-01

    Significant differences between conductor drag coefficients generated in wind tunnel tests and conductor drag coefficients derived from full-scale field load measurements have been reported. Most of these full-scale wind loading experiments measure swing angles and insulator forces on long conductor spans in the open air while wind tunnel tests measure drag force directly on short conductor segments under laboratory conditions. Difficulties arise when attempting to identify the causes of discrepancies in drag coefficients derived from these two different types of testing. The first phase of this research was to build a free-air wind tunnel'' to measure conductor drag coefficients in the open air with a wind-tunnel like test setup. This experiment was conducted to see if the same drag coefficients could be obtained by measuring conductor loads in open air as were measured in wind tunnels for similar conductor models. The tests were performed on one smooth cylinder and three conductor models with similar surface roughness. A test frame with necessary instrumentation attached was installed on a platform 20 meters above the ground. The existing wind tunnel drag coefficient data were compared with the drag coefficient data recorded at the TLMRC EPRI's Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC). The results of this study show that the drag coefficients from the free-air wind tunnel'' are comparable to those obtained from quality wind tunnel tests in the wind velocity range that the field data were recorded. This implies that wind tunnel drag data are sufficient to determine the drag forces on a short segment of conductor in open air. Other experiments, are still necessary to resolve the discrepancies between the wind tunnel data and existing field data. This report summarizes the results from the first phase of research.

  12. Application of cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) to maglev magnet systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, R.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Minervini, J.V.; Titus, P.H.; Pisera, J.

    1992-07-31

    The report summarizes the evaluation of Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) as an option for MAGLEV levitation coils. Superconducting magnets are cooled by: (1) immersion in a liquid helium bath at near saturation conditions; (2) conduction cooling of an epoxy-impregnated coil; or (3) use of CICC in which single-phase supercritical helium cooling becomes an intrinsic part of the conductor design with helium contained in the conductor sheath. Major problems with options 1 and 2 are mitigated by use of option 3. Many levitation coil geometries were reviewed and the racetrack coil shape selected for the levitation coil system design task.

  13. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOEpatents

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  14. Pressure rise during the quench of a superconducting magnet using internally cooled conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.; Shen, S.S.; Yeh, H.T.

    1980-01-01

    Superconducting magnets cooled by supercritical helium flowing through internal conductor passages are an alternative to magnets cooled in a boiling pool. This alternative involves a possible large pressure increase in the captured volume of helium during a quench. In the US Large Coil Program (LCP), three of six coils to be tested will use internally cooled conductors. This paper describes experiments performed to understand the quench behavior of the Westinghouse coil. Agreement between experiment and theory is good. Also discussed is the extension of this work to the EURATOM coil and the Swiss coil, as well as to any coils wound with internally cooled conductors.

  15. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and Jc distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS.

  16. Fabrication and modeling of stretchable conductors for traumatic brain injury research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenzhe

    Stretchable electronics are an emergent class of electronics that can retain their electric functionality under large mechanical deformation, such as stretching, bending and compression. Like traditional electric circuits, stretchable electronics rely on electrical conductors, but in this specific instance the conductors must also be stretchable. This thesis research had three goals: (1) fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that retain their electrical conductance when stretched by tens of percent of strain; (2) understand the underlying stretching mechanism of gold conductors on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates; (3) produce a special device---a stretchable microelectrode array, which contains a matrix of stretchable conductors that enables a new approach to studying traumatic brain injury. We first developed and optimized the micro-fabrication process to make elastically stretchable thin gold film conductors on PDMS substrates. The conductors can retain electrical conduction while being stretched reversibly to 140% uniaxially and 16% radially. We further developed a fabrication process to encapsulate the conductors with either a commercially available photopatternable silicone (PPS) or with PDMS. 100 microm by 100 microm vias were patterned in the encapsulation layer to expose electrical contacts. PPS encapsulated conductors can be stretched uniaxially to 80%, and the PDMS encapsulated conductor can be stretched to ˜15%, without losing electrical conduction. We also introduced acrylate-based shape memory polymers (SMPs) as a new type of substrate for stretchable conductors. Their stiffness can be tuned by varying the monomer composition or by changing the ambient temperature. Thin gold film conductors deposited on pre-strained SMPs remain conductive when first stretched and then relaxed to their pre-strain value. Moreover, an SMP can also serve as a stretchable carrier to make pre-strained conductors on an overlying PDMS membrane. The resistance of

  17. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Morgan, Dane; Grey, Clare

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  18. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} phosphors for solid-state lighting application

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Dawei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Guanhui; Shi, Jianxin Wu, Mingmei Su, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Novel phosphors of Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} and Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} were synthesized by a solid-state process and characterized with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), and fluorescence decay time. The relationship between the observed Ce{sup 3+} emission properties and the crystal structure of Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} is built and the result shows that Ce{sup 3+} ions occupy two non-equivalent Y{sup 3+} sites in the host. The codoping of Tb{sup 3+} in Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} can tune the emitting colour from blue to green and increase the luminescence quantum efficiency to 75.2% by the energy transfer of Ce{sup 3+}→Tb{sup 3+}. The energy transfer processes of Ce{sup 3+}–Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+} are analysed and determined to be electric dipole–dipole and dipole–quadrupole, respectively. The broad PLE spectra of Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} and Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} are well matched with the emission from near UV LED chips, which indicates that they are promising blue and green phosphors for phosphor-converted white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: Colour-tunable phosphors Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} with optimal quantum yield of 75.2% are synthesized and the phosphors can be served as n-UV pumped materials for LEDs. - Highlights: • Green phosphor Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} with quantum efficiency of 75.2% for n-UV application is synthesized. • The site occupation of Ce{sup 3+} in Na{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} is investigated with the crystal structure and photoluminescence spectra. • The energy transfer of Ce{sup 3+}–Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+}, which is responsible to the tunable emitting colour of the phosphor, is demonstrated and the mechanism is studied.

  19. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  20. Health effects of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses near down conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamus, Z. Á.; Novák, B.; Szücs, L.; Kiss, I.

    2011-06-01

    The lightning current generates a time varying magnetic field near down conductors, when lightning strikes the connected Franklin-rod. The down conductors are mounted on the wall of buildings, where residential places can be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields could generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body. If the duration and the gradient of the magnetic field were high enough, the peripheral nerves are excited. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near a down conductor with the human body. The interaction model has two parts: estimation of the magnetic fields surrounding the down conductor and evaluation of health effects of rapid changing magnetic fields on the human body.

  1. On the electrostatic equilibrium of charges and cavities in a conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Aritro

    2016-11-01

    We consider a charged conductor of arbitrary shape, in electrostatic equilibrium, with one or more cavities inside it, and with fixed charges placed outside the conductors and inside the cavities. The field inside a particular cavity is then only due to charges within that cavity itself and to the surface charge induced on the surface of the same cavity. A similar statement holds for the exterior of the conductor. Although this is an elementary property of conductors, it is not a trivial statement, as explained in this article. Undergraduate texts in electrodynamics do not discuss at length or provide a complete argument for an important problem such as this. Two simple and complete proofs are provided in this note with the help of the standard electrostatic uniqueness theorems.

