Science.gov

Sample records for national account energy

  1. Your accounts. National Savings.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, P F

    1984-01-01

    National Savings must be regarded as a conservative investment option and different types of contract suit different types of taxpayer and investor. The three main attractions are as follows: National Savings Certificates including the index-linked issue and the returns on SAYE contracts are free of all forms of taxation and thus in most cases provide attractive potential for those who pay tax at the highest rate. In the majority of cases returns are guaranteed, often over long periods of time, and even when returns are variable they can generally be expected to be very competitive compared with all other forms of conservative saving, both long-term and short-term. Interest is paid or credited without deduction of tax at source, this being a particular attraction to those who pay no tax. Table 1 shows how differing marginal tax rates are extremely significant, although accessibility should also be taken into account and this is perhaps where National Savings carry some drawbacks, especially during the first 12 months.

  2. Fixing Our National Accountability System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2014-01-01

    No Child Left Behind radically shifted the balance of power in American education policy-making from the states to the federal government, not because a new consensus had emerged to make such a shift, but because both Democrats and Republicans were angry with the nation's teachers, holding them responsible for a massive increase in the costs of…

  3. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  4. Future Directions for the National Health Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Huskamp, Haiden A.; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has engaged in ongoing efforts to improve the methodology and data collection processes used to develop the national health accounts (NHA) estimates of national health expenditures (NHE). In March 1998, HCFA initiated a third conference to explore possible improvements or useful extensions to the current NHA projects. This article summarizes the issues discussed at the conference, provides an overview of three commissioned papers on future directions for the NHA that were presented, and summarizes suggestions made by participants regarding future directions for the accounts. PMID:11481786

  5. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930-2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks.

  6. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930–2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks. PMID:25505368

  7. Energy: A National Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Francis X.

    This publication contains full color fold-outs that graphically present the national energy crisis. The most effective way of using this book is for the reader to open the designated fold-out when suggested and then follow its description in the text. Fold-outs reveal our national energy dilemma, its background, and the possible climax to the…

  8. Energy: A National Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Francis X.

    This publication contains full color fold-outs that graphically present the national energy crisis. The most effective way of using this book is for the reader to open the designated fold-out when suggested and then follow its description in the text. Fold-outs reveal our national energy dilemma, its background, and the possible climax to the…

  9. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  10. Energy and National Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed in this editorial is the need for a broad and detailed government policy on energy use. Oil companies can not be given complete responsibility to demonstrate usage of different energy sources. The government should construct plants because energy is connected with national security. (PS)

  11. National energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The efforts of the U.S. government to cope with the national energy crisis are discussed. The provisions of several legislative actions to implement the actions for energy conservation are examined. Immediate conservation measures and the long range planning for energy resources are reported.

  12. Energy and National Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed in this editorial is the need for a broad and detailed government policy on energy use. Oil companies can not be given complete responsibility to demonstrate usage of different energy sources. The government should construct plants because energy is connected with national security. (PS)

  13. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  14. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  15. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  16. National health spending trends in 1996. National Health Accounts Team.

    PubMed

    Levit, K R; Lazenby, H C; Braden, B R

    1998-01-01

    The National Health Accounts, produced annually by the Health Care Financing Administration's Office of the Actuary, present estimates for 1960-1996 of nationwide spending for health care and the sources funding that care. This year's estimates set two records: Spending topped $1 trillion for the first time, and expenditure growth slowed to the lowest rate seen in thirty-seven years of measuring health care spending--4.4 percent. The combination of decelerating health spending and a growing economy has kept national health spending as a share of the nation's gross domestic product unchanged for the fourth consecutive year.

  17. Energy accounting for solar and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, W. D., Jr.

    Shortcomings in energy data collection, display and accounting practices are of minor consequence in an economy of today in which most end use services are provided via fossil fuels and electricity. However, the emergence of a variety of alternative technologies that might be used to provide these services suggests that present accounting practices be reexamined and a more appropriate system devised. The paper proposes an energy accounting framework based upon the actual services provided to end users. An energy service is a measure of the service actually provided to ultimate consumers by their own use of energy, quantified, for example, using units of work or of heat at various temperatures. Fifteen categories of energy service are described and some of their characteristics are identified. The proposed energy accounting framework consists of two matrices - an energy service matrix and an energy carrier matrix. The energy service matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to provide energy services. The energy carrier matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to produce and distribute energy carriers to ultimate consumers.

  18. National accounts manager: Design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.

  19. Energy and national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-09-01

    On May 19 and 20, 2003, thirty-some members of Sandia staff and management met to discuss the long-term connections between energy and national security. Three broad security topics were explored: I. Global and U.S. economic dependence on oil (and gas); II. Potential security implications of global climate change; and III. Vulnerabilities of the U.S. domestic energy infrastructure. This report, rather than being a transcript of the workshop, represents a synthesis of background information used in the workshop, ideas that emerged in the discussions, and ex post facto analysis of the discussions. Each of the three subjects discussed at this workshop has significant U.S. national security implications. Each has substantial technology components. Each appears a legitimate area of concern for a national security laboratory with relevant technology capabilities. For the laboratory to play a meaningful role in contributing to solutions to national problems such as these, it needs to understand the political, economic, and social environments in which it expects its work to be accepted and used. In addition, it should be noted that the problems of oil dependency and climate change are not amenable to solution by the policies of any one nation--even the one that is currently the largest single energy consumer. Therefore, views, concerns, policies, and plans of other countries will do much to determine which solutions might work and which might not.

  20. National Energy Legislation

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The impact of state regulation of nuclear power, since PG&E and Silkwood, on the implementation of national energy policy on nuclear power is evident in the debates on federal legislation required for such implementation. The political demands that confront some states for an expanded role in the regulation of commercial nuclear power plants also confront Congress, which is responsible for the legislative implementation of the strategy proposed in the Report. The expansion of state and local regulation of nuclear plants, however, will complicate and possibly frustrate the efforts of Congress to enact the strategy for nuclear power into law. The debates on Senate Bill 1220, the National Energy Security Act of 1991, indicate that the expansion of state regulation of nuclear power will frustrate the implementation of the national energy policy on nuclear power. Senate Bill 1220 would enact a comprehensive national energy policy. For example, Title XI would further deregulate the production of natural gas; Title XIV is concerned with secure supplies, and the use of coal in the future. Senate Bill 1220 would also amend PUHCA. Of particular significance for nuclear power, however, are Titles VIII and IX. The House and Senate debates on House Bill 1301 and Senate Bill 1220 are summarized.

  1. 47 CFR 54.404 - The National Lifeline Accountability Database.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The National Lifeline Accountability Database... National Lifeline Accountability Database. (a) State certification. An eligible telecommunications carrier... within 90 days of filing. (b) The National Lifeline Accountability Database. In order to receive...

  2. 47 CFR 54.404 - The National Lifeline Accountability Database.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The National Lifeline Accountability Database... National Lifeline Accountability Database. (a) State certification. An eligible telecommunications carrier... within 90 days of filing. (b) The National Lifeline Accountability Database. In order to receive...

  3. 47 CFR 54.404 - The National Lifeline Accountability Database.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The National Lifeline Accountability Database... National Lifeline Accountability Database. (a) State certification. An eligible telecommunications carrier... within 90 days of filing. (b) The National Lifeline Accountability Database. In order to receive...

  4. Energy accounting in canning tomato products

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.; Carroad, P.A.; Chhinnan, M.S.; Rose, W.W.; Jacob, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    An energy accounting method was used to determine energy consumption in various unit operations in canning tomato juice, wholepeeled tomatoes, and tomato paste. Data on steam and electric consumption were obtained from a canning plant with the use of steam flow meters and electric transducers. Unit operations associated with the following equipment were investigated: crushers, hot-break heaters, pulpers, finishers, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts. The average thermal and electrical energy intensities of canning tomato products were 538 Btu and 0.0126 kWh per pound of tomatoes received, respectively. Energy intensive operations were identified as those associated with hot-break heaters, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts.

  5. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Basin Electric Project at Northern Border Pipeline Company's Compressor Station #7, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetzer, Richard; Leslie, Neil

    2008-02-01

    A field research test and verification project was conducted at the recovered energy generation plant at Northern Border Pipeline Company Compressor Station #7 (CS#7) near St. Anthony. Recovered energy generation plant equipment was supplied and installed by ORMAT Technologies, Inc. Basin Electric is purchasing the electricity under a purchase power agreement with an ORMAT subsidiary, which owns and operates the plant.

  6. A Stock-Take of Green National Accounting Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Green national accounting has existed in a variety of forms for just over thirty years. Having essentially begun as environmental cost adjustments to Gross Domestic Product, green national accounting now includes such indicators as the Genuine Progress Indicator, Genuine Savings, and the Ecological Footprint. This paper serves as an overview or…

  7. A Stock-Take of Green National Accounting Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Green national accounting has existed in a variety of forms for just over thirty years. Having essentially begun as environmental cost adjustments to Gross Domestic Product, green national accounting now includes such indicators as the Genuine Progress Indicator, Genuine Savings, and the Ecological Footprint. This paper serves as an overview or…

  8. Accountable Care Organizations: The National Landscape.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A; Fisher, Elliott; Kessell, Eric; Ramsay, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    There are now more than seven hundred accountable care organizations (ACOs) in the United States. This article describes some of their most salient characteristics including the number and types of contracts involved, organizational structures, the scope of services offered, care management capabilities, and the development of a three-category taxonomy that can be used to target technical assistance efforts and to examine performance. The current evidence on the performance of ACOs is reviewed. Since California has the largest number of ACOs (N=67) and a history of providing care under risk-bearing contracts, some additional assessments of quality and patient experience are made between California ACOs and non-ACO provider organizations. Six key issues likely to affect future ACO growth and development are discussed, and some potential "diagnostic" indicators for assessing the likelihood of potential antitrust violations are presented.

  9. Nation's energy dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Krenz, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    Because we understand production patterns better than energy-use patterns, Americans find it difficult to grasp the significance of resource scarcity and depletion and the need to continue energy inputs to sustain a developed society. Arguments against more-efficient energy use cite cost and life-style disruptions, but these must be weighed against the socio-economic impacts of traditional energy expansion. A new energy consciousness should be applied to investment decisions involving energy to eliminate waste. This will require changes in products, habits, and attitudes. Policies that will develop data and expertise in the thermodynamic principles of energy usage will help to change the way energy is valued. (DCK)

  10. Energy: A Growing National Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication highlights information about the energy problem and indicates some possible solutions. Americans must find new energy sources and more efficient ways to utilize existing energy supplies. The National Wildlife Federation urges conservation of existing fuel supplies, exploration of new potential energy sources, adaption of some…

  11. Energy: A Growing National Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication highlights information about the energy problem and indicates some possible solutions. Americans must find new energy sources and more efficient ways to utilize existing energy supplies. The National Wildlife Federation urges conservation of existing fuel supplies, exploration of new potential energy sources, adaption of some…

  12. Common road blocks to national accounts pharmaceutical programs.

    PubMed

    Stanley, N R

    1994-04-01

    The large managed care customer represents concentrated purchasing power and product access to a large patient population. Contracting will continue to grow, and a large portion of product purchases will be under the agreements negotiated, implemented, and supported by the pharmaceutical company's national accounts department. The national accounts department will need to receive support from the organization if it is to do the job successfully.

  13. Accountability of Tertiary Education at the National Level: A Chimera?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Alan; O'Byrne, Garry

    1979-01-01

    The concept of accountability and its application to Australian higher education are discussed. It is suggested that due to political, financial, and educational characteristics of tertiary education at the national system level there are fundamental and insoluble problems associated with achieving accountability. (SF)

  14. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  15. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  16. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  17. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  18. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  19. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  20. Promoting Accountability and Enhancing Efficiency: Using National Education Accounts to Track Expenditure Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Deepika; Forbes, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    Increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public and out-of-pocket financing in education are critical to realizing the maximum impact of the meager allocations to education in most developing countries. While broad estimates and numbers are routinely collected by most national ministries and state departments of education, the lack…

  1. Summary of a conference on national health expenditures accounting

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Phoebe A.; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    The following summary is of a conference to review national health expenditures accounting. Attendees focused on the annual article published by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) in the Health Care Financing Review that reports how much the United States spends on medical care. PMID:10311675

  2. National Energy Outlook: 1976 Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brochure begins with findings and conclusions of the 1975 NATIONAL ENERGY OUTLOOK. Discussions of national energy topics follow, including: What Are the Roots of Our Energy Problem? How Did We Become So Vulnerable to Oil Imports?; How Much Energy Will the Nation Consume?; How Will the National Meet Its Growing Energy Demands by 1985; How Much…

  3. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  4. National health accounts: Lessons from the U.S. experience

    PubMed Central

    Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.; Waldo, Daniel R.; Adler, Gerald S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    The national health accounts (NHA) are the framework within which type of services and sources of funding for health care expenditures are measured. NHA, devised to portray the structure of health care delivery and financing in the United States, provide essential information necessary for the formulation of public health policy and for international comparison. In this article, the authors describe the importance of the NHA nationally and internationally, and provide a blueprint of the definitions, sources, and methods used to create this system of NHA in the United States. PMID:10122006

  5. Energy and the Future: Research Priorities and National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an account of alternatives for solving energy shortage problems in future years. A national policy is needed. More concerted effort should be made to develop technologies for conversion of energy from conventional and non-conventional resources so that energy is cheaper, available for use and without environmental hazards. (PS)

  6. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE) is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40%) and the OECD average (36%). The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise payment systems for health providers, and produce subnational accounts for non-communicable diseases. More investment in the translation of national health account data into policy

  7. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Methods The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). Results In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE) is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40%) and the OECD average (36%). Conclusion The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise payment systems for health providers, and produce subnational accounts for non-communicable diseases. More investment in the translation of

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2001 Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent Agency established to plan and manage the future of the Nation's civil aeronautics and space program. This Accountability Report covers Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001), with discussion of some subsequent events The Report contains an overview addressing the Agency's critical programs and financial performance and includes highlights of performance organized by goals and objectives of the Enterprises and Crosscutting Processes. The Report also summarizes NASA's stewardship over budget and financial resources, including audited financial statements and footnotes. The financial statements reflect an overall position of offices and activities, including assets and liabilities, as well as results of operations, pursuant to requirements of Federal law (31 U.S.C. 3515(b)). The auditor's opinions on NASA's financial statements, reports on internal controls, and compliance with laws and regulations are included in this Report.

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2001 Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent Agency established to plan and manage the future of the Nation's civil aeronautics and space program. This Accountability Report covers Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001), with discussion of some subsequent events The Report contains an overview addressing the Agency's critical programs and financial performance and includes highlights of performance organized by goals and objectives of the Enterprises and Crosscutting Processes. The Report also summarizes NASA's stewardship over budget and financial resources, including audited financial statements and footnotes. The financial statements reflect an overall position of offices and activities, including assets and liabilities, as well as results of operations, pursuant to requirements of Federal law (31 U.S.C. 3515(b)). The auditor's opinions on NASA's financial statements, reports on internal controls, and compliance with laws and regulations are included in this Report.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fiscal Year 2001 Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent Agency established to plan and manage the future of the Nation's civil aeronautics and space program. This Accountability Report covers Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001), with discussion of some subsequent events. The Report contains an overview addressing the Agency's critical programs and financial performance and includes highlights of performance organized by goals and objectives of the Enterprises and Crosscutting Processes. The Report also summarizes NASA's stewardship over budget and financial resources, including audited financial statements and footnotes. The financial statements reflect an overall position of offices and activities, including assets and liabilities, as well as results of operations, pursuant to requirements of Federal law (31 U.S.C. 3515(b)). The auditor's opinions on NASA's financial statements, reports on internal controls, and compliance with laws and regulations are included in this report.

  11. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  12. Yakama Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, Phillip

    2016-05-10

    It is the intention of the Yakama Nation to make improvements on the Wapato Irrigation Project (WIP) for the benefit of all stakeholders. Water management, water conservation and water allocation on the Wapato Irrigation Project is equally as important as hydropower. Irrigation will always be the primary purpose of this water system, but the irrigation system can also generate energy. The purpose of this project is the purchase and installation of inflow water turbines to generate an additional one megawatt of hydro-electrical power. The project will occur in two phases, Environmental Assessment and Project Implementation. The core objective for this proposal is to meet the Yakama Nation’s goal in hydroelectric power development. This will include the installation of inflow water turbines on the Wapato Irrigation Project. The Yakama Nation will prepare an Environmental Assessment in preparation to purchase and install new water turbines for hydropower generation of 1 Megawatt. This is a valuable economic development strategy for Yakama Nation that will create new jobs, improve and increase rural electrification, and attract private investments. This water system has an untapped low head/low power potential without the need to construct a new dam. The objective of Phase 1 is to complete an environmental assessment and obtain approval to proceed with installation of the hydroelectric power system.

  13. Ensuring the Sustainability of Russian Federation National Nuclear Material Accounting System

    SciTech Connect

    Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Kushnaryov, M; Babcock, R

    2006-06-07

    The Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is the national information source on nuclear material accounting of the Russian Federation (RF). RF regulations mandated the creation of a national nuclear material accounting system to be managed by Federal Agency For Atomic Energy (Rosatom), and for the past decade, the FIS has been developed for all organizations required to report to Rosatom. The system represents a successful integration of U.S. financial support and consulting with Russian vision and technical expertise, creating a viable national nuclear material accounting system. This paper discusses crucial elements to ensure Sustainability of the FIS. A long-term plan for operation and maintenance of the information system is critical to a sustainable national accounting system. Plans undertaken throughout the FIS Project lifecycle have supported the necessary elements to ensure success. Through the next two years, long-term planning will be reevaluated and the successful elements and new initiatives will become part of an overall Operations Management Program. FIS resource needs will be managed through prioritization and ranking for each Program element, including: system operation; revising and implementing supporting regulations; establishing monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure validity of the data reported; maintaining and improving communication channels; and establishing regular FIS training. The results of a survey on improving FIS reporting, expected in June 2006, will be used in the prioritization and ranking process. Developing the Program and planning for long-term sustainability of the FIS will ensure a viable national nuclear material accounting system for the future.

  14. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  15. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  16. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Denholm; Tracey Holloway

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO{sub 2} and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions 'accounting' might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

  18. Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

  19. Energy. A National Need, A National Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jeffrey S.; Zanetti, Dorothy

    Instructions for completing a student research project are provided. The project consists of selecting an energy-related topic, preparing notecards (which contain important information, quotations, and bibliographic information obtained from libraries and other sources), preparing an outline, writing a report (a term paper), and constructing a…

  20. Energy and carbon accounting to compare bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Borak, Brian; Ort, Donald R; Burbaum, Jonathan J

    2013-06-01

    To compare the utility of current and future biofuels and biofuel feedstocks in an objective manner can be extremely challenging. This challenge exists because agricultural data are inherently variable, experimental techniques are crop-dependent, and the literatures usually report relative, rather than absolute, values. Here, we discuss the 'PETRO approach', a systematic approach to evaluate new crops. This approach accounts for not only the capture of solar energy but also the capture of atmospheric carbon (as CO2) to generate a final carbon-based liquid fuel product. The energy yield, per unit area, of biofuel crops grown in different climate zones can thus be benchmarked and quantitatively compared in terms of both carbon gain and solar energy conversion efficiency.

  1. Energy and carbon accounting to compare bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Borak, Brian; Ort, Donald R.; Burbaum, Jonathan J.

    2013-06-01

    To compare the utility of current and future biofuels and biofuel feedstocks in an objective manner can be extremely challenging. This challenge exists because agricultural data are inherently variable, experimental techniques are crop-dependent, and the literatures usually report relative, rather than absolute, values. Here, we discuss the ‘PETRO approach’, a systematic approach to evaluate new crops. This approach accounts for not only the capture of solar energy but also the capture of atmospheric carbon (as CO2) to generate a final carbon-based liquid fuel product. The energy yield, per unit area, of biofuel crops grown in different climate zones can thus be benchmarked and quantitatively compared in terms of both carbon gain and solar energy conversion efficiency.

  2. How to Organize and Communicatre Your Energy Data. A Guide to Energy Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Bonnie J.

    Stategies for organizing data on a district's energy use are presented in this guide, originally intended for use in California schools. Also presented are methods of communicating this information to those involved in planning, in recordkeeping, and in motivating staff and students to save energy. The energy accounting system offered in the first…

  3. Natural resource accounting for the National Forests: a conceptual framework.

    Treesearch

    Zhi Xu; Dennis P. Bradley; Pamela J. Jakes

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes the shortcomings of current natural resource accounting systems, outlines some of the features needed, and proposes an accounting framework that would help integrate economic and ecological factors. Such a system of forest resource accounting is urgently needed to achieve the sustainable goals of ecosystem management.

  4. Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning (JINEP) Model was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under contract to the Jamaica Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. JINEP is a comprehensive model of the energy-producing sector and the major energy consuming sectors of Jamaica. The JINEP Model is an application of a modelling system, the Integrated Demand and Energy Supply (IDES) Model, that was previously developed at Argonne for the purpose of analyzing energy systems of developing countries. IDES is based on several years of experience in analyzing energy planning issues characteristic of developing countries.

  5. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  6. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  7. 75 FR 69125 - River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... National Park Service River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495 AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notification of a New National Park, River Raisin National Battlefield Park. SUMMARY: As authorized by Section 7003 of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act...

  8. Energy Security is National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    reactors p.nd even opened up drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ). However, the reality is, "Oil company experts believe ... in at...best 10 years time, ANWR could boost American production by 600,000 barrels a day.ŝ Additionally, it will take decades to build nuclear power plants...naturally make·the altermitive fuels cheaper and thus more attractive. Finally, further domestic drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ) and

  9. ERDA Recasts Nation's Energy Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes five major policy changes of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), one of which sharply decreased its emphasis on breeder reactors and another which elevated solar-generated electricity to a new high priority as a long-range energy source. (BR)

  10. ERDA Recasts Nation's Energy Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes five major policy changes of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), one of which sharply decreased its emphasis on breeder reactors and another which elevated solar-generated electricity to a new high priority as a long-range energy source. (BR)

  11. The Nation's Energy Problem. Forum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    Some of the essential elements now deficient in national energy programs are identified, and recommendations are offered for business, universities, and government regarding actions that may improve energy-related research and training. Five topics that need to be addressed by professionals are: (1) an energy policy that ensures that targets for…

  12. The Nation's Energy Problem. Forum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    Some of the essential elements now deficient in national energy programs are identified, and recommendations are offered for business, universities, and government regarding actions that may improve energy-related research and training. Five topics that need to be addressed by professionals are: (1) an energy policy that ensures that targets for…

  13. Availability of Student Data To Support National Goals Panel Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    In March 1993, the National Goals Panel Technical Planning Subgroup on Core Data Elements was convened to focus on the issue of identifying information that could be obtained from local student data systems for use in monitoring local and state progress toward the National Education Goals. This panel's report identified recommended data elements,…

  14. Department of Energy national laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a transcript of the testimony of Alvin W. Travelpiece before the Congressional Subcommittee on Research and Development. Emphasis is placed on the importance of funding nuclear programs to assure national well-being; and, past accomplishments in the nuclear programs are reviewed. (FSD)

  15. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2001 Accountability Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    help explain how they work. Using telescopes from ground observatories, a Living With a Star research effort by solar physicists has dis- covered that...solicitation with the National Cancer Institute, and continued work under other agreements with the National Institutes of Health. BPRE closed its...other. He plans to extend and expand this ground- based research on the ISS. These experiments repre- sent substantial milestones in physicists ’ quest

  17. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 1998 Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Accountability Report summarizes NASA's program accomplishments and its stewardship over budget and financial resources. The report is the culmination of NASA's management process, which begins with mission definition and program planning, continues with formulation and justification of NASA's budgets for the President and Congress, and ends with NASA scientific and engineering program accomplishments. This report covers NASA's activities from October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998, with discussion of some subsequent events.

  19. National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Monitoring Network Basin Boundary Geospatial Dataset, 2008–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report and the accompanying geospatial data were created to assist in analysis and interpretation of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and by the U.S. Coastal Waters and Tributaries National Monitoring Network (NMN), which is a cooperative monitoring program of Federal, regional, and State agencies. The report describes the methods used to develop the geospatial data, which was primarily derived from the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. The geospatial data contains polygon shapefiles of basin boundaries for 33 NASQAN and 5 NMN streamflow and water-quality monitoring stations. In addition, 30 polygon shapefiles of the closed and noncontributing basins contained within the NASQAN or NMN boundaries are included. Also included is a point shapefile of the NASQAN and NMN monitoring stations and associated basin and station attributes. Geospatial data for basin delineations, associated closed and noncontributing basins, and monitoring station locations are available at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/metadata/usgswrd/XML/ds641_nasqan_wbd12.xml.

  20. National Science Foundation FY 2004 Performance and Accountability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The information provided in this report documents that the National Science Foundation (NSF) is a well-managed and effective organization with an outstanding staff dedicated to ensuring that America's future is secure and prosperous. Despite its small size, NSF is widely recognized as the catalyst for the advancement of basic research in America.…

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2005 Research Review

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.

    2006-06-01

    Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.

  2. Recent revisions to and recommendations for national health expenditures accounting

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Susan G.; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1991-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has importantly revised the methodology for estimating annual national health expenditures. Among other changes, the revisions estimated out-of-pocket spending directly, disaggregated expenditures to a greater degree, and reduced undercounting and double counting. Estimates of total spending and out-of-pocket spending changed. This article summarizes a meeting of a technical advisory panel, convened by HCFA, that reviewed the modifications adopted and made recommendations for future revisions. PMID:10114932

  3. Afghan National Security Forces: Actions Needed to Improve Weapons Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Afghan National Army ( ANA ) tracks weapons using an automated inventory management system called Core Inventory Management System (CoreIMS). However...CoreIMS is incomplete and cannot be relied upon for accurate information. CSTC-A SAO officials concluded that this is due, in part, to the ANA not... ANA Central Supply Depot, SIGAR found that 551 weapons documented on the Afghan inventory record, called a “property book,” SIGAR Special Inspector

  4. Building Magnets at Brookhaven National Laboratory: A Condensed Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, Erich

    2017-09-01

    The development of superconducting wire and cable in the late twentieth century enabled high-field magnets and thus much higher beam-collision energies in accelerators. These higher collision energies have allowed experimentalists to probe further into the structure of matter at the most fundamental, subatomic level. The behavior of the early universe, where these high energies prevailed, and its evolution over time are the realm their experiments seek to investigate. The subject has aroused the curiosity of the public as well as scientists and has facilitated the support needed to build and operate such expensive machines and experiments. The path forward has not been easy, however. Success in most projects has been mixed with failure, progress with ineptitude. The building of high energy accelerators is mostly a story of capable people doing their best to develop new and unusual technology toward some defined goal, facing both success and failure along the way. It is also a story of administrative imperatives that had unpredictable effects on a project's success, depending mostly on the people in the administrative roles and the decisions that they made.

