Sample records for national baseball hall

  1. Observations in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: doing gender in Cooperstown.

    PubMed

    Blinde, Elaine M; McCallister, Sarah G

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the extent and type of men and women's relationship to baseball at the end of the 20th century. Unobtrusive observations of the behaviors and comments of visitors to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York, were undertaken during a 7-day period to explore how men and women related to baseball. The "doing of gender" by visitors was observed in several areas: (a) historical and personal connection to baseball, (b) ability to experience a bond with others through baseball, and (c) approach to touring the Hall of Fame and Museum. Women generally were seen as outsiders and peripheral to baseball and often connected to the sport in a manner different from men.

  2. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... competition, which Challenge.gov is hosting, to select a common obverse design emblematic of the game of... Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the...

  3. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  4. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    PubMed

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price.

  5. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  6. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball...

  7. [Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, John, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This student newsletter issue speaks to the subject of baseball. The first article, on who rules baseball, discusses the problems that the developing sport had with gambling, and the struggle between the owners and gangsters for control of the game. The article describes the scandal involving the Chicago White Sox in the 1919 World Series and the…

  8. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations.

  9. Timber Creek bunkhouse and mess hall, Rocky Mountain National Park. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Timber Creek bunkhouse and mess hall, Rocky Mountain National Park. Interior, kitchen and dining area, viewing north. - Timber Creek Bunkhouse & Mess Hall, Trail Ridge Road, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  10. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  11. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  12. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  13. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  14. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in The Physics Teacher, available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in Physics of Baseball & Softball). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that investigates many of these phenomena. The lab uses inexpensive, readily available equipment such as wooden baseball bats, baseballs, and actual Major League Baseball data. By the end of the lab, students have revisited many concepts they learned earlier in the semester and come away with an understanding of how to put seemingly disparate ideas together to analyze a fun sport.

  15. Bingo halls and smoking: perspectives of First Nations women.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Carey, Joanne; Mowatt, Roberta; Varcoe, Colleen; Johnson, Joy L; Hutchinson, Peter; Sullivan, Debbie; Williams, Wanda; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine bingo halls as a frequent site for exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke for First Nations women in rural communities. Thematic analysis of interviews with key informants, group discussions with young women, and observations in the study communities revealed that smoky bingo halls provided an important refuge from everyday experiences of stress and trauma, as well as increased women's risk for addiction, marginalization, and criticism. The findings illustrate how the bingo economy in isolated, rural First Nation communities influences tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and how efforts to establish smoke-free bingos can be supported.

  16. "Beaned": A 5-Year Analysis of Baseball-Related Injuries of the Face.

    PubMed

    Carniol, Eric T; Shaigany, Kevin; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-12-01

    Baseball remains one of the most popular and safest games played by children and adults in America and worldwide. Rules and equipment changes have continued to make the game safer. For youth leagues, pitching restrictions, safety balls, helmets, and face mask equipment continue to make the game safer. With increased utilization of safety equipment, the objective was to analyze recent trends in baseball-related facial injuries. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was searched for baseball-related facial injuries with analysis of incidence, age, and sex and specific injury diagnoses, mechanisms, and facial locations. From 2009 to 2013, there were 5270 cases entries, or 187,533 estimated emergency department (ED) visits, due to baseball-related facial injuries. During this time, there was a significant decline in the incidence of ED visits (P = .014). Inclusion criteria were met by 3208 visits. The majority of injuries occurred in patients ≤18 years old (81.5%). The most common injury was laceration (33.2%), followed by contusion (29.7%) and fracture (26.9%), while the most common injury site on the face was the nose (24.9%). The injuries were most commonly due to impact from a baseball (70%) or a bat (12.5%). The overall incidence of ED visits due to baseball-related facial injuries has decreased over the past 5 years, concurrent with increased societal use of protective equipment. Nonetheless, these injuries remain a common source for ED visits, and a continued effort to utilize safety measures should be made, particularly in youth leagues. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players.

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Baseball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Sauers, Eric L; Agel, Julie; Keuter, Greg; Marshall, Stephen W; McCarty, Kenneth; McFarland, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's baseball and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Prevention and management of collegiate baseball injuries may be facilitated through injury research aimed at defining the nature of injuries inherent in the sport. Through the NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 16 years of collegiate baseball data were collected for the academic years 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. Main Results: College baseball has a relatively low rate of injury compared with other NCAA sports, but 25% of injuries are severe and result in 10+ days of time loss from participation. The rate of injury was 3 times higher in a game situation than in practice (5.78 versus 1.85 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures [A-Es], rate ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 3.0, 3.3, P < .01). Practice injury rates were almost twice as high in the preseason as in the regular season (2.97 versus 1.58 per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 2.0, P < .01). A total of 10% of all game injuries occurred from impact with a batted ball, an injury rate of 0.56 injuries per 1000 game A-Es. Sliding was involved in 13% of game injuries. Recommendations: Proper preseason conditioning is important to reduce injuries. Athletic trainers covering practices and games should be prepared to deal with serious, life-threatening injuries from batted balls and other injury mechanisms. Further study of batted-ball injuries is warranted, and the use of breakaway bases to prevent sliding injuries should be supported in college baseball. PMID:17710166

  19. Baseball and softball.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen G; Congeni, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    Baseball and softball are among the most popular and safest sports in which children and adolescents participate. Nevertheless, traumatic and overuse injuries occur regularly, including occasional catastrophic injury and even death. Safety of the athlete is a constant focus of attention among those responsible for modifying rules. Understanding the stresses placed on the arm, especially while pitching, led to the institution of rules controlling the quantity of pitches thrown in youth baseball and established rest periods between pitching assignments. Similarly, field maintenance and awareness of environmental conditions as well as equipment maintenance and creative prevention strategies are critically important in minimizing the risk of injury. This statement serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in baseball and softball. This statement has been endorsed by the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  20. Shoulder injuries in US high school baseball and softball athletes, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Stephanie; Fogarty, Kieran J; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that are involved in shoulder injury rates among high school athletes who participate in organized baseball and softball. Baseball- and softball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2008 academic years from approximately 74 nationally representative high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Certified athletic trainers reported 91 baseball shoulder injuries and 40 softball shoulder injuries during 528147 and 399522 athlete exposures, respectively. The injury rate was 1.72 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for baseball and 1.00 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for softball. Muscle strain/incomplete tears were the most common injuries in both baseball (30.8%) and softball (35.0%). In practices, throwing, not including pitching, caused more than half of softball injuries (68.2%) as compared with competition injuries (23.5%; injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-7.15]; P = .015), whereas pitching was the most common mechanism in causing shoulder injuries during baseball practice (41.9%) compared with competitions (25.6%; IPR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.88-3.04]; P = .17). Eighty-one percent of the baseball shoulder injuries and 82.5% of the softball shoulder injuries were new. Ten percent of baseball athletes and 5.3% of softball athletes sustained injuries that required surgery (IPR: 1.40 [95% CI: 0.32-6.10]; P = .93). Injuries that were sustained while the athlete was on the pitcher's mound were significantly more likely to result in surgery than any other field position (IPR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.65-4.21]; P = .0061). Injured baseball players were more than twice as likely to be pitchers. Although rates and patterns of shoulder injuries are similar between baseball and softball players, injury rates and patterns differ between field positions within each sport, as well as by injury severity and the athletes' year in school.

  1. Shoulder and elbow pain in elementary school baseball players: The results from a nation-wide survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Kenji; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Masatomi, Takashi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Mikihiko; Iwama, Tetsu; Otani, Toshiro; Inagaki, Katsunori; Ikegami, Hiroyasu; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Kato, Ko; Okuwaki, Toru; Sairyo, Koichi; Kameyama, Yasushi; Maeda, Akira; Beppu, Moroe

    2017-07-01

    Despite recommendations on how to prevent baseball injuries in youths by the Japanese Society of Clinical Sports Medicine, shoulder and elbow pain still frequently occurs in young baseball players. We conducted a questionnaire survey among baseball players at elementary schools across the country to understand the practice conditions of players, examining the risk factors of shoulder and elbow pain in baseball players. The questionnaire survey was conducted among elementary school baseball players as members of the Baseball Federation of Japan in September 2015. A total of 8354 players belonging to 412 teams (average age: 8.9) responded to the survey. Among 7894 players who did not have any shoulder and/or elbow pain in September 2014, elbow pain was experienced in 12.3% of them, shoulder pain in 8.0% and shoulder and/or elbow pain in 17.4% during the previous one year. A total of 2835 (39.9% of the total) practiced four days or more per week and 97.6% practiced 3 h or more per day on Saturdays and Sundays. The risk factors associated shoulder and elbow pain included a male sex, older age, pitchers and catchers, and players throwing more than 50 balls per day. It has been revealed that Japanese elementary school baseball players train too much. Coaches should pay attention to older players, male players, pitchers and catchers in order to prevent shoulder and elbow pain. Furthermore, elementary school baseball players should not be allowed to throw more than 50 balls per day. Retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elbow Injuries in Professional Baseball: Epidemiological Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Ciccotti, Michael G; Pollack, Keisha M; Ciccotti, Michael C; D'Angelo, John; Ahmad, Christopher S; Altchek, David; Andrews, James; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-01

    Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on elbow injuries occurring during the 2011-2014 seasons were collected from Major League Baseball's Health Injury and Tracking System, a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Each specific type of elbow injury was evaluated with respect to overall injury rate, years as a professional player, mechanism of injury, treatment, average time lost, and return to play. During the study period, 3185 elbow injuries (n = 430 Major League; n = 2755 Minor League) occurred. The mean number of days missed and percentage requiring surgery were similar between Major and Minor League players. Overall, 20.0% (650/3185) of the injuries required surgical treatment. Pitchers were the most likely to incur an elbow injury (40.0% of injured athletes were pitchers), were the most likely to require surgery (34.2% of injured pitchers required surgery), and had the greatest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically (33.2 days). Medial injuries composed 42.1% (1342/3185) of all elbow injuries. Of all elbow surgeries performed during the study period, the highest percentage involved ligaments (372/650; 57.2%). Elbow injuries are a considerable source of disability in professional baseball players. Pitchers are most likely to incur these injuries, are most likely to require surgery, and have the highest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically. The most common injuries involve

  3. Craniomaxillofacial fractures during recreational baseball and softball.

    PubMed

    Bak, Matthew J; Doerr, Timothy D

    2004-10-01

    Baseball and softball are leading causes of sports-related facial trauma in the United States. We review our institutional experience (Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY) with these injuries and discuss measures to reduce their incidence. We review our institutions experience with facial fractures sustained during the course of a softball or baseball game over a 12-year period. A total of 38 patients were identified and medical records analyzed for patient demographics, type of impact, and fracture location. The male-to-female ratio was 3.2:1; mean age was 24.2 years, with 17 (45%) of the injuries occurring in the pediatric population. The majority of the injuries were caused by direct impact with the ball (68%), while player-player collisions (18%) and impact from a swung bat (13%) were responsible for the remaining injuries. There were a total of 39 fractures; 18 fractures (46%) involved the midface (level 2), skull (level 1) fractures accounted for 12 (31%), while 9 (23%) were mandibular (level 3) fractures. With 68% of the injuries resulting from a ball impact, we endorse the recommendations of the Consumer Product Safety Commission for the use of low-impact National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment-approved baseballs and softballs for youth and recreational leagues.

  4. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P < .001). Players returned to baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of wood baseball bat breakage

    Treesearch

    Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...

  6. Binomial Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    Student access to programmable calculators and computer terminals, coupled with a familiarity with baseball, provides opportunities to enhance their understanding of the binomial distribution and other aspects of analysis. (MP)

  7. AERL Baseball Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-10-21

    The NACA’s Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory’s baseball team photographed with director Raymond Sharp. The Exchange, which operated the non-profit cafeteria, sponsored several sports teams that participated in local leagues. The laboratory also had several intramural sports leagues. The baseball team, seen here in 1943, was suspended shortly thereafter as many of its members entered the military during World War II. The team was reconstituted after the war and became somewhat successful in the Class A Westlake League. After winning the championship in 1949 and 1950, the team was placed in the more advanced Middleberg League where they struggled.

  8. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  9. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in "The Physics Teacher," available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in "Physics of Baseball & Softball"). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that…

  10. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  11. Incidence of Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in Collegiate Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Rothermich, Marcus A.; Conte, Stan A.; Aune, Kyle T.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent reports have highlighted the progressive increase in the incidence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries to the elbow in baseball players of all levels. However, knowledge of the incidence and other epidemiological factors regarding UCL injuries, specifically in college baseball players, is currently lacking. Purpose: To evaluate, over a period of 1 year, the incidence of UCL injuries requiring surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I baseball programs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A total of 155 Division I collegiate baseball programs agreed to participate in the study. Demographics (position, year, background [location of high school]) for all players on these rosters were obtained from public websites. At the conclusion of the 2017 collegiate baseball season, the athletic trainer for each program entered anonymous, detailed information on injured players through an electronic survey into a secured database. Results: All 155 teams enrolled in the study completed the electronic survey. Of the 5295 collegiate baseball players on these rosters, 134 underwent surgery for an injured UCL (2.5% of all eligible athletes), resulting in a team surgery rate of 0.86 per program for 1 year. These 134 players came from 88 teams, thus 56.8% of the study teams underwent at least 1 surgery during the year. The surgery rate was 2.5 per 100 player-seasons for all players and was significantly higher among pitchers (4.4/100 player-seasons) than nonpitchers (0.7/100 player-seasons). The surgery rate was also significantly higher in underclassmen (3.1/100 player-seasons among freshmen and sophomores) than upperclassmen (1.9/100 player-seasons among juniors and seniors) (incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4). Players from traditionally warm-weather states did not undergo UCL surgery at a significantly different rate from players from traditionally cold-weather states (2.7/100 player-seasons vs 2

  12. Incidence of Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in Collegiate Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Rothermich, Marcus A; Conte, Stan A; Aune, Kyle T; Fleisig, Glenn S; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2018-04-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the progressive increase in the incidence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries to the elbow in baseball players of all levels. However, knowledge of the incidence and other epidemiological factors regarding UCL injuries, specifically in college baseball players, is currently lacking. To evaluate, over a period of 1 year, the incidence of UCL injuries requiring surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I baseball programs. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 155 Division I collegiate baseball programs agreed to participate in the study. Demographics (position, year, background [location of high school]) for all players on these rosters were obtained from public websites. At the conclusion of the 2017 collegiate baseball season, the athletic trainer for each program entered anonymous, detailed information on injured players through an electronic survey into a secured database. All 155 teams enrolled in the study completed the electronic survey. Of the 5295 collegiate baseball players on these rosters, 134 underwent surgery for an injured UCL (2.5% of all eligible athletes), resulting in a team surgery rate of 0.86 per program for 1 year. These 134 players came from 88 teams, thus 56.8% of the study teams underwent at least 1 surgery during the year. The surgery rate was 2.5 per 100 player-seasons for all players and was significantly higher among pitchers (4.4/100 player-seasons) than nonpitchers (0.7/100 player-seasons). The surgery rate was also significantly higher in underclassmen (3.1/100 player-seasons among freshmen and sophomores) than upperclassmen (1.9/100 player-seasons among juniors and seniors) (incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4). Players from traditionally warm-weather states did not undergo UCL surgery at a significantly different rate from players from traditionally cold-weather states (2.7/100 player-seasons vs 2.1/100 player-seasons, respectively). Nearly half of

  13. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  14. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

  15. Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hikaru; Banissy, Michael J

    2013-06-23

    In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performance, and these have focused on Caucasian sportsmen. Here, we investigated the relationship between fWHR and baseball performance in professional Japanese baseball players. We show that fWHR is positively related with home run performance across two consecutive seasons. The findings provide the first evidence linking fWHR to baseball performance and linking fWHR to behavioural outcomes in Asian participants.

  16. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p < 0.05) leaner than players in MLB and AAA. These same players had significantly lower lean body mass than seen in MLB, AAA, and AA players. Greater grip strength (p < 0.05) was seen in MLB and AAA than in Rookie and A. Players in MLB were also faster (p < 0.05) than players in AA, A, and Rookie. Vertical jump power measures were greater (p < 0.05) in MLB than AA, A, and Rookie. Regression analysis revealed that performance measures accounted for 25-31% of the variance in baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance.

  17. Effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation on baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times of the teres major of young amateur baseball players.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. The baseball pitching velocity, the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT), and the motor time (MT) during shoulder internal rotation movement were measured before and after 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, EMG-RT and MT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens not only EMG-RT but also MT, which implies that NJF is effective for motor processes. Since the baseball pitching velocity increased, NJF may be recommended for the improvement of the performance of baseball players.

  18. Three lessons for genetic toxicology from baseball analytics.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D

    2017-07-01

    In many respects the evolution of baseball statistics mirrors advances made in the field of genetic toxicology. From its inception, baseball and statistics have been inextricably linked. Generations of players and fans have used a number of relatively simple measurements to describe team and individual player's current performance, as well as for historical record-keeping purposes. Over the years, baseball analytics has progressed in several important ways. Early advances were based on deriving more meaningful metrics from simpler forerunners. Now, technological innovations are delivering much deeper insights. Videography, radar, and other advances that include automatic player recognition capabilities provide the means to measure more complex and useful factors. Fielders' reaction times, efficiency of the route taken to reach a batted ball, and pitch-framing effectiveness come to mind. With the current availability of complex measurements from multiple data streams, multifactorial analyses occurring via machine learning algorithms have become necessary to make sense of the terabytes of data that are now being captured in every Major League Baseball game. Collectively, these advances have transformed baseball statistics from being largely descriptive in nature to serving data-driven, predictive roles. Whereas genetic toxicology has charted a somewhat parallel course, a case can be made that greater utilization of baseball's mindset and strategies would serve our scientific field well. This paper describes three useful lessons for genetic toxicology, courtesy of the field of baseball analytics: seek objective knowledge; incorporate multiple data streams; and embrace machine learning. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:390-397, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  20. Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2005-02-01

    Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat.

  1. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  2. Reduced risk of sudden death from chest wall blows (commotio cordis) with safety baseballs.