  2. Neutron diffraction measurement of internal strain in the first Japanese ITER CS conductor sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmi, T.; Harjo, S.; Nunoya, Y.; Kajitani, H.; Koizumi, N.; Aizawa, K.; Machiya, S.; Osamura, K.

    2013-08-01

    Several conductor samples were fabricated and tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP for ITER Central Solenoid (CS) conductor qualification. From the result of the cyclic testing on the first and second conductor samples named CSJA01 and CSJA02, continuous linear degradation of the current sharing temperature (Tcs) was found. From the result of the visual inspection, a large deflection on the lower loading side (LLS) in the high field zone (HFZ) was observed. The bending strain of the strands cannot be evaluated from only the deflection obtained visually. To evaluate the strain of strands in CSJA01 quantitatively, a neutron diffraction measurement of the CSJA01 left leg was performed using the engineering materials diffractometer ‘Takumi’ in J-PARC. From the result, the large bending strain at the LLS in the HFZ was found. Therefore, the Tcs degraded position in the conductor sample due to the cyclic testing can be determined.

  3. Numerical modelling of impedance spectra of ionic conductor-insulator core-shell composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugier, J.-M.; Raymond, L.; Albinet, G.; Knauth, P.

    2011-09-01

    Impedance spectra of ionic conductor-insulator core-shell composites are simulated in Cole-Cole and Bode representation using a 3D lattice of parallel resistance-capacitance elements. The composite model is based on a random ternary network, considering three impedance elements: good conductor (representing interface regions), conductor and insulator. The favourable interactions between the two phases lead to a significant non-random situation versus usual percolation models. Two percolation transitions are well observed: the first corresponds to ionic conduction enhancement by space charge layers. After the second transition, the conduction pathways are blocked by the insulator and the conductivity drops dramatically. Experimental impedance spectra of model copper- and lithium-ion conducting composites and nanocomposites are in good agreement with the simulation. The dc conductivity maximum can be described by a master equation: σmax ~ N-0.79 where N is proportional to the ionic conductor grain size.

  4. Simple method for high-performance stretchable composite conductors with entrapped air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Dae-Gon; Jang, Nam-Su; Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-12-01

    We integrate air bubbles into conductive elastic composite-based stretchable conductors to make them mechanically less stiff and electrically more robust against physical deformations. A surfactant facilitates both the formation and maintenance of air bubbles inside the elastic composites, leading to a simple fabrication of bubble-entrapped stretchable conductors. Based on the unique bubble-entrapped architecture, the elastic properties are greatly enhanced and the resistance change in response to tensile strains can clearly be controlled. The bubble-entrapped conductor achieves ~80 % elongation at ~3.4 times lower stress and ~44.8 % smaller change in the electrical resistance at 80 % tensile strain, compared to bare conductor without air bubbles.

  5. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  6. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-05-31

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current sharing temperature, Tcs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the Toroidal Field (TF) and the Central Solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that Tcs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some Tcs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganicmore » Materials (VNIINM) avoided Tcs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of Tcs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but Tcs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). Furthermore, it appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.« less

  7. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-07-01

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current-sharing temperature, T cs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the toroidal field (TF) and the central solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that T cs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some T cs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) avoided T cs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of T cs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but T cs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). It appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.

  8. Magnetic line source diffraction by a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saeed

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an analytic theory for the magnetic line source diffraction by a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) step is developed. Using the duality transformation, introduced by Lindell and Sihvola, transformations have been made from the diffraction of a magnetic line source by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) step. As an application, plane wave diffracted from a planar interface of air and PEMC media is studied. PEC and PMC are the limiting cases, while there is no cross-polarized component.

  9. Thermal Lifshitz Force between an Atom and a Conductor with a Small Density of Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Pitaevskii, L. P.

    2008-10-17

    A new theory describing the interaction between atoms and a conductor with small densities of current carriers is presented. The theory takes into account the penetration of the static component of the thermally fluctuating field in the conductor and generalizes the Lifshitz theory in the presence of a spatial dispersion. The equation obtained for the force describes the continuous crossover between the Lifshitz results for dielectrics and metals.

  10. Thermal hydraulic characteristics study of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, Ryuji

    1995-10-31

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) significantly affects the overall design and performance of the associated large scale superconducting magnet system. It is essential to understand the transient and steady state behavior of the helium in the conductor. Throughout the development of CICCs, the reduction of flow impedance has been one of the key factors to improving the overall pressure drop. The newly developed CICC for the ITER project has a hybrid cooling scheme: a central channel that is surrounded by bundles, for which the thermal hydraulic characteristics are not well understood. This thesis describes an experimental and analytical investigation of thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in conventional and hybrid CICCS. Pressure drop measurements for both NET and CEA conductors have been conducted, using low temperature helium and liquid nitrogen to obtain a range of Reynolds numbers. The results are correlated with classical friction factor and Reynolds number analysis. The flow impedance reduction of the CEA conductor is described by measures of a developed flow model. Thermally induced flow in the CEA conductor has been studied with an inductive heating method. The induced velocity in the central channel is measured by a Pitot tube with steady state Reynolds number up to {approximately}7000. The transient pressure wave propagation has been recorded with pressure transducers placed equally along the conductor. The supercritical helium temperature in the central channel has been measured with the thermometer probe. However, the reduction of the central channel area significantly affects the overall thermal hydraulic characteristics of the conductor. The results suggest the importance of the central channel. A transient heat transfer experiment studied the.transverse heat transfer mechanism in the CEA conductor. The temperatures in the central channel and bundle region

  11. Low-loss LIGA-micromachined conductor-backed coplanar waveguide.

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, Michael A.

    2004-12-01

    A mesoscale low-loss LIGA-micromachined conductor-backed coplanar waveguide is presented. The 517 {micro}m lines are the tallest uniplanar LIGA-fabricated microwave transmission lines to date, as well as the first to be constructed of copper rather than nickel. The conductor-backed micromachined CPW on quartz achieves a measured attenuation of 0.064 dB/cm at 15.5 GHz.

  12. Qualification of the US made conductors for ITER TF magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Hatfield, D; Miller, J; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Seber, B

    2009-10-08

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the TF conductor for ITER. In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  13. Qualification of the US Made Conductors for ITER TF Magnet System

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Hatfield, Daniel R; Miller, John R; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Seber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the TF conductor for ITER. In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  14. 4. "TEST CONDUCTORS PANEL AT TEST STAND 1A, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. "TEST CONDUCTORS PANEL AT TEST STAND 1-A, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB, 15 JAN 58, 3098.58." A photograph of the control room, with seven men watching monitors and instrument panels. Photo no. "3098 58; G-AFFTC 15 JAN 58; Test Conductors Panel T.S. 1-A". - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Scattering theory of nonlinear thermoelectricity in quantum coherent conductors.