  5. Building Magnets at Brookhaven National Laboratory: A Condensed Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, Erich

    2017-07-01

    The development of superconducting wire and cable in the late twentieth century enabled high-field magnets and thus much higher beam-collision energies in accelerators. These higher collision energies have allowed experimentalists to probe further into the structure of matter at the most fundamental, subatomic level. The behavior of the early universe, where these high energies prevailed, and its evolution over time are the realm their experiments seek to investigate. The subject has aroused the curiosity of the public as well as scientists and has facilitated the support needed to build and operate such expensive machines and experiments. The path forward has not been easy, however. Success in most projects has been mixed with failure, progress with ineptitude. The building of high energy accelerators is mostly a story of capable people doing their best to develop new and unusual technology toward some defined goal, facing both success and failure along the way. It is also a story of administrative imperatives that had unpredictable effects on a project's success, depending mostly on the people in the administrative roles and the decisions that they made.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1999 Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Accountability Report consolidates reports required by various statutes and summarizes NASA's program accomplishments and its stewardship over budget and financial resources. It is a culmination of NASA's management process, which begins with mission definition and program planning, continues with the formulation and justification of budgets for the President and Congress, and ends with the resulting scientific and engineering program accomplishments. The report covers activities from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999, with a discussion of some subsequent events. Program accomplishments included the deployment and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the delivery of supplies and equipment needed to live and operate on the International Space Station, and the development of the first global 3-D map of Mars. Achievements are highlighted in the Statement of the Administrator and summarized in the performance section of this report.

  7. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  8. Accountability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    A186 869 CCOUNTABILITY(U) AIR WAR COLL KAXNELL FB AL / UNCLASSIFI F/G 5/5 U EEEEEEEmohhhiIsoflfflflfl..fflfl ll EEsonE~hh i .~. ~~ 1 p 1 V "p h...n(D LEG 1 0 1987 -0 ACCOIINTABILITY By CHAPLAIN LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDWARD E. GALLOWAY .1T_ *v 4 AIR UNIVERSITY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC UNITED STATES AIR...1scu,;s ion of wlvece andl to(: whloi leadlers ;ire accountable, followedl by an hnistocical gl1imnpse at . 1 ii i Lryi.ad:± rs and how their s3ucces 3e5

  9. Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

  10. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  11. The Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Can; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-05-01

    The Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences conducts fundamental and applied research towards chemistry and chemical engineering, with strong competence in the development of new technologies. The research in this special issue, containing 19 papers, features some of the DICP's best work on sustainable energy, use of environmental resources, and advanced materials within the framework of the Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inspection Report on "Internal Controls over Accountable Classified Removable Electronic Media at Oak Ridge National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts cutting edge scientific research. ORNL utilizes removable electronic media, such as computer hard drives, compact disks, data tapes, etc., to store vast amounts of classified information. Incidents involving breakdowns in controls over classified removable electronic media have been a continuous challenge for the Department. The loss of even one piece of such media can have serious national security implications. In 2004, the Department had a complex-wide 'stand-down' of all activities using classified removable electronic media, and such media containing Secret/Restricted Data or higher classified data was designated 'Accountable Classified Removable Electronic Media' (ACREM). As part of the stand-down, sites were required to conduct a 100 percent physical inventory of all ACREM; enter it all into accountability; and conduct security procedure reviews and training. Further, the Department implemented a series of controls, including conducting periodic inventories, utilizing tamper proof devices on ACREM safes, and appointing trained custodians to be responsible for the material. After performance testing and validation that the required accountability systems were in place, ACREM operations at ORNL were approved for restart on August 10, 2004. We conducted a review at ORNL and associated facilities to determine whether ACREM is managed, protected, and controlled consistent with applicable requirements. We found that: (1) Eight pieces of Secret/Restricted Data media had not been identified as ACREM and placed into a system of accountability. Consequently, the items were not subject to all required protections and controls, such as periodic accountability inventories, oversight by a trained custodian, or storage in a designated ACREM safe. (However, the items were secured in safes approved for classified material.) (2) Other required ACREM protections and controls were not implemented as

  13. Challenges of stimulating a market for social innovation - provision of a national health account.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sofie; Vimarlund, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare can be associated with social innovation and the mission to contribute to a shared value that benefits not only individuals or organizations but the society as a whole. In this paper, we present the prerequisites of stimulating a market for social innovations by studying the introduction of a national health account. The results show that there is a need to clarify if a national health account should be viewed as a public good or not, to clarify the financial responsibilities of different actors, to establish clear guidelines and to develop regulations concerning price, quality and certification of actors. The ambition to stimulate the market through a national health account is a promising start. However, the challenges have to be confronted in order for public and private actors to collaborate and build a market for social innovations such as a national health account.

  14. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts; Robert Bean; Marc Paff

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  15. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Batten, Belinda; Polagye, Brian

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  16. Weatherization Enhancement, and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-06-20

    Senate - 06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Weatherization Enhancement, and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Weatherization Enhancement, and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  20. The NEED (National Energy Education Development) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, D.; Spruill, M.

    2012-04-01

    The NEED (National Energy Education Development) Project is a non-profit organization which provides a wide range of K-12 curriculum on energy education topics. The curriculum is specific for primary, elementary, intermediate and secondary levels with age appropriate activities and reading levels. The NEED Project covers a wide range of topics from wind energy, nuclear energy, solar energy, hydropower, hydrogen, fossil fuels, energy conservation, energy efficiency and much more. One of the major strengths of this organization is its Teacher Advisory Board. The curriculum is routinely revised and updated by master classroom teachers who use the lessons and serve on the advisory board. This ensures it is of the highest quality and a useful resource. The NEED Project through a variety of sponsors including businesses, utility companies and government agencies conducts hundreds of teacher professional development workshops each year throughout the United States and have even done some workshops internationally. These workshops are run by trained NEED facilitators. At the workshops, teachers gain background understanding of the energy topics and have time to complete the hands on activities which make up the curriculum. The teachers are then sent a kit of equipment after successfully completing the workshop. This allows them to teach the curriculum and have their students perform the hands on labs and activities in the classroom. The NEED Project is the largest provider of energy education related curriculum in the United States. Their efforts are educating teachers about energy topics and in turn educating students in the hope of developing citizens who are energy literate. Many of the hands on activities used to teach about various energy sources will be described and demonstrated.

  1. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  2. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  3. US national energy strategy: Progress and viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    Interest in energy policy is not new. President Eisenhower grappled with oil policy. President Nixon pushed {open_quotes}energy independence.{close_quotes} President Carter attempted the formulation of a comprehensive policy. All failed in one way or another. Efforts to define comprehensive national policy continue. Two years ago President Bush directed the DOE to prepare a {open_quotes}National Energy Strategy.{close_quotes} An energy package was sent to Congress in 1991, but despite compromises among competing interests, the end result was that not enough votes could be garnered to pass the legislation. Another attempt is expected in 1992. A major problem with the previous bill was that in attempting to be {open_quotes}comprehensive,{close_quotes} too many controversial issues were wrapped into a single package. The next attempt is likely to be divided into several bills; some may pass, others may not. Topics that received the most attention in the 1991 session are expected to get equal scrutiny in 1992. These topics include: (1) Mandated automobile gasoline mileage standards-raised required corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) from 24 to 40 miles per gallon. (2) Oil exploration in Alaska`s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. (3) Simplified licensing of nuclear power plants. (4) Increased competition in electrical power production. (5) Increase of conservation and renewables development funding beyond the Administration`s proposed level. Concern about the environment, adequate supply of electrical power, and production and conservation of petroleum is the driving force behind consideration of these topics and the major underlying influence shaping debate over energy policy.

  4. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose.

  5. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  6. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  7. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  8. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  9. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  10. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  11. Successful Sino-Western Business Negotiation: Participants' Accounts of National and Professional Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheer, Vivian C.; Chen, Ling

    2003-01-01

    Explores the role of national and professional cultures in Sino-Western negotiations. Considers the way participants accounted for their experiences in an effort to gain more insight into Sino-Western negotiations. Discusses three successful strategies for both Chinese and Western groups: Adequate preparation, image work, and good relationship.…

  12. Desegregation, Accountability, and Equality: North Carolina and the Nation, 1971-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott; Myers, Anthony; Vasquez, Brittany

    2014-01-01

    Using North Carolina as a lens to illuminate broader national developments, this paper examines how and why educational policy in the United States turned away from a civil rights agenda of opportunity and embraced test-based accountability as a way of promoting racial equality. We show that comprehensive desegregation, enforcement of the Civil…

  13. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) - Some questions and answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficke, John F.; Hawkinson, Richard O.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major new efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey is the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). This circular is intended to answer some of the frequently asked questions concerning concepts used in establishing NASQAN, its purposes, design, value, and future plans.

  14. Analysing the production and treatment of solid waste using a national accounting framework.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, Roel; Hoekstra, Rutger; Nootenboom, Leslie

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between the economy and the environment has increased significantly over recent decades. One of the areas in which this is most apparent is the area of environmental accounting, where environmental data is presented according to national accounting principles. These accounts provide consistent, complete and detailed information for understanding environmental-economic interdependencies. One of the modules of these accounts is the waste accounts which record the origin and destination of waste materials. The first part of this paper discusses the Dutch waste accounts and their relation with economic indicators. In the second part a number of applications, which are based on the input-output model, are applied to these accounts. This section includes a novel structural decomposition analysis which quantifies the underlying driving forces of changes in total waste and landfilled waste between 1995 and 2004. The results show that the total amount of waste is mainly driven by economic growth (positive effect) and the direct export of waste (negative effect). The models also show that the construction sector has played a very important part in the reduction of waste. Furthermore, the decrease in the amount of landfilled waste, which is caused by Dutch regulations, has led to a large shift towards recycling and to a lesser degree incineration. Finally, the calculations for the 'environmental trade balance' for waste show that the waste-contents of exports exceed that of imports. This paper shows that the waste accounts have many analytical and policy-relevant applications.

  15. 78 FR 61813 - National Energy Action Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... 9032 of September 30, 2013 National Energy Action Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of..., and sustainable energy future. This National Energy Action Month, we can build on the progress we have made by recommitting to increasing our energy security, strengthening our economy, combatting...

  16. Energy and the capital of nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    significant production factor. This work enriches such studies via integrating the analysis all forms of capital and for a wider range of countries; estimating the trade-off -as output elasticity ratios- between the accumulation of various anthropogenic capital forms and the deterioration of natural capital -considered both as resource stock and carrying capacities of the environment. Keywords: energy, fossil fuels, industrial civilization, capital, production factor, natural capital, 2nd Law, entropy, irreversibility, exergy, LINEX function, output elasticity References 1. Ayres, Robert U. and Benjamin Warr (2009), The Economic Growth Engine: How Energy and Work Drive Material Prosperity, Edward Elgar and IIASA 2. Kümmel, Reiner (2011), The Second Law of Economics: Energy, Entropy and the Origins of Wealth, Springer 3. Lindenberger, Dietmar and Reiner Kümmel (2011), Energy and the state of nations, Energy 36, 6010 - 6018 4. Wall, Goran (2005), Exergy Capital and Sustainable Development, Proceedings of the Second International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium, Kos, Greece, Paper No. XII-I49

  17. 75 FR 32459 - National Energy Rating Program for Homes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Energy Rating Program for Homes AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and... discussion of these issues, please view www.buildings.energy.gov/home_rating_rfi.html . DATES: Comments must... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE-1), 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585...

  18. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O'Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  19. What Can the U.S. Learn from National Health Accounting Elsewhere?

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The United States is typically seen as an outlier in health spending when compared with other advanced nations. Recent improvements in health accounting in lower- and middle-income countries suggest some common features with the high and pluralistic spending in the United States. The author discusses recent developments and findings in health accounting outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and their relevance for the United States. He argues that we should expect more fruitful exchanges in the future. PMID:11481785

  20. Transportation Deployment; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Automakers, commercial fleet operators, component manufacturers, and government agencies all turn to the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help put more green vehicles on the road. The lab’s independent analysis and evaluation pinpoint fuel-efficient and low-emission strategies to support economic and operational goals, while breaking down barriers to widespread adoption. Customized assessment of existing equipment and practices, energy-saving alternatives, operational considerations, and marketplace realities factor in the multitude of variables needed to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits. NREL provides integrated, unbiased, 360-degree sustainable transportation deployment expertise encompassing alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and related infrastructure. Hands-on support comes from technical experts experienced in advanced vehicle technologies, fleet operations, and field data collection coupled with extensive modeling and analysis capabilities. The lab’s research team works closely with automakers and vehicle equipment manufacturers to test, analyze, develop, and evaluate high-performance fuel-efficient technologies that meet marketplace needs.

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory: 35 Years of Innovation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This brochure is an overview of NREL's innovations over the last 35 years. It includes the lab's history and a description of the laboratory of the future. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency. NREL's work focuses on advancing renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies from concept to the commercial marketplace through industry partnerships. The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, a partnership between Battelle and MRIGlobal, manages NREL for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  2. National health accounts in developing countries: appropriate methods and recent applications.

    PubMed

    Berman, P A

    1997-01-01

    Better information on the financing of the health sector is an essential basis for wise policy change in the area of health sector reform. Analysis of health care financing should begin with sound estimates of national health expenditure--total spending, the contributions to spending from different sources and the claims on spending by different uses of the funds. The member countries of the OECD have successfully established such comparative health expenditure accounts in terms of standardized definitions of the uses of funds and breakdowns by public and private sector sources. This has resulted in important research on health system differences which could explain variations in the level and composition of financing. The United States has developed a more detailed approach called National Health Accounts, which expands the OECD method into a more disaggregated 'sources and uses' matrix. In the developing countries, analysis of health expenditures has been much less systematic, despite several decades of calls by international researchers for more attention. This paper reviews previous work done in developing countries and proposes renewed attention to national health expenditures, adapting the recent experience of the United States. Because most developing countries have more pluralistic health financing structures than are found in most industrialized countries, an enhanced and adapted version of the 'sources and uses' matrix method is proposed. This method should be modified to address the relevant categories of expenditures prevalent in the developing countries. Examples of recent applications of such 'national health accounts' from the Philippines, Egypt, India, Mexico, Colombia and Zambia are presented. Experience to date suggests that development of sound estimates using this method in low and middle income countries is feasible and affordable. National health accounts estimates can significantly influence policy. They provide decision makers with a

  3. Origins and Elaboration of the National Health Accounts, 1926-2006

    PubMed Central

    Fetter, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The National Health Statistics Group (NHSG) has managed to keep the national health accounts (NHA) apolitical and highly respected. NHSG strategies have included the careful acquisition and presentation of statistics relating to health costs and payers; the use of scholarly journals to disseminate ideas to other government offices and, beyond them, to industry, labor, the professions, and universities; and the promotion of cooperation with related U.S., statistical agencies, provider groups, contractors, and international organizations. Responding to an increasingly complex system of third-party payers in the U.S. health system and controversies over methods, the NHA has continually evolved to meet the demands of health care decisionmakers. Historically, these dialogues have forced health accountants to refine their methods to ensure that their portrayal of spending and financing trends presents information that can inform the decisionmaking process in a non-partisan way. PMID:17290668

  4. Origins and elaboration of the national health accounts, 1926-2006.

    PubMed

    Fetter, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The National Health Statistics Group (NHSG) has managed to keep the national health accounts (NHA) apolitical and highly respected. NHSG strategies have included the careful acquisition and presentation of statistics relating to health costs and payers; the use of scholarly journals to disseminate ideas to other government offices and, beyond them, to industry, labor, the professions, and universities; and the promotion of cooperation with related U.S., statistical agencies, provider groups, contractors, and international organizations. Responding to an increasingly complex system of third-party payers in the U.S. health system and controversies over methods, the NHA has continually evolved to meet the demands of health care decisionmakers. Historically, these dialogues have forced health accountants to refine their methods to ensure that their portrayal of spending and financing trends presents information that can inform the decisionmaking process in a non-partisan way.

  5. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  6. Improved estimates of capital formation in the National Health Expenditure Accounts.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Arthur L; Donahoe, Gerald F

    2006-01-01

    The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) were revised with the release of the 2004 estimates. The largest revision was the incorporation of a more comprehensive measure of investment in medical sector capital. The revision raised total health expenditures' share of gross domestic product (GDP) from 15.4 to 15.8 percent in 2003. The improved measure encompasses investment in moveable equipment and software, as well as expenditures for the construction of structures used by the medical sector.

  7. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  8. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  9. Annual Forest Monitoring as part of Indonesia's National Carbon Accounting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustiyo, K.; Roswintiarti, O.; Tjahjaningsih, A.; Dewanti, R.; Furby, S.; Wallace, J.

    2015-04-01

    Land use and forest change, in particular deforestation, have contributed the largest proportion of Indonesia's estimated greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesia's remaining forests store globally significant carbon stocks, as well as biodiversity values. In 2010, the Government of Indonesia entered into a REDD+ partnership. A spatially detailed monitoring and reporting system for forest change which is national and operating in Indonesia is required for participation in such programs, as well as for national policy reasons including Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV), carbon accounting, and land-use and policy information. Indonesia's National Carbon Accounting System (INCAS) has been designed to meet national and international policy requirements. The INCAS remote sensing program is producing spatially-detailed annual wall-to-wall monitoring of forest cover changes from time-series Landsat imagery for the whole of Indonesia from 2000 to the present day. Work on the program commenced in 2009, under the Indonesia-Australia Forest Carbon Partnership. A principal objective was to build an operational system in Indonesia through transfer of knowledge and experience, from Australia's National Carbon Accounting System, and adaptation of this experience to Indonesia's requirements and conditions. A semi-automated system of image pre-processing (ortho-rectification, calibration, cloud masking and mosaicing) and forest extent and change mapping (supervised classification of a 'base' year, semi-automated single-year classifications and classification within a multi-temporal probabilistic framework) was developed for Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+. Particular attention is paid to the accuracy of each step in the processing. With the advent of Landsat 8 data and parallel development of processing capability, capacity and international collaborations within the LAPAN Data Centre this processing is being increasingly automated. Research is continuing into improved

  10. National Bio-fuel Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jezierski, Kelly

    2010-12-27

    The National Biofuel Energy Laboratory or NBEL was a consortia consisting of non-profits, universities, industry, and OEM’s. NextEnergy Center (NEC) in Detroit, Michigan was the prime with Wayne State University as the primary subcontractor. Other partners included: Art Van Furniture; Biodiesel Industries Inc. (BDI); Bosch; Clean Emission Fluids (CEF); Delphi; Oakland University; U.S. TARDEC (The Army); and later Cummins Bridgeway. The program was awarded to NextEnergy by U.S. DOE-NREL on July 1, 2005. The period of performance was about five (5) years, ending June 30, 2010. This program was executed in two phases: 1.Phase I focused on bench-scale R&D and performance-property-relationships. 2.Phase II expanded those efforts into further engine testing, emissions testing, and on-road fleet testing of biodiesel using additional types of feedstock (i.e., corn, and choice white grease based). NextEnergy – a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in Detroit was originally awarded a $1.9 million grant from the U.S. Dept. of Energy for Phase I of the NBEL program. A few years later, NextEnergy and its partners received an additional $1.9MM in DOE funding to complete Phase II. The NBEL funding was completely exhausted by the program end date of June 30, 2010 and the cost share commitment of 20% minimum has been exceeded nearly two times over. As a result of the work performed by the NBEL consortia, the following successes were realized: 1.Over one hundred publications and presentations have been delivered by the NBEL consortia, including but not limited to: R&D efforts on algae-based biodiesel, novel heterogeneous catalysis, biodiesel properties from a vast array of feedstock blends, cold flow properties, engine testing results (several Society of Automotive Engineers [SAE] papers have been published on this research), emissions testing results, and market quality survey results. 2.One new spinoff company (NextCAT) was formed by two WSU Chemical Engineering professors

  11. Using National Education Accounts to Help Address the Global Learning Crisis. Global Views. Policy Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Abetti, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief outlines how national education accounts (NEAs) are created, and why they are a vast improvement over current financial tracking systems in the education sector. Examples from the health sector illustrate the benefits of national accounts for improving public services, and their ubiquity highlights the poor state of affairs of…

  12. Using National Education Accounts to Help Address the Global Learning Crisis. Global Views. Policy Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Abetti, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief outlines how national education accounts (NEAs) are created, and why they are a vast improvement over current financial tracking systems in the education sector. Examples from the health sector illustrate the benefits of national accounts for improving public services, and their ubiquity highlights the poor state of affairs of…

  13. Audit of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Office of Chief Accountant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-07

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (Commission) mission is to oversee America`s natural gas and oil pipeline transportation, electric utility, and hydroelectric power industries to ensure that consumers receive adequate energy supplies at just and reasonable rates. To carry out this mission, the Commission issues regulations covering the accounting, reporting, and rate-making requirements of the regulated utility companies. The Commission`s Office of Chief Accountant performs financial related audits at companies to ensure compliance with these regulations. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the office of Chief Accountant`s audit performance. Specifically, the objectives were to determine if the most appropriate audit approach was used and if a quality assurance process was in place to ensure reports were accurate and supported by the working papers.

  14. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  16. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

  17. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  18. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  19. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This seminal report includes the Action Plan recommendations, identifies key barriers, and summarizes methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking and revenue requirements, energy resource planning processes, rate design, and other best practices.

  20. Energy Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1999-05-11

    Energy availability in a country is of great importance to its economy and to raising and maintaining its standard of living. In 1994, the United States consumed more than 88 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy and spent about $500 billion on fuels and electricity. Fortunately, the United States is well endowed with energy sources, notably fossil fuels, and possesses a considerable nuclear power industry. The United States also has significant renewable energy resources and already exploits much of its hydropower resources, which represent 10% of electricity production. Nevertheless, in 1994, the United States imported about 45% of the petroleum products it consumed, equivalent to about 17 quads of energy. This dependence on imported oil puts the country at risk of energy supply disruptions and oil price shocks. Previous oil shocks may have cost the country as much as $4 billion (in 1993 dollars) between 1973 and 1990. Moreover, the production and use of energy from fossil fuels are major sources of environmental damage. The corresponding situation in many parts of the world is more challenging. Developing countries are experiencing rapid growth in population, energy demand, and the environmental degradation that often results from industrial development. The near-term depletion of energy resources in response to this rapid growth runs counter to the concept of ''sustainable development''--development that meets the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Energy research and development (R&D) to improve efficiency and to develop and deploy energy alternatives may be viewed, therefore, as an insurance policy to combat the dangers of oil shocks and environmental pollution and as a means of supporting sustainable development. These considerations guide the energy policy of the United States and of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In its strategic plan, DOE identifies the fostering of ''a secure and reliable

  1. Nevada National Security Site Underground Radionuclide Inventory, 1951-1992: Accounting for Radionuclide Decay through September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, David Lawrence; Bowen, Scott Michael; Thompson, Joseph L.; Miller, Charles M.; Baca, Phyllis L.; Olivas, Loretta F.; Geoffrion, Carmen G.; Smith, David K.; Goishi, Wataru; Esser, Bradley K.; Meadows, Jesse W.; Namboodiri, Neil; Wild, John F.

    2016-03-16

    This report is an update of report LA-13859-MS (Bowen et al., 2001). In that original report, the underground radionuclide inventory at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was decay corrected to September 23, 1992, the date of the last underground nuclear test at the NNSS. In this report, the inventory is updated to account for the decay of radionuclides over two additional decades (1992-2012) and revised tritium, fission product and actinide inventory figures and tables are presented. The maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides were also updated to Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) (CFR, 2013). Also, a number of minor errata found in the original publication were corrected. An inventory of radionuclides produced by 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the NNSS by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Department of the Defense from 1951 to 1992 includes tritium, fission products, actinides, and activation products. The inventory presented in this report provides an estimate of radioactivity remaining underground at the NNSS after nuclear testing. The original test inventory is decayed to September 30, 2012, and predictions of inventory decay over the subsequent 1000 years are presented. For the purposes of summary and publication, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory authors of this report subdivided the inventory into five areas corresponding to the principal geographic test centers at the NNSS. The five areas roughly correspond to Underground Test Area “Corrective Action Units” (CAUs) for remediation of groundwater. In addition, the inventory is further subdivided for the Yucca Flat region by tests where the working point depth is more than 328 feet (100 meters) above the water table and tests that were detonated below that level. Water levels used were those from the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (1997

  2. Transparency & Accountability: An Evaluation of the VSA College Portrait Pilot. A Special Report from the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment for the Voluntary System of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, Natasha A.; Ikenberry, Stanley O.; Kinzie, Jillian; Kuh, George D.; Shenoy, Gloria F.; Baker, Gianina R.