    PubMed

    Link, Mark S; Maron, Barry J; Wang, Paul J; Pandian, Natesa G; VanderBrink, Brian A; Estes, N A Mark

    2002-05-01

    In an experimental model of sudden death from baseball chest wall impact (commotio cordis), we sought to determine if sudden death by baseball impact could be reduced with safety baseballs. Sudden cardiac death can occur after chest wall impact with a baseball (commotio cordis). Whether softer-than-standard (safety) baseballs reduce the risk of sudden death is unresolved from the available human data. In a juvenile swine model, ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been shown to be induced reproducibly by precordial impact with a 30-mph baseball 10 to 30 ms before the T-wave peak, and this likelihood was reduced with the softest safety baseballs (T-balls). To further test whether safety baseballs would reduce the risk of sudden death at velocities more relevant to youth sports competition, we used our swine model of commotio cordis to test baseballs propelled at the 40-mph velocity commonly attained in that sport. Forty animals received up to 3 chest wall impacts at 40 mph during the vulnerable period of repolarization for VF with 1 of 3 different safety baseballs of varying hardness, and also by a standard baseball. Safety baseballs propelled at 40 mph significantly reduced the risk for VF. The softest safety baseballs triggered VF in only 11% of impacts, compared with 19% and 22% with safety baseballs of intermediate hardness, and 69% with standard baseballs. In this experimental model of low-energy chest wall impact, safety baseballs reduced (but did not abolish) the risk of sudden cardiac death. More universal use of these safety baseballs may decrease the risk of sudden death on the playing field for young athletes.

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of Weighted-Ball Exercises for Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Diffendaffer, Alek Z; Aune, Kyle T; Ivey, Brett; Laughlin, Walter A

    Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five high school and collegiate baseball pitchers experienced with weighted-ball throwing were tested with an automated motion capture system. Each participant performed 3 trials of 10 different exercises: pitching 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-oz baseballs from a mound; flat-ground crow hop throws with 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-oz baseballs; and flat-ground hold exercises with 14- and 32-oz balls. Twenty-six biomechanical parameters were computed for each trial. Data among the 10 exercises were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests against the standard pitching data. Ball velocity increased as ball mass decreased. There were no differences in arm and trunk velocities between throwing a standard baseball and an underweight baseball (4 oz), while arm and trunk velocities steadily decreased as ball weight increased from 5 to 32 oz. Compared with values pitching from a mound, velocities of the pelvis, shoulder, and ball were increased for flat-ground throws. In general, as ball mass increased arm torques and forces decreased; the exception was elbow flexion torque, which was significantly greater for the flat-ground holds. There were significant differences in body positions when pitching on the mound, flat-ground throws, and holds. While ball velocity was greatest throwing underweight baseballs, results from the study did not support the rest of the hypothesis. Kinematics and kinetics were similar between underweight and standard baseballs, while overweight balls correlated with decreased arm forces, torques

  4. National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Gillibrand, Kirsten E. [D-NY

    2012-01-26

    Senate - 01/26/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2527, which became Public Law 112-152 on 8/3/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Baseball Players With an Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tear Display Increased Nondominant Arm Humeral Torsion Compared With Healthy Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Casey J; Garrison, J Craig; Conway, John E

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that an increase in the amount of developmentally acquired, dominant arm humeral retrotorsion (D HRT) in the thrower's shoulder may be a potentially protective mechanism. Although the relationship between HRT and shoulder injuries has been reported, the relationship between HRT and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in baseball players is not known. To determine whether D HRT and nondominant arm HRT (ND HRT) measurements in baseball players with a UCL tear differ statistically from a matched healthy cohort. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. D HRT and ND HRT were measured in 112 male competitive high school and collegiate baseball players seen over an 18-month period from 2013 to 2015. A total of 56 participants with a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed diagnosis of a throwing-arm UCL tear (UCLInj group) were compared with 56 healthy baseball players with no history of an elbow injury who were matched for age, experience, and position (NUCLInj group). The mean ages in the UCLInj and NUCLInj groups were 17.9 ± 2.2 and 17.6 ± 2.8 years, respectively. Using a previously validated ultrasound method, D HRT and ND HRT were measured in the supine position, and the HRT side-to-side difference (D HRT - ND HRT) was calculated. A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the mean statistical differences between groups ( P < .05). Baseball players with a UCL tear displayed significantly more humeral torsion (ie, less retrotorsion) in their nondominant arm compared with healthy baseball players (UCLInj = 33.27° ± 10.27°, NUCLInj = 27.82° ± 10.88°; P = .007). Baseball players with a UCL tear did not display any differences in D HRT compared with healthy baseball players (UCLInj = 18.67° ± 9.41°, NUCLInj = 17.09° ± 9.92°; P = .391). Significant side-to-side differences in HRT existed between groups (UCLInj = -14.60° ± 6.72°, NUCLInj = -10.72° ± 6.88°; P = .003). There was a significant

  6. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  7. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  8. Hip and Groin Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Ryan A; Coleman, Struan H

    2018-03-01

    To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list. Injuries involving the hip and groin are relatively common in baseball players. Our knowledge of the mechanics of overhead throwing continues to evolve, as does our understanding of the contribution of power from the lower extremities and core. It is paramount that the team physician be able to accurately diagnose and treat injuries involving the hip/groin, as they may lead to significant disability and inability to return to elite levels of play. This review focuses on hip- and groin-related injuries in the baseball player, including femoroacetabular impingement, core muscle injury, and osteitis pubis.

  9. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn.

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R; Bedford, Benjamin B; Andrachuk, John S; Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-11-01

    To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons. Retrospective chart review was performed for all 42 patients to evaluate variables of age, level of competition, position, mechanism of injury, graft choice, and associated meniscal injuries. Twenty-six patients were reached for telephone survey and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire and they answered questions about their original injury and playing history. The most common mechanism of injury was fielding, followed by base running. Infielders and outfielders (32% each) were the most commonly injured position, followed by pitchers (29%). Among the 32 players for whom it could be determined, 30 (94%) were able to return to playing baseball at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range 1.0 to 9.9 years). The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score was 84.0 (range 63 to 91). Among the 26 patients contacted for telephone interview, no one required revision ACL surgery, but 3 required a subsequent procedure for meniscal tear. Twenty-five patients (96%) denied any episodes of instability in the knee after reconstruction. The overwhelming majority of baseball players that sustain ACL injuries do so while fielding or base running. Outfielders are significantly more likely than infielders to suffer ACL injuries while fielding versus base running. The results with respect to return to play are promising, as nearly all patients were able to return to baseball and none required a revision ACL surgery at a mean follow

  11. The prevention of baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Janda, David H

    2003-04-01

    Forty million individuals participate in organized softball leagues each year in the United States. Eighteen million additional student athletes and young adults also participate in organized baseball league play. In addition to being two of the most popular team sports in the United States, they also are responsible for a significant percentage of sports-related injuries that are sustained in the United States. Fortunately, numerous interventions independently have been shown to be effective at reducing the injury scenario, which has grown to be of epidemic proportion. Interventions such as break-away bases, batting helmets, face shields on helmets, lighter mass baseballs, and teaching and reiteration of the fundamentals of softball and baseball all have been effective in preventing millions of injuries and billions of dollars in healthcare costs each year in the United States.

  12. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  13. The Refractive Error of Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Laby, Daniel M; Kirschen, David G

    2017-05-01

    High levels of visual acuity are required to hit a baseball effectively. Research has shown that any decrease in vision is likely caused by low-order optical aberrations. This study is designed to validate the SVOne autorefractor, and describe the amount and type, of low-order optical aberrations present in a large cohort of professional baseball players. A retrospective chart review on the 608 Major League Baseball players evaluated during the 2016 Spring Training Season was performed. Results for a subset of players who had both manifest refraction as well as autorefraction were calculated. Subsequently, after determining the accuracy of the autorefraction system in this population, refractive results for the entire population were determined. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in mean spherical refractive error (M) between the manifest refraction and the SVOne auto refraction (-0.273D in the manifest refraction method vs. -0.503D in the SVOne method, P = .06) in the subset of athletes who underwent both tests. Additionally, there was no difference in the J0 or J45 cylindrical component vectors for each method. For the entire eligible population, the SVOne autorefraction system found a mean spherical refractive error (M) of -0.228D, a J0 value of -0.013D, and a J45 value of -0.040D. These data suggest that the SVOne autorefraction system is generally able to measure the refractive error in the baseball population. The system was slightly biased, often reporting more myopia in myopic subjects. Thus, careful evaluation of the refractive status of these athletes coupled with careful subjective refractive correction for those with less than average vision for baseball is strongly suggested.

  14. Exceeding Pitch Count Recommendations in Little League Baseball Increases the Chance of Requiring Tommy John Surgery as a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Axe, Michael J.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Empirical evidence has suggested a connection between youth pitch counts and subsequent elbow injury. For players within the Little League World Series (LLWS), detailed historical player data are available. Some of these players progress to both professional play and require an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). Purpose: To determine the percentage of LLWS pitchers who proceed to play professional (major or minor league) baseball, the rate of UCLR in former LLWS pitchers who played professional baseball, and the risk to those who exceeded current pitch count recommendations while playing in the LLWS. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All LLWS pitchers from 2001 through 2009 from all teams and countries were identified, and all performance data were extracted. A professional (major and minor league) baseball database was then searched to determine whether each former LLWS pitcher played professional baseball. These professional players were then searched for using publicly available databases to determine whether they underwent UCLR. Results: Overall, 638 adolescents pitched in the LLWS between 2001 and 2009; 62 (10%) progressed to professional play. Of the 56 minor league players, 25 (45%) pitched. Of the 6 Major League Baseball players, 3 (50%) pitched. Three former LLWS pitchers (5%) who played professionally underwent UCLR. In former LLWS pitchers who exceeded pitch counts and played professionally, 50% (2/4) required UCLR, while only 1.7% (1/58) of those who did not exceed pitch count recommendations required UCLR (P = .009). Similarly, among former LLWS pitchers who subsequently played professionally, 23.1% of those who played as a pitcher required UCLR while 0% of those who also played other positions required UCLR (P = .008). Conclusion: Progression from LLWS pitching to professional baseball is uncommon. Among youth players, both diversification (playing other positions besides pitcher) as well as following

  15. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  16. Elbow isokinetic strength characteristics among collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Wilson, James T; Meister, Keith

    2012-05-01

    To compare the bilateral strength characteristics of the wrist flexors, extensors, pronators, and supinators among baseball players. Cross-sectional. Laboratory. 30 collegiate baseball players with no recent history of upper extremity injury. Bilateral pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension peak torque (PT) and peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) strength were measured at speeds of 90 and 180°/second. Paired t-tests showed that the throwing arm of baseball players produced significantly less PT/BW strength for supination at 90°/second compared to the non-throwing arm (P = .001). The throwing arm produced significantly more PT/BW strength for pronation (P = .001) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Furthermore, the throwing arm had more PT and PT/BW strength for wrist extension (P < .005) at 180°/second. Conversely, the throwing arm had less PT and PT/BW strength for supination (P < .004) and wrist flexion (P < .004) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Significant bilateral strength differences exist in pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension among collegiate baseball players. With the steady increase in ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow among baseball players and the proven resistance to valgus force provided by the flexor-pronator mass of the elbow, the results of this study may prove beneficial in the prevention, evaluation, and rehabilitation of such dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H

    2016-10-01

    Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11.3 ± 1.0 years; 152.4 ± 9.0 cm; 47.5 ± 11.3 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational PROM was measured. There were no significant side-to-side differences for the hip variables (p ≥ 0.05). Shoulder external rotation (ER) was significantly greater than shoulder internal rotation (IR). And the lead leg hip had significantly greater ER than IR. Shoulder ER revealed significant correlations with both lead and stance hip IR (r = 0.45, p = 0.02 and r = 0.48, p = 0.01, respectively). The youth baseball pitchers in this study displayed similar PROM patterns as collegiate and professional baseball pitchers. Additionally, our youth baseball pitchers also presented strong relationships between hip and shoulder PROM. This study reveals that the PROM patterns displayed by these youth may indicate that their available ROM could survive maturation. It is therefore suggested that clinical focus be directed to maintaining hip and shoulder rotational ROM throughout maturation in attempt to determine a possible relations between injurious mechanisms and performance enhancement.

  18. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  19. Incidence of injuries in high school softball and baseball players.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J; Michener, Lori A; Ellenbecker, Todd S

    2011-01-01

    Participation in high school sports has grown 16.1% over the last decade, but few studies have compared the overall injury risks in girls' softball and boys' baseball. To examine the incidence of injury in high school softball and baseball players. Cohort study. Greenville, South Carolina, high schools. Softball and baseball players (n = 247) from 11 high schools. Injury rates, locations, types; initial or subsequent injury; practice or game setting; positions played; seasonal trends. The overall incidence injury rate was 4.5/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), with more injuries overall in softball players (5.6/1000 AEs) than in baseball players (4.0/1000 AEs). Baseball players had a higher initial injury rate (75.9/1000 AEs) than softball players (66.4/1000 AEs): rate ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 1.7. The initial injury rate was higher than the subsequent injury rate for the overall sample (P < .0001) and for softball (P < .0001) and baseball (P < .001) players. For both sports, the injury rate during games (4.6/1000 AEs) was similar to that during practices (4.1/1000 AEs), RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.7, 2.2. Softball players were more likely to be injured in a game than were baseball players (RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.8, 4.3). Most injuries (77%) were mild (3.5/1000 AEs). The upper extremity accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (63.3%). The incidence of injury for pitchers was 37.3% and for position players was 15.3%. The rate of injury was highest during the first month of the season (7.96/1000 AEs). The incidence of injury was low for both softball and baseball. Most injuries were minor and affected the upper extremity. The injury rates were highest in the first month of the season, so prevention strategies should be focused on minimizing injuries and monitoring players early in the season.

  20. Incidence of Injuries in High School Softball and Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Michener, Lori A.; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Participation in high school sports has grown 16.1% over the last decade, but few studies have compared the overall injury risks in girls' softball and boys' baseball. Objective: To examine the incidence of injury in high school softball and baseball players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Greenville, South Carolina, high schools. Patients or Other Participants: Softball and baseball players (n = 247) from 11 high schools. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury rates, locations, types; initial or subsequent injury; practice or game setting; positions played; seasonal trends. Results: The overall incidence injury rate was 4.5/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), with more injuries overall in softball players (5.6/1000 AEs) than in baseball players (4.0/1000 AEs). Baseball players had a higher initial injury rate (75.9/1000 AEs) than softball players (66.4/1000 AEs): rate ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 1.7. The initial injury rate was higher than the subsequent injury rate for the overall sample (P < .0001) and for softball (P < .0001) and baseball (P < .001) players. For both sports, the injury rate during games (4.6/1000 AEs) was similar to that during practices (4.1/1000 AEs), RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.7, 2.2. Softball players were more likely to be injured in a game than were baseball players (RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.8, 4.3). Most injuries (77%) were mild (3.5/1000 AEs). The upper extremity accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (63.3%). The incidence of injury for pitchers was 37.3% and for position players was 15.3%. The rate of injury was highest during the first month of the season (7.96/1000 AEs). Conclusions: The incidence of injury was low for both softball and baseball. Most injuries were minor and affected the upper extremity. The injury rates were highest in the first month of the season, so prevention strategies should be focused on minimizing injuries and monitoring players early in the season. PMID:22488191

  1. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  2. Epidemiology of shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Arisawa, Kokichi; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few published epidemiological studies examining the differences in the risk of shoulder and elbow pain in young baseball players. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in child and adolescent baseball players. A total of 1563 players aged 7 to 12 years participated in this investigation. Subjects were asked whether they had experienced episodes of shoulder or elbow pain. We investigated the following risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain: age, position, years of baseball experience, and training hours per week. Data from the groups with and without shoulder and elbow pain were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 1563 participants, 15.9% and 29.2% reported episodes of shoulder and elbow pain, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that shoulder pain was associated with age 10, 11, and 12 years, and that elbow pain was associated with age 10, 11, and 12 years, playing catcher, and >2 years of baseball experience. Training hours per week were not associated with either shoulder or elbow pain. In over 1000 baseball players aged 7 to 12 years, 15.9% reported episodes of shoulder pain, while 29.2% reported elbow pain in the throwing arm. The associated risk factors were different for each type of pain. Shoulder pain was associated with increased age while elbow pain was associated with increased age, increased years of baseball experience, and playing catcher.

  3. Baseball Monte Carlo Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Larry L.

    1981-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are used to simulate activities in baseball such as a team's "hot streak" and a hitter's "batting slump." Student participation in such simulations is viewed as a useful method of giving pupils a better understanding of the probability concepts involved. (MP)

  4. Prevalence and proposed mechanisms of chronic low back pain in baseball: part i

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Joseph G.; Zaremski, Jason L.; Herman, Daniel C.; Vincent, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among active baseball players ranges between 3 and 15%. The execution of baseball-specific manoeuvres, such as pitching or batting, may be related to the onset of LBP. These baseball motions are complex and require appropriate activation of the core musculature to produce a well-timed motion with forces minimized at the extremities. The spine, core and back musculature are involved with acceleration and deceleration of rotational motions. This narrative review synopsizes the available evidence of the prevalence of and mechanical factors underlying LBP in the baseball population. Possible mechanical mechanisms linking baseball play to LBP include aberrant motion, improper timing, high lumbar stress due to mechanical loading and lumbopelvic strength deficits. Potential clinical implications relating to these possible mechanical mechanisms will also be highlighted. The state of the evidence suggests that there are deficits in understanding the role of baseball motion and playing history in the development of spine conditions. PMID:28128007

  5. Prevalence and proposed mechanisms of chronic low back pain in baseball: part i.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Joseph G; Zaremski, Jason L; Herman, Daniel C; Vincent, Heather K

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among active baseball players ranges between 3 and 15%. The execution of baseball-specific manoeuvres, such as pitching or batting, may be related to the onset of LBP. These baseball motions are complex and require appropriate activation of the core musculature to produce a well-timed motion with forces minimized at the extremities. The spine, core and back musculature are involved with acceleration and deceleration of rotational motions. This narrative review synopsizes the available evidence of the prevalence of and mechanical factors underlying LBP in the baseball population. Possible mechanical mechanisms linking baseball play to LBP include aberrant motion, improper timing, high lumbar stress due to mechanical loading and lumbopelvic strength deficits. Potential clinical implications relating to these possible mechanical mechanisms will also be highlighted. The state of the evidence suggests that there are deficits in understanding the role of baseball motion and playing history in the development of spine conditions.