    PubMed

    Meair, Jonathan; Jacquod, Philippe

    2013-02-27

    We construct a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear thermoelectric transport through sub-micron scale conductors. The theory incorporates the leading nonlinear contributions in temperature and voltage biases to the charge and heat currents. Because of the finite capacitances of sub-micron scale conducting circuits, fundamental conservation laws such as gauge invariance and current conservation require special care to be preserved. We do this by extending the approach of Christen and Büttiker (1996 Europhys. Lett. 35 523) to coupled charge and heat transport. In this way we write relations connecting nonlinear transport coefficients in a manner similar to Mott's relation between the linear thermopower and the linear conductance. We derive sum rules that nonlinear transport coefficients must satisfy to preserve gauge invariance and current conservation. We illustrate our theory by calculating the efficiency of heat engines and the coefficient of performance of thermoelectric refrigerators based on quantum point contacts and resonant tunneling barriers. We identify, in particular, rectification effects that increase device performance. PMID:23343784

  17. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES. PMID:25380254

  18. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Ralph H.; Maranas, Janna K; Mueller, Karl T; Runt, James; Winey, Karen I

    2015-03-05

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li, Na, Cs or polycations that conduct small anions F, OH, Br. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials charactization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li is -60 C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ~ -75C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  19. Fine Grained nb for Internal Tin NB3SN Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, S.; Barber, R. E.; Huang, Y.; Miao, H.; Parrell, J. A.; Hong, S.; Griffin, R. B.; Hartwig, K. T.

    2010-04-01

    The push to drive superconductor strand technology to reach higher critical current density (Jc) values and reduce production costs has led to innovative approaches in manufacturing technology. The Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) by Oxford Instruments is one such process which involves Nb bar extrusions in a Cu sheath. Commercially available Nb used in the initial RRP extrusion leads to nonuniform deformations of the Nb bar which in turn leads to a jagged Cu-Nb interface. This report presents a feasible methodology to remedy the problem of nonuniform deformation of Nb through severe plastic deformation (SPD) of precursor Nb to obtain smaller grains in starting Nb. Cu-Nb monocore extrusion and drawing experiments were accomplished at Oxford Instruments using Nb bars of nominal dimensions 45 mm diameter by and 78 mm long and with grain sizes in the range of μm to mm. Results of Cu-Nb interface roughness measurements show that a finer starting grain size gives a significantly lower roughness and better Nb core conformance to initial shape. Our experiments indicate that refinement of the initial Nb grain size to below ˜50μm could enable fabrication of RRP conductor with improved wire yield.

  20. Organic conductor/high-Tc superconductor bilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Marvin B.; Jones, Christopher E.; Haupt, Steven G.; Zhao, Jianai; McDevitt, John T.

    1996-07-01

    Electrochemical techniques are exploited to fabricate conductive polymer/high Tc superconductor bilayer structures. SCanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques are utilized to characterize the electrodeposition of polypyrrole layers grown onto YBa2Cu3O7-(delta ) films. In such hybrid polymer/superconductor systems, it is found that when the polymer is oxidized to its conductive state, the transition temperatures (Tc) and critical currents (Jc) of the underlying superconductor film are suppressed. Reversible modulation of the values of the transition temperatures of up to 50K are noted for these structures. Upon reduction of the conductive polymer layer back to its non-conductive form, both Tc and Jc are found to return to values close to those acquired for the underivatized YBa2Cu3O7-(delta ) film. Moreover, measurements as a function of temperature of the polymer/superconductor interface resistance show dramatic decrease in this value at Tc. ALso, estimates of superconducting coherence lengths within the organic conductor samples suggest superconducting properties over macroscopically large distances within the organic materials can be expected. Collectively these results are consistent with the first observation of a conductive polymer proximity effect.

  1. Organic conductor/high-{Tc} superconductor bilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.B.; Jones, C.E.; Haupt, S.G.; Zhao, J.; McDevitt, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Electrochemical techniques are exploited to fabricate conducive polymer/high-{Tc} superconductor bilayer structures. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques are utilized to characterize the electrodeposition of polypyrrole layers grown onto YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} films. In such hybrid polymer/superconductor systems, it is found that when the polymer is oxidized to its conductive state, the transition temperature ({Tc}) and critical currents (J{sub c}) of the underlying superconductor films are suppressed. Reversible modulation of the values of the transition temperatures of up to 50 K are noted for these structures. Upon reduction of the conductive polymer layer back to its non-conductive form, both {Tc} and J{sub c} are found to return to values close to those acquired for the underivatized YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} films. Moreover, measurements as a function of temperature of the polymer/superconductor interface resistance show dramatic decrease in this value at {Tc}. Also, estimates of superconducting coherence lengths within the organic conductor samples suggest superconducting properties over macroscopically large distances within the organic materials can be expected. Collectively these results are consistent with the first observation of a conductive polymer proximity effect.

  2. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.

    2014-11-01

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.

  3. Impurity induced current oscillations in one-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, S. N.; Shapiro, D. S.; Vakhitov, R. R.; Remizov, S. V.

    2009-11-01

    We study theoretically electronic transport through an isolated local defect in a 1D conductor described in terms of the Luttinger liquid, and show that the well-known tunneling regime of electronic transport leading to power-law I-V curves takes place only in the limit of small voltage. At voltages exceeding a threshold value a new dynamic regime of transport starts in which the DC current bar I induces AC oscillations of frequency f = bar I/e. In gated quantum wires where interaction between electrons is short-ranged, generation linewidth is small provided the inter-electronic repulsion is strong enough, otherwise a wide-band noise is generated. In case of long-range Coulomb interaction generation is coherent at any interaction strength. The effect is related to interaction of the current with Friedel oscillations of the electronic density around the impurity. Manifestations of the effect resemble the Coulomb blockade and the Josephson effect. Oscillations of the electric current are accompanied by spin current oscillations. The results are related to semiconducting quantum wires, metallic atomic chains, carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons and others.

  4. A Fabrication Method for Highly Stretchable Conductors with Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shih-Pin; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics are identified as a key technology for electronic applications in the next generation. One of the challenges in fabrication of stretchable electronic devices is the preparation of stretchable conductors with great mechanical stability. In this study, we developed a simple fabrication method to chemically solder the contact points between silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. AgNW nanomesh was first deposited on a glass slide via spray coating method. A reactive ink composed of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) precursors was applied over the spray coated AgNW thin films. After heating for 40 min, AgNPs were preferentially generated over the nanowire junctions to solder the AgNW nanomesh, and reinforced the conducting network. The chemically modified AgNW thin film was then transferred to polyurethane (PU) substrates by casting method. The soldered AgNW thin films on PU exhibited no obvious change in electrical conductivity under stretching or rolling process with elongation strains up to 120%. PMID:26862843

  5. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  6. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  7. High-temperature-superconductor coated conductors: technical progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2000-01-01

    It is now a widespread view that a high-Jc superconducting wire with a high performance under strong magnetic fields at liquid-nitrogen temperature needs to be realized by the material Y-123. However, because of the weak linking nature of this material, the fabrication of the wire must be based on a coated-conductor process to achieve a highly textured Y-123 thin film on a long starting wire tape. Various attempts to obtain a textured substrate with sizable length have been made by various methods, with or without the aid of buffer layers. Approaches to the fabrication of an epitaxial thin film of Y-123 have also been made from vapour, liquid, or solid phases by different methods. Therefore, combinations of these proposed processes in each category have led to several promising on-going worldwide approaches to achieve the realization of practical coated superconducting wires in the near future. This review focuses on the most outstanding achievements in Japan.