    2012-01-01

    The Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA) is a vehicle for public four-year universities to report comparable information about the undergraduate student experience via the College Portrait, a common web reporting template. The National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) was asked by the VSA to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  3. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

  4. Students' Use of the Energy Model to Account for Changes in Physical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nico; Constantinou, Constantinos P.; Kyratsi, Theodora

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which students, aged 11-14 years, account for certain changes in physical systems and the extent to which they draw on an energy model as a common framework for explaining changes observed in diverse systems. Data were combined from two sources: interviews with 20 individuals and an open-ended…

  5. Students' Use of the Energy Model to Account for Changes in Physical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nico; Constantinou, Constantinos P.; Kyratsi, Theodora

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which students, aged 11-14 years, account for certain changes in physical systems and the extent to which they draw on an energy model as a common framework for explaining changes observed in diverse systems. Data were combined from two sources: interviews with 20 individuals and an open-ended…

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  7. Accounting for delay of energy transfer between coupled rooms in statistical-acoustics models of reverberant-energy decay.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jason E

    2012-08-01

    A statistical-acoustics model for energy decay in systems of two or more coupled rooms is introduced, which accounts for the distribution of delay in the transfer of energy between subrooms that results from the finite speed of sound. The method extends previous models based on systems of coupled ordinary differential equations by using functional differential equations to explicitly model dependence on prior values of energy in adjacent subrooms. Predictions of the model are illustrated for a two-room coupled system and compared with the predictions of a benchmark computational geometrical-acoustics model.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  10. Equiparatition of energy for turbulent astrophysical fluids: Accounting for the unseen energy in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular clouds are observed to be partially supported by turbulent pressure. The kinetic energy of the turbulence is directly measurable, but the potential energy, which consists of magnetic, thermal, and gravitational potential energy, is largly unseen. We have extended previous results on equipartition between kinetic and potential energy to show that it is likely to be a very good approximation in molecular clouds. We have used two separate approaches to demonstrate this result: For small-amplitude perturbations of a static equilibrium, we have used the energy principle analysis of Bernstein et al. (1958); this derivation applies to perturbations of arbitary wavelength. To treat perturbations of a nonstatic equilibrium, we have used the Lagrangian analysis of Dewar (1970); this analysis applies only to short-wavelength perturbations. Both analysis assume conservation of energy. Wave damping has only a small effect on equipartition if the wave frequency is small compared to the neutral-ion collision frequency; for the particular case we considered, radiative losses have no effect on equipartition. These results are then incorporated in a simple way into analyses of cloud equilibrium and global stability. We discuss the effect of Alfvenic turbulence on the Jeans mass and show that it has little effect on the magnetic critical mass.

  11. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Visitors Center

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient lighting, an evaporative cooling system, and other technologies to minimize energy costs and environmental impact. The Visitors Center displays a variety of interactive exhibits on energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the building includes an auditorium, a public reading room, and office space.

  12. The application of finance and accounting theory to the valuation of new energy and efficiency options

    SciTech Connect

    Awerbuch, S.

    1995-12-31

    New, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are often passive and capital intensive-attributes they share with computer-integrated-manufacturing (CIM), robotics, computer-aided-design (CAD) and similar manufacturing process technologies. The experience in manufacturing over the last two decades indicates that traditional accounting-based procedures for valuing such new technologies significantly understate their benefits. This paper highlights recent research which extends project valuation principles and illustrates how reliance on the engineering oriented levelized energy cost distorst benefit/cost streams.

  13. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  14. Partnership to increase energy efficiency and renewable energy in Intermountain Field Area national parks: National Park Service, State Energy Offices and the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.; Westby, B.; Burks, J.; Hawkins, B.; Lobato, R.

    1996-10-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) pays some of the highest energy costs among agencies in the Federal government. Some park facilities pay over 50{cents} per KWH to generate electricity at remote sites. Budget priorities, a shortage of funding and lack of technical energy expertise within the NPS have kept parks, recreation areas and monuments from aggressively undertaking energy efficiency and renewable energy projects. Recognizing the vast potential for cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency projects the Department of Energy`s Denver Regional Support Office (DRSO) and the former Rocky Mountain Region of NPS drafted an interagency agreement formalizing a collaborative effort. This paper highlights a number of projects already underway involving a variety of partnerships among NPS and State Energy Offices, Weatherization Offices, Department of Energy (DOE) Labs, FEMP and other DOE programs. It also identifies potential projects which may interest solar businesses and energy service companies.

  15. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: National Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents abstracts of federal environmental legislation in each of the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. An additional section of the report outlines related environmental legislation citations from the 1950's to the present. This document is…

  16. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: National Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents abstracts of federal environmental legislation in each of the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. An additional section of the report outlines related environmental legislation citations from the 1950's to the present. This document is…

  17. National Labs Host Classroom Ready Energy Educational Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a clear goal of joining all climate and energy agencies in the task of taking climate and energy research and development to communities across the nation and throughout the world. Only as information on climate and energy education is shared with the nation and world do research labs begin to understand the massive outreach work yet to be accomplished. The work at hand is to encourage and ensure the climate and energy literacy of our society. The national labs have defined the K-20 population as a major outreach focus, with the intent of helping them see their future through the global energy usage crisis and ensure them that they have choices and a chance to redirect their future. Students embrace climate and energy knowledge and do see an opportunity to change our energy future in a positive way. Students are so engaged that energy clubs are springing up in highschools across the nation. Because of such global clubs university campuses are being connected throughout the world (Energy Crossroads www.energycrossroads.org) etc. There is a need and an interest, but what do teachers need in order to faciliate this learning? It is simple, they need financial support for classroom resources; standards based classroom ready lessons and materials; and, training. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a Department of Energy Lab, provides standards based education materials to schools across the nation. With a focus on renewable energy and energy efficiency education, NREL helps educators to prompt students to analyze and then question their energy choices and evaluate their carbon footprint. Classrooms can then discover the effects of those choices on greenhouse gas emmissions and climate change. The DOE Office of Science has found a way to contribute to teachers professional development through the Department of Energy Academics Creating Teacher Scientists (DOE ACTS) Program. This program affords teachers an opportunity to

  18. A National Framework for Energy Audit Ordinances

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Cody; Costa, Marc; Long, Nicholas; Antonoff, Jayson

    2016-08-26

    A handful of U.S. cities have begun to incorporate energy audits into their building energy performance policies. Cities are beginning to recognize an opportunity to use several information tools to bring to real estate markets both motivation to improve efficiency and actionable pointers on how to improve. Care is necessary to combine such tools as operational ratings, energy audits, asset ratings, and building retro-commissioning in an effective policy regime that maximizes market impact. In this paper, the authors focus on energy audits and consider both the needs of the policies' implementers in local governments and the emerging standards and federal tools to improve data collection and practitioner engagement. Over the past two years, we have compared several related data formats such as New York City's existing audit reporting spreadsheet, ASHRAE guidance on building energy auditing, and the DOE Building Energy Asset Score, to identify a possible set of required and optional fields for energy audit reporting programs. Doing so revealed tensions between the ease of data collection and the value of more detailed information, which had implications for the effort and qualifications needed to complete the energy audit. The resulting list of data fields is now feeding back into the regulatory process in several cities currently working on implementing or developing audit policies. Using complementary policies and standardized tools for data transmission, the next generation of policies and programs will be tailored to local building stock and can more effectively target improvement opportunities through each building's life.

  19. Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

    2005-06-30

    The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

  20. EnergySmart Schools National Financing Roundtable--Key Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As a follow-up to the release of its "Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools", the U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools program hosted the National Financing Roundtable on February 5, 2009. This event was held prior to the seventh Annual High Performance Schools Symposium, hosted by the Council of Educational Facility Planners…

  1. 77 FR 60613 - National Energy Action Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8878 of October 1, 2012 National Energy Action Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation A secure energy future is vital to an economy built to last. When we use American energy to power our homes, businesses, and vehicles, we create new...

  2. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  3. Energy direction finding method taking into account the curvature of the Earth and interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, Yu. G.; Mozol', A. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method using a two-position system to determine the spatial coordinates of a moving radiation source from one bearing measurement and relative energy measurements of the received signal taking into account the effect of its reflection from the Earth surface. The passive location problem is solved for low elevation angles taking into account the curvature of the Earth and using a polynomial model of source motion. An algorithm for the parametric identification of this model using a measurement sample of increasing size in a regularized formulation is developed, and the accuracy characteristics of the method are analyzed.

  4. National Energy Efficiency Enhancement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2010-03-02

    Senate - 03/10/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-402. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. National Energy Efficiency Enhancement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2010-03-02

    03/10/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-402. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. National Energy Efficiency Enhancement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2010-03-02

    03/10/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-402. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Energy Storage Sizing Taking Into Account Forecast Uncertainties and Receding Horizon Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Kyri; Hug, Gabriela; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESS) have the potential to be very beneficial for applications such as reducing the ramping of generators, peak shaving, and balancing not only the variability introduced by renewable energy sources, but also the uncertainty introduced by errors in their forecasts. Optimal usage of storage may result in reduced generation costs and an increased use of renewable energy. However, optimally sizing these devices is a challenging problem. This paper aims to provide the tools to optimally size an ESS under the assumption that it will be operated under a model predictive control scheme and that the forecast of the renewable energy resources include prediction errors. A two-stage stochastic model predictive control is formulated and solved, where the optimal usage of the storage is simultaneously determined along with the optimal generation outputs and size of the storage. Wind forecast errors are taken into account in the optimization problem via probabilistic constraints for which an analytical form is derived. This allows for the stochastic optimization problem to be solved directly, without using sampling-based approaches, and sizing the storage to account not only for a wide range of potential scenarios, but also for a wide range of potential forecast errors. In the proposed formulation, we account for the fact that errors in the forecast affect how the device is operated later in the horizon and that a receding horizon scheme is used in operation to optimally use the available storage.

  8. Behavioral and ecological factors account for variation in the mass-independent energy expenditures of endotherms.

    PubMed

    McNab, B K

    2015-01-01

    A persistent controversy has concerned the identification of the factors that influence the quantitative variation in the physiological characters of species, an example of which is the basal rate of metabolism of endotherms. The most important factor accounting for its variation is body mass as long as the range in mass is appreciable. But mass never accounts for all of the variation and none if species have the same mass. Most of the residual variation around the mass curve is associated with behavioral characters, ecological factors, and phylogeny, i.e., history. These agents influence energy expenditure by different means and at different stages in the life history of species. Phylogeny describes the historic origin, evolution, and distribution of character states in contemporary species. However, the level of energy expenditure is quantitatively determined by the collective of realized states in combination with conditions in the environment. Therefore, two stages determine energy expenditure: (1) the evolution of character states and (2) their impact in conjunction with conditions on the environment. Behavioral characters and ecological factors, when coupled with log10 mass, usually account for >94 % of the variation in the log10 basal rates of birds and mammals, a capacity not found in phylogenetic analyses. The difficulty of determining a direct impact of phylogeny on physiological characters results from its correlation with behavioral characters. When appropriate, the passerine/non-passerine dichotomy in birds and the sub/infraclass dichotomy in mammals combine with behavioral characters, ecological factors, and log10 mass to increase r (2) to account for 96-99 % of the variation in log10 basal rate. This occurs because dichotomies incorporate factors other than those already in the analyses. The clearest demonstration of the direct impact of character states is the equality of energy expenditure in species convergent with species from other clades

  9. Solar energy: Account of a mission to the USA from 27 April to 3 May 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, J. P.; Genier, R.; Roche, M.

    1982-05-01

    The state of progress of the Solar One solar tower is described. The parabolic collectors program of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is outlined. The Los Alamos National Laboratory research program on the geothermal characteristics of dry rocks is summarized. The ASME solar energy conference is mentioned.

  10. 76 FR 45547 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License Between the National Energy Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License Between the National Energy Technology Laboratory and Envired Systems AGENCY: National Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of intent to grant partially exclusive license. SUMMARY: The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL...

  11. The Argument for Accountability That Works. A Position Statement of the National Association of State Directors of Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goniprow, Alexander T.

    The National Association of State Directors of Migrant Education (NASDME) is committed to develop and support an educational accountability system that works. A good accountability system should: (1) accurately report on the efforts of migrant education and the progress of migrant children served; (2) reward or sanction the appropriate entities or…

  12. The topology of inter-industry relations from the Portuguese national accounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Faustino, Rui

    2017-08-01

    In last years, the Portuguese economy has gone through a severe adjustment process, affecting almost all industrial sectors, the building blocks of economic structures. Research on economic structural changes has made use of input/output tables to define networks of industrial relations. Here, these networks are induced from output tables of the Portuguese national accounting system, being each inter-industry relation defined by the output made by any two industries for the products that they both produce. The topological analysis of these networks allows to uncover a particular structure that comes out during the Portuguese adjustment program. The evolution of the industrial networks shows an important structural change in 2011-2014, confirming the usefulness of inducting similarity networks from output tables and the consequent promising power of the graph formulation for the analysis of inter-industry relations.

  13. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  14. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  15. Energy use baselining study for the National Naval Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Halverson, M.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides an energy consumption profile for fourteen buildings at the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda, Maryland. Recommendations are also made for viable energy efficiency projects funded with assistance from the servicing utility (Potomic Electric Power Company) in the form of rebates and incentives available in their Demand Side Management (DSM) program and through Shared Energy Savings (SES) projects. This report also provides estimates of costs and potential energy savings of the recommended projects.

  16. Energy use baselining study for the National Naval Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Halverson, M.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides an energy consumption profile for fourteen buildings at the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda, Maryland. Recommendations are also made for viable energy efficiency projects funded with assistance from the servicing utility (Potomic Electric Power Company) in the form of rebates and incentives available in their Demand Side Management (DSM) program and through Shared Energy Savings (SES) projects. This report also provides estimates of costs and potential energy savings of the recommended projects.

  17. Energy Policies for Resilience and National Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    in a big PWR , the mechanical energy of circulating hot water is equivalent to about 0.025 kT, and its thermal energy, to several kT. Much of the...already released 153 Ci of radioiodine (about ten times the Three Mile Island release) in five days (Marter 19631 and 479 kCi of tritium in one day...uninjured emergency crew could pre- vent destruction of the core." The containment shell (for ice-condensing PWRs ) will be "badly damaged" and the

  18. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research.

  19. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  20. Telling a modest story: accounts of men's upward mobility from the National Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew; Savage, Mike; Bühlmann, Felix

    2011-09-01

    While the pattern of social mobility in postwar Britain has been extensively studied, revealing considerable upward mobility, much less is known about the subjective dimension to mobility. In this article, we employ a new sample of in-depth interviews with 50-year old men from the National Child Development Study to examine in detail the link between objective mobility patterns and the way the upwardly mobile narrate their life trajectories. In contrast to the mobility ideology suggested by the Oxford mobility survey of the early 1970s, in which the upwardly mobile recognized and internalized their success as a project of the self, we report how members of this later generation of men with highly successful careers prefer instead to articulate 'modest' life stories. By treating the career as a narrative device, we are able to show how the disavowal of the dominant, linear hierarchical career model by these men allows them to tell particular and distinctive stories which establish their individuality and personhood, while, paradoxically, recognizing the cultural power of the dominant model. In particular, we highlight the use of 'linear contingent' narratives by these men, in which specific events, especially those connected with occupational and geographical transitions, are deployed as contingent thresholds to mark out key shifts and passages in their lives. We then compare their accounts with those of immobile and downwardly men, who instead deploy 'ghostly' stories, preoccupied by the past, or defensive accounts, displaying unease with their failure to live up to the expectations of the linear career model. Having shown that men's accounts of mobility are suffused with an awareness of their need to establish their own individuality through repudiating the social trope of the instrumental careerist, we conclude that the links between career identities and objective mobility patterns are not straightforward and need careful unravelling.

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  2. Nuclear energy related capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, Susan Y.

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' technology solutions are depended on to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships, part of Sandia's mission is to meet the national needs in the areas of energy, climate and infrastructure security. Within this mission to ensure clean, abundant, and affordable energy and water is the Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs. The Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs have a broad range of capabilities, with both physical facilities and intellectual expertise. These resources are brought to bear upon the key scientific and engineering challenges facing the nation and can be made available to address the research needs of others. Sandia can support the safe, secure, reliable, and sustainable use of nuclear power worldwide by incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in safety, security, nonproliferation, transportation, modeling, repository science, and system demonstrations.

  3. Integration of Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations into Accountable Care Organizations: Results from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    D'Aunno, Thomas; Friedmann, Peter D; Chen, Qixuan; Wilson, Donna M

    2015-08-01

    To meet their aims of managing population health to improve the quality and cost of health care in the United States, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will need to focus on coordinating care for individuals with substance abuse disorders. The prevalence of these disorders is high, and these individuals often suffer from comorbid chronic medical and social conditions. This article examines the extent to which the nation's fourteen thousand specialty substance abuse treatment (SAT) organizations, which have a daily census of more than 1 million patients, are contracting with ACOs across the country; we also examine factors associated with SAT organization involvement with ACOs. We draw on data from a recent (2014) nationally representative survey of executive directors and clinical supervisors from 635 SAT organizations. Results show that only 15 percent of these organizations had signed contracts with ACOs. Results from multivariate analyses show that directors' perceptions of market competition, organizational ownership, and geographic location are significantly related to SAT involvement with ACOs. We discuss implications for integrating the SAT specialty system with the mainstream health care system.

  4. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  5. The free-energy self: a predictive coding account of self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Apps, Matthew A J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-04-01

    Recognising and representing one's self as distinct from others is a fundamental component of self-awareness. However, current theories of self-recognition are not embedded within global theories of cortical function and therefore fail to provide a compelling explanation of how the self is processed. We present a theoretical account of the neural and computational basis of self-recognition that is embedded within the free-energy account of cortical function. In this account one's body is processed in a Bayesian manner as the most likely to be "me". Such probabilistic representation arises through the integration of information from hierarchically organised unimodal systems in higher-level multimodal areas. This information takes the form of bottom-up "surprise" signals from unimodal sensory systems that are explained away by top-down processes that minimise the level of surprise across the brain. We present evidence that this theoretical perspective may account for the findings of psychological and neuroimaging investigations into self-recognition and particularly evidence that representations of the self are malleable, rather than fixed as previous accounts of self-recognition might suggest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The free-energy self: A predictive coding account of self-recognition

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Matthew A.J.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Recognising and representing one’s self as distinct from others is a fundamental component of self-awareness. However, current theories of self-recognition are not embedded within global theories of cortical function and therefore fail to provide a compelling explanation of how the self is processed. We present a theoretical account of the neural and computational basis of self-recognition that is embedded within the free-energy account of cortical function. In this account one’s body is processed in a Bayesian manner as the most likely to be “me”. Such probabilistic representation arises through the integration of information from hierarchically organised unimodal systems in higher-level multimodal areas. This information takes the form of bottom-up “surprise” signals from unimodal sensory systems that are explained away by top-down processes that minimise the level of surprise across the brain. We present evidence that this theoretical perspective may account for the findings of psychological and neuroimaging investigations into self-recognition and particularly evidence that representations of the self are malleable, rather than fixed as previous accounts of self-recognition might suggest. PMID:23416066

  7. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

  8. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  9. Accounting for energy and protein reserve changes in predicting diet-allowable milk production in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Seo, S; Fox, D G; Ruiz, R

    2006-12-01

    Current ration formulation systems used to formulate diets on farms and to evaluate experimental data estimate metabolizable energy (ME)-allowable and metabolizable protein (MP)-allowable milk production from the intake above animal requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and growth. The changes in body reserves, measured via the body condition score (BCS), are not accounted for in predicting ME and MP balances. This paper presents 2 empirical models developed to adjust predicted diet-allowable milk production based on changes in BCS. Empirical reserves model 1 was based on the reserves model described by the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, whereas empirical reserves model 2 was developed based on published data of body weight and composition changes in lactating dairy cows. A database containing 134 individually fed lactating dairy cows from 3 trials was used to evaluate these adjustments in milk prediction based on predicted first-limiting ME or MP by the 2001 Dairy NRC and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System models. The analysis of first-limiting ME or MP milk production without adjustments for BCS changes indicated that the predictions of both models were consistent (r(2) of the regression between observed and model-predicted values of 0.90 and 0.85), had mean biases different from zero (12.3 and 5.34%), and had moderate but different roots of mean square errors of prediction (5.42 and 4.77 kg/d) for the 2001 NRC model and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model, respectively. The adjustment of first-limiting ME- or MP-allowable milk to BCS changes improved the precision and accuracy of both models. We further investigated 2 methods of adjustment; the first method used only the first and last BCS values, whereas the second method used the mean of weekly BCS values to adjust ME- and MP-allowable milk production. The adjustment to BCS changes based on first and last BCS values was more accurate

  10. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  11. Two Energy Futures: A National Choice for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1980, the American Petroleum Institute published the first edition of "Two Energy Futures." It described the U.S. energy experience of the 1970s and prospects for the 1980s, concluding that the nation could drastically reduce its dependence on uncertain sources of imported oil if the right choices were made by individuals and the…

  12. 76 FR 63527 - National Energy Action Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... stand at a critical juncture. As global demand for energy grows, the United States must take bold action... National Energy Action Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... the United States by the end of next year. At the same time, we have expanded safe and...

  13. Two Energy Futures: A National Choice for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1980, the American Petroleum Institute published the first edition of "Two Energy Futures." It described the U.S. energy experience of the 1970s and prospects for the 1980s, concluding that the nation could drastically reduce its dependence on uncertain sources of imported oil if the right choices were made by individuals and the…

  14. National Energy Education Development (NEED) [Resources Local Participation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    National Energy Education Development (NEED) is concerned with the dissemination of energy education information, the way children learn best, and the type of citizens students will become. Cooperative learning, where students take responsibility for their own learning and that of others in their group, class, school, and their community, is…

  15. High energy physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    The high energy plans at BNL are centered around the AGS and ISABELLE, or a variant thereof. At present the AGS is maintaining a strong and varied program. This last year a total of 4 x 10/sup 19/ protons were delivered on target in a period of approximately 20 weeks. Physics interest is very strong, half of the submitted proposals are rejected (thereby maintaining high quality experiments) and the program is full over the next two years. The future colliding beam facility will utilize the AGS as an injector and will be a dedicated facility. It will have six intersection regions, run > 10/sup 7/ sec/year, and explore a new domain of energy and luminosity. Common to all the considered alternatives is a large aperture proton ring. These possible choices involve pp, ep, and heavy ion variants. The long term philosophy is to run the AGS as much as possible, continuously to upgrade it in performance and reliability, and then to phase it down as the new collider begins operation. (WHK)

  16. National health accounts data from 1996 to 2010: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Anthony L; Lavado, Rouselle F; Johnson, Elizabeth K; Brooks, Benjamin PC; Freeman, Michael K; Graves, Casey M; Haakenstad, Annie; Shoemaker, Benjamin; Hanlon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To collect, compile and evaluate publicly available national health accounts (NHA) reports produced worldwide between 1996 and 2010. Methods We downloaded country-generated NHA reports from the World Health Organization global health expenditure database and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) StatExtract website. We also obtained reports from Abt Associates, through contacts in individual countries and through an online search. We compiled data in the four main types used in these reports: (i) financing source; (ii) financing agent; (iii) health function; and (iv) health provider. We combined and adjusted data to conform with OECD’s first edition of A system of health accounts manual, (2000). Findings We identified 872 NHA reports from 117 countries containing a total of 2936 matrices for the four data types. Most countries did not provide complete health expenditure data: only 252 of the 872 reports contained data in all four types. Thirty-eight countries reported an average not-specified-by-kind value greater than 20% for all data types and years. Some countries reported substantial year-on-year changes in both the level and composition of health expenditure that were probably produced by data-generation processes. All study data are publicly available at http://vizhub.healthdata.org/nha/. Conclusion Data from NHA reports on health expenditure are often incomplete and, in some cases, of questionable quality. Better data would help finance ministries allocate resources to health systems, assist health ministries in allocating capital within the health sector and enable researchers to make accurate comparisons between health systems. PMID:26478614

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  20. Issues in transferring US energy technologies to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Brown, M.A.; Samuels, G.

    1986-01-01

    To stimulate discussion of potentials for and mechanisms of technology transfer from the US to developing nations, this paper draws upon two bodies of experience at ORNL: (1) a wide variety of technical assistance activities supported by the US Agency for International Development (AID), helping AID-assisted developing nations improve their energy planning, policy formulation, and applications of fossil and renewable energy options; and (2) a wide variety of technology transfer related activities, ranging from (1) assistance to buildings energy conservation programs of the US Department of Energy in improving the transfer of new technologies from the nation's R and D system to commercial users to (2) research to improve the general understanding of the technology transfer process, especially from R and D institutions to commercial developers. Using three energy options of current interest to AID as examples (carbonized coal briquettes to meet residential and commercial sector energy needs, wood gasification to power stationary internal combustion engines, and rural electrification), the paper illustrates the importance of several dimensions often neglected in engineering-economic analysis, such as institutional requirements and a relatively detailed understanding of market segments. Unless such dimensions are incorporated effectively into technology transfer efforts by US developers, relatively little success should be expected either in expanding markets for US technology or in helping developing nations meet their energy needs.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy fiscal year 1998 accountability report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report, the Department of Energy`s first Accountability Report, is part of an effort to better measure how the Department of Energy is serving the American taxpayers; the results achieved; and the cost-effectiveness of the work. By integrating the Department`s FY 1998 performance results, financial status, and management controls, this report is a useful tool and provides a status report on the Department`s performance in FY 1998. It presents a clearer picture of the return on the investment of the resources entrusted to this agency. After thorough review by the Office of the Inspector General, with one exception, the financial statements have been found to present fairly the financial position of the Department in conformity with Federal accounting standards. Overall, the Department has reasonable assurance that DOE has management controls in place to ensure that operational activities are efficient and effective and comply with the law. Ten challenges where management controls can be strengthened have been identified.

  2. The utilization of solar energy to help meet our nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The nation's energy needs, domestic energy resources, and possible future energy resources are briefly discussed in this paper. Three potential solutions, coal, nuclear and solar are compared as to benefits and problems. The paper primarily discusses the options available in using solar energy as a natural energy resource. These options are discussed under the generation of electricity, heating and cooling of buildings, and the production of clean fuel.

  3. Identifying Opportunities to Reduce Uncertainty in a National-Scale Forest Carbon Accounting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C. H.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Kurz, W.; Hilger, A.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the quality of forest carbon budget models used for national and international reporting of greenhouse gas emissions is essential, but model evaluations are rarely conducted mainly because of lack of appropriate, independent ground plot data sets. Ecosystem carbon stocks for all major pools estimated from data collected for 696 ground plots from Canada's new National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to assess plot-level carbon stocks predicted by the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector 3 (CBM-CFS3) -- a model compliant with the most complex (Tier-3) approach in the reporting guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The model is the core of Canada's National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting, and Reporting System. At the landscape scale, a major portion of total uncertainty in both C stock and flux estimation is associated with biomass productivity, turnover, and soil and dead organic matter modelling parameters, which can best be further evaluated using plot-level data. Because the data collected for the ground plots were comprehensive we were able to compare carbon stock estimates for 13 pools also estimated by the CBM-CFS3 (all modelled pools excepting coarse and fine root biomass) using the classical comparison statistics of mean difference and correlation. Using a Monte Carlo approach we were able to determine the contribution of aboveground biomass, deadwood and soil pool error to modeled ecosystem total error, as well as the contribution of pools that are summed to estimate aboveground biomass, deadwood and soil, to the error of these three subtotal pools. We were also able to assess potential sources of error propagation in the computational sequence of the CBM-CFS3. Analysis of the data grouped by the 16 dominant tree species allowed us to isolate the leading species where further research would lead to the greatest reductions in uncertainty for modeling of carbon stocks using the CBM-CFS3. This analysis

  4. The Inequality Footprints of Nations: A Novel Approach to Quantitative Accounting of Income Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25353333

  5. The inequality footprints of nations: a novel approach to quantitative accounting of income inequality.

    PubMed

    Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries.