  6. Women's Baseball in Colleges and Clubs Prior to 1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    This paper reviews the literature on women's baseball prior to the establishment of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League by P. K. Wrigley in 1943. Around the turn of the century, women had fewer opportunities for participation in sports and long standing stereotypes permeated the thoughts and ideals of society with respect to women…

  7. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with the 4.4-oz baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

  8. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.

  9. Medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Matthew; Ray, Tracy R

    2013-01-01

    The medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments requires both proper planning and a basic awareness of commonly seen sport-specific injuries. While youth sporting events are designed to be a fun experience for all, injuries and emergencies will occur. With proper planning, and supplies, the impact of these issues can be minimized. This article will outline some basic principles for the medical personnel that may be involved in youth baseball and softball events.

  10. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention.

  11. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  12. Maxillofacial fractures sustained during baseball and softball.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Ishida, Jun-ichi; Imai, Yuichiro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics, the type of impact, the site and the treatment of maxillofacial fractures sustained during baseball and softball to develop an effective preventive strategy. Data of 82 patients treated for baseball- and softball-related maxillofacial fractures at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University between 1982 and 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Injuries were found in 64 men in baseball and 16 men and two women in softball with average ages of 19.6 and 30.0 years, respectively. Fractures were caused by being hit by the ball in 61 patients followed by collision in 16 patients. Fractures of the mandible and the mid-face were found in 44 and 38 patients, respectively. The mental and angle region of the mandible and zygoma and alveolar bone of the maxilla were frequently involved. Treatment was mostly conservative. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed only in 15 patients. Most maxillofacial fractures in these sports were ball-related. Therefore, effective preventive means should be considered to protect against such injuries.

  13. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  14. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  15. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  16. The Boys and Girls of Summer: Baseball Theme Programming Tips To Catch Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for library programs with a baseball theme, including tying into hobbies such as collecting baseball cards; a young peoples book discussion; trivia contests using different reference sources; letter writing to favorite players; bibliographies and displays; hosting former players; women in baseball; and the Negro Leagues. (LRW)

  17. The immediate effect of lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation in young amateur baseball players.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other with one week between them. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. [Methods] The baseball pitching velocity, the FR and the SRT were evaluated before and after treatment. [Results] In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, FR and SRT after treatment. In the PNF group, there was a significant difference in SRT after treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens the SRT, increases the baseball pitching velocity and FR, and may be recommended to improve performance in baseball players.

  18. 1996 Olympic Stadium/Braves Baseball Park: Adaptive pre-use

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cambron, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Converting an Olympic stadium back into a baseball park proved challenging from an HVAC standpoint because both configurations` HVAC needs were different. At first glance the HVAC requirements for an open air stadium may seem slight. Surprisingly, however, the stadium boasts nearly 300,000 sq ft of conditioned space, handled by two chillers, 22 air handling units, 37 cooking exhausts, over 150 exhaust fans, over 3 miles of ductwork, and several electric heat pumps. The approach -- design for second use, adapt for first use, and reconfigure facility to its original design. Because the designated after-use is baseball, the design mustmore » start with a first-class baseball stadium that can be expanded to meet the needs of the Olympics. After 1996, the facility can be reconfigured for its intended lifetime usage.« less

  19. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk.

  20. 75 FR 22770 - Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13652-000-Montana] Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 22, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  1. Evaluation of the thickness of the medial ulnar collateral ligament in junior high and high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Muraki, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Koike, Yoichi; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Thickening of the medial ulnar collateral ligament in the throwing arm of adult baseball players is a well-known phenomenon. However, onset of the thickening is unclear among young baseball players. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the medial ulnar collateral ligament in junior high and high school baseball players. Seventy-one uninjured and asymptomatic junior high and high school baseball players were included in the study. Participants underwent physical examination after completing a questionnaire, followed by ultrasonographic evaluation. The thickness of the medial ulnar collateral ligament was measured bilaterally. The thickness of the throwing and non-throwing sides in high school and junior high school baseball players, and within each group, was compared and statistically analyzed. The medial ulnar collateral ligament in the throwing arm of high school baseball players was thicker than that in the non-throwing arm (5.5 vs. 4.4 mm), although no significant difference was seen in junior high school baseball players. High school baseball players showed a significantly thicker medial ulnar collateral ligament in the throwing arm than junior high school baseball players. Thickening of the medial ulnar collateral ligament in the throwing arm of asymptomatic and uninjured baseball players may begin by the time the players reach high school.

  2. Resting Heart Rate Variability Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-03-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, and Ebersole, KT. Resting heart rate variability among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 575-581, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV) across a 5-day pitching rotation schedule among professional baseball starting pitchers. The HRV data were collected daily among 8 Single-A level professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 21.9 ± 1.3 years; height = 185.4 ± 3.6 cm; weight = 85.2 ± 7.5 kg) throughout the entire baseball season with the participant quietly lying supine for 10 minutes. The HRV was quantified by calculating the natural log of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences (lnRMSSD) during the middle 5 minutes of each R-R series data file. A split-plot repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the influence of pitching rotation day on resting lnRMSSD. A statistically significant main effect of rotation day was identified (F4,706 = 3.139, p = 0.029). Follow-up pairwise analyses indicated that resting lnRMSSD on day 2 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than all other rotation days. In addition, a statistically significant main effect of pitcher was also identified (F7,706 = 83.388, p < 0.001). These results suggest that professional baseball starting pitchers display altered autonomic nervous system function 1 day after completing a normally scheduled start, as day 2 resting HRV was significantly lower than all other rotation days. In addition, the season average resting lnRMSSD varied among participants, implying that single-subject analysis of resting measures of HRV may be more appropriate when monitoring cumulative workload among this cohort population of athletes.

  3. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  4. Pitch Counts in Youth Baseball and Softball: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Brian T; Schisel, Jessica; Agel, Julie

    2018-07-01

    Pitching injuries are getting increased attention in the mass media. Many references are made to pitch counts and the role they play in injury prevention. The original purpose of regulating the pitch count in youth baseball was to reduce injury and fatigue to pitchers. This article reviews the history and development of the pitch count limit in baseball, the effect it has had on injury, and the evidence regarding injury rates on softball windmill pitching. Literature search through PubMed, mass media, and organizational Web sites through June 2015. Pitch count limits and rest recommendations were introduced in 1996 after a survey of 28 orthopedic surgeons and baseball coaches showed injuries to baseball pitchers' arms were believed to be from the number of pitches thrown. Follow-up research led to revised recommendations with more detailed guidelines in 2006. Since that time, data show a relationship between innings pitched and upper extremity injury, but pitch type has not clearly been shown to affect injury rates. Current surveys of coaches and players show that coaches, parents, and athletes often do not adhere to these guidelines. There are no pitch count guidelines currently available in softball. The increase in participation in youth baseball and softball with an emphasis on early sport specialization in youth sports activities suggests that there will continue to be a rise in injury rates to young throwers. The published pitch counts are likely to positively affect injury rates but must be adhered to by athletes, coaches, and parents.

  5. Baseball and softball sliding injuries: incidence and correlates during one high school league varsity season.

    PubMed

    Stovak, Mark; Parikh, Amit; Harvey, Anne T

    2012-11-01

    To estimate injury rates associated with sliding in high school baseball and softball. Prospective cohort study. Community high school athletic events. Ten high school varsity baseball and softball teams over 1 season. All sliding attempts were recorded during each game and recorded as headfirst, feetfirst, or diveback. Base type, playing surface, and field conditions were also noted. Injury exposure rates by game exposures and sliding/diveback exposures. Data were collected from 153 baseball games and 166 softball games. A greater proportion of slides were associated with injury in softball than in baseball (42.0 and 4.9 per 1000 slides; P < 0.05). Headfirst slides led to more injuries than feetfirst slides in baseball (16.8 vs 0 per 1000 slides; P < 0.05) but not in softball (55 vs 35 per 1000 slides; P = 0.74). More powerful studies are required to determine whether efforts to prevent baseball sliding injuries at the high school level should focus on better education in sliding technique or changes in equipment. Softball players are vulnerable to injury when wearing inadequate protective sliding apparel.

  6. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  7. Oblique collisions of baseballs and softballs with a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensrud, Jeffrey R.; Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.

    2017-07-01

    Experiments are done by colliding a swinging bat with a stationary baseball or softball. Each collision was recorded with high-speed cameras from which the post-impact speed, launch angle, and spin of the ball could be determined. Initial bat speeds were in the range 63-88 mph, producing launch angles in the range 0°-30° and spins in the range 0-3,500 rpm. The results are analyzed in the context of a ball-bat collision model, and the parameters of that model are determined. For both baseballs and softballs, the data are consistent with a mechanism whereby the ball grips the surface of the bat, stretching the ball in the transverse direction and resulting in a spin that was up to 40% greater than would be obtained by rolling contact of rigid bodies. Using a lumped parameter contact model, baseballs are shown to be less compliant tangentially than softballs. Implications of our results for batted balls in game situations are presented.

  8. Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball.

    PubMed

    Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2018-01-08

    Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.

  9. Analysis of the ability of catcher's masks to attenuate head accelerations on impact with a baseball.

    PubMed

    Shain, Kellen S; Madigan, Michael L; Rowson, Steven; Bisplinghoff, Jill; Duma, Stefan M

    2010-11-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the ability of catcher's masks to attenuate head accelerations on impact with a baseball and to compare these head accelerations to established injury thresholds for mild traumatic brain injury. Testing involved using a pneumatic cannon to shoot baseballs at an instrumented Hybrid III headform (a 50th percentile male head and neck) with and without a catcher's mask on the head. The ball speed was controlled from approximately 26.8 to 35.8 m/s (60-80 mph), and the regulation National Collegiate Athletic Association baseballs were used. Research laboratory. None. Catcher's masks and impact velocity. The linear and angular head accelerations of the Hybrid III headform. Peak linear resultant acceleration was 140 to 180 g without a mask and 16 to 30 g with a mask over the range of ball's speed investigated. Peak angular resultant acceleration was 19 500 to 25 700 rad/s without a mask and 2250 to 3230 rad/s with a mask. The Head Injury Criterion was 93 to 181 without a mask and 3 to 13 with a mask, and the Severity Index was 110 to 210 without a mask and 3 to 15 with a mask. Catcher's masks reduced head acceleration metrics by approximately 85%. Head acceleration metrics with a catcher's mask were significantly lower than contemporary injury thresholds, yet reports in the mass media clearly indicate that baseball impacts to the mask still occasionally result in mild traumatic brain injuries. Further research is needed to address this apparent contradiction.

  10. Dominant-limb range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptation in collegiate baseball and softball position players.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Oyama, Sakiko; Tatman, Justin; Myers, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified in softball players. This information is important in order to develop and implement injury-prevention programs specific to decreasing the risk of upper extremity injury in softball athletes. To compare range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion characteristics of collegiate baseball and softball position players and of baseball and softball players to sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratories and athletic training rooms at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Fifty-three collegiate baseball players, 35 collegiate softball players, 25 male controls (nonoverhead athletes), and 19 female controls (nonoverhead athletes). Range of motion and humeral retrotorsion were measured using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, external-rotation gain, total glenohumeral range of motion, and humeral retrotorsion. Baseball players had greater glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total-range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference than softball players and male controls. There were no differences between glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total-range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference in softball players and female controls. Few differences were evident between softball players and female control participants, although range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptations were significantly different than baseball players. The throwing motions are similar between softball and baseball, but the athletes adapt to the demands of the sport differently; thus, stretching/strengthening programs designed for baseball may not be the most

  11. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  12. Location, Location, Location: The Transmission of Racist Ideology in Baseball Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regoli, Robert M.; Hewitt, John D.; Munoz, Robert, Jr.; Regoli, Adam M.

    2004-01-01

    While on the surface baseball cards may appear to be a mundane object of child's play, they are precious tools for examining U.S. society. Baseball cards not only hold a wealth of information regarding the players they feature they also reveal much about the state of society at the time of their production and the individuals who collect them. In…

  13. Application of the matching law to pitch selection in professional baseball.

    PubMed

    Cox, David J; Sosine, Jacob; Dallery, Jesse

    2017-04-01

    This study applied the generalized matching equation (GME) to pitch selection in professional baseball. The GME was fitted to the relation between pitch selection and hitter outcomes for five professional baseball pitchers during the 2014 Major League Baseball season. The GME described pitch selection well. Pitch allocation varied across different game contexts such as inning, count, and number of outs in a manner consistent with the GME. Finally, within games, bias decreased for four of the five pitchers and the sensitivity parameter increased for three of the five pitchers. The results extend the generality of the GME to multialternative natural sporting contexts, and demonstrate the influence of context on behavior in natural environments. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Major and Minor League Baseball Hamstring Injuries: Epidemiologic Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2014-06-01

    Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in

  15. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cricket helmet performance and comparison with baseball and ice hockey helmets.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; Janda, D

    2003-08-01

    Protective helmets in sport are important for reducing the risk of head and facial injury. In cricket and other sports with projectiles, national test standards control the minimum helmet performance. However, there are few field data showing if helmets are effective in reducing head injury. (a) To examine the performance of cricket helmets in laboratory tests; (b) to examine performance with regard to test standards, game hazards, and helmet construction; (c) to compare and contrast these findings with baseball and ice hockey helmets. Impact tests were conducted on a selection of helmet models: five cricket, two baseball, and two ice hockey. Ball to helmet impacts at speeds of 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s were produced using an air cannon and a Hybrid III dummy headform and neck unit. Free fall drop tests with a rigid headform on to a selection of anvils (flat rigid, flat deformable, and hemispherical rigid) were conducted. Resultant headform acceleration was measured and compared between tests. At the lower speed impacts, all helmets produced a good reduction in headform acceleration, and thus injury risk. At the higher speed impacts, the effectiveness was less. For example, the mean maximum headform accelerations for all cricket helmets at each speed were: 67, 160, 316, and 438 g for 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s ball speeds respectively. Drop tests on to a hemispherical anvil produced the highest accelerations. The variation in performance increased as the magnitude of the impact energy increased, in both types of testing. The test method used for baseball helmets in which the projectile is fired at the helmet may be superior to helmet drop tests. Cricket helmet performance is satisfactory for low speed impacts, but not for impacts at higher, more realistic, speeds. Baseball and ice hockey helmets offer slightly better relative and absolute performance at the 27 m/s ball and puck impacts.

  17. Dominant-Limb Range-of-Motion and Humeral-Retrotorsion Adaptation in Collegiate Baseball and Softball Position Players

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Oyama, Sakiko; Tatman, Justin; Myers, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified in softball players. This information is important in order to develop and implement injury-prevention programs specific to decreasing the risk of upper extremity injury in softball athletes. Objective: To compare range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion characteristics of collegiate baseball and softball position players and of baseball and softball players to sex-matched controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratories and athletic training rooms at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-three collegiate baseball players, 35 collegiate softball players, 25 male controls (nonoverhead athletes), and 19 female controls (nonoverhead athletes). Intervention(s): Range of motion and humeral retrotorsion were measured using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Main Outcome Measure(s): Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, external-rotation gain, total glenohumeral range of motion, and humeral retrotorsion. Results: Baseball players had greater glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference than softball players and male controls. There were no differences between glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference in softball players and female controls. Conclusions: Few differences were evident between softball players and female control participants, although range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptations were significantly different than baseball players. The throwing motions are similar between softball and baseball, but the

  18. In-Game Heart Rate Responses Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Flees, Robert J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-01-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, Flees, RJ, and Ebersole, KT. In-game heart rate responses among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 24-29, 2017-The purpose of the current study was to characterize the in-game heart rate (HR) responses of baseball pitching. In-game HR was recorded from 16 professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years; height = 187.9 ± 4.4 cm; weight = 90.5 ± 9.5 kg) for a total of 682 innings (home = 381, away = 301). All analyzed HR data were then normalized to each pitcher's age-predicted maximal HR (%HRmax). The group mean ± SD in-game %HRmax among all pitchers was 84.8 ± 3.9%, suggesting that baseball pitching is predominantly an anaerobic task. A split-plot mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance identified a significant interaction effect between inning and game location (p = 0.042). Follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly different across innings, but only during home starts (p < 0.001). Specifically, pairwise analyses indicated that the in-game %HRmax during home starts were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the first and second innings than in all other innings. In addition, follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly (p = 0.017) higher during home starts than away starts in the first inning (87.3 ± 3.6% vs. 85.8 vs. 3.8%, respectively). Thus, it is possible that inning-dependent psychological factors may have contributed to the observed changes in in-game physiological intensity across innings and that these factors are specific to game location. Consequently, strength and conditioning practitioners should prescribe high-intensity exercises when developing conditioning programs for professional baseball starting pitchers.

  19. Arm pain in youth baseball players: a survey of healthy players.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Morrow, Zachary S; Luchetti, Timothy J; Mishra-Kalyani, Pallavi S; Gualtieri, Anthony P; Lee, Randall W; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Overuse injury in youth baseball players is increasing in prevalence, and these injuries have been correlated to pitching mechanics and pitch counts/types. Prior studies regarding arm pain in these athletes have focused simply on presence or absence of pain during the season rather than on detailed factors related to arm pain with respect to frequency, severity, and associated performance and psychosocial effect. The goal of this study was to investigate frequency, quality, and effect of arm pain in healthy youth baseball players. The hypothesis was that arm pain will affect a majority of healthy baseball players and will be associated with adverse psychosocial effects. Descriptive epidemiological study. A novel survey focusing on arm pain in youth baseball players was developed for the purpose of this study. Survey questions were formulated by a consortium of trainers, clinicians, and coaches. Surveys were administered to healthy youth baseball players throughout the states of New Jersey and New York. A total of 203 healthy players completed the survey; 23% of players (n=47) reported a prior overuse injury. Only 26% and 20% of players reported that their arm never hurt when throwing or the day after throwing, respectively; 30% of players reported that arm pain at least sometimes caused them to have less fun playing; and 46% of players reported at least once being encouraged to keep playing despite having arm pain. Pitchers were more likely to report arm pain while throwing and the day after throwing and to indicate that arm pain held them back from being a better player (all P<.05). Those with prior overuse injury were more likely to have arm pain while throwing, to have arm fatigue during a game or practice, and to be encouraged to keep playing despite having pain (all P<.05). A majority of healthy (actively competing) youth baseball players report at least some baseline arm pain and fatigue, and many players suffer adverse psychosocial effects from this pain.