  8. Na+ and Li+ NASICON Superionic Conductors Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perthuis, H.; Velasco, G.; Colomban, Ph.

    1984-05-01

    For microionic applications, superionic conductors have been elaborated in the form of thick films, using silk-screen printable powders. Na3Zr2Si2PO12, Na3.1Zr1.55Si2.3P0.7O11 and Li0.8Zr1.8Ta0.2(PO4)3 compositions are synthesized by a sol-gel process involving hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions of metal-organic alcoholic solutions. A thermal treatment (600°C-800°C) allows to obtain very fine particles (<1 μm) with the pure NASICON phase. Inks are prepared with these powders, an organic binder, volatile fluidifying agents and mineralizers. The layers, about 50 μm in thickness, are achieved by successive deposits and sinterings (950°C-1050°C) onto alumina substrates. Films conductivity is determined by the complex impedance method. Values measured at 300°C (Na+: σ˜10-2 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.25 eV, Li+: σ˜5 10-4 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.5 eV) reach those obtained with well-densified ceramics. An anisotropic behaviour related to microstructure is pointed out.

  9. The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Popescu, Elena-Anda; Drake, William B.; Jackson, David N.; Popescu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies based on fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) recordings used simplified volume conductor models to estimate the fetal cardiac vector as an unequivocal measure of the cardiac source strength. However, the effect of simplified volume conductor modeling on the accuracy of the fMCG inverse solution remains largely unknown. Aiming to determine the sensitivity of the source estimators to the details of the volume conductor model, we performed simulations using fetal-maternal anatomical information from ultrasound images obtained in 20 pregnant women in various stages of pregnancy. The magnetic field produced by a cardiac source model was computed using the boundary element method for a piecewise homogeneous volume conductor with three nested compartments (fetal body, amniotic fluid and maternal abdomen) of different electrical conductivities. For late gestation, we also considered the case of a fourth highly insulating layer of vernix caseosa covering the fetus. The errors introduced for simplified volume conductors were assessed by comparing the reconstruction results obtained with realistic versus spherically symmetric models. Our study demonstrates a significant effect of simplified volume conductor modeling, resulting mainly in an underestimation of the cardiac vector magnitude and low goodness-of-fit. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of real fMCG data recorded in mid-gestation. PMID:22442179

  10. Test and Analysis of China's First Short Conductor Sample for ITER Toroidal Field Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yu

    2011-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER qualification tests, the first China TF conductor sample (CNTF1) was tested at the SULTAN facility. The sample was made of two TF conductor sections manufactured from identical internal stannum strands provided by the Oxford Superconducting technology company (OST). In order to evaluate the conductor performance, the current sharing temperature (Tcs) was measured at specified electromagnetic load cycling steps. Both conductor sections of the CNTF1 sample showed identical performance. Tcs was 7.2 K before cycling loading, and 6.9 K even after 950 cycles, without significant degradation, which substantially exceeds the ITER requirement of 5.7 K. The tests of the CNTF1 conductor sample showed that the electromagnetic cyclic load exhibited a negligible effect on the conductor performance. The coupling time constant θ for AC loss was 214 ms and 71.52 ms before and after the cycling load, respectively. The test results of the sample are compared with the strand performance and parameter model analysis.

  11. Energy margins in a dry-winding superconducting test coil Part 1: Dissipation within the conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Mehta, V.; Shigue, C. Y.; Iwasa, Y.

    To study the role of liquid helium trapped within the winding of 'dry' superconducting magnets, energy margins were measured in a dry-winding superconducting test coil. The test coil comprised five non-inductive layers, each wound with circular cross-section multifilamentary NbTi superconducting wire. A pulsed coil, applied only through the two middle layers of the test coil carrying a transport current in a background magnetic field, was used to simulate a transient disturbance induced within the conductor over a confined region of the magnet. Measured energy margins, with the test coil immersed in liquid helium or in gaseous helium, agree well with the conductor's enthalpy densities required to drive the conductor normal. Experimental results show that the liquid helium occupying the void space within the winding has no beneficial effect against transient disturbances induced internally in the conductor; it does, however, slow down quench propagation. Because of the presence of an insulation layer at the conductor surface, the winding is effectively adiabatic against internal disturbance pulses. The trapped liquid helium is expected to be beneficial against transient heating applied external to the conductor surface, as would be the case with mechanical disturbances.

  12. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  13. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293

  14. Structure and properties of Na{sub x}M{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·yH{sub 2}O, M=Co(III), Ni(III) honeycomb oxyhydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Roudebush, J.H. Cava, R.J.

    2013-08-15

    The oxyhydrates Na{sub 0.85}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.7H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.5H{sub 2}O were prepared by Br{sub 2} oxidation of Na{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6} and exposure to ambient air. Their composition and structure are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Both form monolayer hydrates with metal cations (Co or Ni) near the 3+ oxidation state. In the parent materials, MO{sub 6} octahedra surround SbO{sub 6} units, forming a honeycomb geometry; Rietveld refinement of the hydrate phases indicate that this motif is retained. Magnetic susceptibility plots display paramagnetic behavior and Curie–Weiss fits support the 3+ oxidation state (low spin d{sup 6}s=0 for Co and low spin d{sup 7}s=1/2 for Ni). Close inspection of the Ni hydrate’s susceptibility reveals a feature at 6.2 K and a non-linear magnetization at 2 K with no saturation up to 9 T. Heat capacity measurements show a large amount of excess entropy in the Ni hydrate in the 2–20 K temperature range, while the heat capacity of the Co hydrate can be described by a simple lattice contribution. The Ni hydrate sample is easily dehydrated by heating above 100 °C and forms a new Na-deficient phase, Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}, which is stable at room temperature. Magnetic susceptibility of this phase is consistent with the Ni atom remaining in the 3+ oxidation state after dehydration. - Graphical abstract: Powder diffraction patterns of Na{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}, Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.5H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}. Each pattern has been normalized in intensity. Cartoons depict the change in layer separation with hydration and give the approximate distances between layers and Ni atoms. Highlights: • New oxyhydrate phases with honeycomb lattices are formed. • Curie–Weiss fits indicate Ni{sup 3+} (s=1/2). • Heat capacity shows a large release of entropy for

  15. Temperature-dependent framework–template interaction of |Na{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}|[ZnPO{sub 4}]{sub 6} sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Robben, Lars Gesing, Thorsten M.