  6. Circles of Support & Accountability: a Canadian national replication of outcome findings.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin J; Cortoni, Franca; McWhinnie, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    Circles of Support & Accountability (COSA) started 15 years ago in Ontario, Canada, as an alternate means of social support to high-risk sexual offenders released at the end of their sentences without any community supervision. The pilot project in South-Central Ontario has since assisted almost 200 offenders. Projects based on this model are now in place in the United Kingdom, several jurisdictions in the United States, and throughout Canada. Initial research into the efficacy of the COSA pilot project showed that participation reduced sexual recidivism by 70% or more in comparison with both matched controls and actuarial norms. The current study sought to replicate these findings using an independent Canadian national sample. A total of 44 high-risk sexual offenders, released at sentence completion and involved in COSA across Canada, were matched to a group of 44 similar offenders not involved in COSA. The average follow-up time was 35 months. Recidivism was defined as having a charge or conviction for a new offense. Results show that offenders in COSA had an 83% reduction in sexual recidivism, a 73% reduction in all types of violent recidivism, and an overall reduction of 71% in all types of recidivism in comparison to the matched offenders. These findings suggest that participation in COSA is not site-specific and provide further evidence for the position that trained and guided community volunteers can and do assist in markedly improving offenders' chances for successful reintegration.

  7. Integration of Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations into Accountable Care Organizations: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    D’Aunno, Thomas; Friedmann, Peter D.; Chen, Qixuan; Wilson, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    To meet their aims of managing population health to improve the quality and cost of health care in the United States, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will need to focus on coordinating care for individuals with substance abuse disorders. The prevalence of these disorders is high, and these individuals often suffer from comorbid chronic medical and social conditions. This article examines the extent to which the nation’s fourteen thousand specialty substance abuse treatment (SAT) organizations, which have a daily census of more than 1 million patients, are contracting with ACOs across the country; we also examine factors associated with SAT organization involvement with ACOs. We draw on data from a recent (2014) nationally representative survey of executive directors and clinical supervisors from 635 SAT organizations. Results show that only 15 percent of these organizations had signed contracts with ACOs. Results from multivariate analyses show that directors’ perceptions of market competition, organizational ownership, and geographic location are significantly related to SATinvolvement with ACOs. We discuss implications for integrating the SAT specialty system with the mainstream health care system. PMID:26124307

  8. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    PubMed

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  9. Definition of energy-calibrated spectra for national reachback

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Christopher L.; Hertz, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the timeliness and accuracy of analysis results of spectra submitted to National Reachback, particularly for the detection of threat items. Many spectra submitted for analysis include either a calibration spectrum using 137Cs or no calibration spectrum at all. The single line provided by 137Cs is insufficient to adequately calibrate nonlinear spectra. A calibration source that provides several lines that are well-spaced, from the low energy cutoff to the full energy range of the detector, is needed for a satisfactory energy calibration. This paper defines the requirements of an energy calibration for the purposes of National Reachback, outlines a method to validate whether a given spectrum meets that definition, discusses general source considerations, and provides a specific operating procedure for calibrating the GR-135.

  10. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  11. Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans: Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; James, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  12. A Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans. Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; James, Ted L.

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program Bibliography: 1994 Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K. H.

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains listings of publicly available technical reports, journal articles, and conference papers resulting from Oak Ridge National Laboratory research and development projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and published between 1989 and mid-1994. Over 200 citations have been added since the last edition.

  14. Role of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the Laboratory to Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blasy, J.A.; Koncher, T.R.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1995-05-02

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is participating in a US Department of Energy sponsored multi-laboratory cooperative effort with the Russian Federation nuclear institutes to reduce risks of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting in both countries. This program is called the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program and it is designed to complement other US-Russian MPC&A programs such as the government-to-govermment (NunnLugar) programs. LLNL`s role in this program has been to collaborate with various Russian institutes in several areas. One of these is integrated safeguards and security planning and analysis, including the performing of vulnerability assessments. In the area of radiation measurements LLNL is cooperating with various institutes on gamma-ray measurement and analysis techniques for plutonium and uranium accounting. LLNL is also participating in physical security upgrades including entry control and portals.

  15. Innovative Commercialization Efforts Underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cheesbrough, Kate; Bader, Meghan

    2016-08-26

    New clean energy and energy efficiency technology solutions hold the promise of significant reductions in energy consumption. However, proven barriers for these technologies, including the technological and commercialization valleys of death, result in promising technologies falling to the wayside. To address these gaps, NREL's Innovation & Entrepreneurship Center designs and manages advanced programs aimed at supporting the development and commercialization of early stage clean energy technologies with the goal of accelerating new technologies to market. These include: Innovation Incubator (IN2) in partnership with Wells Fargo: this technology incubator supports energy efficiency building-related startups to overcome market gaps by providing access to technical support at NREL; Small Business Voucher Pilot: this program offers paid vouchers for applicants to access a unique skill, capability, or facility at any of the 17 DOE National Laboratories to bring next-generation clean energy technologies to market; Energy Innovation Portal: NREL designed and developed the Energy Innovation Portal, providing access to EERE focused intellectual property available for licensing from all of the DOE National Laboratories; Lab-Corps: Lab-Corps aims to better train and empower national lab researchers to understand market drivers and successfully transition their discoveries into high-impact, real world technologies in the private sector; Incubatenergy Network: the Network provides nationwide coordination of clean energy business incubators, share best practices, support clean energy entrepreneurs, and help facilitate a smoother transition to a more sustainable clean energy economy; Industry Growth Forum: the Forum is the perfect venue for clean energy innovators to maximize their exposure to receptive capital and strategic partners. Since 2003, presenting companies have collectively raised more than $5 billion in growth financing.

  16. Natural resource accounting for the national forests: A conceptual framework. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Bradley, D.P.; Jakes, P.J.

    1994-06-20

    The report summarizes the shortcomings of current natural resource accounting systems, outlines some of the features needed, and proposes an accounting framework that would help integrate economic and ecological factors. Such a system of forest resource accounting is urgently needed to achieve the sustainable goals of ecosystem management.

  17. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  18. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  19. Impacts of Modeled Recommendations of the National Commission on Energy Policy

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the Energy Information Administration's analysis of those National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) energy policy recommendations that could be simulated using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).

  20. Material control and accountability (MC&A) recovery from the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, William Earl

    2001-01-01

    During the week of May 10-14, 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire scorched over 40,000 acres of prime forestland and destroyed over 400 homes in the Los Alamos community and several structures at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Of the land affected by the fire, nearly one quarter of it was Laboratory property. All of LANL's 64 material balance areas (MBAs) were affected to some degree, but one Category I technical area and several Category I11 and IV areas sustained heavy damage. When the MC&A personnel were allowed to return to work on May 23, they addressed the following problems: How do we assure both ourselves and the Department of Energy (DOE) that no nuclear materials had been compromised? How do we assist the nuclear material (NM) custodians and their operating groups so that they can resume normal MC&A operations? Immediately after the return to work, the Laboratory issued emergency MC&A assurance actions for Category I through Category IV facilities. We conducted special inventories, area walkthroughs, and other forms of evaluation so that within a month after the fire, we were able to release the last MBA to resume work and assure that all nuclear material had been accounted for. This paper discusses the measures LANL adopted to ensure that none of its nuclear material had been compromised.

  1. The pressing energy innovation challenge of the US National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Bin-Nun, Amitai Y.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-10-01

    Accelerating the development and deployment of energy technologies is a pressing challenge. Doing so will require policy reform that improves the efficacy of public research organizations and strengthens the links between public and private innovators. With their US$14 billion annual budget and unique mandates, the US National Laboratories have the potential to critically advance energy innovation, yet reviews of their performance find several areas of weak organizational design. Here, we discuss the challenges the National Laboratories face in engaging the private sector, increasing their contributions to transformative research, and developing culture and management practices to better support innovation. We also offer recommendations for how policymakers can address these challenges.

  2. Renew the parks: Renewable energy in the National Park Service

    SciTech Connect

    DeNio, D.

    1997-12-31

    The National Park Service (NPS) is the steward of some of the world`s finest natural and cultural resources. When the Park Service celebrated its 75th birthday in 1991, it charted a course for how to accomplish its mission into the next century. Incorporating sustainability and sustainable design into all NPS operations and development is one means of meeting the challenges that face the National Park Service. The main components of sustainable design include energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, micro-hydro, biomass, and tidal. The focus of this paper is photovoltaic (PV)--the conversion of sunlight to direct current electricity.

  3. Resilience and Robustness in Long-Term Planning of the National Energy and Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Lavrenz, Steven; Gkritza, Konstantina; Mejia-Giraldo, Diego A.; Krishnan, Venkat; McCalley, James D.; Somani, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    The most significant energy consuming infrastructures and the greatest contributors to greenhouse gases for any developed nation today are electric and freight/passenger transportation systems. Technological alternatives for producing, transporting and converting energy for electric and transportation systems are numerous. Addressing costs, sustainability and resilience of electric and transportation needs requires long-term assessment since these capital-intensive infrastructures take years to build with lifetimes approaching a century. Yet, the advent of electrically driven transportation, including cars, trucks and trains, creates potential interdependencies between the two infrastructures that may be both problematic and beneficial. We are developing modelling capability to perform long-term electric and transportation infrastructure design at a national level, accounting for their interdependencies. The approach combines network flow modelling with a multi-objective solution method. We describe and compare it to the state of the art in energy planning models. An example is presented to illustrate important features of this new approach.

  4. Energy technologies at Sandia National Laboratories: Past, Present, Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    We at Sandia first became involved with developing energy technology when the nation initiated its push toward energy independence in the early 1970s. That involvement continues to be strong. In shaping Sandia's energy programs for the 1990s, we will build on our track record from the 70s and 80s, a record outlined in this publication. It contains reprints of three issues of Sandia's Lab News that were devoted to our non-nuclear energy programs. Together, they summarize the history, current activities, and future of Sandia's diverse energy concerns; hence my desire to see them in one volume. Written in the fall of 1988, the articles cover Sandia's extremely broad range of energy technologies -- coal, oil and gas, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, rechargeable batteries, and combustion.

  5. National Energy Audit (NEAT) Users Manual Version 7

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.

    2001-05-10

    Welcome to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) energy auditing tool, called ''NEAT.'' NEAT, an acronym for National Energy Audit Tool, a program for personal computers that was designed for use by local agencies in the Weatherization Assistance Program. It is an approved alternative audit that meets all auditing requirements set forth by the Program. NEAT is easy to use. It applies engineering and economic calculations to evaluate energy conservation measures for single-family, detached houses or small multifamily buildings. You can use it to rank measures for each individual house, or to establish a priority list of conservation measures for nearly identical housing types. NEAT was written for the Weatherization Assistance Program by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Many building energy consumption algorithms are taken from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), published in 1982 for the Department of Energy. Equipment retrofit conservation measures are based on published reports on various heating retrofits. Heating and cooling system replacement conservation measures are based on the energy ratings of new heating and cooling equipment. The Weatherization Program anticipates that this computer-based energy audit will offer substantial performance improvements to many states who choose to incorporate it into their programs. When conservation measures are evaluated locally according to climate, fuel cost, measure cost, and existing house conditions, the Program will be closer to its goal of assuring the maximum return for every federal dollar spent.

  6. EPAs Energy Star Names Odessa, TX, as Nations Top Small City for Energy Efficient Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March 26, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced Odessa, Texas, as the nation's leader among smaller cities for Energy Star certified buildings. Odessa boasts 31 buildings with the certification-all schools and

  7. Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty in Detectors for High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin

    Systematic instrumental uncertainties in astronomical analyses have been generally ignored in data analysis due to the lack of robust principled methods, though the importance of incorporating instrumental calibration uncertainty is widely recognized by both users and instrument builders. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. Lee et al. (2011) introduced a so-called pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduces an ad hoc technique that simplifies computation by assuming that the current data is not useful in narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product, i.e., that the prior and posterior distributions for the calibration products are the same. In the thesis, we focus on incorporating calibration uncertainty into a principled Bayesian X-ray spectral analysis, specifically we account for uncertainty in the so-called effective area curve and the photon redistribution matrix. X-ray spectral analysis models the distribution of the energies of X-ray photons emitted from an astronomical source. The effective area curve of an X-ray detector describes its sensitive as a function of the energy of incoming photons, and the photon redistribution matrix describes the probability distribution of the recorded (discrete) energy of a photon as a function of the true (discretized) energy. Starting with the effective area curve, we follow Lee et al. (2011) and use a principle component analysis (PCA) to efficiently represent the uncertainty. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method to account for calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. For the photon redistribution matrix, we first model each conditional distribution as a normal distribution and then apply PCA to the parameters describing the normal models. This results in an

  8. Wind Energy at NREL's National Wind Technology Center

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    It is a pure, plentiful natural resource. Right now wind is in high demand and it holds the potential to transform the way we power our homes and businesses. NREL is at the forefront of wind energy research and development. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is a world-class facility dedicated to accelerating and deploying wind technology.

  9. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  10. A simplified analytical dose calculation algorithm accounting for tissue heterogeneity for low-energy brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Mashouf, Shahram; Lechtman, Eli; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Keller, Brian M; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-21

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) formalism is the standard for seeds brachytherapy dose calculation. But for breast seed implants, Monte Carlo simulations reveal large errors due to tissue heterogeneity. Since TG-43 includes several factors to account for source geometry, anisotropy and strength, we propose an additional correction factor, called the inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF), accounting for tissue heterogeneity for Pd-103 brachytherapy. This correction factor is calculated as a function of the media linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient, and it is independent of the source internal structure. Ultimately the dose in heterogeneous media can be calculated as a product of dose in water as calculated by TG-43 protocol times the ICF. To validate the ICF methodology, dose absorbed in spherical phantoms with large tissue heterogeneities was compared using the TG-43 formalism corrected for heterogeneity versus Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and the ICF method remained within 5% in soft tissues up to several centimeters from a Pd-103 source. Compared to Monte Carlo, the ICF methods can easily be integrated into a clinical treatment planning system and it does not require the detailed internal structure of the source or the photon phase-space.

  11. A simplified analytical dose calculation algorithm accounting for tissue heterogeneity for low-energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashouf, Shahram; Lechtman, Eli; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) formalism is the standard for seeds brachytherapy dose calculation. But for breast seed implants, Monte Carlo simulations reveal large errors due to tissue heterogeneity. Since TG-43 includes several factors to account for source geometry, anisotropy and strength, we propose an additional correction factor, called the inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF), accounting for tissue heterogeneity for Pd-103 brachytherapy. This correction factor is calculated as a function of the media linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient, and it is independent of the source internal structure. Ultimately the dose in heterogeneous media can be calculated as a product of dose in water as calculated by TG-43 protocol times the ICF. To validate the ICF methodology, dose absorbed in spherical phantoms with large tissue heterogeneities was compared using the TG-43 formalism corrected for heterogeneity versus Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and the ICF method remained within 5% in soft tissues up to several centimeters from a Pd-103 source. Compared to Monte Carlo, the ICF methods can easily be integrated into a clinical treatment planning system and it does not require the detailed internal structure of the source or the photon phase-space.

  12. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This Task Force was asked to propose alternate futures for the Department of Energy laboratories noted in the report. The authors` intensive ten months` study revealed multiple missions and sub-missions--traditional missions and new missions--programs and projects--each with factors of merit. They respectively suggest that the essence of what the Department, and particularly the laboratories, should and do stand for: the energy agenda. Under the overarching energy agenda--the labs serving the energy opportunities--they comment on their national security role, the all important energy role, all related environmental roles, the science and engineering underpinning for all the above, a focused economic role, and conclude with governance/organization change recommendations.

  13. National research and development program in the energy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Scientific, technological, and economic criteria were established to clarify, in a total context, the choices open to Belgium in meeting the energy crisis and in reducing dependence on foreign sources of fuels and strategic materials. Mathematical models were developed to describe the energy supply and demand in both the industrial and residential sectors. For the period from 1982 to 1987, activities concentrate on analyzing the energy system; determining reasonable use of energy in all sectors; investigating fossil energy and the energetic vectors of substitution and biomass; automating processes for the production of solar cells and the development solar receivers and photovoltaic systems; and recycling and stockpiling strategic materials. A documentation center was established to evaluate national and international research results.

  14. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-09-18

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee.

  15. National energy use of consumer electronics in 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Karen; Meier, Alan; Zandelin, Stefan

    2000-02-15

    The major consumer electronics in U.S. homes accounted for nearly 7 percent of U.S. residential electricity consumption in 1999. We attribute more than half of this figure (3.6 percent) to televisions, videocassette recorders, and DVD players, and nearly one-third (1.8 percent) to audio products. Set-top boxes currently account for a relatively small fraction of residential electricity use (0.7 percent), but we expect this end-use to grow quickly with the proliferation of digital set-top boxes, which currently use 40 percent more energy per unit than the average TV set. In all, these consumer electronics plus telephone products consumed 75 TWh in the U.S. in 1999, half of which was consumed while the products were not in use. This energy use is expected to grow as products with new or advanced functionality hit the market.

  16. Socio-political context and accounts of national identity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2010-09-01

    Psychological research into national identity has considered both the banal quality of nationalism alongside the active, strategic construction of national categories and boundaries. Less attention has been paid to the conflict between these processes for those whose claims to national identity may be problematic. In the present study, focus groups were conducted with 36 Roman Catholic adolescents living in border regions of Ireland, in which participants were asked to talk about their own and others' Irish national identity. Discursive analysis of the data revealed that those in the Republic of Ireland strategically displayed their national identity as obvious and 'banal', while those in Northern Ireland proactively claimed their Irishness. Moreover, those in Northern Ireland displayed an assumption that their fellow Irish in the Republic shared their imperative to assert national identity, while those in the Republic actively distanced themselves from this version of Irishness. These results suggest that for dominant ethnic groups, 'banality' may itself provide a marker of national identity while paradoxically the proactive display of national identity undermines minority groups claims to national identity.

  17. Proceedings of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.

    2014-12-01

    The second National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop was held in Broomfield, Colorado, from January 29 to February 1, 2013. The event included a day-and-a-half workshop exploring a wide variety of topics related to system modeling and design of wind turbines and plants. Following the workshop, 2 days of tutorials were held at NREL, showcasing software developed at Sandia National Laboratories, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Glenn Laboratories, and NREL. This document provides a brief summary of the various workshop activities and includes a review of the content and evaluation results from attendees.

  18. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  19. Terminology and Procedures In School Accounting--A Call for National Uniformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Charles T.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that school officials throughout the United States must adopt standardized school accounting procedures and terminology to permit meaningful comparison of educational expenditure and cost data and to provide an equitable basis for the distribution of federal educational aid. (JG)

  20. National Energy AudiT (NEAT) user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Krigger, J.K.; Adams, N.; Gettings, M.

    1997-10-01

    Welcome to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) energy auditing tool called ``NEAT``. NEAT, an acronym for National Energy AudiT, is a program for personal computers that was designed for use by local agencies in the Weatherization Assistance Program. It is an approved alternative audit that meets all auditing requirements set forth by the program as well as those anticipated from new regulations pertaining to waiver of the 40% materials requirements. NEAT is easy to use. It applies engineering and economic calculations to evaluate energy conservation measures for single-family, detached houses or small multifamily buildings. You can use it to rank measured for each individual house, or to establish a priority list of conservation measures for nearly identical housing types. NEAT was written for the Weatherization Assistance Program by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Many buildings energy consumption algorithms are taken from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s to the computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), published in 1982 for the Department of energy. Equipment retrofit conservation measures are based on published reports on various heating retrofits. Heating and cooling system replacement conservation measures are based on the energy ratings of new heating and cooling equipment. The Weatherization Program anticipates that this computer-based energy audit will offer substantial performance improvements to many states who choose to incorporate it into their programs. When conservation measures are evaluated locally according to climate, fuel cost, measure cost, and existing house conditions, the Program will be closer to its goal of assuring the maximum return for every federal dollar spent.

  1. Energy Efficient and Sustainable HPC at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tuma, Phil; Marquez, Andres; Sego, Landon H.; Schmidt, Roger; Cader, Tahir

    2009-09-01

    Power consumption in US data centers has been escalating at an alarming rate. In response to Public Law 109-431, EPA reported that electricity usage by US data centers accounted for 1.5% of the total electricity used in the US in 2006. They projected that if current data center operating practices continue, electricity usage will almost double to 2.9% of the total electricity used in the US in 2011 (EPA, 2007). Consequently EPA issued a call to action to both government and industry to collaborate and set aggressive goals to reduce power consumption in data centers. In the spirit of responding to the findings and recommendations of the EPA report, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has teamed with several key organizations including: The Green Grid (TGG), ASHRAE TC9.9, IBM, 3M, and SprayCool. As part of this effort, a highly instrumented liquid-cooled cluster has been installed at PNNL. The cluster is housed in an 800 ft2 data center which resides in a mixed-use data center with a significant amount of instrumentation as well. The eventual objective of the effort is to be able to report the real-time power consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity of the liquid-cooled data center. Preliminary results from the effort at PNNL are reported in this paper. Thermal results are reported for the hottest server components, including the microprocessors and memory DIMMs. Under all conditions tested, the components have not exceeded manufacturers’ specifications. More importantly, the data show that the liquid-cooled servers can be maintained within specifications while rejecting to non-chilled facility water at 78°F (25.6°C). Furthermore, a reasonable extrapolation suggests that the specifications can still be maintained at 86°F (30°C). In an effort to address global warming, work has started on the qualification of a new 3M Fluoroketone fluid that has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1. This GWP is the lowest published value of all commercially

  2. ACCOUNTING FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS IN NATIONAL LAND-BASED CARBON BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to quantify net greenhouse gas emissions at the national scale, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, must include both industrial emissions and the net flux associated with the land base. In this study, data on current land use, rates ...

  3. Environmental accounting of natural capital and ecosystem services for the US National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Elliot T. Campbell; Mark T. Brown; NO-VALUE

    2012-01-01

    The National Forests of the United States encompass 192.7 million acres (78 million hectares) of land, which is nearly five percent of the total land area of the nation. These lands are managed by the US Forest Service (USFS) for multiple uses, including extraction of timber, production of fossil fuels and minerals, public recreation, and the preservation of...

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS IN NATIONAL LAND-BASED CARBON BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to quantify net greenhouse gas emissions at the national scale, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, must include both industrial emissions and the net flux associated with the land base. In this study, data on current land use, rates ...

  5. National Energy Strategy: A compilation of public comments; Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This Report presents a compilation of what the American people themselves had to say about problems, prospects, and preferences in energy. The Report draws on the National Energy Strategy public hearing record and accompanying documents. In all, 379 witnesses appeared at the hearings to exchange views with the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Deputy Under Secretary of Energy, and Cabinet officers of other Federal agencies. Written submissions came from more than 1,000 individuals and organizations. Transcripts of the oral testimony and question-and-answer (Q-and-A) sessions, as well as prepared statements submitted for the record and all other written submissions, form the basis for this compilation. Citations of these sources in this document use a system of identifying symbols explained below and in the accompanying box. The Report is organized into four general subject areas concerning: (1) efficiency in energy use, (2) the various forms of energy supply, (3) energy and the environment, and (4) the underlying foundations of science, education, and technology transfer. Each of these, in turn, is subdivided into sections addressing specific topics --- such as (in the case of energy efficiency) energy use in the transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, respectively. 416 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    This report presents a new simulation tool under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This tool uses EnergyPlus to simulate each single-family home in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), and generates a calibrated, nationally representative set of simulated homes whose energy use is statistically indistinguishable from the energy use of the single-family homes in the RECS sample. This research builds upon earlier work by Ritchard et al. for the Gas Research Institute and Huang et al. for LBNL. A representative national sample allows us to evaluate the variance in energy use between individual homes, regions, or other subsamples; using this tool, we can also evaluate how that variance affects the impacts of potential policies. The RECS contains information regarding the construction and location of each sampled home, as well as its appliances and other energy-using equipment. We combined this data with the home simulation prototypes developed by Huang et al. to simulate homes that match the RECS sample wherever possible. Where data was not available, we used distributions, calibrated using the RECS energy use data. Each home was assigned a best-fit location for the purposes of weather and some construction characteristics. RECS provides some detail on the type and age of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in each home; we developed EnergyPlus models capable of reproducing the variety of technologies and efficiencies represented in the national sample. This includes electric, gas, and oil furnaces, central and window air conditioners, central heat pumps, and baseboard heaters. We also developed a model of duct system performance, based on in-home measurements, and integrated this with fan performance to capture the energy use of single- and variable-speed furnace fans, as well as the interaction of duct and fan performance with the efficiency of heating and cooling equipment. Comparison with RECS revealed

  7. Renewable energy technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1994-03-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earths present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing many of these technologies over the last two decades. This paper describes innovative solar, wind and geothermal energy systems and components that Sandia is helping to bring to the marketplace. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are conducted in partnership with non-federal government entities. A number of these partners are from New Mexico.

  8. Renewable energy technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, P. C.

    1994-02-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earth's present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing many of these technologies over the last two decades. This paper describes innovative solar, wind and geothermal energy systems and components that Sandia is helping to bring to the marketplace. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are conducted in partnership with non-federal government entities. A number of these partners are from New Mexico.

  9. The energy efficiency initiative: Framework for an effective national energy efficiency policy

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Unander, F.; Lebot, B; Nielsen, L.; Hammar, T.

    1998-07-01

    All countries have a common obligation regarding environmental issues. Mature market economies still have problems with market imperfections and countries with markets in transition have not yet fully developed the institutions to make use of the market mechanisms. Both market function, institutions and policies must develop to achieve market transformation both in a national and an international context. An initiative from several International Institutions has lead to a set of recommendations aimed at designing an effective energy efficiency policy with implications for different kinds of economies and for the trade of goods and services related to energy efficiency. The paper will present the European context in which this 18-month project took place. It explores the most favorable conditions for an energy efficient economy. The paper then highlights what is believed to be the key steps of a successful energy efficiency policy: (1) organize a global open energy market; (2) set the energy price at the right level (avoiding any subsidies on energy cost); (3) develop a qualified expertise on energy efficiency issues; and (4) integrate energy efficiency in sectorial policies (housing, transportation, urban planning....). The product of the Energy Efficiency Initiative is a book designed for policy makers and governments of developing nations. Many developed countries can also benefit from it. The paper concludes with some lessons learned by the experts involved from this intensive effort.