  20. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  1. Injuries in Little League Baseball from 1987 through 1996: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kirby, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined injury patterns in Little League baseball players over time, using insurance data from 17,221,210 players. Ball-related injuries were the most common. Batters had the greatest number of such injuries. One-quarter of the injuries were considered severe, and 13 players died. Though youth baseball appears to be very safe, there are areas…

  2. Long-term Outcomes After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Competitive Baseball Players: Minimum 10-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Cain, E Lyle; Raines, B Todd; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2014-06-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has afforded baseball players with excellent results; however, previous studies have described only short-term outcomes. To evaluate long-term outcomes after UCLR in baseball players. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. All UCLRs performed on competitive baseball players with a minimum 10-year follow-up were identified. Surgical data were collected prospectively and patients were surveyed by telephone follow-up, during which scoring systems were used to assess baseball career and post-baseball career outcomes. Of 313 patients, 256 (82%) were contacted at an average of 12.6 years; 83% of these baseball players (90% pitchers) were able to return to the same or higher level of competition in less than 1 year, but results varied according to preoperative level of play. Baseball career longevity was 3.6 years in general and 2.9 years at the same or higher level of play, but major and minor league players returned for longer than did collegiate and high school players after surgery (P < .001). Baseball retirement typically occurred for reasons other than elbow problems (86%). Many players had shoulder problems (34%) or surgery (25%) during their baseball career, and these occurrences most often resulted in retirement attributable to shoulder problems (P < .001). For post-baseball career outcomes, 92% of patients were able to throw without pain, and 98% were still able to participate in throwing at least on a recreational level. The 10-year minimum follow-up scores (mean ± standard deviation) for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), DASH work module, and DASH sports module were 0.80 ± 4.43, 1.10 ± 6.90, and 2.88 ± 11.91, respectively. Overall, 93% of patients were satisfied, with few reports of persistent elbow pain (3%) or limitation of function (5%). Long-term follow-up of UCLRs in baseball players indicates that most patients were satisfied, with few reports of persistent elbow pain or limitation of

  3. Assessment of professional baseball players aerobic exercise performance depending on their positions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the average and SD of professional baseball players' cardiorespiratory endurance, maximum oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen consumption of anaerobic threshold %, maximum heart rate, and heart rate of anaerobic threshold. We also report the comparison between pitchers and fielders. Considering the total number of results, percentile was used and results were classified into 5 grades. One professional baseball players' organization with more than 14 years of experience participated in this study. First, we observed that the average pitchers' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 53.64 ml·kg·min, whereas the average fielders' was 52.30 ml·kg·min. These values were lower than other sports players. Second, in case of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT, pitchers showed 39.35 ml·kg·min and fielders showed 39.96 ml·kg·min. %V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT showed a significant difference of 71.13% between pitchers and fielders-pitchers, whereas fielders showed 73.89% (p < 0.01). Third, maximal heart rates were measured at 188.69 b·min (pitchers) and 187.79 b·min (fielders). These were lower than college baseball players and higher than other sports players. In conclusion, both professional baseball pitchers and fielders should be aware of the necessity of systematic cardiorespiratory endurance data analysis. Moreover, baseball teams, athletic trainers, and coaches should also be aware of the importance of cardiorespiratory endurance.

  4. Baseball Throwing Mechanics as They Relate to Pathology and Performance - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses. Key pointsBiomechanical analyses including kinematic and kinetic analyses allow for estimation of pitching performance and potential for injury.Some difficulties both theoretic and practical exist for the implementation and interpretation of such analyses.Commonly held opinions of baseball pitching authorities are largely held to concur with biomechanical analyses.Recommendations can be made regarding appropriate pitching and throwing technique in light of these investigations. PMID:24149219

  5. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  6. Direction of spin axis and spin rate of the pitched baseball.

    PubMed

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate of pitched baseballs and to estimate the associated aerodynamic forces. In addition, the effects of the spin axis direction and spin rate on the trajectory of a pitched baseball were evaluated. The trajectories of baseballs pitched by both a pitcher and a pitching machine were recorded using four synchronized video cameras (60 Hz) and were analyzed using direct linear transform (DLT) procedures. A polynomial function using the least squares method was used to derive the time-displacement relationship of the ball coordinates during flight for each pitch. The baseball was filmed immediately after ball release using a high-speed video camera (250 Hz), and the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate (omega) were calculated based on the positional changes of the marks on the ball. The lift coefficient was correlated closely with omegasinalpha (r = 0.860), where alpha is the angle between the spin axis and the pitching direction. The term omegasinalpha represents the vertical component of the velocity vector. The lift force, which is a result of the Magnus effect occurring because of the rotation of the ball, acts perpendicularly to the axis of rotation. The Magnus effect was found to be greatest when the angular and translational velocity vectors were perpendicular to each other, and the break of the pitched baseball became smaller as the angle between these vectors approached 0 degrees. Balls delivered from a pitching machine broke more than actual pitcher's balls. It is necessary to consider the differences when we use pitching machines in batting practice.

  7. Youth Baseball Pitching Mechanics: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Samuel F; Guess, Trent M; Plackis, Andreas C; Sherman, Seth L; Gray, Aaron D

    Pitching injuries in youth baseball are increasing in incidence. Poor pitching mechanics in young throwers have not been sufficiently evaluated due to the lack of a basic biomechanical understanding of the "normal" youth pitching motion. To provide a greater understanding of the kinetics and kinematics of the youth baseball pitching motion. PubMed, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from database inception through February 2017. A total of 10 biomechanical studies describing youth pitching mechanics were included. Systematic review. Level 3. Manual extraction and compilation of demographic, methodology, kinetic, and kinematic variables from the included studies were completed. In studies of healthy youth baseball pitchers, progressive external rotation of the shoulder occurs throughout the start of the pitching motion, reaching a maximum of 166° to 178.2°, before internally rotating throughout the remainder of the cycle, reaching a minimum of 13.2° to 17°. Elbow valgus torque reaches the highest level (18 ± 4 N·m) just prior to maximum shoulder external rotation and decreases throughout the remainder of the pitch cycle. Stride length is 66% to 85% of pitcher height. In comparison with a fastball, a curveball demonstrates less elbow varus torque (31.6 ± 15.3 vs 34.8 ± 15.4 N·m). Multiple studies show that maximum elbow valgus torque occurs just prior to maximum shoulder external rotation. Forces on the elbow and shoulder are greater for the fastball than the curveball.

  8. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Humeral Capitellum Among Adolescent Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Tatsuya; Tachiiri, Hisakazu; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Yoshio; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Oda, Ryo; Arai, Yuji; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence and clinical characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum among adolescent baseball players are unknown. To determine the OCD prevalence in adolescent competitive baseball players and to investigate the clinical characteristics of these patients. Cross-sectional and case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 2433 baseball players (mean age, 14.5 ± 1.5 years) belonging to junior high school and high school baseball clubs were enrolled. Players completed a questionnaire, and the elbow of each player's throwing arm was assessed by ultrasonography. Participants with abnormal results on ultrasonography were further examined through radiographic study. The OCD lesions were classified into stages based on radiographic results, and demographic data were compared between players with and without OCD lesions. Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum was found in 82 (3.4%) elbows by ultrasonography. Players with an OCD lesion began playing baseball at an earlier age (P = .016), had a longer duration of competitive play (P = .0013), and had experienced more present (P = .0025) and past (P < .0001) elbow pain compared with players without a lesion. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the position played (P = .26). Sixty-eight patients underwent further radiographic examination for OCD (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging). Of these players, 10 (14.7%) were classified as having stage I OCD (radiolucent stage); 26 (38.2%), stage II (fragmentation stage); 9 (13.2%), stage III (loose body stage); 9 (13.2%), stage IV (residual stage); and 14 (23.5%), stage V (postoperative stage). The prevalence of OCD of the humeral capitellum, including latent cases, was 3.4% among adolescent baseball players. Players with OCD lesions began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player's current baseball position may not be

  9. Prevalence of posterior elbow problems in Japanese high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Yoshioka, Naoki; Hojo, Tatsuya; Oda, Ryo; Arai, Yuji; Sawada, Koshiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-09-01

    Various posterior elbow problems cause posterior elbow pain among baseball players. We aimed to determine the prevalence and diagnoses associated with posterior elbow problems and post-treatment recovery time for returning to sports in Japanese high school baseball players when treated in the off-season. A total of 576 Japanese high school baseball players who participated in baseball skill training camp during the off-season were enrolled in the study. The elbow of each player's throwing arm was assessed by use of a questionnaire and physical examination. Players with abnormal results were advised to visit the hospital. Players who visited the hospital were initially treated conservatively and underwent surgery if necessary. Retrospectively, players with positive physical examination results associated with posterior elbow pain, defined as olecranon tenderness and/or a positive elbow extension impingement test, were selected. Information about their position, elbow pain, physical examination results, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery time before returning to playing sports was assessed. Olecranon tenderness and/or positive elbow extension impingement test results were found in 76 players (13.2%). Of these, 33 agreed to visit the hospital for further diagnostic imaging and 25 players (75.8%) were diagnosed with posteromedial elbow impingement. By the next spring, 87.9% of players returned to sport, and 100% of players returned to sport before the next summer. The average recovery period was 77 ± 47 days. Physical examinations related to posterior elbow injuries were positive in 13.2% of high school baseball players. The most common diagnosis for posterior elbow pain was posteromedial elbow impingement. All players returned to competitive sports activity levels within 77 ± 47 days. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Competition-Level Differences on the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test in Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Robert J.; Bullock, Garrett; Arnold, Todd; Plisky, Phillip; Queen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Decreased performance in dynamic balance has previously been associated with a history of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players. Previous research on dynamic balance in soccer players has shown that test performance depends on competition level. However, dynamic balance has yet to be examined in baseball players. Objective: To understand normative values and determine differences in dynamic balance, as measured by the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test, across competition levels in baseball players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Preseason physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants: Dynamic balance was measured in 88 high school (HS), 78 collegiate (COL), and 90 professional (PRO) baseball players. Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test using the standard protocol. In unilateral stance, they reached with 1 foot in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. We calculated 1-way analyses of variance to compare performance, composite score, and reach asymmetry for each direction as well as the sum of the asymmetry values (P < .05). Composite score was calculated by averaging the maximum normalized reach scores. Reach asymmetry was determined by calculating bilateral differences in reach ability. Results: In comparison with the HS and COL groups, the PRO players exhibited greater posteromedial (P < .01; effect size index [ESI]HS = 1.06, ESICOL = 0.95) and posterolateral reach (P < .01; ESIHS = 0.82, ESICOL = 0.84) as well as a greater composite score (P < .01; ESIHS = 0.60, ESICOL = 0.87). In contrast, HS baseball players exhibited increased anterior reach (P < .01; ESICOL = 0.60, ESIPRO = 0.39) compared with the COL and PRO cohorts. No significant differences in reach asymmetry were observed among groups. Conclusions: Lower extremity dynamic balance performance differed based on the baseball players' competition level. These baseline data may be helpful in identifying

  11. Competition-Level Differences on the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert J; Bullock, Garrett; Arnold, Todd; Plisky, Phillip; Queen, Robin

    2016-12-01

    Decreased performance in dynamic balance has previously been associated with a history of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players. Previous research on dynamic balance in soccer players has shown that test performance depends on competition level. However, dynamic balance has yet to be examined in baseball players. To understand normative values and determine differences in dynamic balance, as measured by the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test, across competition levels in baseball players. Cross-sectional study. Preseason physical examinations. Dynamic balance was measured in 88 high school (HS), 78 collegiate (COL), and 90 professional (PRO) baseball players. All participants completed the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test using the standard protocol. In unilateral stance, they reached with 1 foot in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. We calculated 1-way analyses of variance to compare performance, composite score, and reach asymmetry for each direction as well as the sum of the asymmetry values (P < .05). Composite score was calculated by averaging the maximum normalized reach scores. Reach asymmetry was determined by calculating bilateral differences in reach ability. In comparison with the HS and COL groups, the PRO players exhibited greater posteromedial (P < .01; effect size index [ESI] HS = 1.06, ESI COL = 0.95) and posterolateral reach (P < .01; ESI HS = 0.82, ESI COL = 0.84) as well as a greater composite score (P < .01; ESI HS = 0.60, ESI COL = 0.87). In contrast, HS baseball players exhibited increased anterior reach (P < .01; ESI COL = 0.60, ESI PRO = 0.39) compared with the COL and PRO cohorts. No significant differences in reach asymmetry were observed among groups. Lower extremity dynamic balance performance differed based on the baseball players' competition level. These baseline data may be helpful in identifying low-performing athletes who might benefit from neuromuscular interventions.

  12. A comparison of static near stereo acuity in youth baseball/softball players and non-ball players.

    PubMed

    Boden, Lauren M; Rosengren, Kenneth J; Martin, Daniel F; Boden, Scott D

    2009-03-01

    Although many aspects of vision have been investigated in professional baseball players, few studies have been performed in developing athletes. The issue of whether youth baseball players have superior stereopsis to nonplayers has not been addressed specifically. The purpose of this study was to determine if youth baseball/softball players have better stereo acuity than non-ball players. Informed consent was obtained from 51 baseball/softball players and 52 non-ball players (ages 10 to 18 years). Subjects completed a questionnaire, and their static near stereo acuity was measured using the Randot Stereotest (Stereo Optical Company, Chicago, Illinois). Stereo acuity was measured as the seconds of arc between the last pair of images correctly distinguished by the subject. The mean stereo acuity score was 25.5 +/- 1.7 seconds of arc in the baseball/softball players and 56.2 +/- 8.4 seconds of arc in the non-ball players. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.00001). In addition, a perfect stereo acuity score of 20 seconds of arc was seen in 61% of the ball players and only 23% of the non-ball players (P = 0.0001). Youth baseball/softball players had significantly better static stereo acuity than non-ball players, comparable to professional ball players.

  13. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  14. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  15. Lumbopelvic control and pitching performance of professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; McKenzie, Christopher S; Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the correlation between lumbopelvic control during a single-leg balancing task and in-game pitching performance in Minor-League baseball pitchers. Seventy-five healthy professional baseball pitchers performed a standing lumbopelvic control test during the last week of spring training for the 2008 and 2009 seasons while wearing a custom-designed testing apparatus, the "Level Belt." With the Level Belt secured to the waist, subjects attempted to transition from a 2-leg to a single-leg pitching stance and balance while maintaining a stable pelvic position. Subjects were graded on the maximum sagittal pelvic tilt from a neutral position during the motion. Pitching performance, number of innings pitched (IP), and injuries were compared for all subjects who pitched at least 50 innings during a season. The median Level Belt score for the study group was 7°. Two-sample t-tests with equal variances were used to determine if pitchers with a Level Belt score <7° or ≥7° were more likely to perform differently during the baseball season, and chi-square analysis was used to compare injuries between groups. Subjects scoring <7° on the Level Belt test had significantly fewer walks plus hits per inning than subjects scoring ≥7° (walks plus hits per inning pitched, 1.352 ± 0.251 vs. 1.584 ± 0.360, p = 0.013) and significantly more IP during the season (IP, 78.89 ± 38.67 vs. 53.38 ± 42.47, p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the number of pitchers injured between groups. These data suggest that lumbopelvic control influences overall performance for baseball pitchers and that a simple test of lumbopelvic control can potentially identify individuals who have a better chance of pitching success.

  16. Factors Influencing Ball-Player Impact Probability in Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Philip A.; Myers, Joseph B.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altering the weight of baseballs for youth play has been studied out of concern for player safety. Research has shown that decreasing the weight of baseballs may limit the severity of both chronic arm and collision injuries. Unfortunately, reducing the weight of the ball also increases its exit velocity, leaving pitchers and nonpitchers with less time to defend themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers. Hypothesis: Reducing the available time to respond by 10% (expected from reducing ball weight from 142 g to 113 g) would increase impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers, and players’ mean simple response time would be a primary predictor of impact probability for all participants. Study Design: Nineteen subjects between the ages of 9 and 13 years performed 3 experiments in a controlled laboratory setting: a simple response time test, an avoidance response time test, and a pitching response time test. Methods: Each subject performed these tests in order. The simple reaction time test tested the subjects’ mean simple response time, the avoidance reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a fielder, and the pitching reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a pitcher. Results: Reducing the weight of a standard baseball from 142 g to 113 g led to a less than 5% increase in impact probability for nonpitchers. However, the results indicate that the impact probability for pitchers could increase by more than 25%. Conclusion: Pitching may greatly increase the amount of time needed to react and defend oneself from a batted ball. Clinical Relevance: Impact injuries to youth baseball players may increase if a 113-g ball is used. PMID:25984261

  17. Skin conditions of baseball, cricket, and softball players.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Joshua A; Tlougan, Brook E; Adams, Brian B; Leventhal, Jonathan S; Sanchez, Miguel R

    2013-07-01

    Each year in the United States over 80 million people participate in bat-and-ball sports, for example baseball and softball. Cricket, the world's second most popular sport, is enjoyed by hundreds of millions of participants in such countries as India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, South Africa, West Indies, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom, and Zimbabwe. Although any player can develop skin disease as a result of participation in these bat-and-ball sports, competitive team athletes are especially prone to skin problems related to infection, trauma, allergy, solar exposure, and other causes. These diseases can produce symptoms that hinder individual athletic performance and participation. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis and best-practice management of skin diseases that can develop as a result of participation in baseball, softball, and cricket.

  18. Statcast and the Baseball Trajectory Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Baseball's flirtation with technology began in 2005 when PITCHf/x® by Sportvision started to be installed in major league ballparks. Every stadium had the system operational by 2007. Since then, the trajectories of over six million pitches have been measured to within about half an inch using three 60-Hz video cameras to track the position of the…

  19. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of... Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the navigable waters of McCovey Cove, in San Francisco Bay, off of...