    2013-11-15

    The partial dehydration followed by the decomposition of sodium-zincophosphate-hydrosodalite caused by the total water loss was examined by temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy as well as thermogravimetry combined with difference thermoanalysis. The dehydration causing the decomposition of this sodalite could be described in a two step-process. Initially two water molecules per unit-cell were lost, changing the interaction between the zincophosphate framework and the remaining water molecules as well as sodium cations as non-framework constituents. In this stage a 3+3 coordination of water molecules and sodium cations in the sodalite cage is observed. Using the autocorrelation function (AC) for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of sodalites is reported here for the first time. Calculating the changes in the AC broadness, structural features could well be analyzed due to its correlation with respective structural parameters. Temperature dependent Raman data was used to give a band assignment of bands at Raman shifts below 300 cm{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: The thermal decomposition of |Na{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}|[ZnPO{sub 4}]{sub 6} sodalite is a two-step process with an initial loss of two water molecules at 400 K, intermediately stabilizing the highly stressed framework. Further heating leads to a subsequent loss of the remaining six water molecules and a breakup of the sodalite framework. A beryllonite-type NaZnPO{sub 4} is the final product of this process. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The decomposition of |Na{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}|[ZnPO{sub 4}]{sub 6} sodalite is a two-step process. • Initial loss of two water molecule at 400 K stabilizes the sodalite (step 1). • Further heating leads to complete loss of water and structural breakdown. • Autocorrelation of temperature dependent FTIR-spectra gives structural information.

  16. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  17. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

  18. Influence of O-Co-O layer thickness on the thermal conductivity of Na{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} studied by positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. Q.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, T.; Li, X. F.; He, H. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Su, X. L.; Tang, X. F.

    2015-07-21

    Nominal stoichiometric Na{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0) polycrystals were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. They were further pressed into pellets by the spark plasma sintering. The crystal structure and morphology of Na{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements. Good crystallinity and layered structures were observed for all the samples. Positron annihilation measurements were performed for Na{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a function of Na content. Two lifetime components are resolved. τ{sub 1} is attributed mainly to positron annihilation in the O-Co-O layers and shifts to Na layers only in the H3 phase. The second lifetime τ{sub 2} is due to positron annihilation in vacancy clusters which may exist in the Na layers or grain boundary region. The size of vacancy clusters grow larger but their concentration decreases with increasing Na content in the range of 1.0 < x < 1.8. The thickness of O-Co-O layer also shows continuous increase with increasing Na content, which is reflected by the increase of τ{sub 1}. The thermal conductivity κ, on the other hand, shows systematic decrease with increasing Na content. This suggests that the increasing spacing of O-Co-O layer could effectively reduce the thermal conductivity of Na{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  19. Growth and characterization of thin oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) films obtained by decomposition of layered cobaltates Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Kužel, Radomír; Mika, Filip

    2015-07-15

    The formation and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films prepared by a novel procedure from weakly (001)-oriented Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} is reported. The Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} films were deposited on both single crystal and amorphous substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) method and crystallized at 700 °C. Subsequently they were transformed into (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase during post-growth annealing at 900 °C. The degree of preferred orientation in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which was determined by phi-scan and pole figure measurements, depends on the content of Na in the starting Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} phase. Surface morphology of the films was investigated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. - Graphical abstract: Structure of growth twins and possible O{sup 2−} stacking sequences in (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) prepared by chemical solution deposition through the transformation of (001)-oriented Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} thin film. - Highlights: • Single phase Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films was prepared by means of chemical solution deposition. • Conditions for γ-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} transformation were optimized. • Growth twinning of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films due to two possible O{sup 2−} stacking sequences. • Growth with (pseudo)epitaxial relation Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111)[−121]//α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001)[10−10].

  20. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  1. Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hwi-Yeol; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Heun; Nahm, Sahn; Uchino, Kenji; Lee, Hyeung-Gyu; Lee, Hwack-Joo

    2006-08-07

    For 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} (0.95NKN-0.05BT) ceramics sintered at 1040-1075 deg. C, abnormal grain growth occurred but the grain size decreased when the sintering temperature exceeded 1075 deg. C. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}), electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}), and piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) were considerably increased with increasing relative density and grain size. Evaporation of Na{sub 2}O deteriorated the piezoelectric properties by decreasing the resistivity. To minimize Na{sub 2}O evaporation, specimens were muffled with 0.95NKN-0.05BT powders during the sintering. Improved piezoelectric properties of d{sub 33}=225 pC/N, k{sub p}=36%, and {epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}=1058 were obtained for specimen sintered at 1060 deg. C for 2 h with muffling.

  2. Photoluminescence and thermal stability of yellow-emitting Na{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor for light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jiayue Di, Qiumei; Cui, Dianpeng

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors are obtained via a solid-state reaction method. • Excitation at 402 nm, the yellow color purity is close to 100%. • The mechanism of concentration quenching is dipole–dipole interaction. • The temperature-dependent luminescence property exceed that of YAG:Ce{sup 3+}. - Abstract: A series of yellow-emitting Na{sub 2}(Ba{sub 2−x}Sm{sub x})Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} phosphors have been prepared via solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, temperature-dependent luminescence property, concentration quenching mechanism and luminescence lifetime are applied to characterize the obtained samples. Under 402 nm near ultraviolent excitation, the samples emit yellow light and the color purity is close to 100%. The critical quenching concentration of Sm{sup 3+} in the Na{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} host is about 3.6 mol% and corresponding quenching behavior is ascribed to be electric dipole–dipole interaction. Furthermore, the phosphor has good thermal stability property, superior to the commercial yellow Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor and the activation energy for thermal quenching is calculated as 0.18 eV.

  3. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-08-01

    Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  4. Quantum electronic properties of the Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Staver, P.R.; Ramponi, A.J.; Chase, L.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-06-01

    Few of the existing Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers have achieved the slope efficiency and tuning range expected based on their known spectroscopic properties. In order to discover the causes of this behavior, the performance of chromium doped gallium fluoride garnet, Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, as a laser material has been investigated experimentally. The data reported here include absorption and emission spectra, emission rates, quantum efficiency, laser wavelength tuning range, laser output slope efficiencies, and excited state absorption spectra. Similar properties of the alexandrite laser material were studied for comparison. The results indicate that the performance of the gallium fluoride garnet laser is severely limited by Cr/sup 3+/ excited state absorption (ESA). A model is presented to account for the unexpected nature of the ESA, which appears to be a common problem for all Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers. Criteria are suggested for choosing Cr/sup 3+/ hosts for which the effects of ESA will be minimized.

  5. Corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys coated with TiN by cathodic arc deposition in NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Altun, Hikmet Sinici, Hakan

    2008-03-15

    Magnesium-based light-metal alloys belong to a class of structural materials with increasing industrial attention. Magnesium alloys show the lowest density among the engineering metallic materials, low cost and large availability. However, the limitations according to mechanical strength and the low corrosion resistance restrict their practical application. In this study, TiN was coated on magnesium-based AZ91 magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloy using cathodic arc PVD process. The corrosion behaviours of uncoated and coated magnesium alloys in 1% NaCl, 3% NaCl and 3% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions and the influence of the coatings on the corrosion behaviour of the substrate were investigated utilizing potentiodynamic polarization tests. A potentiostat for electrochemical corrosion tests, a cathodic arc physical vapour deposition coating system for coating processes, a scanning electron microscopy for surface examination and elemental analysis of the coatings were used in this study. It was determined that corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys can be increased with TiN coating on the alloys using cathodic arc PVD process.