  10. National voluntary laboratory accreditation program: Energy efficient lighting products. Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Galowin, L.S.; Hall, W.; Rossiter, W.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to set out procedures and technical requirements for the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) accreditation of laboratories which perform test methods covered by the Energy Efficient Lighting (EEL) Products program. It complements and supplements the NVLAP programmatic procedures and general requirements found in NIST Handbook 150 (PB94-178225). The interpretive comments and additional requirements contained in this handbook make the general NVLAP criteria specifically applicable to the EEL program.

  11. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  12. Multi-scale environmental accounting: methodological lessons from the application of NAMEA at sub-national levels.

    PubMed

    Dalmazzone, Silvana; La Notte, Alessandra

    2013-11-30

    Extending the application of integrated environmental and economic accounts from the national to the local level of government serves several purposes. They can be used not only as an instrument for communicating on the state of the environment and reporting the results of policies, but also as an operational tool - for setting the objectives and designing policies - if made available to the local authorities who have responsibility over the administration of natural resources, land use and conservation policies. The aim of the paper is to test the feasibility of applying hybrid flow accounts at the intermediate and local government levels. As an illustration, NAMEA for air emissions and wastes is applied to a Region, a Province and a Municipality, thus covering the three nested levels of local government in Italy. The study identifies the main issues raised by multi-scale environmental accounting and provides an applied discussion of feasible solutions.

  13. Creating a national citizen engagement process for energy policy

    PubMed Central

    Pidgeon, Nick; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines some of the science communication challenges involved when designing and conducting public deliberation processes on issues of national importance. We take as our illustrative case study a recent research project investigating public values and attitudes toward future energy system change for the United Kingdom. National-level issues such as this are often particularly difficult to engage the public with because of their inherent complexity, derived from multiple interconnected elements and policy frames, extended scales of analysis, and different manifestations of uncertainty. With reference to the energy system project, we discuss ways of meeting a series of science communication challenges arising when engaging the public with national topics, including the need to articulate systems thinking and problem scale, to provide balanced information and policy framings in ways that open up spaces for reflection and deliberation, and the need for varied methods of facilitation and data synthesis that permit access to participants’ broader values. Although resource intensive, national-level deliberation is possible and can produce useful insights both for participants and for science policy. PMID:25225393

  14. Creating a national citizen engagement process for energy policy.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa

    2014-09-16

    This paper examines some of the science communication challenges involved when designing and conducting public deliberation processes on issues of national importance. We take as our illustrative case study a recent research project investigating public values and attitudes toward future energy system change for the United Kingdom. National-level issues such as this are often particularly difficult to engage the public with because of their inherent complexity, derived from multiple interconnected elements and policy frames, extended scales of analysis, and different manifestations of uncertainty. With reference to the energy system project, we discuss ways of meeting a series of science communication challenges arising when engaging the public with national topics, including the need to articulate systems thinking and problem scale, to provide balanced information and policy framings in ways that open up spaces for reflection and deliberation, and the need for varied methods of facilitation and data synthesis that permit access to participants' broader values. Although resource intensive, national-level deliberation is possible and can produce useful insights both for participants and for science policy.

  15. National Research Council Research Associateships Program with Methane Hydrates Fellowships Program/National Energy Technology Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Basques, Eric O.

    2014-03-20

    This report summarizes work carried out over the period from July 5, 2005-January 31, 2014. The work was carried out by the National Research Council Research Associateships Program of the National Academies, under the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program. This Technical Report consists of a description of activity from 2005 through 2014, broken out within yearly timeframes, for NRC/NETL Associateships researchers at NETL laboratories which includes individual tenure reports from Associates over this time period. The report also includes individual tenure reports from associates over this time period. The report also includes descriptions of program promotion efforts, a breakdown of the review competitions, awards offered, and Associate's activities during their tenure.

  16. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of... to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June 17, 2011. The Office of Management and Budget... requirements contained in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-296) regarding equity...

  17. A National Analysis of Noncredit Community College Education: Enrollment, Funding, Accountability, and Contextual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Adair, J. Lucas; Miller, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Noncredit community college enrollment accounts for approximately 40% of all enrollment in the two-year sector, or five million students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2016). Yet, this population is seldom discussed in the higher education literature due to inconsistent definitions, funding, and data reporting at the state level.…

  18. A National Analysis of Noncredit Community College Education: Enrollment, Funding, Accountability, and Contextual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Adair, J. Lucas; Miller, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Noncredit community college enrollment accounts for approximately 40% of all enrollment in the two-year sector, or five million students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2016). Yet, this population is seldom discussed in the higher education literature due to inconsistent definitions, funding, and data reporting at the state level.…

  19. Ensuring cleaner, more efficient, and more economical energy for our nation`s future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Fossil Energy Program consists of four major elements: advanced technology development; strategic petroleum reserve program; naval petroleum and oil shale reserves program; and regulatory programs. Under advanced technology development, research, development, and demonstration programs are carried in three areas: advanced power systems; natural gas and liquid fuels supplies; and crosscutting research and development. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is an emergency supply of crude oil stored in huge underground salt caverns along the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve consist of three oil fields and three oil shale reserves in the Western United States. Regulatory programs carried out by the Office of Fossil Energy are required by statue, Executive, and Secretarial orders. These regulatory programs seek to foster the freest possible international trade in natural gas and electricity, consistent with national needs for energy security and environmental protection. This publication discusses the programs under these four major areas.

  20. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  1. National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; MacDonald, Michael; Accawi, Gina K; New, Joshua Ryan; Im, Piljae

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the

  2. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280/sup 0/C, LMRs up to 540/sup 0/C, and GCRs up to 950/sup 0/C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized.

  3. National patterns of energy demand and expenditures by Hispanics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research, at Argonne National Laboratory, being done for the Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) of the US Department of Energy. Under its legislative mandate MI is required to assess the impact of government policy, programs, and actions on US minorities. In line with this mission Argonne is currently involved in characterizing and analyzing the patterns of energy demand and expenditures of minorities. A major barrier associated with this task is the availability of sufficient data. With the possible exception of blacks, analysis of the patterns of energy demand for most minority population categories is all but impossible because of small sample sizes. The major source of residential energy consumption data, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, only collects data on 5000 to 7000 households. For many minority population categories, this number of observations make any meaningful statistical analysis at least at the regional Census level practically impossible, with any further refinement of the analysis becoming even more difficult. In this paper our primary purpose is to describe the patterns of energy demand for Hispanics and nonhispanics but ancillary to that briefly present one possible solution to the data availability problem.

  4. Afghanistan Security Forces Fund Phase III - Accountability for Equipment Purchased for the Afghanistan National Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-12

    recommendations and has implemented standard operating procedures to address accountability, custody, and control of equipment supplied by the United States ...mix of military personnel from the United States and foreign countries. Figure 1 depicts the CSTC-A divisions. CSTC-A Commanding General CJ1...identification numbers and radio serial numbers in the inventory management system. CSTC-A Comments The CSTC-A Deputy Commanding General agreed and stated

  5. Development of EnergyPlus Utility to Batch Simulate Building Energy Performance on a National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, Jayson F.; Dirks, James A.

    2008-08-29

    EnergyPlus is a simulation program that requires a large number of details to fully define and model a building. Hundreds or even thousands of lines in a text file are needed to run the EnergyPlus simulation depending on the size of the building. To manually create these files is a time consuming process that would not be practical when trying to create input files for thousands of buildings needed to simulate national building energy performance. To streamline the process needed to create the input files for EnergyPlus, two methods were created to work in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Preprocessor; this reduced the hundreds of inputs needed to define a building in EnergyPlus to a small set of high-level parameters. The first method uses Java routines to perform all of the preprocessing on a Windows machine while the second method carries out all of the preprocessing on the Linux cluster by using an in-house built utility called Generalized Parametrics (GPARM). A comma delimited (CSV) input file is created to define the high-level parameters for any number of buildings. Each method then takes this CSV file and uses the data entered for each parameter to populate an extensible markup language (XML) file used by the NREL Preprocessor to automatically prepare EnergyPlus input data files (idf) using automatic building routines and macro templates. Using a Linux utility called “make”, the idf files can then be automatically run through the Linux cluster and the desired data from each building can be aggregated into one table to be analyzed. Creating a large number of EnergyPlus input files results in the ability to batch simulate building energy performance and scale the result to national energy consumption estimates.

  6. Ground Water and Energy: Proceedings of the US Department of Energy's National Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water.

  7. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems

    Treesearch

    Michael Köhl; Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott; Thomas Baldauf; Daniel. Plugge

    2011-01-01

    Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of...

  8. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...This rule amends National School Lunch Program (NSLP) regulations to conform to requirements contained in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-296) regarding equity in school lunch pricing and revenue from nonprogram foods sold in schools. This rule requires school food authorities (SFAs) participating in the NSLP to provide the same level of financial support for lunches......

  9. National and International Disability Rights Legislation: A Qualitative Account of Its Enactment in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis based on the lived experiences of the study participants and the researcher (each with vision impairment) in education, post school and in the pursuit for employment is developed. The policy discourses of disability legislation--both at national and international levels--are explored with particular reference to…

  10. National and International Disability Rights Legislation: A Qualitative Account of Its Enactment in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis based on the lived experiences of the study participants and the researcher (each with vision impairment) in education, post school and in the pursuit for employment is developed. The policy discourses of disability legislation--both at national and international levels--are explored with particular reference to…

  11. Transonic flow over airfoils at energy input and with account for the real properties of the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aul'Chenko, S. M.; Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of molecular (thermodynamic and transfer) properties of the air on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the gas-dynamic effects of pulsed-periodic energy input in transonic flow over airfoils. The influence of the transfer properties (viscosity) has been taken into account approximately within the boundary layer. It has been shown that qualitative estimates of the above effects do not depend on the account of molecular properties of the air, but the existence of internal degrees of freedom leads to a marked lowering of the temperature level as compared to the ideal gas model. Account of the viscosity somewhat decreases the energy input estimates. The influence of the airfoil shape on the aerodynamic characteristics at energy input has been investigated.

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment for USAID Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Andrea; Bracho, Ricardo; Romero, Rachel; Mercer, Megan

    2015-11-13

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program is designing its second phase of assistance to the Government of Mexico (GOM). In preparation for program design, USAID has asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in identifying options for enabling renewable energy in Mexico and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector. The NREL team conducted a literature review and consulted with over 20 Mexican agencies and organizations during a two-week temporary duty assignment (TDY) to Mexico to identify gaps, opportunities, and program theme areas for Mexico.

  13. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  14. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the project from initiation through the second quarter of 2013.

  15. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  16. Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, Caroline; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-14

    A webinar about the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was presented by Bri-Mathias Hodge and Caroline Draxl on July 14, 2015. It was hosted by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. The toolkit is a grid integration data set that contains meteorological and power data at a 5-minute resolution across the continental United States for 7 years and hourly power forecasts.

  17. ENERGY PARTITIONING, ENERGY COUPLING (EPEC) EXPERIMENTS AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Dunlop, W H; Compton, S M; Kane, J O; Mirkarimi, P B; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2012-01-05

    The energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will simultaneously measure the coupling of energy into both ground shock and air-blast overpressure from a laser-driven target. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of seismic and air-blast phenomena caused by a nuclear weapon. In what follows, we discuss the motivation for our investigation and briefly describe NIF. Then, we introduce the EPEC experiments, including diagnostics, in more detail.

  18. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  19. A nonlinear complementarity approach for the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.A.; Kydes, A.S.

    1995-03-08

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a large-scale mathematical model that computes equilibrium fuel prices and quantities in the U.S. energy sector. At present, to generate these equilibrium values, NEMS sequentially solves a collection of linear programs and nonlinear equations. The NEMS solution procedure then incorporates the solutions of these linear programs and nonlinear equations in a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach. The authors describe how the current version of NEMS can be formulated as a particular nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), thereby possibly avoiding current convergence problems. In addition, they show that the NCP format is equally valid for a more general form of NEMS. They also describe several promising approaches for solving the NCP form of NEMS based on recent Newton type methods for general NCPs. These approaches share the feature of needing to solve their direction-finding subproblems only approximately. Hence, they can effectively exploit the sparsity inherent in the NEMS NCP.

  20. Species accounts for the Alamosa/Monte Vista/Baca National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an interagency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Alamosa/Monte Vista/Baca National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested help with the synthesis of scientific information for 10 focal species and their habitat requirements in response to common Refuge management activities in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. This information will be instrumental in developing the Service's Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), which is required by law for each unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. After consultation with Refuge managers and USGS staff, the 10 species chosen for detailed literature reviews and synthesis of information were the following: (1) American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana); (2) Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolorPorzana carolina); (4) White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi); (5) Black Tern (Chlidonias niger); (6) Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus); (7) Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri); (8) Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis); (9) Northern Leopard Frog [Lithobates (=Rana) pipiens]; and, (10) Tadpole Shrimp (Triops longicaudatus).

  1. Environmental Management Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental management assessment performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from September 14 through September 27, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The environmental management assessment of NREL focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems and assessed the formality of programs employing an approach that recognizes the level of formality implementing environmental programs may vary commensurate with non-nuclear research and development operations. The Assessment Team evaluated environmental monitoring, waste management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities at NREL, from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section of this report. The scope of the NREL Environmental Management Assessment was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management. At the same time, environmental monitoring, waste management, and NEPA activities were evaluated to develop a programmatic understanding of these environmental disciplines, building upon the results of previous appraisals, audits, and reviews performed at the NREL.

  2. The National Ignition Facility High-Energy Ultraviolet Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2003-09-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1 .&Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's 192 energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} Bar, conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars, planets and in nuclear weapons. NIF is now entering the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of the NIF laser system have generated 106 kilojoules of infrared light and over 10 kJ at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are also being installed in preparation for experiments to begin in late 2003. This paper provides a detailed look the NIF laser systems, the significant laser and optical systems breakthroughs that were developed, the results of recent laser commissioning shots, and plans for commissioning diagnostics for experiments on NIF.

  3. Trends in Research on Energy Balance Supported by the National Cancer Institute

    PubMed Central

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; Berrigan, David A.; Ross, Sharon A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Dowling, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance–related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy-balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population and energy-balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance–relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI’s total research project grants budget was allocated to energy-balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01), and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy-balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI’s investment in energy-balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics and disciplines—growth that reflects new directions in this field. PMID:23498109

  4. Trends in research on energy balance supported by the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Berrigan, David A; Ross, Sharon A; Nebeling, Linda C; Dowling, Emily C

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression, and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance-related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population, and energy balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance-relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI's total research project grants budget was allocated to energy balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01) and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI's investment in energy balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics, and disciplines-growth that reflects new directions in this field. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The National Energy Strategy: A balanced program?. Proceedings of the nineteenth annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The Nineteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference was held in Chicago, Illinois November 1991. It was organized by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago with major support provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Illinois Commerce Commission, the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, and the Citizens Council on Energy Resources. The conference program was developed by a planning committee who drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The members of the planning committee were brought together for a full-day session where they were asked to assess the political, economic, and social impacts of the proposed National Energy Strategy as it relates to Illinois and the Midwest region. Within this context, the planning committee identified several major issues including: (1) Is the proposed plan a balanced strategy; (2) What are the NES impacts on the transportation sector; (3) What are the opportunities for improved efficiency in the Electric Utility Sector; and (4) What is the role of advanced research and development.

  6. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research): 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Significant research accomplishments were made by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) during its third year of operation. Some of the achievements of the FY86 program are: (1) extrapolation of energy supply trends was used to develop a research plan for improving the energy capability of the United States; (2) the finding of correlations between outcrop core samples and reservoir core samples will enable better predictions of heterogeneity in the reservoir and the application of these properties to prediction and planning of EOR projects; (3) the development of hydrocarbon reaction paths under hydrotreating or catalytic cracking is being approached by calculation of thermodynamic functions (Gibbs Energy); (4) micromodel studies were used to elucidate the mechanisms of oil mobilization by microbes and results were found to correlate with coreflooding results; (5) degradation and compatibility problems have been identified in utility fuel oils, jet fuels, and diesel fuels; (6) a new surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding method that results in less reaction with reservoir minerals has been developed; (7) the effect on farm equipment of the phase-out of lead in gasoline was studied; (8) a thermophysical property prediction package has been developed for gas injection EOR projects using nitrogen; (9) a survey of applicable information on groundwater pollution by refinery operations was made; (10) the construction and testing of an apparatus to measure three-phase relative permeabilities based on x-ray and microwave measurements were completed. These reports on ten of NIPER's 35 projects serve to show some of the more important achievements. A more complete discussion of these and the other projects is given in this annual report. These reports have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Renewable Energy Demonstration Project by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the General Services Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, N; Hoo, E; Westby, R; Hancock, E; Lu, J

    1994-11-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) requires the General Services Administration (GSA) to implement a solar energy program to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of available technologies expected to have widespread commercial application. The GSA decided to carry out the project at the Denver Federal Center because of its proximity to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The location was thought to be of mutual benefit to NREL and the GSA: it provides NREL an opportunity to deploy technology and it provides the GSA an opportunity to gain a hands-on learning experience with renewables. The GSA plans to document their experience and use it as a case study in part of a larger training effort on renewable energy. This paper describes the technology selection process and provides an update on the status of the project.

  8. Long-term energy security in a national scale using LEAP. Application to de-carbonization scenarios in Andorra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses the long-term energy security in a national scale using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modelling tool. It builds the LEAP Andorra model, which forecasts energy demand and supply for the Principality of Andorra by 2050. It has a general bottom-up structure, where energy demand is driven by the technological composition of the sectors of the economy. The technological model is combined with a top-down econometric model to take into account macroeconomic trends. The model presented in this paper provides an initial estimate of energy demand in Andorra segregated into all sectors (residential, transport, secondary, tertiary and public administration) and charts a baseline scenario based on historical trends. Additional scenarios representing different policy strategies are built to explore the country's potential energy savings and the feasibility to achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in April 2015 to UN. In this climatic agreement Andorra intends to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 37% as compared to a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. In addition, current and future energy security is analysed in this paper under baseline and de-carbonization scenarios. Energy security issues are assessed in LEAP with an integrated vision, going beyond the classic perspective of security of supply, and being closer to the sustainability's integrative vision. Results of scenarios show the benefits of climate policies in terms of national energy security and the difficulties for Andorra to achieving the de-carbonization target by 2030.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  10. National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2011-05-01

    About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.

  11. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. Results We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial

  12. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Köhl, Michael; Lister, Andrew; Scott, Charles T; Baldauf, Thomas; Plugge, Daniel

    2011-11-08

    Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial benefits from adopting a REDD regime.

  13. Historical account of the national health insurance formulation in Kenya: experiences from the past decade.

    PubMed

    Abuya, Timothy; Maina, Thomas; Chuma, Jane

    2015-02-12

    Many Low-and-Middle-Income countries are considering reviewing their health financing systems to meet the principles of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). One financing mechanism, which has dominated UHC reforms, is the development of health insurance schemes. We trace the historical development of the National Health Insurance (NHI) policy, illuminate stakeholders' perceptions on the design to inform future development of health financing policies in Kenya. We conducted a retrospective policy analysis of the development of a NHI policy in Kenya using data from document reviews and seven in depth interviews with key stakeholders involved in the NHI design. Analysis was conducted using a thematic framework. The design of a NHI scheme was marked by complex interaction of the actor's understanding of the design, proposed implementation strategies and the covert opposition of the reform due to several reasons. First, actor's perception of the cost of the NHI design and its implication to the economy generated opposition. This was due to inadequate communication strategies to articulate the policy, leading to a vacuum of factual information flow to various players. Secondly, perceived fear of implications of the changes among private sector players threatened support and success gained. Thirdly, underlying mistrust associated with perceived lack of government's commitment towards transparency and good governance affected active engagement of all key players dampening the spirit of collective bargain breeding opposition. Finally, some international actors perceived a clash of their role and that of international programs based on vertical approaches that were inherent in the health system. The thrust towards UHC using NHI schemes should not only focus on the design of a viable NHI package but should also involve stakeholder engagements, devise ways of improving the health care system, enhance transparency and develop adequate governance structures to institutions mandated

  14. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy.

    PubMed

    Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J

    1973-06-29

    technological feasibility of a hydrogen energy system be considered now. It is of vital importance to the nation to develop some general-purpose fuel that can be Produced from a variety of domestic energy sources and reduce our dependence on imported oil.

  15. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditures accounts: the United States experience.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Arthur L

    2007-01-01

    Providing for the delivery of public health services and understanding the funding mechanisms for these services are topics of great currency in the United States. In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was created and the responsibility for providing public health services was realigned among federal agencies. State and local public health agencies are under increased financial pressures even as they shoulder more responsibilities as the vital first link in the provision of public health services. Recent events, such as hurricanes Katrina and Rita, served to highlight the need to accurately access the public health delivery system at all levels of government. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), prepared by the National Health Statistics Group, measure expenditures on healthcare goods and services in the United States. Government public health activity constitutes an important service category in the NHEA. In the most recent set of estimates, Government Public Health Activity expenditures totaled $56.1 billion in 2004, or 3.0 percent of total US health spending. Accurately measuring expenditures for public health services in the United States presents many challenges. Among these challenges is the difficult task of defining what types of government activity constitute public health services. There is no clear-cut, universally accepted definition of government public health care services, and the definitions in the proposed International Classification for Health Accounts are difficult to apply to an individual country's unique delivery systems. Other challenges include the definitional issues associated with the boundaries of healthcare as well as the requirement that census and survey data collected from government(s) be compliant with the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG), an internationally recognized classification system developed by the United Nations.

  16. An Energy Approach to a Micromechanics Model Accounting for Nonlinear Interface Debonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.; Huang, Y.; Geubelle, P. H.; Liu, C.; Breitenfeld, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a micromechanics model to study the effect of nonlinear interface debonding on the constitutive behavior of composite materials. While implementing this micromechanics model into a large simulation code on solid rockets, we are challenged by problems such as tension/shear coupling and the nonuniform distribution of displacement jump at the particle/matrix interfaces. We therefore propose an energy approach to solve these problems. This energy approach calculates the potential energy of the representative volume element, including the contribution from the interface debonding. By minimizing the potential energy with respect to the variation of the interface displacement jump, the traction balanced interface debonding can be found and the macroscopic constitutive relations established. This energy approach has the ability to treat different load conditions in a unified way, and the interface cohesive law can be in any arbitrary forms. In this paper, the energy approach is verified to give the same constitutive behaviors as reported before.

  17. 10 CFR 431.20 - Department of Energy recognition of nationally recognized certification programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certification programs. 431.20 Section 431.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... Incorporated and Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.20 Department of Energy recognition of nationally... and procedures for the selection and sampling of electric motors tested for energy efficiency. (c...

  18. 10 CFR 431.20 - Department of Energy recognition of nationally recognized certification programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certification programs. 431.20 Section 431.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... Incorporated and Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.20 Department of Energy recognition of nationally... and procedures for the selection and sampling of electric motors tested for energy efficiency. (c...

  19. 10 CFR 431.20 - Department of Energy recognition of nationally recognized certification programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certification programs. 431.20 Section 431.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... Incorporated and Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.20 Department of Energy recognition of nationally... similar procedures and methodologies for determining the energy efficiency of electric motors. It must...

  20. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2006 Research Review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    This 2006 issue of the NREL Research Review again reveals just how vital and diverse our research portfolio has become. Our feature story looks at how our move to embrace the tenants of "translational research" is strengthening our ability to meet the nation's energy goals. By closing the gap between basic science and applied research and development (R&D)--and focusing a bright light on the valuable end uses of our work--translational research promises to shorten the time it takes to push new technology off the lab bench and into the marketplace. This issue also examines our research into fuels of the future and our computer modeling of wind power deployment, both of which point out the real-world benefits of our work.

  2. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... categorized as either share draft accounts or share certificate and regular share accounts. If these accounts... custodian derives his authority, then the share draft accounts will be insured separately from the share certificate and regular share accounts. Under this circumstance, all share draft accounts are added together...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... categorized as either share draft accounts or share certificate and regular share accounts. If these accounts... custodian derives his authority, then the share draft accounts will be insured separately from the share certificate and regular share accounts. Under this circumstance, all share draft accounts are added together...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... categorized as either share draft accounts or share certificate and regular share accounts. If these accounts... custodian derives his authority, then the share draft accounts will be insured separately from the share certificate and regular share accounts. Under this circumstance, all share draft accounts are added together...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... categorized as either share draft accounts or share certificate and regular share accounts. If these accounts... custodian derives his authority, then the share draft accounts will be insured separately from the share certificate and regular share accounts. Under this circumstance, all share draft accounts are added together...

  6. 75 FR 36381 - Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ..., Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies June 11, 2010. Dear Reader: Pursuant..., newer storage technologies like flywheels and chemical batteries have recently achieved technological... determine the costs related to new storage technologies for cost-of- service rate purposes. \\2\\ 18 CFR Part...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guadeloupe; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-27

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guadeloupe, an overseas region of France located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Guadeloupe’s utility rates are approximately $0.18 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  8. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative's purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  9. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action. Review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative`s purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  10. The National Energy Audit (NEAT) Engineering Manual (Version 6)

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-04-20

    Government-funded weatherization assistance programs resulted from increased oil prices caused by the 1973 oil embargo. These programs were instituted to reduce US consumption of oil and help low-income families afford the increasing cost of heating their homes. In the summer of 1988, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing technical support to the Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). A preliminary study found no suitable means of cost-effectively selecting energy efficiency improvements (measures) for single-family homes that incorporated all the factors seen as beneficial in improving cost-effectiveness and usability. In mid-1989, ORNL was authorized to begin development of a computer-based measure selection technique. In November of 1992 a draft version of the program was made available to all WAP state directors for testing. The first production release, Version 4.3, was made available in october of 1993. The Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program has continued funding improvements to the program increasing its user-friendliness and applicability. initial publication of this engineering manual coincides with availability of Version 6.1, November 1997, though algorithms described generally apply to all prior versions. Periodic updates of specific sections in the manual will permit maintaining a relevant document. This Engineering Manual delineates the assumptions used by NEAT in arriving at the measure recommendations based on the user's input of the building characteristics. Details of the actual data entry are available in the NEAT User's Manual (ORNL/Sub/91-SK078/1) and will not be discussed in this manual.