  20. Outcome of conservative treatment for Little League shoulder in young baseball players: factors related to incomplete return to baseball and recurrence of pain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Kondo, Mikiro; Uno, Tomohiro; Takagi, Michiaki; Mura, Nariyuki

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with poor results and pain recurrence in young baseball players with Little League shoulder (LLS). Eighty-seven young baseball players with LLS (mean age, 12.1 years) underwent conservative treatment. Of the players, 68 (78%) underwent conservative treatment involving the prohibition of throwing for an average of 1.2 months whereas the remaining 19 (22%) continued throwing with limitations. We analyzed the factors associated with poor results at 2 months and pain recurrence. At 2 months, 18% of participants reported the presence of pain, and the results regarding the return to baseball were as follows: complete return in 43%, incomplete return in 33%, and no return in 24%. A total of 83 subjects (95%) had completely returned at an average of 2.8 months. Pain recurrence was present in 20 subjects (25%) at an average of 6.2 months. Statistical analysis showed that the following factors were significantly associated with poor results at 2 months: longer period from initial presentation to throwing prohibition and worse shoulder flexibility (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). It also revealed that the following factors were significantly associated with pain recurrence: higher frequency of pain at 2 months and longer duration until complete return (P = .0003 and P = .04, respectively). It is important for subjects with LLS to be prohibited from throwing immediately after initial presentation. Good shoulder flexibility was associated with a return to baseball without pain. A complete return in subjects who had pain at 2 months was significantly delayed, and these subjects exhibited more rapidly recurring pain after their return. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Suzue, Naoto; Arisawa, Kokichi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to quantify the 1-year cumulative incidence of shoulder and elbow pain among youth baseball players and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of shoulder and elbow pain. In total, 900 youth baseball players (aged 7-11 years) were enrolled in a 1-year prospective follow-up study. One year later, the players were asked whether they had experienced episodes of shoulder or elbow pain and the following risk factors for such pain were investigated: age, position, length of baseball experience, training hours per week, and history of shoulder or elbow pain. Data for the groups with and without shoulder or elbow pain were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Episodes of shoulder pain were reported by 18.3% of players and episodes of elbow pain were reported by 35.2% of players. Multivariate analysis showed that shoulder pain was associated with pitcher position, catcher position, longer training hours per week, and history of shoulder and elbow pain, and that elbow pain was associated with age, pitcher position, catcher position, longer training hours per week, and history of elbow pain. Length of baseball experience was not associated with shoulder or elbow pain. History of elbow pain, pitcher position, catcher position, and longer training hours per week were associated with both types of pain. History of shoulder pain was associated with shoulder pain but not elbow pain. Age was associated with elbow pain but not shoulder pain.

  2. Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Wilk, Kevin E; Aune, Kyle T; Patterson-Flynn, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal

    2015-07-01

    While the high rate of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in professional baseball is widely discussed in the media and medical literature, the actual prevalence of UCL reconstruction has not been documented. The prevalence of UCL reconstruction will be higher among pitchers than nonpitchers, and Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers will have a higher prevalence than will minor league pitchers. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online questionnaire was distributed to all 30 MLB organizations. Certified athletic trainers from each team administered the questionnaire to all players in the organization, including major league players and 6 levels of minor league players. Demographic data were compared between major and minor league players. Continuous variables (age, years of professional baseball, country of origin, etc) were compared with Student t tests (P < .05). Categorical variables (level, position, etc) were compared using chi-square analysis (P < .05). A total of 5088 professional baseball players (722 major league and 4366 minor league) participated in the survey. Pitchers represented 53% of all players, and 497 players reported at least 1 UCL reconstruction, demonstrating a prevalence rate of 10% (497 of 5088). Pitchers reported a significantly higher prevalence of UCL reconstruction (16%; 437 of 2706) than nonpitchers (3%; 60 of 2382; P < .001). Among major league pitchers, 25% (96 of 382) had a history of UCL reconstruction, while minor league pitchers showed a 15% (341 of 2324) prevalence (P < .001). Major league pitchers were also significantly older (28.8 ± 3.9 years) than minor league pitchers (22.8 ± 3.0; P < .001). The majority of major leaguers (86%) had their UCL reconstruction as professional pitchers, whereas the majority of minor league pitchers (61%) underwent their UCL reconstruction during high school and college (P < .001). The rates of UCL revision, prior elbow surgery, prior shoulder surgery, and types of UCL graft were similar

  3. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes. PMID:26600391

  4. Shoulder functional performance status of Minor League professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fronek, Jan; Yang, Jingzhen Ginger; Osbahr, Daryl C; Pollack, Keshia M; ElAttrache, Neal S; Noonan, Thomas J; Conte, Stan A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Yocum, Lewis A

    2015-01-01

    The Overhead Shoulder and Elbow Score (Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic [KJOC] score) among healthy or uninjured professional baseball pitchers is lacking. We hypothesized that shoulder function and performance status measured by the KJOC score among active Minor League professional baseball pitchers were high at pre-participation and that the pitchers who had not been previously treated for a shoulder injury and were playing without arm trouble had significantly higher KJOC scores than their counterparts. In this cross-sectional survey, data on pre-participation KJOC scores, along with other study measures, were collected from a cohort of Minor League professional baseball pitchers. Generalized estimating equations with a Poisson distribution were used for analysis. A total of 366 Minor League professional pitchers were included, with a mean KJOC score of 92.8 points (SD, 12.1 points), suggesting that participating pitchers' shoulder function and performance were high. Participating pitchers who had not received treatment for a shoulder injury had significantly higher KJOC scores than those who had received treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical (β = 0.0238, P = .0495). In addition, pitchers who were not currently injured, were playing without arm trouble, or had not missed games in the past 12 months because of a shoulder injury also had statistically significantly higher KJOC scores than their counterparts. This study provides an empirical profile of the KJOC score for a large sample of active Minor League professional baseball pitchers and identifies risk factors associated with decreased KJOC scores. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerodynamic drag crisis and its possible effect on the flight of baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1984-04-01

    At Reynolds numbers above about 105 the aerodynamic drag force on a sphere drops sharply as the flow begins to become turbulent in the boundary layer. For baseballs, this ``drag crisis'' may occur at speeds which are typical for pitched or batted balls. The effects of the drag reduction on the behavior of both pitched and batted balls is significant, and may explain several features of the game of baseball which previously have been unexplained or attributed to other causes. In particular, the drag reduction may help to explain why pitched fastballs appear to rise, why pitched curve balls appear to drop sharply, and why home run production has increased since the introduction of the alleged ``lively ball.'' Calculations suggest that aerodynamic forces are as important a factor in fastpitch softball as in baseball, and that they are a critical factor in a number of other ball games.

  6. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injuries in Baseball and Softball: A Framework for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Zhu, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are an important public health challenge. The classification of baseball and softball as low contact sports and their association with extremity injuries cause individuals to overlook the risk of TBI in baseball and softball. To summarize our knowledge of the epidemiology and risk factors of TBIs associated with baseball and softball with an aim to better design and implement preventive strategies. A search algorithm containing keywords that were synonymous to the terms "TBI," "baseball" was applied to the following nine databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Healthstar, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane library. Cited reference lists of identified articles were also consulted yielding a total of eighty-eight articles for full review. The search was concluded on November 14, 2016. The level of evidence was evaluated according to the guidelines from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. Twenty-nine articles published between 2000 and 2016 met the criteria for analysis. Collectively, they examined the years 1982-2015 and identified 242,731 baseball-and softball-related TBIs. The most explored outcome of TBI was concussion. The average injury rate per 1,000 athletic exposures was 0.13 (range 0.03-0.46). The most common mechanism of injury was being struck by bat for younger players and being struck by ball for older athletes (adolescent and beyond). Rates of TBI were on average 4.17 times greater in games compared to practices. Females were on average 2.04 times more likely to sustain a TBI than males. Severity of TBIs varied considerably from mild and returning to the field on the same day, to immediate death. Generally, there is poor compliance with helmet use and return-to-play post-concussion guidelines. An increase TBI rates was observed over time. Multifaceted preventive strategies must be implemented to reduce the frequency and burden of these injuries. It is difficult to compare the

  7. Absence of Bilateral Differences in Child Baseball Players with Throwing-related Pain.

    PubMed

    Mickevičius, M; Rutkauskas, S; Sipavičienė, S; Skurvydas, A; Jürimäe, J; Degens, H; Kamandulis, S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether side-to-side differences in morphology and function of the upper limbs in 11-12 year-old male baseball players with throwing-related pain (n=14) were more pronounced than that of age-matched healthy untrained subjects (n=16). Baseball players 1) had played baseball≥4.5 h·wk -1 for ≥ 4 years and (2) suffered from moderate-intensity (3-6 points on 10-point questionnaire scale) throwing-related pain in the shoulder or elbow in at least 2 training sessions within the past month. The range of motion (ROM), function and structure of the elbows and shoulders were assessed using goniometry, isokinetic dynamometry and ultrasonography. While the ROM and eccentric external peak torque of internal shoulder rotation were lower, the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon, the ulnar collateral ligament and articular cartilage of the humeral head were larger in baseball players than controls. There were, however, no significant side-to-side differences in any parameter in either group. In conclusion, it is unlikely that side-to-side differences in shoulder and upper limb structure and function contributed to the throwing-related pain in young baseball players, but low shoulder eccentric external peak torque and range of internal rotation may predispose to throwing-related pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Factors determining the spin axis of a pitched fastball in baseball.

    PubMed

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji; Hirano, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we wished to investigate the factors that determine the direction of the spin axis of a pitched baseball. Nineteen male baseball pitchers were recruited to pitch fastballs. The pitching motion was recorded with a three-dimensional motion analysis system (1000 Hz), and the orientations of the hand segment in a global coordinate system were calculated using Euler rotation angles. Reflective markers were attached to the ball, and the direction of the spin axis was calculated on the basis of their positional changes. The spin axis directions were significantly correlated with the orientations of the hand just before ball release. The ball is released from the fingertip and rotates on a plane that is formed by the palm and fingers; the spin axis of the ball is parallel to this plane. The lift force of the pitched baseball is largest when the angular and translational velocity vectors are mutually perpendicular. Furthermore, to increase the lift forces for the fastballs, the palm must face home plate.

  9. Pearl Harbor: A Failure for Baseball?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau, Richard C.

    The history of sports is closely tied to the larger history of the society in which they are played. Baseball in the United States in the 1920's and l930's assumed a major role in spreading the ideals of fair play, sportsmanship, and democracy to the Far East, with tours by amateur athletes and professionals such as Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth. Even…

  10. Batting last as a home advantage factor in men's NCAA tournament baseball.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Obara, Jeff; Kwan, Matt

    2005-07-01

    In baseball and softball, there is a rule that allows the home team to have the last at-bat and thus the final opportunity to win the game. However, in tournament play, this rule is often set aside and, instead, batting order is decided by other means (e.g. tournament rules, the flip of a coin). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the batting last rule on game outcome in NCAA men's regional tournament baseball. It was hypothesized that host (i.e. home) teams would win a greater percentage of the games in which they batted last compared with when they batted first. This hypothesis was not supported. Closer examination of the last inning of play showed home teams were no more likely to have won the game during their last bat than visitors playing other visitors. The results suggest that the batting last rule contributes minimally, if at all, to home advantage in NCAA tournament baseball.

  11. Little League Shoulder—Osteochondrosis of the Proximal Humeral Epiphysis in Boy Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joel E.

    1966-01-01

    Roentgenographic changes consistent with osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis were observed in five young baseball pitchers complaining of shoulder pain in the throwing arm. The symptoms and findings were quite similar to the previously reported involvement of the medial epicondylar epiphysis or “Little Leaguer's elbow.” The act of throwing a baseball hard is an abnormal whip-like action which places a forceful repetitious traction strain on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in youngsters engaged in organized competitive swimming programs can also be explained in this way. Since these entities became evident with the establishment of organized baseball programs for boys in this age group, better medical supervision and rule changes to limit the amount of pitching until the epiphyses close, are urgently needed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:5946993

  12. 76 FR 6807 - Notice of Meeting; NIAID Town Hall Meeting on the New National Institute of Allergy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Town Hall Meeting on the New National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Leadership... plans to establish a new NIAID Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Infectious Diseases... not previously available to non-AIDS investigators. At the March 7, 2011 meeting NIAID leadership will...

  13. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  14. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  15. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  17. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trunk axial rotation in baseball pitching and batting.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Hsu, Wellington K; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Cordover, Andrew; Press, Joel M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify trunk axial rotation and angular acceleration in pitching and batting of elite baseball players. Healthy professional baseball pitchers (n = 40) and batters (n = 40) were studied. Reflective markers attached to each athlete were tracked at 240 Hz with an eight-camera automated digitizing system. Trunk axial rotation was computed as the angle between the pelvis and the upper trunk in the transverse plane. Trunk angular acceleration was the second derivative of axial rotation. Maximum trunk axial rotation (55 +/- 6 degrees) and angular acceleration (11,600 +/- 3,100 degrees/s2) in pitching occurred before ball release, approximately at the instant the front foot landed. Maximum trunk axial rotation (46 +/- 9 degrees) and angular acceleration (7,200 +/- 2,800 degrees/s2) in batting occurred in the follow-through after ball contact. Thus, the most demanding instant for the trunk and spine was near front foot contact for pitching and after ball contact for batting.

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury in major and Minor League Baseball players.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A; Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Schickendantz, Mark S; Caplinger, Roger; Weber, Kathleen; Valadka, Alex; McAllister, Thomas W; Dick, Randall W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Curriero, Frank C

    2015-05-01

    Although mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is not as common in professional baseball as in collision sports, it does occur and frequently results in significant loss of time away from the sport. To date, no study has investigated MTBI among an entire cohort of professional baseball players. To investigate MTBIs in major and minor league baseball players to determine the most common mechanisms of injury, activity at time of injury, position, level of play, and time lost, as well as ultimately inform prevention efforts. A secondary objective was to document the association between MTBI and return to play using several different measures. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were captured from a newly implemented league-wide injury surveillance system that records injuries among all professional baseball players as entered by certified athletic trainers and physicians. The MTBIs were identified with respect to level of play, activity, field location, and mechanism of injury. Time loss was assessed by 3 measures of return to play, and MTBI game rates were reported as injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. Data were combined over the 2011-2012 seasons for analysis, and results were presented separately for minor and major league players. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of MTBI injury characteristics. There were 41 reported MTBIs in the major leagues and 266 in the minor leagues over the 2-year period under study. The overall MTBI game rate across both major and minor league ball clubs was 0.42 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The median time lost was 9 days. Mild traumatic brain injury accounted for 1% of all injuries resulting in time lost from play. For MTBIs that occurred while fielding, catchers were significantly overrepresented. No differences were noted among the 3 measures of time lost. Mild traumatic brain injury is an important problem in professional baseball players, especially for catchers

  20. Injuries to young professional baseball pitchers cannot be prevented solely by restricting number of innings pitched.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2016-05-01

    The Major League Baseball schedule is longer and more intensive than minor and amateur leagues. As a result, major league pitchers endure a considerably higher cumulative workload throughout the season. Ligament, tendon, muscle, and bone tissues in young pitchers need time to adapt to the workload a major league pitcher must endure. To mitigate the risk of overuse injury, and allow time for tissue adaptation to occur, most teams limit the number of innings a young pitcher may throw. This study examined the relationship between innings pitched and future injury in young professional baseball pitchers. All pitchers under 25 years of age that pitched at least one third of an inning in Major League Baseball during the 2002-2007 seasons were included in this study. Total innings pitched were accumulated for each season across three levels of professional baseball (Major League Baseball, and two levels of Minor Leagues). Regression analyses were preformed comparing innings pitched during a single season and difference in innings pitched over consecutive seasons to future injury, as measured by time spent on the disabled list. No significant correlation was found between innings pitched and future injury or consecutive season innings pitched difference and future injury. No significant differences were found when pitchers were split into groups based upon consecutive season innings pitched difference cutoffs. Based upon the evidence presented, strength and conditioning coaches, sports medicine specialists, and team trainers cannot rely solely on inning counts to accurately measure the tissue demands of professional baseball pitching. Therefore, inning limits alone cannot be used to protect young professional pitchers against the threat of injury.

  1. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the American Public.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacy L

    2016-01-01

    In the final decades of the 19th century psychologist Granville Stanley Hall was among the most prominent pedagogical experts in the nation. The author explores Hall's carefully crafted persona as an educational expert, and his engagements with the American public, from 1880 to 1900, arguably the height of his influence. Drawing from accounts of Hall's lecture circuit in the popular press, a map of his talks across the nation is constructed to assess the geographic scope of his influence. These talks to educators on the psychology underlying childhood and pedagogy, and his views and research on child life more generally, were regularly discussed in newspapers and popular periodicals. The venues in which Hall's ideas were disseminated, discussed, and in some cases, dismissed are described. His efforts to mobilize popular support for, and assistance with, his research endeavors in child study are also discussed. Such efforts were controversial both within the burgeoning field of psychology and among the public. Through his various involvements in pedagogy, and concerted efforts to engage with the American public, Hall helped establish psychology's relevance to parenting and educational practices.

  2. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  3. Bennett lesions in baseball players detected by magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of association factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Noh, Young-Min; Chung, Seok-Won; Moon, Sung-Gyn; Ha, Dae-Ho; Lee, Ki-Sun; Chung, Seok Won

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Bennett lesions in baseball players compared with those without a Bennett lesion and to identify other possible factors associated with Bennett lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated 388 male baseball players with a career >1 year. Demographic factors and a routine physical examination, including glenohumeral internal rotation difference, scapular dyskinesis, and various pathologic changes, were reviewed on MRI to identify relative factors for Bennett lesions. Of the 388 patients evaluated, 125 (32.2%) were diagnosed with Bennett lesions of the shoulder. No significant differences were observed between the groups in demographic factors, physical examination results, visual analog scale score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, or prevalence of concomitant diseases. However, players with Bennett lesions had played baseball longer than those without the lesions (P < .001). An association was found between Bennett lesions and the length of time that a patient with a Bennett lesion had played baseball. The prevalence of pathologic lesions detected on MRI and the physical examination results were not different between players with and without Bennett lesions. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Judy Estes Hall (1940-2015).