  6. Laser cooling of the vibrational motion of Na{sub 2} combining the effects of zero-width resonances and exceptional points

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.; Jaouadi, A.; Dulieu, O.; Atabek, O.

    2011-10-15

    We propose various scenarios for molecular vibrational cooling combining the effects of two kinds of resonance states occurring during the photodissociation of Na{sub 2} taken as an illustrative example. Such resonances result from an appropriate sampling of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity): (a) For particular choices of intensity and wavelength, two resonance energies can be brought to complete coalescence, with their positions and widths becoming equal and leading to a so-called exceptional point (EP) in the parameter plane. Advantage can be taken from such points for very selective laser-controlled vibrational transfer strategies. (b) For specific intensities, far beyond the perturbation regime, some resonances can have a zero width (infinite lifetime). They are referred to as a zero-width resonance (ZWR) and may be used for vibrational purification purposes. We show how appropriately shaped, experimentally reachable laser pulses, encircling EPs or inducing ZWRs, may be used for a thorough and comprehensive control aiming at population transfer or purification schemes, which, starting from an initial field-free vibrational distribution, ends up in the ground vibrational level.

  7. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kai-Christian Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions.

  8. Single crystal structure and Raman spectrum of Ba{sub 3}Na{sub 2}(CN{sub 2}){sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yongkwan; DiSalvo, Francis J. . E-mail: fjd3@cornell.edu

    2006-05-15

    The synthesis, single crystal structure determination, and Raman spectrum are reported for colorless transparent tribarium disodium tetracyanamide, Ba{sub 3}Na{sub 2}(CN{sub 2}){sub 4}. The title compound crystallizes in the space group C{sub 2h}{sup 5}-P2{sub 1}/c (14, a=6.2872(5)A, b=10.0002(8)A, c=17.7303(16)A, {beta}=110.454(4){sup o}, V=1044.48(15)A{sup 3}, Z=4, R/wR=0.0266/0.0543). Each sodium atom is surrounded by six nitrogen atoms in octahedral geometry. Sodium centered nitrogen octahedra are linked through face-sharing along the [100] direction to form one-dimensional (1D) chains. These chains are connected to each other through the carbon atoms of cyanamide and make a three-dimensional (3D) network with 1D channels along the [100] direction. Barium atoms and additional cyanamide anions reside in the channels. Each barium atom is irregularly coordinated with nitrogen and carbon from the cyanamide anions. The Raman spectrum shows symmetric vibrations of [N?C?N]{sup 2-} corresponding to {nu}{sub sym} (1241.5cm{sup -1}) and 2{delta} (1356.4cm{sup -1})

  9. Structure and conductivity of the NASICON analog Na/sub 3/SC/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Susman, S.; Delbecq, C.J.; Brun, T.O.; Prince, E.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na/sub 3/SC/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ are presented that show the transition from an ordinary-conducting, high temperature phase to a still higher temperature, superionic conducting phase. There are at least four polymorphic modifications. At room temperature, the refined neutron diffraction data confirm the Cc space group reported by Efremov and Kalinin but with a = 16.0449(24), b = 8.9225(15), c = 9.0656(13)A, ..beta.. = 126.918(21), R/sub weighted pattern/ = 17.5%, and R/sub expected/ = 7%. Between 25/sup 0/C and 64/sup 0/C, a second polymorph appears. The structure is monoclinic but has not yet been refined. At 64/sup 0/C, a third polymorph C appears. It is rhombohedral R3c. Using hexagonal axes, a = 8.9273(2), c = 22.3668A, R/sub wp/ = 6.28% and R/sub e/ = 3.83% at 100/sup 0/C. At 166/sup 0/C, the high temperature polymorph D appears. It is the superconducting phase of NASICON(Sc). It, too, is rhombohedral R3c with a = 8.9274(1), c = 22.5493(6)A, R/sub wp/ = 5.81% and R/sub e/ = 3.87% at 225/sup 0/C. The diffraction data are correlated with ionic conductivity measurements as a function of temperature.

  10. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  11. Keeping an eye on the conductor: neural correlates of visuo-motor synchronization and musical experience

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures. PMID:25883561

  12. A review of conductor performance for the LARP high-gradient quadrupole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godeke, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ghosh, A. K.; Marchevsky, M.; Mentink, M. G. T.; Sabbi, G. L.

    2013-09-01

    We summarize critical current measurements and parameterizations of the data of 112 round wires and extracted strands that were reacted with the first 17 coils for the high-gradient quadrupole (HQ) magnets for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). We standardize the strand parameterizations and coil ‘short sample’ calculations, and demonstrate that the entire critical current database can be captured in two scaling parameters per coil. These parameters summarize the short sample performance for each coil for either HQ magnet tests, or mirror tests of individual coils. We also demonstrate that for RRP® conductors, generic strain scaling parameters can be derived for at least four substantially different wire configurations, and standardize self-field corrections for LARP. The parameterized conductor performance is used to judge the performance of the HQ magnets and mirror tests. We find that although the HQ magnets reach around 86% of their short sample limitations, they are limited by factors other than the critical current of the conductor. Individual coils in mirror tests reach up to 98% of the expected performance, and do appear limited by the critical current of the conductor. Detailed analysis of short sample performance through accurate parameterizations simplifies the accessibility of short sample data, and enables accurate judgment of magnet performance as well as conductor and cable quality.

  13. Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malroy, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    The programs, arrays and logic structure were developed to enable the dynamic update of conductors in thermal desktop. The MatLab program FMHTPRE.m processes the Thermal Desktop conductors and sets up the arrays. The user needs to manually copy portions of the output to different input regions in Thermal Desktop. Also, Fortran subroutines are provided that perform the actual updates to the conductors. The subroutines are setup for helium gas, but the equations can be modified for other gases. The maximum number of free molecular conductors allowed is 10,000 for a given radiation task. Additional radiation tasks for FMHT can be generated to account for more conductors. Modifications to the Fortran subroutines may be warranted, when the mode of heat transfer is in the mixed or continuum mode. The FMHT Thermal Desktop model should be activated by using the "Case Set Manager" once the model is setup. Careful setup of the model is needed to avoid excessive solve times.

  14. Carbon-coated LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3) : an ideal insertion host for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Ling, Wong Chui; Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-03-01

    We report the extraordinary performance of carbon-coated sodium super ion conductor (NASICON)-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 as an ideal host matrix for reversible insertion of both Li and Na ions. The NASICON-type compound was prepared by means of a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method and was subsequently carbon coated. Several characterization techniques such as XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field-emission (FE) SEM, TEM, and Raman analysis were used to study the physicochemical properties. Both guest species underwent a two-phase insertion mechanism during the charge/discharge process that was clearly evidenced from galvanostatic and cyclic voltammetric studies. Unlike that of Li (≈1.5 moles of Li), Na insertion exhibits better reversibility (≈1.59 moles of Na) while experiencing a slightly higher capacity fade (≈8 % higher than Li) and polarization (780 mV) than Li. However, excellent rate capability profiles were noted for Na insertion relative to its counterpart Li. Overall, the Na insertion properties were found to be superior relative to Li insertion, which makes carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 hosts attractive for the development of next-generation batteries. PMID:24449337

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of alluaudite-like triple molybdate Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24}

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, Aleksandra A.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Belov, Dmitry A.; Basovich, Olga M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.; Lazoryak, Bogdan I.; Khaikina, Elena G.