  11. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Tomas; Ekvall, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh(-1)). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01-0.69 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO( 2) emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.

  12. A Density Functional That Accounts for Medium-Range Correlation Energies in Organic Chemistry (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-03

    previous functionals. A related example, in particular a case of DFT failing to account for stereoelectronic effects, was provided by Schreiner et...8, 3631. (4) Schreiner , P. R.; Fokin, A. A.; Pascal Jr., R. A.; de Meijere, A. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 3635. (5) Perdew, J. P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof...M. Phys. Rev. Lett 1996, 77, 3865. (6) Staroverov, V. N.; Scuseria, G. E.; Tao , J.; Perdew, J. P. J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 12129. (7) Becke, A

  13. Scale-by-scale energy budgets which account for the coherent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F, Thiesset; L, Danaila; A, Antonia R.; T, Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are written for flows where coherent structures may be prominent. Both general and locally isotropic formulations are provided. In particular, the contribution to the production, diffusion and energy transfer terms associated with the coherent motion is highlighted. Preliminary results are presented in the intermediate wake of a circular cylinder for phase-averaged second-and third-order structure functions. The experimental data provide adequate support for the scale-by-scale budgets.

  14. Energy balance of a plasma with a wave, taking the wave nonpotentiality into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelberg, M. G.; Volosevich, A. V.

    It is shown that the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves in the ionosphere is phase-shifted by approximately -pi/2 with respect to current fluctuations, while the vortex field is nearly cophase with the current. Thus, the work of energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs primarily with the participation of the vortex field. The wave nonpotentiality is shown to have a substantial effect on the energy balance of the wave-plasma system.

  15. A national-scale remote sensing-based methodology for quantifying tidal marsh biomass to support "Blue Carbon" accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, K. B.; Ballanti, L.; Nguyen, D.; Simard, M.; Thomas, N.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.; O'Keefe Suttles, J.; Megonigal, P.; Troxler, T.; Schile, L. M.; Davis, M.; Woo, I.

    2016-12-01

    According to 2013 IPCC Wetlands Supplement guidelines, tidal marsh Tier 2 or Tier 3 accounting must include aboveground biomass carbon stock changes. To support this need, we are using free satellite and aerial imagery to develop a national scale, consistent remote sensing-based methodology for quantifying tidal marsh aboveground biomass. We are determining the extent to which additional satellite data will increase the accuracy of this "blue carbon" accounting. Working in 6 U.S. estuaries (Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA), we built a tidal marsh biomass dataset (n=2404). Landsat reflectance data were matched spatially and temporally with field plots using Google Earth Engine. We quantified percent cover of green vegetation, non-vegetation, and open water in Landsat pixels using segmentation of 1m National Agriculture Imagery Program aerial imagery. Sentinel-1A C-band backscatter data were used in Chesapeake, Mississippi Delta and Puget Sound. We tested multiple Landsat vegetation indices and Sentinel backscatter metrics in 30m scale biomass linear regression models by region. Scaling biomass by fraction green vegetation significantly improved biomass estimation (e.g. Cape Cod: R2 = 0.06 vs. R2 = 0.60, n=28). The best vegetation indices differed by region, though indices based on the shortwave infrared-1 and red bands were most predictive in the Everglades and the Mississippi Delta, while the soil adjusted vegetation index was most predictive in Puget Sound and Chesapeake. Backscatter metrics significantly improved model predictions over vegetation indices alone; consistently across regions, the most significant metric was the range in backscatter values within the green vegetation segment of the Landsat pixel (e.g. Mississippi Delta: R2 = 0.47 vs. R2 = 0.59, n=15). Results support using remote sensing of biomass stock change to estimate greenhouse gas emission factors in tidal

  16. NWTC Helps Guide U.S. Offshore R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping guide our nation's research-and-development effort in offshore renewable energy, which includes: Design, modeling, and analysis tools; Device and component testing; Resource characterization; Economic modeling and analysis; Grid integration.

  17. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  18. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  19. Fast-ion Energy Loss During TAE Avalanches in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E D; Darrow, D S; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G J; Kubota, S; Podesta, M; White, R B; Bortolon, A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M

    2012-07-11

    Strong TAE avalanches on NSTX, the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] are typically correlated with drops in the neutron rate in the range of 5% - 15%. In previous studies of avalanches in L-mode plasmas, these neutron drops were found to be consistent with modeled losses of fast ions. Here we expand the study to TAE avalanches in NSTX H-mode plasmas with improved analysis techniques. At the measured TAE mode amplitudes, simulations with the ORBIT code predict that fast ion losses are negligible. However, the simulations predict that the TAE scatter the fast ions in energy, resulting in a small (≈ 6%) drop in fast ion β. The net decrease in energy of the fast ions is sufficient to account for the bulk of the drop in neutron rate, even in the absence of fast ion losses. This loss of energy from the fast ion population is comparable to the estimated energy lost by damping from the Alfven wave during the burst. The previously studied TAE avalanches in L-mode are re-evaluated using an improved calculation of the potential fluctuations in the ORBIT code.

  20. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1974 water year: based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkinson, Richard O.; Ficke, John F.; Saindon, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S Geological Survey to determine and compare the quality at key locations on the Nation 's major rivers. There are 345 stations in the network--data from the first 101 of these (those operating during the 1974 water year) are summarized in this report. Temperature data from NASQAN stations have been summarized for each station. At most stations the harmonic provides an estimate of daily temperatures with a standard error of estimate of 2.5 degrees C or less. According to 1974 water-year data summarized from NASQAN operations, water quality of the rivers of the United States is best (by most standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Waters there generally are low in dissolved solids and major and minor chemical constitutents, generally are soft (except in Florida), and carry relatively small amounts of sediment. However, many of these waters carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients and have correspondingly high populations of attached and floating plants. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution at some sites. Rivers of most of the Midcontinent and Southwest are characterized by moderate to high levels of dissolved major and minor constituents, sediment, major nutrients, and biota (floating and attached aquatic plants and indicator bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping?--A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bobbert, Maarten F; Casius, L J Richard; De Clercq, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with a forward dynamic musculo-skeletal model. This model consisted of four interconnected rigid segments, actuated by six Hill-type muscle actuators. The only independent input of the model was the stimulation of muscles as a function of time. This input was optimized using an objective function, in which targeting a specific sub-maximal height value was combined with minimizing the amount of muscle work produced. The characteristic changes in motion pattern observed in humans jumping to different target heights were reproduced by the model. As the target height was lowered, two major changes occurred in the motion pattern. First, the countermovement amplitude was reduced; this helped to save energy because of reduced dissipation and regeneration of energy in the contractile elements. Second, the contribution of rotation of the heavy proximal segments of the lower limbs to the vertical velocity of the centre of gravity at take-off was less; this helped to save energy because of reduced ineffective rotational energies at take-off. The simulations also revealed that, with the observed movement adaptations, muscle work was reduced through improved relative use of the muscle's elastic properties in sub-maximal jumping. According to the results of the simulations, the stereotyped motion pattern observed in sub-maximal jumping is consistent with the idea that in sub-maximal jumping, subjects are trying to achieve the targeted jump height with minimal energy expenditure.

  2. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  3. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  4. Material control and accounting in the Department of Energy's nuclear fuel complex

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-01

    Material control and accounting takes place within an envelope of activities related to safeguards and security, as well as to safety, health, and environment, all of which need to be managed to assure that the entire nuclear fuel complex can operate in a societally accepted manner. Within this envelope the committee was directed to carry out the following scope of work: (1) Review the MCandA systems in use at selected DOE facilities that are processing special nuclear material (SNM) in various physical and chemical forms. (2) Design and convene a workshop for senior representatives from each of DOE's facilities on the flows and inventories of nuclear materials. (3) Plan and conduct a series of site visits to each of the facilities to observe first hand the processing operations and the related MCandA systems. (4) Review the potential improvement in overall safeguard systems effectiveness, as measured by expected reduction in inventory difference control limits and inventory differences for materials balance accounts and facilities, or other criteria as appropriate. Indicate how this affects the relative degree of uncertainty in the system. (5) Review the efficiency of operating the MCandA system with and without the upgrading options and assess whether upgrading will contribute further efficiencies in operation, which may reduce many of the current operations costs. Determine if the current system is cost-effective. (6) Recommend the most promising technical approaches for further development by DOE and further study as warranted.

  5. Integrating certification into the US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Turbine Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P; Link, H; Smith, B

    1997-07-01

    The Wind Turbine Research Program conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employs a comprehensive engineering development process which includes regular design, testing, and documentation reviews throughout the process. This process follows accepted international procedures, including the International Standards Organization ISO 9001. International wind turbine certification practice typically requires a review of only the final design and testing results of a wind turbine system. Using this approach, if the design does not meet requirements, the designer is faced with the lengthy and inefficient process of rerunning engineering calculations or tests or even redesigning major components. NREL has recognized the similarity between its development process and international certification practice and has integrated the two. The result is a comprehensive engineering development process, which enables subcontractors participating in the DOE/NREL Wind Turbine Research Program to develop a mature product, which is ready for commercialization and certification.

  6. Effects of accounting rules on utility choices of energy technologies in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrad, B. I.

    1980-07-01

    Comparisons of the costs of power systems, specifically the cost of nuclear versus other power systems, are discussed. The effects of inconsistent accounting are examined. Five systems that supply electrical power are cost analyzed: (1) light water reactors; (2) liquid metal fast breeder reactors; (3) coal plants, with scrubbers, burning low sulfur or processed high sulfur coal; (4) coal plants with fluidized bed combustion of high sulfur coal; and (5) solar power plants with sufficient storage for baseload use. Cost estimates for the system are made and justified. Cost comparison results show that, contrary to currently accepted conclusions, light water reactors have a decisive cost advantage over coal; if assumed target costs are met, after development, liquid metal fast breeder reactor would be the cheapest system; and if postdevelopment target costs are met, solar power plants are almost competitive with the nuclear systems and are much cheaper than coal.

  7. Science and technology for a sustainable energy future: Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Vaughan, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Included are activities performed in the utilities, transportation, industrial, and buildings technology areas.

  8. Creating Energy Choices for the Future. A Summary of the National Plan for Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which highlights and explains the 1975 National Energy Plan, is intended to improve the general public's understanding of U.S. energy policy. Sections in the publication include: (1) The Energy Problem and the Need for Planning; (2) Basic Principles of the Plan and How They Apply; (3) Overcoming the Oil and Gas Shortage; (4) The…

  9. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  10. Protein surface roughness accounts for binding free energy of Plasmepsin II-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Tresanco, Mario E; Valdés-Tresanco, Mario S; Valiente, Pedro A; Cocho, Germinal; Mansilla, Ricardo; Nieto-Villar, J M

    2017-09-12

    The calculation of absolute binding affinities for protein-inhibitor complexes remains as one of the main challenges in computational structure-based ligand design. The present work explored the calculations of surface fractal dimension (as a measure of surface roughness) and the relationship with experimental binding free energies of Plasmepsin II complexes. Plasmepsin II is an attractive target for novel therapeutic compounds to treat malaria. However, the structural flexibility of this enzyme is a drawback when searching for specific inhibitors. Concerning that, we performed separate explicitly solvated molecular dynamics simulations using the available high-resolution crystal structures of different Plasmepsin II complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed a better approximation to systems dynamics and, therefore, a more reliable estimation of surface roughness. This constitutes a novel approximation in order to obtain more realistic values of fractal dimension, because previous works considered only x-ray structures. Binding site fractal dimension was calculated considering the ensemble of structures generated at different simulation times. A linear relationship between binding site fractal dimension and experimental binding free energies of the complexes was observed within 20 ns. Previous studies of the subject did not uncover this relationship. Regression model, coined FD model, was built to estimate binding free energies from binding site fractal dimension values. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that our model reproduced accurately the absolute binding free energies for our training set (R(2)  = 0.76; <|error|> =0.55 kcal/mol; SDerror  = 0.19 kcal/mol). The fact that such a simple model may be applied raises some questions that are addressed in the article. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

  12. The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

  13. TOWARD A COMPLETE ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM FROM STELLAR FEEDBACK IN GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-06-10

    We investigate the momentum and energy budget of stellar feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium (ISM) using simulations of local star-forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova (pre-SN) evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star-forming regions, hence limiting star formation. The reduced gas density mitigates radiative losses of thermal feedback energy from subsequent SN explosions. The detailed impact of stellar feedback depends sensitively on the implementation and choice of parameters. Somewhat encouragingly, we find that implementations in which feedback is efficient lead to approximate self-regulation of the global star formation efficiency. We compare simulation results using our feedback implementation to other phenomenological feedback methods, where thermal feedback energy is allowed to dissipate over timescales longer than the formal gas cooling time. We find that simulations with maximal momentum injection suppress star formation to a similar degree as is found in simulations adopting adiabatic thermal feedback. However, different feedback schemes are found to produce significant differences in the density and thermodynamic structure of the ISM, and are hence expected to have a qualitatively different impact on galaxy evolution.

  14. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  15. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Zvolanek, E.; Kuiper, J.; Carr, A.; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  16. Penobscot Indian Nation's Strategic Energy Planning Efficiency on tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Sockalexis, Mike; Fields, Brenda

    2006-11-30

    The energy grant provided the resources to evaluate the wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal and solar resource potential on all Penobscot Indian Naiton's Tribal lands. The two objectives address potential renewable energy resources available on tribal lands and energy efficiency measures to be taken after comprehensive energy audits of commercial facilities. Also, a Long Term Strategic Energy Plan was developed along with a plan to reduce high energy costs.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  18. Small Wind Turbine Testing Results from the National Renewable Energy Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, A.; Huskey, A.; Link, H.; Sinclair, K.; Forsyth, T.; Jager, D.; van Dam, J.; Smith, J.

    2009-07-01

    The independent testing project was established at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion. Among these barriers is a lack of independent testing results for small turbines.

  19. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  20. Seismic Energy From Waterfalls in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, E. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Lin, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed continuous seismic data recorded at two seismic stations in Yellowstone National Park that are located near to Yellowstone National Park's Upper and Lower Falls. Lower Falls is the largest waterfall in Yellowstone, with an estimated flow rate of 70 cubic meters per second, falling an estimated 94 meters, while the Upper Falls has a flow of 70 cubic meters per second, jetting over a 21 meter gap downward 33 meters. A study based on a deployment of seismometers in Yellowstone in September and October of 1972 had found a predominant 2 Hz signal associated with the Lower Falls, with the signal remaining above background noise within 6 km of the falls in every direction but the south. Station YUF is a three-component, broadband seismometer operated by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations that is located approximately 1.5 km southwest of the Lower Falls, while station B206 is a three-component, short-period, borehole seismometer operated by the Plate Boundary Observatory, located roughly 1.2 km west of the Lower Falls. We computed power spectral densities (PSD) for all available hour-long segments of continuous data from the vertical components of YUF and B206 beginning September 22, 2006 and July 10, 2008, respectively. Yearly spectrograms were used to visualize the PSDs. Both stations showed spectral peaks in the double-frequency microseismic band, with stronger amplitudes in winter than in summer, presumably generated mainly by storms in the North Pacific. Both also showed strong peaks near a period of 1 s, but with the opposite seasonal dependence. This 1 s peak signal broadens in frequency during the summer, from 1 to 5 Hz, as well as uniformly increasing in power across this band. This short-period noise was compared to discharge measurements of the Yellowstone River made at the Yellowstone Lake outlet, about 18.5 km upstream from the Upper Falls. For periods of 0.5-2.0 s the correlation coefficient between the seismic energy and the river

  1. Comparison of Methods to Account for Implausible Reporting of Energy Intake in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jinnie J.; Sampson, Laura; Cho, Eunyoung; Hughes, Michael D.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the American Journal of Epidemiology by Mendez et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(4):448–458), the use of alternative approaches to the exclusion of implausible energy intakes led to significantly different cross-sectional associations between diet and body mass index (BMI), whereas the use of a simpler recommended criteria (<500 and >3,500 kcal/day) yielded no meaningful change. However, these findings might have been due to exclusions made based on weight, a primary determinant of BMI. Using data from 52,110 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990), we reproduced the cross-sectional findings of Mendez et al. and compared the results from the recommended method with those from 2 weight-dependent alternative methods (the Goldberg method and predicted total energy expenditure method). The same 3 exclusion criteria were then used to examine dietary variables prospectively in relation to change in BMI, which is not a direct function of attained weight. We found similar associations using the 3 methods. In a separate cross-sectional analysis using biomarkers of dietary factors, we found similar correlations for intakes of fatty acids (n = 439) and carotenoids and retinol (n = 1,293) using the 3 methods for exclusions. These results do not support the general conclusion that use of exclusion criteria based on the alternative methods might confer an advantage over the recommended exclusion method. PMID:25656533

  2. Comparison of methods to account for implausible reporting of energy intake in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jinnie J; Sampson, Laura; Cho, Eunyoung; Hughes, Michael D; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-02-15

    In a recent article in the American Journal of Epidemiology by Mendez et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(4):448-458), the use of alternative approaches to the exclusion of implausible energy intakes led to significantly different cross-sectional associations between diet and body mass index (BMI), whereas the use of a simpler recommended criteria (<500 and >3,500 kcal/day) yielded no meaningful change. However, these findings might have been due to exclusions made based on weight, a primary determinant of BMI. Using data from 52,110 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990), we reproduced the cross-sectional findings of Mendez et al. and compared the results from the recommended method with those from 2 weight-dependent alternative methods (the Goldberg method and predicted total energy expenditure method). The same 3 exclusion criteria were then used to examine dietary variables prospectively in relation to change in BMI, which is not a direct function of attained weight. We found similar associations using the 3 methods. In a separate cross-sectional analysis using biomarkers of dietary factors, we found similar correlations for intakes of fatty acids (n = 439) and carotenoids and retinol (n = 1,293) using the 3 methods for exclusions. These results do not support the general conclusion that use of exclusion criteria based on the alternative methods might confer an advantage over the recommended exclusion method.

  3. Two Energy Futures: A National Choice for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    Examined in this American Petroleum Institute (API) publication on energy technology and energy policy, is the future potential of oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, synthetic fuels, and renewable energy resources. Among the related issues emphasized are environmental protection, access to federal lands, government policies, and the national…

  4. Two Energy Futures: A National Choice for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    Examined in this American Petroleum Institute (API) publication on energy technology and energy policy, is the future potential of oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, synthetic fuels, and renewable energy resources. Among the related issues emphasized are environmental protection, access to federal lands, government policies, and the national…

  5. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-06

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or "the Department'') is issuing this final rule to modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule to expressly permit certain HIPAA covered entities to disclose to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) the identities of individuals who are subject to a Federal "mental health prohibitor'' that disqualifies them from shipping, transporting, possessing, or receiving a firearm. The NICS is a national system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to conduct background checks on persons who may be disqualified from receiving firearms based on Federally prohibited categories or State law. Among the persons subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor established under the Gun Control Act of 1968 and implementing regulations issued by the Department of Justice (DOJ) are individuals who have been involuntarily committed to a mental institution; found incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity; or otherwise have been determined by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority to be a danger to themselves or others or to lack the mental capacity to contract or manage their own affairs, as a result of marked subnormal intelligence or mental illness, incompetency, condition, or disease. Under this final rule, only covered entities with lawful authority to make the adjudications or commitment decisions that make individuals subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor, or that serve as repositories of information for NICS reporting purposes, are permitted to disclose the information needed for these purposes. The disclosure is restricted to limited demographic and certain other information needed for NICS purposes. The rule specifically prohibits the disclosure of diagnostic or clinical information, from medical records or other sources, and any mental health information beyond the indication that the individual

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  7. Toward a national plan for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy: the implications of a national commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennington, G.; Bohannon, M.; Gerstein, R.; Hartzler, R.; Kannan, N.; Miller, G.; Rebibo, K.; Shulman, M.; Spewak, P.; Taul, J.

    1980-01-01

    This report analyzes the expected benefits, costs, and implications of three levels of federal commitment and subsidy for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy. It includes estimates of potential solar use representing 16 to 23 percent of the nation's energy supply in the year 2000. Projections are based on data available as of early 1979.

  8. An Individual-Based Model of Zebrafish Population Dynamics Accounting for Energy Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Beaudouin, Rémy; Goussen, Benoit; Piccini, Benjamin; Augustine, Starrlight; Devillers, James; Brion, François; Péry, Alexandre R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing population dynamics models for zebrafish is crucial in order to extrapolate from toxicity data measured at the organism level to biological levels relevant to support and enhance ecological risk assessment. To achieve this, a dynamic energy budget for individual zebrafish (DEB model) was coupled to an individual based model of zebrafish population dynamics (IBM model). Next, we fitted the DEB model to new experimental data on zebrafish growth and reproduction thus improving existing models. We further analysed the DEB-model and DEB-IBM using a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the predictions of the DEB-IBM were compared to existing observations on natural zebrafish populations and the predicted population dynamics are realistic. While our zebrafish DEB-IBM model can still be improved by acquiring new experimental data on the most uncertain processes (e.g. survival or feeding), it can already serve to predict the impact of compounds at the population level. PMID:25938409

  9. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1975 water year; based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, John C.; Ficke, John F.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a nationally uniform basis for continuously assessing the quality of U.S. rivers. Stations generally are at the downstream end of hydrologic accounting units in order to measure the quantity and quality of water flowing from the units. The 1975 water year was the first year of operation of the network that represents essentially all of the accounting units and thereby describes the water- quality of the entire country. Data are available on a large number of water-quality constituents measured at 345 stations during the 1975 water year. Temperature data (usually continuous or daily measurements) from NASQAN stations were fitted to a first order harmonic equation and the parameters for the harmonic function are reported for each station. Mean temperatures generally range from 5°-10°C in the North to more than 20°C along the southern border of the continental United States and in Hawaii and Puerto Rico; means were less than 10°C at 63 stations and greater than 25°C at only 7 stations. Amplitudes of the temperature curves are greatest (greater than 12°C) for the streams at midlatitudes and in the Great and Central Plains, and they are smallest for the subtropical and cold-climate streams. Considering chemical and biological characteristics of U.S. streams as described by NASQAN data, water quality is best (by many standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Waters there generally are low in dissolved solids and major and minor chemical constituents, generally are soft (except in Florida), and carry relatively small amounts of sediment. These conditions mainly reflect the geology of the regions and the relatively large amounts of precipitation. However, many of these waters show the effects of pollution and carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients and have correspondingly high populations of attached and floating plants. High counts

  10. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  11. A quantitative account of electron energy transport in an NSTX plasma*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Dave

    2007-11-01

    Anomalous electron transport in magnetized plasmas can be a major obstacle in the way toward practical nuclear fusion power, and it has been an outstanding problem for almost half a century. Here we report the first successful quantitative accounting of the electron thermal conductivity χe in a tokamak experiment due to imperfect magnetic surfaces^1 caused by the microtearing instabilities. The unstable spectrum is calculated with the GS2 code for a well-behaved H-mode plasma in NSTX (R/a=0.85m/0.67m) with 6 MW deuterium neutral beam heating at Ip=0.75 MA, Bt=0.5 T. The application of existing nonlinear theory^2 showed that the unstable modes can produce overlapping resistive layers and stochastic magnetic fields. The calculated χe based on the theory^1 is in good agreement with the values from transport analysis of the experimental data over the entire region (0.4 < r/a < 0.75), where the electron temperature gradient is strong enough to make microtearing the most unstable mode. There is no adjustable parameter in this comparison. In a discharge with reversed central magnetic shear and an L-mode edge, microtearing modes are found to be stable. The central electron temperature is 50% higher (2 keV vs 1.3 keV) than in the comparison shot with the microtearing instability and the same controlled tokamak parameters like plasma current, density, magnetic field, plasma shape, position and neutral beam heating power. This is a strong indication that this instability may be the dominant mechanism responsible for the electron transport in this type of plasma. Since the microtearing mode is difficult to stabilize with velocity shear, this instability is an important limit^3 on the electron temperature in spherical tokamak configurations where the usual long wavelength instabilities are not present. *This work is carried out in collaboration with Drs. S. Kaye, D. R. Mikkelsen, J. Krommes, K. Hill, R. Bell, and B. LeBlanc. It is supported by USDoE contract No. DE-AC02-76CH

  12. Methods for evaluating leaf surface free energy and polarity having accounted for surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison

    2017-09-01

    Leaf surfaces can have similar wettability, while their roughness and polarity may be very different. This may affect agrochemical bioefficacy, hence there is a need to characterise leaf surface polarity and roughness separately. This paper reviews established surface evaluation techniques and then uses a comprehensive dataset of static contact angles (12 chemical solutions on 15 different species) to compare and contrast them for their ability to characterise leaf surface polarity in isolation from roughness. Many techniques were severely limited when applied to leaf surfaces. A failing of the surface free energy (SFE) concept is that both physical and chemical properties affect the SFE. Additionally, whilst the leaf surface chemistry does not change, the SFE values generated are dependent on the chemical properties of the probe solution employed. The wetting tension-dielectric (WTD) method stands out due to its ability to isolate and quantify leaf surface roughness and polarity. A novel (WTD) roughness correction factor is proposed to improve SFE determination. The strong correlation between leaf polarity and leaf wettability for polar solutions (such as water) makes the WTD method a valuable tool for the evaluation of leaf surface-droplet behaviour and the advancement of agrochemical spray formulation technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Modeling energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in human exposure models: accounting for fatigue and EPOC.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin; Glen, Graham; Mccurdy, Thomas; Smith, Luther

    2008-05-01

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized values of metabolic equivalents of work (METS) for the activity being performed and converted into activity-specific oxygen consumption estimates. However, oxygen consumption remains elevated after a moderate- or high-intensity activity is completed. This effect, which is termed excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), requires upward adjustment of the METS estimates that follow high-energy expenditure events, to model subsequent increased ventilation and intake dose rates. In addition, since an individual's capacity for work decreases during extended activity, methods are also required to adjust downward those METS estimates that exceed physiologically realistic limits over time. A unified method for simultaneously performing these adjustments is developed. The method simulates a cumulative oxygen deficit for each individual and uses it to impose appropriate time-dependent reductions in the METS time series and additions for EPOC. The relationships between the oxygen deficit and METS limits are nonlinear and are derived from published data on work capacity and oxygen consumption. These modifications result in improved modeling of ventilation patterns, and should improve intake dose estimates associated with exposure to airborne environmental contaminants.