    PubMed

    Sammons, Morgan T; Boucher, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Judy Estes Hall, who passed away on November 24, 2015. Hall served as the Executive Officer of the National Register of Health Service Psychologists until her retirement in 2013. She is a recognized expert in the development of education and training standards for the profession of psychology, she also made significant contributions in the field of international psychology, where she was a renowned expert in cross-national credentialing and an advocate for commonality in licensing standards. She was the coauthor of one edited volume and author of more than 60 journal articles, book chapters, and professional publications. A passionate advocate for the advancement of women in psychology, a devoted mother and grandmother, a connoisseur of wine and international traveler extraordinaire, she touched the personal and professional lives of many. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Shoulder range of motion measures as risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school softball and baseball players.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J; Michener, Lori A; Ellenbecker, Todd S; Garrison, J Craig; Thigpen, Charles A

    2011-09-01

    Range of motion deficits in shoulder external rotation (ER), internal rotation (IR), total rotation range of motion (ER + IR), and horizontal adduction (HA) have been retrospectively associated with overhand athletes' arm injuries. The authors expected the incidence of upper extremity injury in high school softball and baseball players with side-to-side shoulder range of motion deficits to be greater than the incidence of upper extremity injury in players with normal shoulder range of motion. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. High school softball and baseball players (N = 246) participated. Before the start of the season, passive shoulder ER, IR, and HA were assessed at 90° of abduction with the scapula stabilized. Relative risk (RR) was calculated to examine range of motion measure, by categorical criteria, and risk of upper extremity injury. Twenty-seven shoulder and elbow injuries (9 softball, 18 baseball) were observed during the season. The dominant shoulder of all injured players and baseball players displayed a significant decrease in HA (P = .05) and IR (P = .04). The dominant shoulder total rotation of injured baseball players displayed a significant decrease (mean difference = 8.0° ± 0.1°; P = .05) as compared with the dominant shoulder of uninjured baseball players. Players who displayed a decrease of ≥25° of IR in the dominant shoulder were at 4 times greater risk of upper extremity injury compared with players with a <25° decrease in IR, especially for baseball players. While we observed a 1.5 to 2 times increased risk of injury for the 10° to 20° loss in rotational range of motion for the overall sample and baseball, the risk estimates were not statistically significant (P > .05). There are large mean deficits in shoulder IR and HA between injured and noninjured players, but not in ER or total rotation. Passive shoulder IR loss ≥25° as compared bilaterally was predictive of arm injury. Shoulder range of motion deficits

  6. An Epidemiological Comparison of Elbow Injuries Among United States High School Baseball and Softball Players, 2005-2006 Through 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Pytiak, Andrew V; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Currie, Dustin W; McCarty, Eric C; Comstock, R Dawn

    Pitching is a common mechanism of injury in baseball, with known risk factors for elbow injuries among adolescent pitchers. Elbow injury rates and mechanisms will differ between high school baseball and softball players. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Baseball- and softball-related injury data from the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years were collected from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) Internet-based data collection tool. Athlete-exposure (AE) and injury data were collected by certified athletic trainers. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated comparing injury rates in the 2 populations. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) comparing elbow injuries in pitchers and nonpitchers were calculated as the proportion of all elbow injuries in pitchers divided by the proportion of all elbow injuries in nonpitchers. A total of 214 elbow injuries in male baseball players occurred over 2,327,774 AEs, for an overall elbow injury rate of 0.92 per 10,000 AEs. A total of 75 elbow injuries were reported in female softball players over 1,731,644 AEs, for an overall rate of 0.43 per 10,000 AEs. The rate of elbow injury was significantly higher for baseball than softball (RR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.64-2.77). A significantly greater proportion of elbow injuries in baseball were pitching-related compared with those from softball, with 50.2% occurring while pitching in baseball versus 11.0% in softball (IPR, 4.58; 95% CI, 2.35-8.93). If all injuries occurring during pitching were removed from both sports, the difference in elbow injury rate for baseball and softball would no longer be significant (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.88-1.62). The rate of elbow injuries is significantly higher in baseball than softball. This is attributable to differences in rates of pitching-related injuries between these 2 groups. These results demonstrate that overhand pitching increases risk of elbow injury in high school athletes.

  7. Of Rails and Red Stockings: A Vignette on the Extension of Baseball to the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Robert Knight

    During its century and a half history, baseball has been given continued impetus by the development of new technologies in communication--the telegraph, the sports page, the radio and television. Perhaps the most important in the initial spread of baseball throughout America was the railroad. The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869…

  8. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  9. Relationship Between Humeral Retroversion and Length of Baseball Career Before the Age of 16 Years.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Chihiro; Mihata, Teruhisa; Itami, Yasuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Humeral retroversion physiologically decreases during growth. However, in throwing athletes, the external forces caused by repetitive throwing are thought to increase humeral retroversion on the dominant side compared with that on the nondominant side. To investigate the correlation between humeral retroversion and length of baseball career before age 16 years. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 112 high school baseball players (32 pitchers and 80 position players) with a mean age of 15.6 years (range, 15-16 years) were enrolled in the study. All participants completed questionnaires regarding their player position and the age when they started baseball and were given physical examinations. Shoulder range of motion and humeral retroversion were assessed on the dominant and nondominant sides. Humeral retroversion (rotation angle of the proximal humerus relative to the distal humerus) was measured ultrasonographically. Humeral retroversion was significantly greater on the dominant side than on the nondominant side in both pitchers (P < .0001) and position players (P = .0005). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion in pitchers (13.9° ± 11.2°) was significantly greater than that in position players (9.0° ± 11.1°, P = .0361). In pitchers, there was a significant negative correlation between humeral retroversion and the age at which the players had started baseball (P = .033, β = -2.494). These results suggest that humeral retroversion increases with decreasing age at commencement of a baseball career before age 16 years in pitchers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. High-Resolution 3-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Shoulder in Nonsymptomatic Professional Baseball Pitcher Draft Picks.

    PubMed

    Del Grande, Filippo; Aro, Michael; Jalali Farahani, Sahar; Cosgarea, Andrew; Wilckens, John; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the qualitative and quantitative high-resolution 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in nonsymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks. Institutional review board-approved and HIPAA compliant study. Three-Tesla MRI of the dominant shoulder of 19 asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks and detailed clinical examination was performed before contract signing. Two radiologists performed independently qualitative and quantitative evaluation of shoulder structures. Descriptive statistics were performed. Sixty-eight percent (13/19), 32% (6/19), and 21% (4/19) of the baseball pitcher draft picks showed tendinopathy, partial thickness tendon tear of the supraspinatus, and acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis, respectively. Glenohumeral subluxation, glenoid remodeling, and Bennett lesion were present in 53% (10/19), 79% (15/19), and 21% (4/19) of the subjects, respectively. Interclass coefficient was 0.633 to 0.863 and κ was 0.27 to 1. In asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks, 3-T MRI frequently shows abnormalities involving rotator cuff tendons, the coracohumeral, inferior glenohumeral, labrum, and osseous structures.

  11. The Epidemiology of Hip and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Struan H; Mayer, Stephanie W; Tyson, Jared J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed. The treatment was recorded as nonoperative or surgical. The subsequent rehabilitation and return to play were recorded. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of hip and groin characteristics. From 2011-2014, 1823 hip and groin injuries occurred among MLB and MiLB players, which accounted for approximately 5% of all injuries. Of these, 1514 (83%) occurred among MiLB players and 309 (17%) among MLB players; 96% of injuries were extra-articular. Among all players, a noncontact mechanism during defensive fielding was the most common activity causing injury (74%), and infielders experienced the most hip and groin injuries (34%). The majority of extra-articular injuries were treated nonoperatively (96.2%), resulting in an average of 12 days missed. Intra-articular pathology more commonly required surgery, and resulted in an average of 123 days missed. Hip and groin injuries can be debilitating and result in a significant number of days missed. Intra-articular pathology and athletic pubalgia were usually treated surgically, while the majority of extra-articular hip injuries were treated successfully with nonoperative modalities. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a high rate of return to play for professional baseball players with injuries to the hip and groin.

  12. Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric G; Laudner, Kevin G; McLoda, Todd A; Wong, Regan; Meister, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Throwing a baseball is a dynamic and violent act that places large magnitudes of stress on the shoulder and elbow. Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables throughout the throwing motion. However, very little research has directly examined the relationship between these kinetic variables and ball velocity. To examine the correlation of peak ball velocity with elbow-valgus torque, shoulder external-rotation torque, and shoulder-distraction force in a group of collegiate baseball pitchers. Cross-sectional study. Motion-analysis laboratory. Sixty-seven asymptomatic National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball pitchers (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 186.2 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 86.7 ± 7.0 kg; 48 right handed, 19 left handed). We measured peak ball velocity using a radar gun and shoulder and elbow kinetics of the throwing arm using 8 electronically synchronized, high-speed digital cameras. We placed 26 reflective markers on anatomical landmarks of each participant to track 3-dimensional coordinate data. The average data from the 3 highest-velocity fastballs thrown for strikes were used for data analysis. We calculated a Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the associations between ball velocity and peak elbow-valgus torque, shoulder-distraction force, and shoulder external-rotation torque (P < .05). A weak positive correlation was found between ball velocity and shoulder-distraction force (r = 0.257; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.47; r(2) = 0.066; P = .018). However, no significant correlations were noted between ball velocity and elbow-valgus torque (r = 0.199; 95% CI = -0.043, 0.419; r(2) = 0.040; P = .053) or shoulder external-rotation torque (r = 0.097; 95% CI = -0.147, 0.329; r(2) = 0.009; P = .217). Although a weak positive correlation was present between ball velocity and shoulder-distraction force, no significant association was seen between ball velocity and elbow

  13. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  14. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  15. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior.

  16. Mechanisms of Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits in Asymptomatic Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lane B; Shanley, Ellen; Hawkins, Richard; Beattie, Paul F; Fritz, Stacy; Kwartowitz, David; Thigpen, Charles A

    2015-11-01

    Shoulder range of motion (ROM) deficits have been identified as injury risk factors among baseball athletes. Despite the knowledge surrounding these risk factors, there is a lack of consensus regarding the specific tissues responsible for these deficits in ROM. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the primary mechanisms of posterior shoulder tightness (capsular, musculotendinous, bony) by examining the tissue responses that occur with the application of an acute intervention in baseball players with ROM deficits. The hypothesis was that posterior rotator cuff stiffness, not glenohumeral joint mobility, would be primarily responsible for ROM gains observed within an acute treatment setting. Controlled laboratory study. Through use of ultrasound elastography, electromagnetic motion analysis, and ultrasound imaging, posterior rotator cuff stiffness, glenohumeral joint translation, and humeral torsion were examined in 60 asymptomatic baseball players (age, mean ± SD, 19 ± 2 years) with shoulder ROM deficits. Tissue mechanisms were examined concurrently, with the ROM gains elicited by an acute application of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization plus self-stretching (n = 30) versus self-stretching only (n = 30). Separate 3-way analyses of variance (group × arm × time) and linear regression analyses were used to determine the treatment effects and relationships between tissue mechanisms and ROM gains. ROM gains were associated with decreases in rotator cuff stiffness (internal rotation: r = 0.35, P = .034; horizontal adduction: r = 0.44, P = .008) and increased humeral retrotorsion (internal rotation: r = -0.35, P = .034), not joint translation (P > .05). Players receiving instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization plus stretching displayed greater shoulder ROM gains (internal rotation, +5° ± 2° [P = .010]; total arc of motion, +8° ± 6° [P = .010]; horizontal adduction, +7° ± 2° [P = .004]; and decreased posterior rotator cuff stiffness, -0

  17. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) in collegiate baseball pitchers and their relationship to pitching mechanics. Fourteen healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. The average ball speed was 35 ± 3 m/sec (78 ± 7 mph). Peak GRFs of 245 ± 20% body weight (BW) were generated in an anterior or braking direction to control descent. Horizontal GRFs tended to occur in a laterally directed fashion, reaching a peak of 45 ± 63% BW. The maximum vertical GRF averaged 202 ± 43% BW approximately 45 milliseconds after stride foot contact. A correlation between braking force and ball velocity was evident. Because of the downward inclination and rotation of the pitching motion, in addition to volume, shear forces may occur in the musculoskeletal tissues of the stride limb leading to many of the lower-extremity injuries seen in this athletic population.

  18. Effect of education and language on baseline concussion screening tests in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel S; Walter, Kevin D; Caplinger, Roger; Wright, Daniel; Raasch, William G; Young, Craig

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of sociocultural influences, specifically pertaining to language and education, on baseline neuropsychological concussion testing as obtained via immediate postconcussion assessment and cognitive testing (ImPACT) of players from a professional baseball team. A retrospective chart review. Baseline testing of a professional baseball organization. Four hundred five professional baseball players. Age, languages spoken, hometown country location (United States/Canada vs overseas), and years of education. The 5 ImPACT composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control) and ImPACT total symptom score from the initial baseline testing. The result of t tests revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) when comparing native English to native Spanish speakers in many scores. Even when corrected for education, the significant differences (P < 0.05) remained in some scores. Sociocultural differences may result in differences in computer-based neuropsychological testing scores.

  19. You and the Law: Home Owner Fails in Attempt to Gain Relief from Impact of Errant Baseballs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Tonya L.

    2017-01-01

    A Massachusetts appeals court affirmed the ruling of a trial court that a municipality in that state is protected by sovereign immunity in a case in which it was sued by a resident and his spouse who lived adjacent to a baseball diamond and claimed its use was a "nuisance" because of errant baseballs.

  20. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key points High-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion. For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk. Computation of the lower

  1. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  2. Lumbopelvic control and days missed because of injury in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; McKenzie, Christopher S; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A

    2014-11-01

    Recently, lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics, and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injuries in baseball pitchers. Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss ≥30 days because of an injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 347 professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to the starting position during a single-leg raise test (APScore). Days missed because of an injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. A higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing ≥30 days (P = .023, χ(2) test). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. A higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days because of an injury within participants who missed at least 1 day (P = .018, ANOVA), with participants in the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean, 98.6 days) than those in the middle tertile (mean, 45.8 days; P = .017) or lowest tertile (mean, 43.8 days; P = .017). This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with an increased risk of missing significant time because of an injury. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  4. A Field Study of Traditional and Nontraditional Children's Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Younger children often have problems playing baseball using adult rules because pitchers lack ability to throw consistently and batters have trouble hitting erratically thrown balls. A modification of adult rules allowed the team coach to pitch to batters. More offensive and defensive activity occurred in the nontraditional games than in…

  5. THORACOLUMBAR RANGE OF MOTION IN BASEBALL PITCHERS AND POSITION PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Lynall, Robert; Williams, Jeffrey G.; Wong, Regan; Onuki, Takashi; Meister, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Background: Optimal baseball throwing mechanics require a significant contribution of thoracolumbar motion, particularly in the sagittal and transverse planes. This motion is key for proper transmission of forces from the lower to upper extremity, thereby minimizing a throwing athlete's risk of injury and maximizing athletic performance. Purpose: To define the active‐assisted thoracolumbar ROM of both baseball pitchers and position players and to compare these motions both within and between groups. Methods: Fifty‐six asymptomatic, collegiate and minor league baseball pitchers and 42 position players volunteered to participate. Active‐assisted thoracolumbar flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation ROM, were measured in a standing position, using two bubble inclinometers. Two‐tailed t tests were used to determine differences in ROM between and within the pitchers and position players. Results: The pitchers had significantly more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to the position players (p = .007, effect size = .61). The pitchers also had more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side (p = .006, effect size = .47). There were no other significant differences between the pitchers and the position players (p > .53). Furthermore, the position players did not have a side‐to‐side rotation difference (p = .99). Conclusions: Pitchers have a greater amount of rotation ROM towards the non‐throwing arm side as compared to position players. Pitchers also have a greater amount of rotation ROM to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side rotation. Because pitchers often present with posterior shoulder tightness and subsequent altered shoulder horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM, the increase in non‐throwing side rotation ROM may occur in response to these adaptations. More specifically, this increase in non‐throwing side trunk rotation ROM may allow such athletes to

  6. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display... July 4th fireworks display. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants and... will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display on July 4...