    2014-12-15

    A new triple molybdate Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24} was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24} were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group P1{sup ¯}, a=12.5814(5), b=13.8989(5), c=28.4386(9) Å, α=90.108(2), β=90.064(2), γ=90.020(2)°, V=4973.0(3) Å{sup 3}, Z=2, R=0.0440). Characteristic features of the structure are polyhedral layers composed of pairs of edge-shared FeO{sub 6} and (Fe, Na)O{sub 6} octahedra, which are connected by bridging MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The layers share common vertices with bridging MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework with the cavities occupied by the Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} cations. The compound undergoes first-order phase transformation at 642 K and above this phase transition, electrical conductivity reaches 10{sup −3}–10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}. Thus, Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24} may be considered as a promising compound for developing new materials with high ionic conductivity. - Graphical abstract: A new triple molybdate Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24} was synthesized and structurally characterized, its physicochemical properties were studied. - Highlights: • New compound Na{sub 25}Cs{sub 8}Fe{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 24} was synthesized. • Physicochemical properties of the compound were studied. • The first-order phase transformation is observed. • Electrical conductivity above 642 K is (10{sup −2}–10{sup −3}) S cm{sup −1}. • New compound may be considered as promising object with high ionic conductivity.

  16. Defects and properties of cadmium oxide based transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Detert, D. M.; Chen, Guibin; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Chaoping; Grankowska, S.; Hsu, L.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conductors play an increasingly important role in a number of semiconductor technologies. This paper reports on the defects and properties of Cadmium Oxide, a transparent conducting oxide which can be potentially used for full spectrum photovoltaics. We carried out a systematic investigation on the effects of defects in CdO thin films undoped and intentionally doped with In and Ga under different deposition and annealing conditions. We found that at low growth temperatures (<200 °C), sputter deposition tends to trap both oxygen vacancies and compensating defects in the CdO film resulting in materials with high electron concentration of ˜2 × 1020/cm3 and mobility in the range of 40-100 cm2/V s. Thermal annealing experiments in different ambients revealed that the dominating defects in sputtered CdO films are oxygen vacancies. Oxygen rich CdO films grown by sputtering with increasing O2 partial pressure in the sputter gas mixture results in films with resistivity from ˜4 × 10-4 to >1 Ω cm due to incorporation of excess O in the form of O-related acceptor defects, likely to be O interstitials. Intentional doping with In and Ga donors leads to an increase of both the electron concentration and the mobility. With proper doping CdO films with electron concentration of more than 1021 cm-3 and electron mobility higher than 120 cm2/V s can be achieved. Thermal annealing of doped CdO films in N2 ambient can further improve the electrical properties by removing native acceptors and improving film crystallinity. Furthermore, the unique doping behavior and electrical properties of CdO were explored via simulations based on the amphoteric defect model. A comparison of the calculations and experimental results show that the formation energy of native donors and acceptors at the Fermi stabilization energy is ˜1 eV and that the mobility of sputtered deposited CdO is limited by a background acceptor concentration of ˜5-6 × 1020/cm3. The calculations offer an

  17. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  18. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Jinno, Hiroaki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-06-01

    The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm-1 and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm-1 when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment.

  19. Measurement Of Transverse Jc Profiles Of Coated Conductors Using A Magnetic Knife Of Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J; Mueller, F M; Ashworth, S P; Coulter, J Y; Matias, Vlad

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {mu}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  20. Experimental study of the nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and skin explosion of cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-11-15

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the skin explosion of cylindrical conductors of diameter 1–3 mm (copper, aluminum, titanium, steel 3, and stainless steel) at a peak magnetic field of 200–600 T. The experiments were carried out on the MIG pulsed power generator at a current of up to 2.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns. The surface explosion of a conductor was identified by the appearance of a flash of extreme ultraviolet radiation. A minimum magnetic induction has been determined below which no plasma is generated at the conductor surface. For copper, aluminum, steel 3, titanium, and stainless steel, the minimum magnetic induction has been estimated to be (to within 10%) 375, 270, 280, 220, and 245 T, respectively.

  1. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Jinno, Hiroaki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm−1 and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm−1 when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment. PMID:26109453

  2. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  3. Global test of the conductor for Tore Supra under actual working conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, R.; Deck, C.; Genevey, P.; Lefevre, F.; Leloup, C.; Meuris, C.; Palanque, S.; Sagniez, A.; Turck, B.

    1981-09-01

    In a plasma current disruption event, the superconducting winding of the toroidal coils of a Tokomak must suffer severe conditions of magnetic field variations without losing superconductivity. An experimental setup has been built to simulate conditions which would eventually occur in ''Tore Supra'' and study the behavior of the designed conductor. A sample of this conductor is subjected simultaneously to a dc transverse magnetic field up to 9.5 T, a transport current up to 2200 amp and two pulsed field components: one parallel to the conductor length, up to 1 T and one perpendicular, up to 0.35 T. The time constant of these pulsed field components is adjustable from 8 to 150 ms. They can be applied independently or simultaneously. The experimental arrangement is able to provide quantitative limits for safe operations of ''Tore Supra''. 7 refs.

  4. Computational modelling of large aluminium stabilized conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Sampson, P.L.

    1996-07-01

    Many of the detector magnets in use for Particle Physics experiments are based on a common technology developed in the 1980s: indirect cooling, pure aluminium stabilized conductor and monolithic resin impregnation (DELPHI, ALEPH, H1, TOPAZ etc.). In such indirectly cooled magnets stable behavior is a balance between the transient heat removal capacity of the winding and the thermal disturbances. For the extrapolation in magnet technology towards LHC detectors it is important to understand more fully this stability balance. This paper describes computational modelling techniques developed to predict the behavior of conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix. The verification of the model is based on experimental studies of a test coil for the DELPHI solenoid. The computational model has been used to carry out a parametric study of the stability of the conductors proposed for the ATLAS End Cap Toroids at LHC. Results of the parametric study are presented.

  5. Measurements of Nb3Sn conductor dimension changes during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bocian, D.; Ambrosio, G.; Whitson, G.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    During the heat treatment of Nb{sub 3}Sn coils the conductor material properties change significantly. These effects together with the changes of the conductor dimensions during heat treatment may introduce large strain in the coils for accelerator magnets. The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has initiated a study aiming at understanding the thermal expansion and contraction of Nb3Sn strands, cables and coils during heat treatment. Several measurements on strands and cables were performed in order to have sufficient inputs for finite element simulation of the dimensional changes during heat treatment. In this paper the results of measurements of OST-RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor used in the LARP magnet program are discussed.