  14. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Goeltz, Rick

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  15. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Downing, P.E.

    2004-12-14

    Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  16. NREL in the Community; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-01

    NREL's Education Center offers a variety of program topics and experiences for student and adult groups addressing renewable energy and energy efficiency innovations and introducing the work of NREL to audiences.

  17. National & Legislative News: Our New Federal Energy Control Machinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strassenburg, Arnold A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the duties assigned to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974; also outlines the roles to be played by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Energy Administration (FEA). (Author/EB)

  18. National & Legislative News: Our New Federal Energy Control Machinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strassenburg, Arnold A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the duties assigned to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974; also outlines the roles to be played by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Energy Administration (FEA). (Author/EB)

  19. Methodology and emission scenarios employed in the development of the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the steps taken to model the National Energy Strategy (NES). It provides an overview of the NES process including the models used for the project. The National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM), which was used in analyzing environmental impacts, is discussed. The structure of NESEAM, as well as results and analyses are presented.

  20. Methodology and emission scenarios employed in the development of the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the steps taken to model the National Energy Strategy (NES). It provides an overview of the NES process including the models used for the project. The National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM), which was used in analyzing environmental impacts, is discussed. The structure of NESEAM, as well as results and analyses are presented.

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Curacao; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Curacao, an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Curacao’s utility rates are approximately $0.26 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - American Samoa; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of American Samoa, the southernmost territory of the United States. American Samoa’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.29 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Bonaire; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Bonaire, a special municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Bonaire’s utility rates are approximately $0.35 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  5. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  6. Staff roster for 1979: National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of resumes from the current staff of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems. The Center, founded in January 1976, is one of four areas within the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The emphasis of programs at the Center is on energy policy and planning studies at the regional, national, and international levels, involving quantitative, interdisciplinary studies of the technological, economic, social, and environmental aspects of energy systems. To perform these studies the Center has assembled a staff of experts in the areas of science, technology, economics planning, health and safety, information systems, and quantitative analysis.

  7. The National Ignition Facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Christopher J

    2012-08-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centres on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  8. Research programs at the Department of Energy National Laboratories. Volume 2: Laboratory matrix

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    For nearly fifty years, the US national laboratories, under the direction of the Department of Energy, have maintained a tradition of outstanding scientific research and innovative technological development. With the end of the Cold War, their roles have undergone profound changes. Although many of their original priorities remain--stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile, for example--pressing budget constraints and new federal mandates have altered their focus. Promotion of energy efficiency, environmental restoration, human health, and technology partnerships with the goal of enhancing US economic and technological competitiveness are key new priorities. The multiprogram national laboratories offer unparalleled expertise in meeting the challenge of changing priorities. This volume aims to demonstrate each laboratory`s uniqueness in applying this expertise. It describes the laboratories` activities in eleven broad areas of research that most or all share in common. Each section of this volume is devoted to a single laboratory. Those included are: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Los Alamos National Laboratory; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; and Sandia National Laboratories. The information in this volume was provided by the multiprogram national laboratories and compiled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  9. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  10. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  11. User's Guide for the NREL Teetering Rotor Analysis Program (STRAP). [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.

    1992-08-01

    The following report gives the reader an overview of instructions on the proper use of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute, or SERI) teetering Rotor Analysis Program (STRAP version 2.20). STRAP is a derivative of the Force and Loads Analysis program (FLAP). It is intended as a tool for prediction of rotor and blade loads and response for only two-bladed teetering hub wind turbines. The effects of delta-3, undersling, hub mass, and wind turbulence are accounted for. The objectives of the report are to give an overview of the code and also show the methods of data input and correct code execution steps in order to model an example two-bladed teetering hub turbine. A large portion of the discussion (Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) is devoted to the subject of inputting and running the code for wind turbulence effects. The ability to include turbulent wind effects is perhaps the biggest change in the code since the release of FLAP version 2.01 in 1988. This report is intended to be a user's guide. It does not contain a theoretical discussion on equations of motion, assumptions, underlying theory, etc. It is intended to be used in conjunction with Wright, Buhl, and Thresher (1988).

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; McNiff, B.

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guam; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guam, an island territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. Guam’s electricity rates for residential customers start at $0.21 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.1,2 Like

  14. A Strategy for American Power: Energy, Climate and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    security, economics, environmental impact , religion — could be the basis of an appeal.52 They already have. The Energy Future Coalition has based...for a New American Security (CNAS) and head of its energy and environmental security programs. Previously, she served in various high-level govern...Parthemore is a Research Associate at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS), working on its energy and environmental security programs. Prior

  15. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  16. Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Visitors Center, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Burgert, S.

    2001-06-19

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient lighting, an evaporative cooling system, and other technologies to minimize energy costs and environmental impact. The Visitors Center displays a variety of interactive exhibits on energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the building includes an auditorium, a public reading room, and office space.

  17. Impact of electric cars on national energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, P. D.

    1980-02-01

    Energy utilization of electric vehicles is discussed in terms of energy efficiency in comparison to internal combustion engine automobiles, starting from oil or coal as the prime energy source. It is found that although an electric car does not save primary energy resources, it can transfer some of the transportation fuel needs from petroleum to coal, nuclear, or hydropower. With reference to the impact of electric vehicles on reduction of petroleum consumption, it is shown that the dependence of the United States on foreign oil can be reduced much more quickly and at much lower cost by converting electric utility boilers from oil to coal.

  18. Contrasting accounts of direction and shape perception in short-range motion: Counterchange compared with motion energy detection.

    PubMed

    Norman, Joseph; Hock, Howard; Schöner, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    It has long been thought (e.g., Cavanagh & Mather, 1989) that first-order motion-energy extraction via space-time comparator-type models (e.g., the elaborated Reichardt detector) is sufficient to account for human performance in the short-range motion paradigm (Braddick, 1974), including the perception of reverse-phi motion when the luminance polarity of the visual elements is inverted during successive frames. Human observers' ability to discriminate motion direction and use coherent motion information to segregate a region of a random cinematogram and determine its shape was tested; they performed better in the same-, as compared with the inverted-, polarity condition. Computational analyses of short-range motion perception based on the elaborated Reichardt motion energy detector (van Santen & Sperling, 1985) predict, incorrectly, that symmetrical results will be obtained for the same- and inverted-polarity conditions. In contrast, the counterchange detector (Hock, Schöner, & Gilroy, 2009) predicts an asymmetry quite similar to that of human observers in both motion direction and shape discrimination. The further advantage of counterchange, as compared with motion energy, detection for the perception of spatial shape- and depth-from-motion is discussed.

  19. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  20. Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace – Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Cada, G. F.; Roberts, Jesse; Bevelhimer, Mark

    2010-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) has mobilized its National Laboratories to address the broad range of environmental effects of ocean and river energy development. The National Laboratories are using a risk-based approach to set priorities among environmental effects, and to direct research activities. Case studies will be constructed to determine the most significant environmental effects of ocean energy harvest for tidal systems in temperate estuaries, for wave energy installations in temperate coastal areas, wave installations in sub-tropical waters, and riverine energy installations in large rivers. In addition, the National Laboratories are investigating the effects of energy removal from waves, tides and river currents using numerical modeling studies. Laboratory and field research is also underway to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), acoustic noise, toxicity from anti-biofouling coatings, effects on benthic habitats, and physical interactions with tidal and wave devices on marine and freshwater organisms and ecosystems. Outreach and interactions with stakeholders allow the National Laboratories to understand and mitigate for use conflicts and to provide useful information for marine spatial planning at the national and regional level.

  1. 75 FR 62305 - National Energy Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... security and prosperity. The time to act is now. Every year our overdependence on fossil fuels sends..., rewarding innovation, and developing clean energy industries here at home. Fossil fuel pollution has already... clean energy technologies; advancing vehicle and fuel technologies; spurring the development of...

  2. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents an indication of existing workforce levels and career potentials for environmental/energy occupations within private industry. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. The format includes an introduction to…

  3. The National Energy Center at Bismarck State College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Donna S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy production is an essential part of American society and the economy. In the best tradition of community colleges, Bismarck State College (BSC) in North Dakota has responded to the specialized training needs of industry for over 25 years by forming various collaborative efforts with the energy industry. This article presents an example of…

  4. The National Energy Center at Bismarck State College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Donna S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy production is an essential part of American society and the economy. In the best tradition of community colleges, Bismarck State College (BSC) in North Dakota has responded to the specialized training needs of industry for over 25 years by forming various collaborative efforts with the energy industry. This article presents an example of…

  5. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents an indication of existing workforce levels and career potentials for environmental/energy occupations within private industry. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. The format includes an introduction to…

  6. Inspection and assessment of energy conservation opportunities at Ellis Island National Park, Ellis Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.

    1992-12-01

    Ellis Island is a National Park Service (NPS) facility located in New York Harbor that hosts two million visitors per year. The main building houses exhibits and artifacts, food and gift concessions, and staff work and office spaces in a 200,000-square-foot floor area. Heating and cooling of the main building are provided by a central heating and cooling plant, housed in an adjacent 20,000-square-foot building, with distribution by nine main fan systems and perimeter radiators. Energy end-use estimates were obtained by reconciling connected load characteristics with billing data. The energy-use intensities are about 40 kWh/ft[sup 2]-yr for electricity and 170,000 Btu/ft[sup 2]-yr for natural gas. Energy use is higher than expected for facilities of this type in this region. This high energy use is due to a number of factors. A large fraction of the lighting is provided by incandescent lamps. Constant-volume air-handlers and reheat coils are used in most of the exhibit spaces. Tight temperature and humidity control is achieved in these spaces at the expense of substantial energy use for simultaneous heating and cooling. The large window area is made up of entirely of single-glazed units. Ventilation is controlled by time schedules, not occupant load. Most motors and pumps are single-speed rather than the more efficient variable speed drive type. A preliminary assessment of the potential for energy conservation has been made after a site inspection and analysis of utility bills, building plans, and other information. The electric savings potential is over 30% using available, generally cost-effective technologies. The fossil fuel savings potential is over 1,500 MBtu per year and could be much higher because 10,000 MBtu/yr of natural gas consumption could not be accounted for in our analysis. Cost-effective Energy Conservation Opportunities were identified in the areas of lighting, HVAC, central plant, envelope, motors, and other equipment and loads.

  7. Inspection and assessment of energy conservation opportunities at Ellis Island National Park, Ellis Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.

    1992-12-01

    Ellis Island is a National Park Service (NPS) facility located in New York Harbor that hosts two million visitors per year. The main building houses exhibits and artifacts, food and gift concessions, and staff work and office spaces in a 200,000-square-foot floor area. Heating and cooling of the main building are provided by a central heating and cooling plant, housed in an adjacent 20,000-square-foot building, with distribution by nine main fan systems and perimeter radiators. Energy end-use estimates were obtained by reconciling connected load characteristics with billing data. The energy-use intensities are about 40 kWh/ft{sup 2}-yr for electricity and 170,000 Btu/ft{sup 2}-yr for natural gas. Energy use is higher than expected for facilities of this type in this region. This high energy use is due to a number of factors. A large fraction of the lighting is provided by incandescent lamps. Constant-volume air-handlers and reheat coils are used in most of the exhibit spaces. Tight temperature and humidity control is achieved in these spaces at the expense of substantial energy use for simultaneous heating and cooling. The large window area is made up of entirely of single-glazed units. Ventilation is controlled by time schedules, not occupant load. Most motors and pumps are single-speed rather than the more efficient variable speed drive type. A preliminary assessment of the potential for energy conservation has been made after a site inspection and analysis of utility bills, building plans, and other information. The electric savings potential is over 30% using available, generally cost-effective technologies. The fossil fuel savings potential is over 1,500 MBtu per year and could be much higher because 10,000 MBtu/yr of natural gas consumption could not be accounted for in our analysis. Cost-effective Energy Conservation Opportunities were identified in the areas of lighting, HVAC, central plant, envelope, motors, and other equipment and loads.

  8. 76 FR 7185 - FirstEnergy Generation Corporation; Seneca Nation of Indians; Notice of Intent To File Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Generation Corporation; Seneca Nation of Indians; Notice...Energy Generation Corporation (FirstEnergy); and Competitor--Seneca Nation of Indians (Seneca Nation). e... Corporation, 76 South Main Street, Akron, Ohio 44308. For Project No. 13889-000: Wendy Huff, Executive...

  9. NSF Experiment in Research Grant Administration Promising--Changes Needed to Assure Accountability. Report to the Director, the National Science Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Association of American Universities are conducting an experiment in research grant administration designed to respond to the perceived needs of universities for more flexibility while assuring appropriate accountability for Federal research funds. The experiment delegates most grant administration…

  10. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Adaptable Inquiry-Based Activities about National Patterns of Coal and Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenic, Meredith Hill; Cratsley, Chira Endress; Hartwell, Bradley; Guertin, Laura; Furman, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    As the United States strives to achieve energy independence, students need to be literate about energy and environmental issues. In this article, the authors present a lesson about the nation's electricity resources that is part 1 of a free, comprehensive unit on coal and energy that is available online (http://tinyurl.com/coalenergyunit). The…

  12. 3 CFR 8431 - Proclamation 8431 of October 2, 2009. National Energy Awareness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... global competitiveness and national security. Innovation in energy technology will decrease our oil use..., engineers, and entrepreneurs bring new and improved energy technologies to homes and businesses in this... of green energy that will benefit our economic recovery, our security, and our long-term...

  13. National Science Teachers Association Factsheet No. 18: Alternative Energy Sources - A Glossary of Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.; Kryger, King C.

    This glossary of over 100 energy-related terms is intended to accompany the National Science Teachers Association's (NSTA) Fact Sheet on alternative energy technologies. Brief definitions of common concepts, principles, and expressions related to energy education are provided. (Author/CP)

  14. Adaptable Inquiry-Based Activities about National Patterns of Coal and Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenic, Meredith Hill; Cratsley, Chira Endress; Hartwell, Bradley; Guertin, Laura; Furman, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    As the United States strives to achieve energy independence, students need to be literate about energy and environmental issues. In this article, the authors present a lesson about the nation's electricity resources that is part 1 of a free, comprehensive unit on coal and energy that is available online (http://tinyurl.com/coalenergyunit). The…

  15. The national database of state incentives for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.H. II; Shirley, L.E.

    1996-11-01

    In late 1995, the US Department of Energy initiated a new program through the Interstate Renewable Energy Council to survey each of the 50 states for available information on financial and regulatory incentives that are designed to promote the application of renewable energy technologies. This information is being developed into a database, reports prepared and printed which detail the incentives on a state-by-state basis, and access provided to much of the database via the Internet. By providing this information on a wide basis, it will be much easier for other states to get the information needed to analyze and replicate successful incentives in their own states.

  16. Engineering approaches to energy balance and obesity: opportunities for novel collaborations and research: report of a joint national science foundation and national institutes of health workshop.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Ortega, Alfonso; Timothy Baldwin, J; Hill, James O

    2007-01-01

    Energy balance disorders account for a large public health burden. The obesity epidemic in particular is one of the most rapidly evolving public health problems of our day. At present, two-thirds of American adults and one-sixth of American children and adolescents are considered either overweight or obese. Public health concern about obesity is high because of the increased risk and increased mortality of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, many forms of cancer, gallbladder disease, and osteoarthritis. These risks increase with the severity of the obesity. Excess adipose tissue, representing fat storage, ultimately derives from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Conversely, undesirable and inadvertent loss of body weight and muscle mass, as seen in aging and cachectic states of chronic diseases such as heart failure and cancer, have serious clinical and functional consequences without satisfactory clinical or behavioral solutions. Innovative engineering technologies could help to address unresolved problems in energy balance, intake, and expenditure. Novel sensors, devices, imaging technologies, nanotechnologies, biomaterials, technologies to detect biochemical markers of energy balance, mathematical modeling, systems biology, and other approaches could be developed, evaluated, and leveraged through multidisciplinary collaborations. Engineers, physical scientists, and mathematicians can work with scientists from other relevant disciplines who possess expertise in obesity and nutrition. Furthermore, the possibility of re-engineering the "built environment" to encourage higher levels of physical activity has been suggested as another promising and important approach to which engineers can contribute (see http://www.obesityresearch.nih.gov). Ultimately, systematic application of the "Engineering Approach" can help in developing the needed technologies and tools to facilitate research and eventually support therapeutic advances and

  17. Engineering Approaches to Energy Balance and Obesity: Opportunities for Novel Collaborations and Research: Report of a Joint National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Ershow, Abby G.; Ortega, Alfonso; Timothy Baldwin, J.; Hill, James O.

    2007-01-01

    Energy balance disorders account for a large public health burden. The obesity epidemic in particular is one of the most rapidly evolving public health problems of our day. At present, two-thirds of American adults and one-sixth of American children and adolescents are considered either overweight or obese. Public health concern about obesity is high because of the increased risk and increased mortality of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, many forms of cancer, gallbladder disease, and osteoarthritis. These risks increase with the severity of the obesity. Excess adipose tissue, representing fat storage, ultimately derives from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Conversely, undesirable and inadvertent loss of body weight and muscle mass, as seen in aging and cachectic states of chronic diseases such as heart failure and cancer, have serious clinical and functional consequences without satisfactory clinical or behavioral solutions. Innovative engineering technologies could help to address unresolved problems in energy balance, intake, and expenditure. Novel sensors, devices, imaging technologies, nanotechnologies, biomaterials, technologies to detect biochemical markers of energy balance, mathematical modeling, systems biology, and other approaches could be developed, evaluated, and leveraged through multidisciplinary collaborations. Engineers, physical scientists, and mathematicians can work with scientists from other relevant disciplines who possess expertise in obesity and nutrition. Furthermore, the possibility of re-engineering the “built environment” to encourage higher levels of physical activity has been suggested as another promising and important approach to which engineers can contribute (see http://www.obesityresearch.nih.gov). Ultimately, systematic application of the “Engineering Approach” can help in developing the needed technologies and tools to facilitate research and eventually support therapeutic advances and

  18. New England Buildings Score in National Energy Star Building Competition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 5,500 individual buildings across the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico competed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fifth-annual ENERGY STAR Battle of the Buildings Competition: Team Challenge.

  19. Our national energy future - The role of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of problems and opportunities in remote sensing of resources. The need for independence from foreign and precarious energy sources, availability of fossil fuel materials for other purposes (petrochemicals, fertilizer), environmental conservation, and new energy sources are singled out as the main topics. Phases of response include: (1) crisis, with reduced use of petroleum and tapping of on-shore and off-shore resources combined; (2) a transition phase involving a shift from petroleum to coal and oil shale; and (3) exploitation of renewable (inexhaustible and clean) energy. Opportunities for remote sensing in fuel production and energy conservation are discussed along with problems in identifying the spectral signatures of productive and unproductive regions. Mapping of water resources, waste heat, byproducts, and wastes is considered in addition to opportunities for international collaboration.

  20. Our national energy future - The role of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of problems and opportunities in remote sensing of resources. The need for independence from foreign and precarious energy sources, availability of fossil fuel materials for other purposes (petrochemicals, fertilizer), environmental conservation, and new energy sources are singled out as the main topics. Phases of response include: (1) crisis, with reduced use of petroleum and tapping of on-shore and off-shore resources combined; (2) a transition phase involving a shift from petroleum to coal and oil shale; and (3) exploitation of renewable (inexhaustible and clean) energy. Opportunities for remote sensing in fuel production and energy conservation are discussed along with problems in identifying the spectral signatures of productive and unproductive regions. Mapping of water resources, waste heat, byproducts, and wastes is considered in addition to opportunities for international collaboration.

  1. PRELIMINARY CONSERVATION TABLES FROM THE NATIONAL INTERIM ENERGY CONSUMPTION SURVEY

    EIA Publications

    1979-01-01

    The focus of this report is the conservation activities performed by households since January 1977, and the status of households with respect to insulation, storm windows, and other energy conserving characteristics.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center is Helping to Facilitate the Transition to a New Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center (HTSC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses a systems engineering and integration approach to hydrogen research and development to help the United States make the transition to a new energy future - a future built on diverse and abundant domestic renewable resources and integrated hydrogen systems. Research focuses on renewable hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; fuel cells and fuel cell manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; analysis; education; and market transformation. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to power vehicles and to provide electricity and heat for homes and offices. This flexibility, combined with our increasing demand for energy, opens the door for hydrogen power systems. HTSC collaborates with DOE, other government agencies, industry, communities, universities, national laboratories, and other stakeholders to promote a clean and secure energy future.

  3. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  4. Baseline map of organic carbon in Australian soil to support national carbon accounting and monitoring under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A; Webster, Richard; Bui, Elisabeth N; Baldock, Jeff A

    2014-01-01

    could support Australia's National Carbon Accounting System, help guide the formulation of policy around carbon offset schemes, improve Australia's carbon balances, serve to direct future sampling for inventory, guide the design of monitoring networks and provide a benchmark against which to assess the impact of changes in land cover, land management and climate on the stock of C in Australia. In this way, these estimates would help us to develop strategies to adapt and mitigate the effects of climate change. PMID:24599716

  5. The financing of the health system in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A National Health Account (NHA) approach

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Mohammadreza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Zanganeh, Marziee; Kazemian, Mahmoud; Rashidian, Arash; Abouhalaj, Masoud; Tofighi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Background: The National Health Accounts keep track of all healthcare related activities from the beginning (i.e. resource provision), to the end (i.e. service provision). This study was conducted to address following questions: How is the Iranian health system funded? Who distribute the funds? For what services are the funds spent on?, What service providers receive the funds? Methods: The required study data were collected through a number of methods. The family health expenditure data was obtained through a cross sectional multistage (seasonal) survey; while library and field study was used to collect the registered data. The collected data fell into the following three categories: the household health expenditure (the sample size: 10200 urban households and 6800 rural households-four rounds of questioning), financial agents data, the medical universities financial performance data. Results: The total health expenditure of the Iranian households was 201,496,172 million Rials in 2008, which showed a 34.4% increase when compared to 2007. The share of the total health expenditure was 6.2% of the GDP. The share of the public sector showed a decreasing trend between 2003-2008 while the share of the private sector, of which 95.77% was paid by households, had an increasing trend within the same period. The percent of out of pocket expenditure was 53.79% of the total health expenditure. The total health expenditure per capita was US$ 284.00 based on the official US$ exchange rate and US$ 683.1 based on the international US$ exchange rate.( exchange rate: 1$=9988 Rial). Conclusion: The share of the public and private sectors in financing the health system was imbalanced and did not meet the international standards. The public share of the total health expenditures has increased in the recent years despite the 4th and 5th Development Plans. The inclusion of household health insurance fees and other service related expenses increases the public contribution to 73% of the

  6. Baseline map of organic carbon in Australian soil to support national carbon accounting and monitoring under climate change.

    PubMed

    Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A; Webster, Richard; Bui, Elisabeth N; Baldock, Jeff A

    2014-09-01

    Australia's National Carbon Accounting System, help guide the formulation of policy around carbon offset schemes, improve Australia's carbon balances, serve to direct future sampling for inventory, guide the design of monitoring networks and provide a benchmark against which to assess the impact of changes in land cover, land management and climate on the stock of C in Australia. In this way, these estimates would help us to develop strategies to adapt and mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Program—Clark Residence

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-30

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with local utility company, National Grid, Massachusetts homes. This project involved the renovation of a 18th century Cape-style building and achieved a super-insulated enclosure (R-35 walls, R-50+ roof, R-20+ foundation), extensive water management improvements, high-efficiency water heater, and state-of-the-art ventilation.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  9. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  10. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R.; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics. PMID:27001169

  11. Accounting for vegetation height and wind direction to correct eddy covariance measurements of energy fluxes over hilly crop fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna-Chebbi, Rim; Prévot, Laurent; Jacob, Frédéric; Voltz, Marc

    2015-05-01

    As agricultural hilly watersheds are widespread throughout the world, there is a strong need for reliable estimates of land surface fluxes, especially evapotranspiration, over crop fields on hilly slopes. In order to obtain reliable estimates from eddy covariance (EC) measurements in such conditions, the current study aimed at proposing adequate planar fit tilt corrections that account for the combined effects of topography, wind direction, and vegetation height on airflow inclinations. EC measurements were collected within an agricultural hilly watershed in northeastern Tunisia, throughout the growth cycles of cereals, legumes, and pasture. The wind had two dominant directions that induced upslope and downslope winds. For upslope winds, the airflows were parallel to the slopes and slightly came closer to the horizontal plane when vegetation grew. For downslope winds, over fields located in the lee of the rim top, the airflows were almost horizontal over bare soil and came closer to the topographical slope when vegetation grew. We therefore adjusted the planar fit tilt correction on EC measurements according to vegetation height and by discriminating between upslope and downslope winds. This adjusted tilt correction improved the energy balance closure in most cases, and the obtained energy balance closures were similar to that reported in the literature for flat conditions. We conclude that EC data collected within crop fields on hilly slopes can be used for monitoring land surface fluxes, provided planar fit tilt corrections are applied in an appropriate manner.

  12. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-22

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  13. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Friston, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud's descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud's descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states.

  14. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R.; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  15. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

    PubMed Central

    Friston, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states. PMID:20194141

  16. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  17. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure

  18. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Lenora; Sampsel, Zachary N

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  19. National project of new energy development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, T.

    Programs and projects that are part of the Japanese government Sunshine Project are outlined, with an emphasis on solar energy conversion. Prototype plants are being built to utilize solar, geothermal, hydrogen, wind, and ocean thermal energy, as well as to liquefy and gasify coal. Solar heating, cooling, thermal power, and photovoltaic systems are being tested. One MW mirror/parabolic trough concentrator and central tower solar power plants are being constructed. The mirror system features reflective facets on a stepped array directing light to a parabolic reflector, which concentrates the energy onto collector tubes. A 6 kW hybrid solar cell/thermal system was completed in 1980, and the data from its operation are being used in the manufacture of a 30 kW system with 5 kWE and 25 kWt.