  7. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Arsenic on Baseball Fields with Contaminated Fill Material

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Alesia C.; Black, Jennifer C.; Sims, Isaac B.; Welday, Jennifer N.; Elmir, Samir M.; Goff, Kendra F.; Higginbotham, J. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Children can be exposed to arsenic through play areas which may have contaminated fill material from historic land use. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk to children who play and/or spend time at baseball fields with soils shown to have arsenic above background levels. Arsenic in soils at the study sites located in Miami, FL, USA showed distinct distributions between infield, outfield, and areas adjacent to the fields. Using best estimates of exposure factors for children baseball scenarios, results show that non-cancer risks depend most heavily upon the age of the person and the arsenic exposure level. For extreme exposure scenarios evaluated in this study, children from 1 to 2 years were at highest risk for non-cancer effects (Hazard Quotient, HQ > 2.4), and risks were higher for children exhibiting pica (HQ > 9.7) which shows the importance of testing fill for land use where children may play. At the study sites, concentration levels of arsenic resulted in a range of computed cancer risks that differed by a factor of 10. In these sites, the child’s play position also affected risk. Outfield players, with a lifetime exposure to these arsenic levels, could have 10 times more increased chance of experiencing cancers associated with arsenic (i.e., lung, bladder, skin) in comparison to infielders. The distinct concentration distributions observed between these portions of the baseball fields emphasize the need to delineate contaminated areas in public property where citizens may spend more free time. This study also showed a need for more tools to improve the risk estimates for child play activities. For instance, more refined measurements of exposure factors for intake (e.g., inhalation rates under rigorous play activities, hand to mouth rates), exposure frequency (i.e., time spent in various activities) and other exposure factors (e.g., soil particulate emission rates at baseball play fields) can help pinpoint risk on baseball fields

  8. Career Length and Performance Among Professional Baseball Players Returning to Play After Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Mannava, Sandeep; Briggs, Karen K; McNamara, Shannen; Philippon, Marc J

    2018-05-01

    Hip arthroscopy has been shown to be effective for management of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in professional athletes; however, it is unclear how hip arthroscopy affects career length and performance when professional baseball players return to play. To determine the career length, performance, and return-to-play rates of professional baseball players after undergoing arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Forty-four professional baseball players (51 hips) underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI between 2000 and 2015 by a single surgeon. Data were retrieved for each player from MLB.com , MiLB.com , Baseballreference.com , and individual team websites. Age, surgical procedure, and intraoperative findings were also used in analysis. Return to play was defined as playing in a preseason or regular season major or minor league game after arthroscopy. Career length was measured as total years played before and after arthroscopy. Performance measures included earned run average for pitchers, batting average for position players, and games played for all players. Of the 44 players, there were 21 pitchers and 23 position players. Ninety-five percent (n = 42) were able to return to professional baseball after hip arthroscopy. The mean career length for all players was 9.5 years. The mean career length after return to play was 3.6 seasons (range, 1-14 seasons). Pitchers had a mean career length of 8.7 years (3.3 after surgery), and position players averaged a career length of 10 years (3.9 after surgery). There were no differences in performance measures between preinjury and postoperative values. Professional baseball players undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI returned to sport and had similar performance as they did before injury. The average career length was 9.5 years. In our study cohort, more pitchers than position players underwent hip arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy appears to be an effective surgical intervention, allowing for

  9. The utility of the KJOC score in professional baseball in the United States.

    PubMed

    Franz, Justin O; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kneip, Chris J; Noble, Philip C; Lintner, David M

    2013-09-01

    The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow questionnaire has been shown by previous studies to be more sensitive than other validated subjective measurement tools in the detection of upper extremity dysfunction in overhead-throwing athletes. The primary objective was to establish normative data for KJOC scores in professional baseball players in the United States. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effect of player age, playing position, professional competition level, history of injury, history of surgery, and time point of administration on the KJOC score. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. From 2011 to 2012, a total of 203 major league and minor league baseball players within the Houston Astros professional baseball organization completed the KJOC questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered at 3 time points: spring training 2011, end of season 2011, and spring training 2012. The KJOC scores were analyzed for significant differences based on player age, injury history, surgery history, fielding position, competition level, self-reported playing status, and time point of KJOC administration. The average KJOC score among healthy players with no history of injury was 97.1 for major league players and 96.8 for minor league players. The time point of administration did not significantly affect the final KJOC score (P = .224), and KJOC outcomes did not vary with player age (r = -0.012; P = .867). Significantly lower average KJOC scores were reported by players with a history of upper extremity injury (86.7; P < .001) and upper extremity surgery (75.4; P < .0001). The KJOC results did vary with playing position (P = .0313), with the lowest average scores being reported by pitchers (90.9) and infielders (91.3). This study establishes a quantitative baseline for the future evaluation of professional baseball players with the KJOC score. Age and time of administration had no significant effect on the outcome of the KJOC score

  10. Differences in humeral retroversion in dominant and nondominant sides of young baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nagamoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Muraki, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Sato, Katsumi; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between the disabled throwing shoulder and humeral retroversion has recently attracted a great deal of attention. However, none of the previous studies clarified when the side-to-side difference of humeral retroversion in young baseball players would start. This study aimed to clarify when the difference of humeral retroversion in the dominant and nondominant sides appeared in baseball players. The bicipital-forearm angle in bilateral shoulders of 172 elementary school baseball players was measured by ultrasound. The bicipital-forearm angle was defined as an angle between the perpendicular line to the bicipital groove and the ulnar long axis with the elbow flexed at 90°. The correlation between the bicipital-forearm angle and the grade and the difference of the bicipital-forearm angle between the dominant and nondominant sides were analyzed. In the nondominant shoulders, the bicipital-forearm angle increased with the grade in school (r = 0.32, P < .0001), but this was not observed in the dominant shoulders. In the fourth to sixth graders, the bicipital-forearm angles were significantly smaller in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders. Our findings indicated that humeral retroversion decreased with age in the nonthrowing side but not in the throwing side and that the side-to-side difference of humeral retroversion in the baseball players became obvious from the fourth grade. We assume that the repetitive throwing motion restricts the physiologic humeral derotation process and the difference became apparent from the fourth grade when the growth spurt begins in boys. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Left-handed skeletally mature baseball players have smaller humeral retroversion in the throwing arm than right-handed players.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, Tetsuya; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katsumasa; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Fukuyoshi, Masaki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Nozaki, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-12-01

    It is known that the humeral retroversion of baseball players is greater in the throwing arm than in the nonthrowing arm. An investigation measuring dry bone specimens also showed that the right humerus had greater retroversion than the left. Considering these facts, it was hypothesized that humeral retroversion would differ between right- and left-handed players. This study aimed to compare the bilateral humeral retroversion between right- and left-handed skeletally mature baseball players. We investigated 260 (196 right-handed and 64 left-handed) male baseball players who belonged to a college or amateur team. Bilateral humeral retroversion was assessed using an ultrasound-assisted technique (humeral torsion angle [HTA]) as described by previous studies. Analysis of covariance, adjusted for handedness and baseball position, assessed the effect of throwing arm dominance on HTA. In comparison of the throwing arm, HTA was significantly smaller in left-handed (left humerus) than in right-handed (right humerus) players (77° vs. 81°; P < .001). In comparison of the nonthrowing arm, HTA was significantly greater in left-handed (right humerus) than in right-handed (left humerus) players (73° vs. 69°; P < .001). The mean side-to-side difference of HTA was significantly smaller in left-handed than in right-handed players (3° vs. 12°; P < .001). Humeral retroversion of left-handed skeletally mature baseball players was significantly smaller in the throwing arm, greater in the nonthrowing arm, and smaller in side-to-side differences than that of right-handed players. These findings may be key to understanding some of the biomechanical differences between right- and left-handed baseball players. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 30. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM SECOND FLOOR EAST BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM SECOND FLOOR EAST BALCONY FACING WEST. SHOWS ALTERNATE BAY X BRACING OF ROOF TRUSSES. ALSO SHOWS TRUSSES, WINDOWS IN THE MONITOR, STAIRWAY AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL HALL AND THE THREE LEVELS OF BENCHES ON THE BALCONY. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  13. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to amore » quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.« less

  14. Anomalous Hall resistance in bilayer quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Suzuki, S.; Tsitsishvili, G.

    2007-07-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the Hall current in the bilayer quantum Hall system on the basis of noncommutative geometry. By analyzing the Heisenberg equation of motion and the continuity equation of charge, we demonstrate the emergence of the phase current in a system where the interlayer phase coherence develops spontaneously. The phase current arranges itself to minimize the total energy of the system, as it induces certain anomalous behaviors in the Hall current in the counterflow geometry and also in the drag experiment. They explain the recent experimental data for anomalous Hall resistances due to Kellogg [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 126804 (2002); 93, 036801 (2004)] and Tutuc [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036802 (2004)] at ν=1 .

  15. 5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall on east side of building, facing southeast. Ticket booth center foreground, stairway to auditorium right foreground. - Community Hall, Rainier Avenue & View Drive, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment.

  17. Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Post, Eric G.; Laudner, Kevin G.; McLoda, Todd A.; Wong, Regan; Meister, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Context Throwing a baseball is a dynamic and violent act that places large magnitudes of stress on the shoulder and elbow. Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables throughout the throwing motion. However, very little research has directly examined the relationship between these kinetic variables and ball velocity. Objective To examine the correlation of peak ball velocity with elbow-valgus torque, shoulder external-rotation torque, and shoulder-distraction force in a group of collegiate baseball pitchers. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-seven asymptomatic National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball pitchers (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 186.2 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 86.7 ± 7.0 kg; 48 right handed, 19 left handed). Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured peak ball velocity using a radar gun and shoulder and elbow kinetics of the throwing arm using 8 electronically synchronized, high-speed digital cameras. We placed 26 reflective markers on anatomical landmarks of each participant to track 3-dimensional coordinate data. The average data from the 3 highest-velocity fastballs thrown for strikes were used for data analysis. We calculated a Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the associations between ball velocity and peak elbow-valgus torque, shoulder-distraction force, and shoulder external-rotation torque (P < .05). Results A weak positive correlation was found between ball velocity and shoulder-distraction force (r = 0.257; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.47; r2 = 0.066; P = .018). However, no significant correlations were noted between ball velocity and elbow-valgus torque (r = 0.199; 95% CI = −0.043, 0.419; r2 = 0.040; P = .053) or shoulder external-rotation torque (r = 0.097; 95% CI = −0.147, 0.329; r2 = 0.009; P = .217). Conclusions Although a weak positive correlation was present between ball velocity

  18. In support of a hot hand in professional basketball and baseball.

    PubMed

    Shea, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have found little empirical evidence to suggest that National Basketball Association (NBA) and Major League Baseball (MLB) players have hot streaks. This has led some to suggest that hot hands do not exist and that offensive and defensive strategies adjusting to perceived hot hands are suboptimal. We study the MLB's Home Run Derby and the NBA's 3-point Shootout. When there is no defense, extended time between shots has been removed, and shot or swing selection is constant, we find evidence that player performance is nonstationary. Our results are consistent with beliefs long held by players, coaches, and fans, research on the importance of self-efficacy in sports, and studies that support the existence of hot streaks in sports with no or limited defense. © 2013 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. The effect of ocular dominance on the performance of professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laby, D M; Kirschen, D G; Rosenbaum, A L; Mellman, M F

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a performance difference exists between baseball players with "same" (right-right) and "crossed" (right-left) hand-ocular dominance. A cohort study design was used. Four hundred and ten major and minor league members of the Los Angeles Dodgers professional baseball team. Measurement of ocular dominance. Batting average and earned run average (ERA). Same/crossed dominance (with P values in parentheses) are as follows: Batting averages: major league-0.271/0.251 (0.20); minor league-0.274/0.270 (0.57); ERA: major league-3.34/3.56 (0.66); minor league-4.00/4.20 (0.54). Hand-ocular dominance patterns do not have an effect on batting average or ERA.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff muscles after baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Niitsu, M; Takahashi, H; Itai, Y

    2003-12-01

    The purposes of present study were to investigate quantitatively using functional MR imaging the effect of a series of throwing activities on rotator cuff muscles and to compare the effect of pitching with that of all-out shoulder external rotator exercise as the targeted external rotator muscle group (the infraspinatus and the teres minor). MRI measurements after 135 baseball pitches or all-out shoulder external rotator exercise (concentric mode) in each subject's nondominant shoulder. 6 amateur baseball pitchers. serial T2-weighted images of rotator cuff muscles were obtained before pitching (or shoulder exercise) and immediately, 30, 60 min, 24, 48, 96 hrs after pitching (or shoulder exercise). T2 relaxation times (T2) at each measurement time were calculated for the rotator cuff muscles. Both the supraspinatus and the external rotator muscle group showed significant T2 elevations until 96 hrs after pitching. The subscapularis also showed significantly increased T2 until postpitching 48 hrs. On the other hand, a significant T2 elevation continued until 60 min after shoulder exercise, but thereafter returned towards the value at rest over the next 24 hrs. Long lasting T2 elevations in rotator cuff muscles would be associated with an increase in each intramuscular water content, and may be attributed to the muscle damage that resulted from eccentric contraction during pitching. This information should serve as a useful complement to shoulder injury prevention for baseball pitchers.

  1. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  2. Topological Hall Effect in Skyrmions: A Nonequilibrium Coherent Transport Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Gen; Zang, Jiadong; Lake, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Skyrmion is a topological spin texture recently observed in many materials with broken inversion symmetry. In experiments, one effective method to detect the skyrmion crystal phase is the topological Hall measurement. At adiabatic approximation, previous theoretical studies show that the Hall signal is provided by an emergent magnetic field, which explains the topological Hall effect in the classical level. Motivated by the potential device application of skyrmions as digital bits, it is important to understand the topological Hall effect in the mesoscopic level, where the electron coherence should be considered. In this talk, we will discuss the quantum aspects of the topological Hall effect on a tight binding setup solved by nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF). The charge distribution, Hall potential distribution, thermal broadening effect and the Hall resistivity are investigated in detail. The relation between the Hall resistance and the DM interaction is investigated. Driven by the spin transferred torque (SST), Skyrmion dynamics is previously studied within the adiabatic approximation. At the quantum transport level, this talk will also discuss the non-adiabatic effect in the skyrmion motion with the presence of the topological Hall effect. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. NSF 1128304 and NSF 1124733. It was also supported in part by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, an SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  3. A clinical and ultrasonographic study of risk factors for elbow injury in young baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tajika, T; Kobayashi, T; Yamamoto, A; Kaneko, T; Shitara, H; Shimoyama, D; Iizuka, Y; Okamura, K; Yonemoto, Y; Warita, T; Ohsawa, T; Nakajima, I; Iizuka, H; Takagishi, K

    2016-04-01

    To determine the risk factors for elbow injury and its association with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit among young baseball players. 229 baseball players aged 9 to 14 (mean, 11) years completed a self-administered questionnaire with items related to years of playing baseball, hours of training per weekday, days of training per week, and past and present experience of elbow pain. Two orthopaedic surgeons measured the range of motion of both shoulders and elbows. Another 2 orthopaedic surgeons performed ultrasonography to detect any elbow abnormality such as fragmentation of the medial epicondylar apophysis and osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum. Using univariate and multivariable analyses, participants with or without elbow abnormality were compared to determine the risk factors for elbow abnormality. Elbow abnormality was detected in 100 of the participants and comprised osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum (n=18) and fragmentation of the medial epicondylar apophysis (n=82). Elbow abnormality was associated with being a pitcher, past and present experience of elbow pain, loss of elbow extension, and the side-to-side internal rotation difference. The 100 participants with elbow abnormality were stratified into symptomatic (n=57) or asymptomatic (n=43) of elbow pain. Those with elbow abnormality and elbow pain was associated with being a pitcher. Being a pitcher was a risk factor for both elbow abnormality and elbow pain. Nonetheless, 43% of baseball players with elbow abnormality were asymptomatic. The use of ultrasonography was effective in detecting elbow abnormality and enabling early treatment.

  4. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = <0.01) and fifth (p = 0.02) innings in AC trial (31.3 ± 2 m·s for both innings) compared with NC trial (30.0 ± 2.22 m·s and 30.4 ± 1.99 m·s, for the fourth and fifth innings, respectively. AC resulted in a significantly lower RPE (p ≤ 0.01) and improved PRS (p ≤ 0.01) compared with NC. Intermittent cryotherapy attenuated velocity loss in baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game.

  5. Biomechanical performance of baseball pitchers with a history of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Leddon, Charles E; Laughlin, Walter A; Ciccotti, Michael G; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Aune, Kyle T; Escamilla, Rafael F; MacLeod, Toran D; Andrews, James R

    2015-05-01

    A relatively high number of active professional baseball pitchers have a history of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLr) on their throwing elbow. Controversy exists in the literature about whether professional baseball pitchers regain optimal performance after return from UCLr. It has been suggested that pitchers may have different biomechanics after UCLr, but this has not been previously tested. It was hypothesized that, compared with a control group without a history of UCLr, professional pitchers with a history of UCLr would have (1) significantly different throwing elbow and shoulder biomechanics; (2) a shortened stride, insufficient trunk forward tilt, and excessive shoulder horizontal adduction, characteristics associated with "holding back" or being tentative; (3) late shoulder rotation; and (4) improper shoulder abduction and trunk lateral tilt. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 80 active minor league baseball pitchers (and their 8 Major League Baseball organizations) agreed to participate in this study. Participants included 40 pitchers with a history of UCLr and a matched control group of 40 pitchers with no history of elbow or shoulder surgery. Passive ranges of motion were measured for each pitcher's elbows and shoulders, and then 23 reflective markers were attached to his body. The pitcher took as many warm-up pitches as desired and then threw 10 full-effort fastballs for data collection. Ball speed was recorded with a radar gun. The reflective markers were tracked with a 10-camera, 240-Hz automated motion analysis system. Eleven biomechanical parameters were computed for each pitch and then averaged for each participant. Demographic, range of motion, and biomechanical parameters were compared between the UCLr group and the control group by use of Student t tests (significance set at P<.05). All hypotheses were rejected, as there were no differences in pitching biomechanics between the UCLr group and the control group. There were also

  6. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  7. Difference Between Adolescent and Collegiate Baseball Pitchers in the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Limbs and Trunk During Pitching Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s-1) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s-1). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered. Key points Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward. Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to

  8. Hip and upper extremity kinematics in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Holt, Taylor; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion. Hip range of motion deficits can constrain pelvis rotation and limit energy generation in the lower extremities. Shoulder pathomechanics can then develop as greater responsibility is placed on the shoulder to generate the energy lost from the proximal segments, increasing risk of upper extremity injury. Additionally, it appears that passive seated measurements of hip range of motion may not accurately reflect the dynamic range of motion of the hips through the progression of the pitch cycle.

  9. Descriptive profile of hip rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Ellenbecker, Gail A; Roetert, E Paul; Silva, Rogerio Teixeira; Keuter, Greg; Sperling, Fabio

    2007-08-01

    Repetitive loading to the hip joint in athletes has been reported as a factor in the development of degenerative joint disease and intra-articular injury. Little information is available on the bilateral symmetry of hip rotational measures in unilaterally dominant upper extremity athletes. Side-to-side differences in hip joint range of motion may be present because of asymmetrical loading in the lower extremities of elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers. Cohort (cross-sectional) study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 1. Descriptive measures of hip internal and external rotation active range of motion were taken in the prone position of 64 male and 83 female elite tennis players and 101 male professional baseball pitchers using digital photos and computerized angle calculation software. Bilateral differences in active range of motion between the dominant and nondominant hip were compared using paired t tests and Bonferroni correction for hip internal, external, and total rotation range of motion. A Pearson correlation test was used to test the relationship between years of competition and hip rotation active range of motion. No significant bilateral difference (P > .005) was measured for mean hip internal or external rotation for the elite tennis players or the professional baseball pitchers. An analysis of the number of subjects in each group with a bilateral difference in hip rotation greater than 10 degrees identified 17% of the professional baseball pitchers with internal rotation differences and 42% with external rotation differences. Differences in the elite male tennis players occurred in only 15% of the players for internal rotation and 9% in external rotation. Female subjects had differences in 8% and 12% of the players for internal and external rotation, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the mean total arc of hip range of internal and external rotation in the elite tennis players with the dominant side being greater

  10. FORT HALL SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDY (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality monitoring on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation has revealed numerous exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 24-h averaged PM10 mass. Wind-directional analysis coupled with PM10 measurements have identified the FMC elemental phosphorus p...

  11. Sharpless Outlines His Plans for NCI During Spring Town Hall | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    At the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Spring Town Hall, new director Norman E. “Ned” Sharpless, M.D., summarized his goals for NCI’s role in cancer research. The event, which was held at NCI Shady Grove and livestreamed to eight other major NCI locations, was Sharpless’ first town hall since his six-month “listening and learning tour” concluded.