  6. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas

    2012-03-30

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows for a straightforward classification of conducting materials according to the resulting dissipative loss in the metamaterial. Application of our method predicts that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors are not viable alternatives for metals in metamaterials. We also provide an overview of a number of transition metals, alkali metals and transparent conducting oxides. For plasmonic systems, we predict that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors cannot outperform gold as a platform for surface plasmon polaritons, because graphene has a smaller propagation length-to-wavelength ratio.

  7. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  8. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head.

  9. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  10. Coulomb motor by rotation of spherical conductors via the electrostatic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wistrom, Anders O.; Khachatourian, Armik V. M.

    2002-04-01

    Three spherical conductors fixed in space and held at constant potential produces a rotational force that causes the conductors to rotate about their axis. The motor is described by an expression for the moment of force given by Coulomb's law complemented by Gauss' law of the electric potential. The observed rotation is likely to be general and apply to machines of all size scales where the electrostatic force is the dominant operative force. This would include systems ranging in size from molecular to macroscopic and be useful for devices that require rotational motion.

  11. Decoherence and relaxation of a single electron in a one-dimensional conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marguerite, A.; Cabart, C.; Wahl, C.; Roussel, B.; Freulon, V.; Ferraro, D.; Grenier, Ch.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Martin, T.; Degiovanni, P.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2016-09-01

    We study the decoherence and relaxation of a single elementary electronic excitation propagating in a one-dimensional chiral conductor. Using two-particle interferences in the electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment, we analyze quantitatively the decoherence scenario of a single electron propagating along a quantum Hall edge channel at filling factor 2. The decoherence results from the emergence of collective neutral excitations induced by Coulomb interaction and leading, in one dimension, to the destruction of the elementary quasiparticle. This study establishes the relevance of electron quantum optics setups to provide stringent tests of strong interaction effects in one-dimensional conductors described by the Luttinger liquids paradigm.

  12. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.

    2007-12-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  13. An iodide-based Li7P2S8I superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liu, Zengcai; Gobet, Mallory; Pilar, Kartik; Sahu, Gayatri; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Hui; Greenbaum, Steve; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-02-01

    In an example of stability from instability, a Li(7)P(2)S(8)I solid-state Li-ion conductor derived from β-Li(3)PS(4) and LiI demonstrates electrochemical stability up to 10 V vs Li/Li(+). The oxidation instability of I is subverted via its incorporation into the coordinated structure. The inclusion of I also creates stability with the metallic Li anode while simultaneously enhancing the interfacial kinetics and ionic conductivity. Low-temperature membrane processability enables facile fabrication of dense membranes, making this conductor suitable for industrial adoption.

  14. Electron and phonon drag in thermoelectric transport through coherent molecular conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegârd, Per; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-05-01

    We study thermoelectric transport through a coherent molecular conductor connected to two electron and two phonon baths using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We focus on the mutual drag between electron and phonon transport as a result of `momentum' transfer, which happens only when there are at least two phonon degrees of freedom. After deriving expressions for the linear drag coefficients, obeying the Onsager relation, we further investigate their effect on nonequilibrium transport. We show that the drag effect is closely related to two other phenomena: (1) adiabatic charge pumping through a coherent conductor; (2) the current-induced nonconservative and effective magnetic forces on phonons.

  15. Japanese efforts on coated conductor processing and its power applications: New 5 year project for materials and power applications of coated conductors (M-PACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Y.; Fujiwara, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nagaya, S.; Izumi, T.; Yoshizumi, M.

    2009-10-01

    Five years of Japanese national project (FY2003-FY2007) was ended last spring with remarkable success. The national project was originally aimed for development of coated conductors which have high superconductivity performance and long length enough to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) electric power devices. Preliminary research and development of HTS electric power devices were carried out as well. A series of R&D results will be summarized and reviewed in this paper. The new 5 years Japanese national project has started last June (FY2008-FY2012) to develop HTS electric power applications including SMES, cables and transformers and to develop/produce coated conductors satisfying the requirements from the respective power devices. Collaborative R&D efforts by national laboratories, universities and private companies have been started with the supports of NEDO and METI. The accomplishment of the previous project will be summarized and the plans and goals of the new project will be presented in this paper.

  16. Crystal structure of Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M: Ba, Sr, Ca) orthophosphates and their luminescence properties activated by Eu{sup 2+}; analogous structural behaviors of glaserite-type phosphates and silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Chihiro

    2011-12-15

    Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data and vibrational spectroscopy have confirmed the crystal structure of Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M: Ba, Sr, Ca) prepared by a standard solid state reaction. They have glaserite-type layered structure. Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} has a trigonal P3-bar form for M=Ba, and monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c forms for M=Sr and Ca. The observed structural transition is analogous to the corresponding layered orthosilicate M{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Eu{sup 2+}-doped Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} exhibits an intense blue to violet emission under ultraviolet excitation, based on 5d-4f electron transition of Eu{sup 2+} ions. The emission character is very sensitive to the structural transition induced by M{sup 2+} and the subsequent site symmetry changes. - Graphical abstract: Emission properties of Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M: Ba, Sr, Ca) are discussed from the viewpoint of the crystal structure solved by X-ray powder diffraction technique. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glaserite-type Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M: Ba, Sr, Ca) has been prepared by a solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal system of Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} changes, depending on M{sup 2+} size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eu{sup 2+}-doped Na{sub 2}MMgP{sub 2}O{sub 8} exhibits blue to violet emission under ultraviolet irradiation.

  17. 30 CFR 75.902-4 - Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate connections. 75.902-4 Section 75.902-4 Mineral... § 75.902-4 Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of...

  18. 30 CFR 77.902-3 - Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate connections. 77.902-3 Section 77.902-3 Mineral...-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-3 Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires...

  19. Order-Disorder and Mobility of Li+ in the β‧- and β-LiZr2(PO4)3 Ionic Conductors: A Neutron Diffraction Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catti, M.; Morgante, N.; Ibberson, R. M.

    2000-07-01

    Neutron diffraction profiles at high resolution (HRPD, ISIS Facility, U.K.) were collected on powder samples of LiZr2(PO4)3 at 20°C (β‧phase, monoclinic P21/n, Z=4; a=8.81277(4), b=8.94520(5), c=12.37540(6) Å, β=90.801(1)°) and at 350°C (β phase, orthorhombic Pbna, Z=4; a=8.84303(5), b=8.94120(6), c=12.41301(8) Å). All Li sites were located by difference Fourier maps in tetrahedral coordination, and both structures were Rietveld-refined to wRp=0.0353 (β‧) and 0.0429 (β). The β‧ structure is a distortion of β, with a [100] pseudo-twofold axis x, 1/2-y,-z relating all atoms but lithium, which is fully ordered (=2.02 Å). In the β phase, Li is disordered over four sites, of which two (Li1 and Li2) are symmetry-independent with occupancies 0.34(1) and 0.16(1), respectively, and =2.17 and 2.16 Å. The disorder fully explains the higher Li+ mobility in the β with respect to the β‧ phase observed from ionic conductivity data. Mechanisms of ion transport are proposed, and the relationship to the NASICON-type α‧/α phase of LiZr2(PO4)3 is analyzed in detail.

  20. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Siu, Bernard K.

    1996-01-01

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method.