  20. Parabolic Trouogh Optical Characterization at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    Solar parabolic trough power plant projects are soon to be implemented in the United States and internationally. In addition to these new projects, parabolic trough power plants totaling approximately 350 MW already exist within the United States and have operated for close to 20 years. As such, the status of the technology exists within several different phases. Theses phases include R&D, manufacturing and installation, and operations and maintenance. One aspect of successful deployment of this technology is achieving and maintaining optical performance. Different optical tools are needed to assist in improving initial designs, provide quality control during manufacture and assembly, and help maintain performance during operation. This paper discusses several such tools developed at SunLab (a joint project of the National Renewable Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) for these purposes. Preliminary testing results are presented. Finally, plans for further tool development are discussed.

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on national/regional energy-environmental modeling concepts, May 30-June 1, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.; Ruderman, H.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to identify and evaluate approaches to regional economic and energy supply/demand forecasting that are best suited to assisting DOE in the assessment of environmental impacts of national energy policies. Specifically the DOE Office of Technology Impacts uses models to assess the impacts of technology change; to analyze differential impacts of various energy policies; and to provide an early-warning system of possible environmental constraints to energy development. Currently, OTI employs both a top-down model system to analyze national scenarios and a bottom-up assessment conducted from a regional perspective. A central theme of the workshop was to address the problem of how OTI should integrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches. The workshop was structured to use the experience of many fields of regional analysis toward resolving that problem. For the short-term, recommendations were suggested for improving the current OTI models, but most of the comments were directed toward the development of a new methodology. It was recommended that a core set of related models be developed that are modular, dynamic and consistent: they would require an inter-industry accounting framework; inter-regional linkages; and adequate documentation. Further, it was suggested that an advisory group be formed to establish the appropriate methodological framework of the model system. With regard to data used in any policy analysis model, it was recommended that OTI develop and maintain an integrated system of economic, environmental, and energy accounts that is coordinated with the statistical agencies that collect the data.

  2. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  3. Commercial Building Partners Catalyze Energy Efficient Buildings Across the Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    construction projects is implemented, the savings would be more than 1 trillion Btus per year. If only half of the energy efficiency measures planned...area in 2003, these portfolios could impact more than 22 million ft2 of new construction each year. If the average EUI reduction observed for new

  4. Energy and minerals industries in national, regional, and state economies

    Treesearch

    D. J. Shields; S. A. Winter; G. S. Alward; K. L. Hartung

    1996-01-01

    This report presents information on the contribution of the extractive industries to the domestic economy at different geopolitical scales. Areas where resource production is important to gross state or regional product, employment, or income are highlighted. Output, employment, value added, and personal and total income multipliers are reported for the energy and...

  5. Unit: Energy for Life, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This unit, providing information about human nutrition and energy use, has been prepared for students whose level of thinking is transitional between concrete and formal stages. The unit is based upon an analogy between combustion and respiration and upon the molecular structure of food components. The core portion of the unit presents activities…

  6. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsche, W. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

  7. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsche, W. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

  8. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  9. Pyrolysis Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of biomass pyrolysis research at NREL is supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program and is focused on the production of 'drop-in' transportation fuels. This includes studies of fast pyrolysis and vapor phase upgrading of pyrolysis vapors to produce hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks or refinery feedstocks.

  10. Unit: Solar Energy, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This unit is one of a series developed by the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP) for use by students at the junior secondary level (grades 7-10) in Australian schools. The unit is a trial version dealing with solar energy, and may be used independently or integrated into a sequential program with other units. All students complete the…

  11. Unit: Energy for Life, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This unit, providing information about human nutrition and energy use, has been prepared for students whose level of thinking is transitional between concrete and formal stages. The unit is based upon an analogy between combustion and respiration and upon the molecular structure of food components. The core portion of the unit presents activities…

  12. Unit: Solar Energy, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This unit is one of a series developed by the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP) for use by students at the junior secondary level (grades 7-10) in Australian schools. The unit is a trial version dealing with solar energy, and may be used independently or integrated into a sequential program with other units. All students complete the…

  13. U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories: Printing Case Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), New Mexico quantified the costs associated with individual desktop printing devices, for comparison with costs associated with using networked copiers as printers

  14. First National Energy Youth Conference: Energy - Today's Challenge for Tomorrow's Leaders. Proceedings for the National Conference (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, July 30-August 4, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Patricia C., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the First National Energy Youth Conference held in 1974. These proceedings were compiled from both the prepared texts of speakers' presentations during the conference, and from tape recordings of discussion sessions and question/answer periods. Contents are presented in four sections: (1) Understanding the…

  15. First National Energy Youth Conference: Energy - Today's Challenge for Tomorrow's Leaders. Proceedings for the National Conference (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, July 30-August 4, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Patricia C., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the First National Energy Youth Conference held in 1974. These proceedings were compiled from both the prepared texts of speakers' presentations during the conference, and from tape recordings of discussion sessions and question/answer periods. Contents are presented in four sections: (1) Understanding the…

  16. ORECCL - Summary of a national database on energy crop landbase, yields, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Allison, L.J.; Becker, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a county-level database on energy crops-the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County-Level database (RECCL). This database encompasses all U.S. counties and provides easy access to energy crop information specific to a state or county. The database contains predictions of energy crop yields and farmgate prices along with county-level data on the acreage of land suitable for energy crop production. This paper describes the database and presents state-level summary statistics on land suitable for energy crop production and average predicted yields and farmgate prices.

  17. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC); (NREL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam

    2014-03-11

    This presentation gives an overview of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC), describes how NFCTEC benefits the hydrogen and fuel cell community, and introduces a new fuel cell cost/price aggregation project.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  19. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, N.

    1995-12-31

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

  20. Virtual special issue on catalysis at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories

    DOE PAGES

    Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.; Slowing, Igor I.; ...

    2016-04-21

    Here the catalysis research at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Laboratories covers a wide range of research topics in heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous/molecular catalysis, biocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and surface science. Since much of the work at National Laboratories is funded by DOE, the research is largely focused on addressing DOE's mission to ensure America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions.

  1. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Data from the National Renewable Energy Library and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The SWERA Programme provides easy access to credible renewable energy data to stimulate investment in, and development of, renewable energy technologies. The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) started in 2001 to advance the large-scale use of renewable energy technologies by increasing the availability and accessibility of high-quality solar and wind resource information. SWERA began as a pilot project with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and managed by the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) in collaboration with more than 25 partners around the world. With the success of the project in 13 pilot countries SWERA expanded in 2006 into a full programme. Its expanded mission is to provide high quality information on renewable energy resources for countries and regions around the world, along with the tools needed to apply these data in ways that facilitate renewable energy policies and investments.[from the SWERA Guide at http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=sweraguide_chp1] DOE and, in particular, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been a functioning partner from the beginning. NREL was part of the original technical team involved in mapping, database, and GIS activities. Solar, wind, and meteorological data for selected countries can be accessed through a variety of different tools and interfaces.

  2. User's Guide for the NREL Force and Loads Analysis Program. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.

    1992-08-01

    The following report gives the reader an overview of and instructions on the proper use of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP, version 2.2). It is intended as a tool for prediction of rotor and blade loads and response for two- or three-bladed rigid hub wind turbines. The effects of turbulence are accounted for. The objectives of the report are to give an overview of the code and also show the methods of data input and correct code execution steps in order to model an example two-bladed rigid hub turbine. A large portion of the discussion (Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) is devoted to the subject of inputting and running the code for wind turbulence effects. The ability to include turbulent wind effects is perhaps the biggest change in the code since the release of FLAP version 2.01 in 1988. This report is intended to be a user's guide. It does not contain a theoretical discussion on equations of motion, assumptions, underlying theory, etc. It is intended to be used in conjunction with Wright, Buhl, and Thresher (1988).

  3. Understanding Internal Accountability in Nigeria’s Routine Immunization System: Perspectives From Government Officials at the National, State, and Local Levels

    PubMed Central

    Erchick, Daniel J.; George, Asha S.; Umeh, Chukwunonso; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2017-01-01

    Background: Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview immunization and primary healthcare (PHC) officials from national, state, local, and health facility levels in Niger State in north central Nigeria. Individuals were selected to represent a range of roles and responsibilities in the immunization system. The questionnaire explored concepts related to internal accountability using a framework that organizes accountability into three axes based upon how they drive change in the health system. Results: Respondents highlighted accountability challenges across multiple components of the immunization system, including vaccine availability, financing, logistics, human resources, and data management. A major focus was the lack of clear roles and responsibilities both within institutions and between levels of government. Delays in funding, especially at lower levels of government, disrupted service delivery. Supervision occurred less frequently than necessary, and the limited decision space of managers prevented problems from being resolved. Motivation was affected by the inability of officials to fulfill their responsibilities. Officials posited numerous suggestions to improve accountability, including clarifying roles and responsibilities, ensuring timely release of funding, and formalizing processes for supervision, problem solving, and data reporting. Conclusion: Weak accountability presents a significant barrier to performance of the routine immunization system and

  4. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for Classified...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for Classified...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for Classified...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for Classified...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for Classified...

  9. Safeguards Options for Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities ? A Collaborative Effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN)

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed on a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of an NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. The study, completed in early 2007, identified potential safeguards measures and evaluated their effectiveness and impacts on operations. In addition, advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was framed by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Before this policy, only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and, therefore, subject to AEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, and the IAEA. This paper highlights the findings of this joint collaborative effort and identifies technical measures to strengthen international safeguards in NUCPs.

  10. Petro-Canada: The National Oil Company as a Tool of Canadian Energy Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-15

    per day MMBD million barrels per day NEB National Energy Board OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PEMEX Petroleos Mexicanos ...of the actual sale were negotiated between the national oil companies, Petro-Canada and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). 25 CHAPTER 5 "THE WINDOW ON THE...Government for working out technical matters with PEMEX ( Petroleos Mexicanos ), the Mexican national oil company, and actually delivering and

  11. R and D energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.N.; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Burrill, A.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Chang, X.; Drees, A.; Ganetis, G.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H-C.; Jain, A.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, D.; Pozdeyev, E.; Rao, T.; Reich, J.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Favale, A.; Bluem, H.; Cole, M.; Holmes, D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.; Delayen, J.; Funk, L.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.

    2008-06-23

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R and D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel ZigZag-type merger. Recent development in the R and D ERL plans include gun and 5-cell cavity (G5) test and possibility of using R and D ERL for proof-of-principle test of Coherent Electron Cooling at RHIC.

  12. Wind Integration Datasets from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Wind Integration Datasets provide time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006. They are intended to be used by energy professionals such as transmission planners, utility planners, project developers, and university researchers, helping them to perform comparisons of sites and estimate power production from hypothetical wind plants. NREL cautions that the information from modeled data may not match wind resource information shown on NREL;s state wind maps as they were created for different purposes and using different methodologies.

  13. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  14. The Future of American Power: Energy and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    that 1.5 million electric cars could be on US highways by 2015, rising to over 10 million by 2020. 36 12 China and India recognize the impending...clean-fleet-articles/top- electric - cars -2010/. Andrews-Speed, Philip, Xuanli Lia, and and Roland Dannreuther. The Strategic Implications of...top- electric - cars -2010/. 37 Wong, Julian and Andrew Light, “China Begins Its Transition to a Clean-Energy Economy,” Washington, DC: Center for

  15. California Statewide PEV Infrastructure Assessment; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, Marc; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-06-10

    This presentation discusses how the California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Assessment provides a framework for understanding the potential energy (kWh) and demand (MW) impacts of PEV market growth; how PEV travel simulations can inform the role of public infrastructure in future market growth; and how ongoing assessment updates and Alternative Fuels Data Center outreach can help coordinate stakeholder planning and decision making and reduce uncertainties.

  16. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  17. A high energy stage for the National Space Transporation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Shuttle/Centaur is an expendable hydrogen/oxygen cryogenic upper stage for use with the National Space Transportation System. It is a modification of the existing Atlas/Centaur which was used by NASA since 1966 to launch interplanetary and Earth orbital payloads for numerous organizations. Two configurations of the Shuttle/Centaur are being developed. Vehicle capability includes placing approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) in geostationary orbit, and initial applications will be for the interplanetary Galileo and Ulysses Missions in 1986. The Shuttle/Centaur development program is discussed, the configurations and performance are described, and the unique integration and operations requirements related to the Shuttle are indicated. Design changes to the current Atlas/Centaur required for Shuttle operation are described here, and include those related to Orbiter cargo bay dimensions, environment, and safety considerations.

  18. Environmental Performance Report 2014. NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Rukavina, Frank; Myers, Lissa; Elmore, Adrienne; Ruckman, Kathryn; Gray, Lori; Margason, Laura; Jorgensen, Lisa; Smith, Robert; Sweeney, Robin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers, the environment, or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the DOE requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B Chg 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  19. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    The material presented in this booklet represents a condensation of materials developed under the Post-Secondary Education Profile phase of the National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment. The final report of the study consisted of 16 volumes which are summarized. The following topics are covered: air, energy, noise, pesticides, potable…

  20. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  1. 3 CFR 8878 - Proclamation 8878 of October 1, 2012. National Energy Action Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acres for oil and gas exploration. Today, domestic oil production is at the highest level in nearly a... increases worldwide, our Nation must continue to lead the world in a rapidly evolving energy market by pursuing safe and responsible domestic energy production, promoting efficiency, and developing clean...

  2. EnergySmart Schools National Financing Roundtable II—Key Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    As a follow-up to the release of its Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools, the the National Financing Roundtable brought together individuals with diverse knowledge of school building programs and projects to discuss financing issues and options that build upon those described in the first Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools.

  3. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  4. Review of California and National Methods for Energy PerformanceBenchmarking of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Nance E.; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-05

    This benchmarking review has been developed to support benchmarking planning and tool development under discussion by the California Energy Commission (CEC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and others in response to the Governor's Executive Order S-20-04 (2004). The Executive Order sets a goal of benchmarking and improving the energy efficiency of California's existing commercial building stock. The Executive Order requires the CEC to propose ''a simple building efficiency benchmarking system for all commercial buildings in the state''. This report summarizes and compares two currently available commercial building energy-benchmarking tools. One tool is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star National Energy Performance Rating System, which is a national regression-based benchmarking model (referred to in this report as Energy Star). The second is Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Cal-Arch, which is a California-based distributional model (referred to as Cal-Arch). Prior to the time Cal-Arch was developed in 2002, there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers but none that were based solely on California data. The Energy Star and Cal-Arch benchmarking tools both provide California with unique and useful methods to benchmark the energy performance of California's buildings. Rather than determine which model is ''better'', the purpose of this report is to understand and compare the underlying data, information systems, assumptions, and outcomes of each model.

  5. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    The material presented in this booklet represents a condensation of materials developed under the Post-Secondary Education Profile phase of the National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment. The final report of the study consisted of 16 volumes which are summarized. The following topics are covered: air, energy, noise, pesticides, potable…

  6. The Response of Vocational Education to the National Energy Crisis. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    Rationale and recommendations are presented for vocational education's response to the national energy crisis in light of present involvement and future needs. The problem is stated in terms of the need for training programs in the newer energy technologies, including those related to conservation. Federal policies are outlined, specifically the…

  7. The Response of Vocational Education to the National Energy Crisis. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    Rationale and recommendations are presented for vocational education's response to the national energy crisis in light of present involvement and future needs. The problem is stated in terms of the need for training programs in the newer energy technologies, including those related to conservation. Federal policies are outlined, specifically the…

  8. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  9. Evaluation of the Low-Energy Design Process and Energy Performance of the Zion National Park Visitor Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.

    2005-10-01

    Paper discusses NREL's role in the participation of the design process of the Zion National Park Visitor Center Complex and the results documented from monitoring the energy performance of the building for several years. Paper includes PV system and Trombe wall description and lessons learned in the design, construction, and commissioning of the building.

  10. Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN), Partnering to Increase Island Energy Security Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the international partnership for Energy Development in Island nations, including mission, goals, and organization. It also includes background on EDIN's three pilot projects: U.S. Virgin Islands, Iceland-Dominica Collaboration, and New Zealand-Geothermal Potential in the Pacific.

  11. Review of National Techno-Economic Energy models with particular reference to the evaluation of energy storage considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Widhelm, W.B.; Doyle, T.H.

    1980-12-01

    The basic econometric considerations used in developing National Techno-Economic (NTEE) models are presented, methods for comparing NTEE models are discussed, specific NTEE models are described in detail, and possible uses of NTEE models in energy storage studies are examined. (LCL)

  12. Realizing High-Performance Buildings; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-02

    High-performance buildings (HPBs) are exceptional examples of both design and practice. Their energy footprints are small, and these are buildings that people want to work in because of their intelligent structure, operations, and coincident comfort. However, the operation of most buildings, even ones that are properly constructed and commissioned at the start, can deviate significantly from the original design intent over time, particularly due to control system overrides and growing plug and data center loads. With early planning for systems such as submetering and occupant engagement tools, operators can identify and remedy the problems. This guide is a primer for owners and owners’ representatives who are pursuing HPBs. It describes processes that have been successful in the planning, procurement, and operation of HPBs with exceptional energy efficiency. Much of the guidance offered results from a series of semi-structured conference calls with a technical advisory group of 15 owners and operators of prominent HPBs in the United States. The guide provides a prescription for planning, achieving, and maintaining an HPB. Although the guide focuses on the operations stage of buildings, many of the operations practices are specified during the planning stage.

  13. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  14. An energy-based model accounting for snow accumulation and snowmelt in a coniferous forest and in an open area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějka, Ondřej; Jeníček, Michal

    2016-04-01

    An energy balance approach was used to simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution in an open area, forest clearing and coniferous forest during winter seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 in the Bystřice River basin (Krušné Mountains, Czech Republic). The aim was to describe the impact of vegetation on snow accumulation and snowmelt under different forest canopy structure and trees density. Hemispherical photographs were used to describe the forest canopy structure. Energy balance model of snow accumulation and melt was set up. The snow model was adjusted to account the effects of forest canopy on driving meteorological variables. Leaf area index derived from 32 hemispherical photographs of vegetation and sky was used to implement the forest influence in the snow model. The model was evaluated using snow depth and SWE data measured at 16 localities in winter seasons from 2011 to 2013. The model was able to reproduce the SWE evolution in both winter seasons beneath the forest canopy, forest clearing and open area. The SWE maximum in forest sites was by 18% lower than in open areas and forest clearings. The portion of shortwave radiation on snowmelt rate was by 50% lower in forest areas than in open areas due to shading effect. The importance of turbulent fluxes was by 30% lower in forest sites compared to openings because of wind speed reduction up to 10% of values at corresponding open areas. Indirect estimation of interception rates was derived. Between 14 and 60% of snowfall was intercept and sublimated in the forest canopy in both winter seasons. Based on model results, the underestimation of solid precipitation (heated precipitation gauge used for measurement) at the weather station Hřebečná was revealed. The snowfall was underestimated by 40% in winter season 2011/12 and by 13% in winter season 2012/13. Although, the model formulation appeared sufficient for both analysed winter seasons, canopy effects on the longwave radiation and ground heat flux were not

  15. Community Accountability for Quality Schools: Results of the 2008 National Poll and the Civic Index for Quality Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Education Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    For many years, policymakers and the public have been holding students and schools accountable for improvement, but there was no way to determine whether the public and its elected officials and community organizations were doing their part to strengthen public schools. To address this shortcoming, Public Education network (PEN), with funding from…

  16. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to the Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Since the third National Energy Plan in 1981 total energy efficiency has increased, domestic energy resources are being developed more effectively, oil prices have declined, US dependence on foreign energy sources has diminished, and the nation's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions has been reduced markedly. The policy goal is an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs. Strategies include minimizing federal control and involvement in energy markets while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality and promoting a balanced and mixed energy resource system. Federal programs and actions in energy are reviewed.

  17. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people`s energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  18. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people's energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  19. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  20. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: Alabama-Indiana. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  1. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  2. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: Alabama-Indiana. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  3. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: Iowa-Nebraska. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  4. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: Nevada-South Carolina. Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  5. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: Nevada-South Carolina. Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  6. Three Problems: Nuclear Energy, National Defense and International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1999-09-06

    A little more than half a century into the Nuclear Age, we cannot look back on a peaceful period, but we can say that the second (nuclear) half of the century has seen much less violence than the first half with its two violent wars. Also the second half of the century has seen the fortunate ending of the Cold War. But as to the future, we are left with three great questions. (1) How can the world be provided with ample energy? (2) How can we avoid the potentially devastating sudden applications of new destructive technologies? And finally, (3) How can we preserve the development of the world's new potentialities without producing a continuation of violent conflicts? The development of nuclear reactors appears to provide a most interesting new initiative to make energy available to every one. The reality of this promise is at least indicated by progress in France where electricity now is 80% ''nuclear.'' Unfortunately, fear of radioactivity and fear of weapons proliferation has turned public opinion in many parts of the world against nuclear energy. The fear of radioactivity seems to be exaggerated, as indicated, for instance, in the recent international conference in Vienna on the consequences of Chernobyl. The conference concluded that most of the anticipated difficulties (cancer and congenital malformation) have been grossly exaggerated. In my opinion, both the worry about radioactivity and the worry about massive military use of reactor products can be solved. There remain further real difficulties connected with expense and the availability of expertise that may be needed to handle nuclear reactors that may be absent in many parts of the world. I believe that all these problems can be solved. The three major accidents, Windscale in England in 1957, Three-Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, and Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, could have been avoided by proper handling of reactors. The obvious answer seems to be more strict education of the reactor operators. In

  7. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.T.

    1993-06-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program, organized in FY 1974 as the Coal Technology Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory`s fossil energy activities relates to coal, with current emphasis on materials research and development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1993.

  8. The National Ignition Facility and the Golden Age of High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2007-08-14

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, making it the world's largest and highest-energy laser system. The NIF is poised to become the world's preeminent facility for conducting ICF and fusion energy research and for studying matter at extreme densities and temperatures.

  9. The National Ignition Facility and the Golden Age of High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Moses, E I; Newton, M

    2007-09-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, making it the world's largest and highest-energy laser system. The NIF is poised to become the world's preeminent facility for conducting ICF and fusion energy research and for studying matter at extreme densities and temperatures.

  10. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  11. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  12. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  13. Federal roles to realize national energy-efficiency opportunities in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Eric

    1989-10-01

    Improving energy efficiency throughout the U.S. economy is a vital component of our nation's energy future, with many benefits. Improving efficiency can: save money consumers, increase economic productivity and international competitiveness, reduce oil and gas prices by reducing the demand for foreign oil, enhance national security by lowering oil imports, reduce the adverse environmental consequences of fuel cycles, especially acid rain and global warming, add diversity and flexibility to the nation's portfolio of energy resources, respond to public interest in, and support of, energy efficiency. The primary purpose of this report is to suggest expanded roles for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in improving energy efficiency during the 1990s. In an ideal world, the normal workings of the market place would yield optimal energy-efficiency purchase and operating decisions. Unfortunately, distortions in fuel prices, limited access to capital, misplaced incentives, lack of information, and difficulty in processing information complicate energy-related decision making. Thus, consumers in all sectors of the economy underinvest in energy-efficient systems. These market barriers, coupled with growing concern about environmental quality, justify a larger Federal role.

  14. A Thirst for Power: Measuring the Water Consumption of National Energy Production Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, E.

    2011-12-01

    Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of CO2 emissions on our global climate. However, at the regional scale, the water resource requirements associated with energy systems are a growing concern. While much of the research in this area (commonly referred to as the "water-energy nexus") has focused on estimating the water consumption of discrete energy technologies, this research synthesizes and expands the existing work in the field to explore the comprehensive water consumption of national level energy portfolios. Understanding the system-wide coupled demand for these resources is crucial for regional governments seeking to improve and protect both water and energy security. To provide a new perspective on the topic, I defined a set of water intensity metrics for national energy production, calculated indicator values for over 150 countries, and digitally mapped the results to create the first global representation of the geographic distribution of water-intensive energy systems. The results demonstrate a high level of variation in the composition and quantities of water consumption across nations as well as across the suite of indicators that were applied. This suggests that meaningful evaluation of water-energy systems fundamentally requires the consideration of spatial and regional characteristics, as well as the application of multiple indicators to define the intensity of the coupled relationship.

  15. Summary of hearings on the future of the nation's energy utilities: Implications for Federal RD&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, K.; Sissine, F. J.

    Hearings on the future of the nation's energy utilities are summarized. The future strategies of energy utilities in regard to new technologies are considered. Alternate energy technologies, conservation, diversification, deregulation, and various regulatory reforms are explored.

  16. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  17. Energy supply and environmental issues: The Los Alamos National Laboratory experience in regional and international programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, operated by the University of California, encompasses more than forty-three square miles of mesas and canyons in northern New Mexico. A Department of Energy national laboratory, Los Alamos is one of the largest multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratories in the world. Our mission, to apply science and engineering capabilities to problems of national security, has expanded to include a broad array of programs. We conduct extensive research in energy, nuclear safeguards and security, biomedical science, computational science, environmental protection and cleanup, materials science, and other basic sciences. The Energy Technology Programs Office is responsible for overseeing and developing programs in three strategic areas: energy systems and the environment, transportation and infrastructure, and integrated chemicals and materials processing. Our programs focus on developing reliable, economic and environmentally sound technologies that can help ensure an adequate supply of energy for the nation. To meet these needs, we are involved in programs that range from new and enhanced oil recovery technologies and tapping renewable energy sources, through efforts in industrial processes, electric power systems, clean coal technologies, civilian radioactive waste, high temperature superconductivity, to studying the environmental effects of energy use.

  18. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan

    2000-03-13

    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  19. FY 2004 Energy Use and Recommended Energy Conservation Measures - Environmental Technology and National Security Buildings at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Norman J.; Hadley, Donald L.; Routh, Richard M.

    2005-12-15

    This report addresses the question of why the ETB on PNNL's campus used about 20% more electricity than the NSB in FY 2004, even though ETB has more energy conservations installed than NSB and the two buildings were built using nearly identical floor plans. It was determined that the difference in electricity use between the two buildings was due to the large number of computers in the basement of ETB. It was further determined that ETB's high electricity consumption rate cannot be remedied until these computers can be relocated to a more suitable facility.

  20. Energy Security and National Security; Securing U.S. Energy Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    from- waste , hydropower, geothermal, and biomass could play an increasingly important role in our nation’s energy supply as they continue to become more...proven, long-standing renewable resource. Wind, geothermal, and biomass power are increasingly competitive economically. Energy- from- waste is also...up more fuel for tanks, Humvees and other military equipment.”46 The Army has selected six sites for biomass / waste -to-energy demonstrations through a