  12. Preseason shoulder strength measurements in professional baseball pitchers: identifying players at risk for injury.

    PubMed

    Byram, Ian R; Bushnell, Brandon D; Dugger, Keith; Charron, Kevin; Harrell, Frank E; Noonan, Thomas J

    2010-07-01

    The ability to identify pitchers at risk for injury could be valuable to a professional baseball organization. To our knowledge, there have been no prior studies examining the predictive value of preseason strength measurements. Preseason weakness of shoulder external rotators is associated with increased risk of in-season throwing-related injury in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Preseason shoulder strength was measured for all pitchers in a professional baseball organization over a 5-year period (2001-2005). Prone internal rotation (IR), prone external rotation (PER), seated external rotation (SER), and supraspinatus (SS) strength were tested during spring training before each season. The players were then prospectively followed throughout the season for incidence of throwing-related injury. Injuries were categorized on an ordinal scale, with no injury, injury treated conservatively, and injury resulting in surgery delineated 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Subset analyses of shoulder injuries and of players with prior surgery were also performed. The association between strength measurements and injury was analyzed using Spearman rank correlation. A statistically significant association was observed for PER strength (P = .003), SER strength (P = .048), and SS strength (P = .006) with throwing-related injury requiring surgical intervention. Supraspinatus strength was also significantly associated with incidence of any shoulder injury (P = .031). There was an association between the ratio of PER/IR strength and incidence of shoulder injury (P = .037) and some evidence for an association with overall incidence of throwing-related injury (P = .051). No associations were noted in the subgroup of players with prior surgery. Preseason weakness of external rotation and SS strength is associated with in-season throwing-related injury resulting in surgical intervention in professional baseball pitchers. Thus, preseason strength

  13. Vascular changes of the hand in professional baseball players with emphasis on digital ischemia in catchers.

    PubMed

    Ginn, T Adam; Smith, Adam M; Snyder, Jon R; Koman, L Andrew; Smith, Beth P; Rushing, Julia

    2005-07-01

    Repetitive trauma to the hand is a concern for baseball players. The present study investigated the effects of repetitive trauma and the prevalence of microvascular pathological changes in the hands of minor league professional baseball players. In contrast to previous investigators, we documented the presence of abnormalities in younger, asymptomatic individuals. Thirty-six baseball players on active minor league rosters underwent a history and physical examination of both hands as well as additional specialized tests, including Doppler ultrasound, a timed Allen test, determination of digital brachial pressure indices, and ring sizing of fingers. Data were compared between gloved hands and throwing hands, hitters and nonhitters, and players at four different positions (catcher [nine subjects], outfielder [seven subjects], infielder [five subjects], and pitcher [fifteen subjects]). Digital brachial indices in the ring fingers of the gloved (p < 0.05) and throwing hands (p < 0.02) of catchers were significantly diminished compared with those in all other players. Doppler testing showed a significantly greater prevalence of abnormal flow in the ulnar artery at Guyon's canal when catchers were compared with other position players (p < 0.01). Doppler abnormalities were significantly more common in the gloved hand compared with the throwing hand (p < 0.05). Seven of nine catchers (and only catchers) were found to have index finger hypertrophy (average change, two ring sizes; p < 0.01); the hypertrophy occurred at the proximal phalanx and the proximal interphalangeal joint of the gloved hand. Catchers had a significantly higher prevalence of subjective hand symptoms (specifically, weakness in the gloved hand) compared with pitchers and infielders/outfielders (44% compared with 7% and 17%, respectively; p < 0.05). Microvascular changes are present in the hands of otherwise healthy professional baseball players in all positions, with a significantly higher prevalence in

  14. The Economics of the Duration of the Baseball World Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Alexander E.; Lowenthal, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This note examines some statistical features of the major league baseball World Series. We show that, based upon actual historical data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two World Series teams are evenly matched. Yet, we can also calculate the relative strengths of the teams that would best match the actual outcomes, and we find that those…

  15. Automatic Detection of Pitching and Throwing Events in Baseball With Inertial Measurement Sensors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nick B; Black, Georgia M; Whiteley, Rod J; Gahan, Peter; Cole, Michael H; Utting, Andy; Gabbett, Tim J

    2017-04-01

    Throwing loads are known to be closely related to injury risk. However, for logistic reasons, typically only pitchers have their throws counted, and then only during innings. Accordingly, all other throws made are not counted, so estimates of throws made by players may be inaccurately recorded and underreported. A potential solution to this is the use of wearable microtechnology to automatically detect, quantify, and report pitch counts in baseball. This study investigated the accuracy of detection of baseball pitching and throwing in both practice and competition using a commercially available wearable microtechnology unit. Seventeen elite youth baseball players (mean ± SD age 16.5 ± 0.8 y, height 184.1 ± 5.5 cm, mass 78.3 ± 7.7 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed pitching, fielding, and throwing during practice and competition while wearing a microtechnology unit. Sensitivity and specificity of a pitching and throwing algorithm were determined by comparing automatic measures (ie, microtechnology unit) with direct measures (ie, manually recorded pitching counts). The pitching and throwing algorithm was sensitive during both practice (100%) and competition (100%). Specificity was poorer during both practice (79.8%) and competition (74.4%). These findings demonstrate that the microtechnology unit is sensitive to detect pitching and throwing events, but further development of the pitching algorithm is required to accurately and consistently quantify throwing loads using microtechnology.

  16. Concert hall acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Manfred

    2004-05-01

    I will review some work at Bell Laboratories on artificial reverberation and concert hall acoustics including Philharmonic Hall (Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York). I will also touch on sound diffusion by number-theoretic surfaces and the measurement of reverberation time using the music as played in the hall as a ``test'' signal.

  17. Physical Risk Factors for a Medial Elbow Injury in Junior Baseball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 353 Players.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Jun; Nakamura, Emi; Suzukawa, Makoto; Akaike, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started. Bilateral passive range of motion (ROM) of elbow extension and flexion, external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) of the shoulder, and ER and IR of the hip were measured. IR and ER strength of the shoulder and scapular muscles were measured on both sides. The thoracic kyphosis angle was measured with participants in a relaxed standing position. Before these examinations, every participant completed a questionnaire regarding his or her age, sex, total years of baseball played, position in baseball, number of balls thrown, and episodes of pain during throwing. After the initial test session, each participant was followed up for 12 months to assess for the occurrence of a new injury. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for a medial elbow injury. Seventy-eight players (22.1%) sustained a medial elbow injury. Age ≥9 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.708; 95% CI, 1.224-5.990), pitcher position (OR, 2.620; 95% CI, 1.389-4.941), >100 throws per day (OR, 1.936; 95% CI, 1.072-3.497), thoracic kyphosis angle ≥30° (OR, 2.501; 95% CI, 1.381-4.531), and elbow extension deficit ≥5° (OR, 1.973; 95% CI, 1.022-3.809) were significantly associated with a medial elbow injury. The incidence of an initial medial elbow injury was 22.1%. Age, number of throws per day, thoracic kyphosis angle, and elbow extension deficit are newly discovered risk factors related to physical function. Improvement of the posture and early detection of a silent elbow extension deficit may prevent a medial elbow injury.

  18. The Youth Throwing Score: Validating Injury Assessment in Young Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Padaki, Ajay S; Noticewala, Manish S; Makhni, Eric C; Popkin, Charles A

    2017-02-01

    Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported recently in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for young baseball players. We hypothesized that this tool will be both reliable and valid. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by an interdisciplinary team of providers and coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in youth and adolescent baseball players (age range, 10-18 years). The psychometric properties of the test were then determined. A total of 223 players completed the final survey. The players' mean age was 14.3 ± 2.7 years. Pilot analysis showed that none of the 14 questions received a mean athlete importance rating less than 3 of 5, and the final survey read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, which is appropriate for patients aged 9 years and older. The players self-assigned their injury status, resulting in a mean instrument score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players "playing without pain," 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players "playing with pain," and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players "not playing due to pain." Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain and those not playing due to pain ( P < .001). Psychometric analysis showed a test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a Cronbach alpha intra-item reliability coefficient of 0.93, indicating excellent reliability and internal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.65, 0.62, and 0.31 were calculated between the YTS and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument sports/physical functioning module, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow score, and the Quick Disabilities of the

  19. Visual abilities distinguish pitchers from hitters in professional baseball.

    PubMed

    Klemish, David; Ramger, Benjamin; Vittetoe, Kelly; Reiter, Jerome P; Tokdar, Surya T; Appelbaum, Lawrence Gregory

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that differences in sensorimotor abilities exist between hitters and pitchers in a large cohort of baseball players of varying levels of experience. Secondary data analysis was performed on 9 sensorimotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery. Bayesian hierarchical regression modelling was applied to test for differences between pitchers and hitters in data from 566 baseball players (112 high school, 85 college, 369 professional) collected at 20 testing centres. Explanatory variables including height, handedness, eye dominance, concussion history, and player position were modelled along with age curves using basis regression splines. Regression analyses revealed better performance for hitters relative to pitchers at the professional level in the visual clarity and depth perception tasks, but these differences did not exist at the high school or college levels. No significant differences were observed in the other 7 measures of sensorimotor capabilities included in the test battery, and no systematic biases were found between the testing centres. These findings, indicating that professional-level hitters have better visual acuity and depth perception than professional-level pitchers, affirm the notion that highly experienced athletes have differing perceptual skills. Findings are discussed in relation to deliberate practice theory.

  20. Preseason screening of shoulder range of motion and humeral retrotorsion does not predict injury in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Sakiko; Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Myers, Joseph B

    2017-07-01

    Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonplace in high school baseball. Although altered shoulder range of motion (ROM) and humeral retrotorsion angles have been associated with injuries, the efficacy of preseason screening of these characteristics remains controversial. We conducted preseason screenings for shoulder internal and external rotation ROM and humeral retrotorsion on 832 high school baseball players and tracked their exposure and incidence on throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries during a subsequent season. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to determine whether preseason screening could identify injury risk in baseball players and whether the injury risk was higher for pitchers compared with players who do not pitch. Shoulder rotation ROM or humeral retrotorsion at preseason did not predict the risk of throwing-related upper extremity injury (P = .15-.89). Injury risk was 3.84 higher for baseball players who pitched compared with those who did not (95% confidence interval, 1.72-8.56; P = .001). Preseason measures of shoulder ROM and humeral retrotorsion may not be effective in identifying players who are at increased injury risk. Because shoulder ROM is a measure that fluctuates under a variety of influences, future study should investigate whether taking multiple measurements during a season can identify at-risk players. The usefulness of preseason screening may also depend on rigor of participation in sports. Future studies should investigate how preseason shoulder characteristics and participation factors (ie, pitch count and frequency, competitive level, pitching in multiple leagues) interact to predict injury risk in baseball players. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  2. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. Baseball caps of the Atlanta Braves and Cleveland Indians in the flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-25

    STS073-E-5135 (26 Oct. 1995) --- Baseball caps from the two 1995 World Series representative franchises float near the cabin windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia, with the Earth in the background. The American League champion Cleveland Indians and their National League counterpart Atlanta Braves were engaged in a scheduled best-of-seven World Series throughout the first portion of the scheduled 16-day mission in space. Off-duty crewmembers came out of a rest period to set up the scene in tribute to the October classic. The crew will continue working in shifts around the clock on a diverse assortment of United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) experiments located in the science module. Fields of study include fluid physics, materials science, biotechnology, combustion science and commercial space processing technologies. The frame was exposed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  4. Effect of Predraft Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction on Future Performance in Professional Baseball: A Matched Cohort Comparison.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conte, Stan; D'Angelo, John; Fealy, Stephen A; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the annual number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions performed in amateur baseball pitchers. Accordingly, increasing numbers of players are entering professional baseball having already undergone the procedure; however, the effect of prior UCL reconstruction on future success remains unknown. (1) To provide an epidemiologic report on baseball players who undergo UCL reconstruction before being selected in the Major League Baseball (MLB) Draft, (2) to define the outcomes in terms of statistical performance, and (3) to compare these results with those of matched controls (ie, non-UCL reconstruction). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The MLB Amateur Draft Database was queried to identify all drafted pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction before being drafted. For each pitcher drafted from 2005 to 2014 with prior UCL reconstruction, 3 healthy controls with no history of elbow surgery were randomly identified for matched analysis. A number of demographic and performance comparisons were made between these groups. A total of 345 pitchers met inclusion criteria. The annual number of pitchers undergoing predraft UCL reconstructions rose steadily from 2005 to 2016 ( P < .001). For matched control analysis, 252 pitchers with a UCL reconstruction and a minimum 2-year follow-up (drafted between 2005 and 2014) were matched to 756 controls (non-UCL reconstruction). As compared with the non-UCL reconstruction group, pitchers who underwent predraft UCL reconstruction reached the MLB level with greater frequency (20% vs 12%, P = .003), and their MLB statistical performances were similar for all measures. Compared with all other pitchers drafted during that period, players who had a predraft UCL reconstruction demonstrated an increased likelihood of reaching progressive levels of play (Full Season A, AA, and MLB) within a given time frame ( P < .05 for all). The number of UCL reconstructions performed in

  5. A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Kohji; Tagami, Yuichi; Mimura, Osamu; Edagawa, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Masao; Nakayama, Teiichi

    2013-01-01

    Background It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively) of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period), B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time), and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team). They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders) and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in KVA between the pitchers and the fielders (t-test; P < 0.05) There was no statistically significant difference in DVA between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the examined visual functions among player groups with different performance levels. PMID:23569356

  6. Bilateral differences in the upper quarter function of high school aged baseball and softball players.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert J; Myers, Heather S; Black, Douglass; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J; Moorman, Claude T; Queen, Robin M

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-UQ) was developed as a way to identify upper extremity and trunk mobility in the open kinetic chain in the reaching limb as well as midrange limitations and asymmetries of upper extremity and core stability in the closed kinetic chain on the stabilizing limb. Performance on the YBT-UQ is similar between genders and between limbs; however, this has not been examined in athletes who participate in sports that result in upper extremity asymmetries. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if differences exist between the throwing vs. non-throwing sides in high-school baseball and softball athletes on the YBT-UQ. In order to complete this forty-eight male high school baseball players and seventeen female high school softball players were tested on the YBT-UQ. Reach distances were normalized to arm length (% AL). Comparisons were made between the throwing (T) and non-throwing (NT) arm for each direction as well as the composite score. No significant differences were observed between the T and NT arm for the medial (NT: 98.4 ± 8.6 %AL, T: 99.1 ± 8.6 %AL, p=0.42), inferolateral (NT: 90.8 ± 11.8 %AL, T: 90.3 ± 11.5 %AL, p =0.61), superolateral (NT: 70.6 ± 10.9 %AL, T: 70.4 ± 11.1 % AL, p=0.91) reaches, or the composite score (NT: 87.2 ± 8.9 % AL, T: 86.6 ± 8.1 %AL, p=0.72). Similarly, no differences were observed between the male baseball and female softball players (p=0.30-0.90). Based on these findings, it was concluded that there was no difference in performance on the YBT-UQ between throwing and non-throwing limbs in high school baseball and softball players. 3.

  7. The Use of an Orthopaedic Rating System in Major League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    McGahan, Patrick J.; Fronek, Jan; Hoenecke, Heinz R.; Keefe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the majority of Major League Baseball teams use an orthopaedic rating system to evaluate draft picks, little has been published on the topic. Hypothesis: Our goal was to assess the attitudes among Major League Baseball physicians regarding 3 common diagnoses in pitching prospects, through the use of an orthopaedic rating system. Our hypothesis was that the assigned orthopaedic grades would vary among physicians, diagnoses, and operative-versus-nonoperative and recent-versus-past treatment. Study Design: Survey. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A survey in the form of 12 clinical vignettes was used to query Major League Baseball physicians regarding ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries, type II superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears, and internal impingement. Respondents graded draft picks using an orthopaedic rating system. The vignettes covered both operative and nonoperative and recent and past treatment (successful return to pitching for 1 year). Results: The orthopaedic grades assigned by respondents were as follows (minimal, moderate, severe risk): past UCL reconstruction (73%, 27%, 0%), recent UCL reconstruction (19%, 77%, 4%), past UCL strain (28%, 60%, 12%), recent UCL strain (0%, 48%, 52%), past SLAP repair (52%, 48%, 0%), recent SLAP repair (4%, 64%, 32%), past SLAP nonoperative (28%, 60%, 12%), recent SLAP nonoperative (0%, 36%, 64%), past internal impingement operative (24%, 68%, 8%), recent internal impingement operative (8%, 32%, 60%), past internal impingement nonoperative (24%, 68%, 8%), and recent internal impingement nonoperative (4%, 48%, 44%). Conclusion: Team physicians are optimistic regarding the outcome of UCL reconstruction. In contrast, UCL strains, type II SLAP lesions, and internal impingement carry a guarded prognosis. For all diagnoses, regardless of treatment, the prognosis improved if a player returned to pitching for 1 full season. Clinical Relevance: This study represents a first step toward

  8. Do scores on a tachistoscope test correlate with baseball batting averages?

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Garchow, Kenneth E; Baird, Richard Y

    2011-05-01

    Millions of dollars are spent each year by individuals seeking to improve their athletic performance. One area of visual training is the use of the tachistoscope, which measures inspection time or visual recognition time. Although the potential of the tachistoscope as a training tool has received some research attention, its use as a means of measurement or predictor of athletic ability in sports has not been explored. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the potential of the tachistoscope as a measurement instrument by determining if a baseball player's ability to identify a tachistoscopically presented picture of a pitch is correlated with hitting performance as measured by batting average. Using sport-specific slides, 20 subjects-all non-pitching members of the Pacific University Baseball Team-were administered a tachistoscopic test. The test consisted of identifying the type of pitch illustrated in 30 randomly ordered slides depicting a pitcher throwing four different baseball pitches. Each slide was presented for 0.2 sec. The results of the test were compared with the athlete's previous season's batting average. A positive correlation was found between an athlete's ability to correctly identify a picture of a pitch presented tachistoscopically and batting average (r=0.648; P<0.01). These results suggest that a superior ability to recognize pitches presented via tachistoscope may correlate with a higher skill level in batting. Tachistoscopic test scores correlated positively with batting averages. The tachistoscope may be an acceptable tool to help in assessing batting performance. Additional testing with players from different sports, different levels of ability, and different tachistoscopic times should be performed to determine if the tachistoscope is a valid measure of athletic ability. Implications may also be drawn in other areas such as military and police work.

  9. Determinants of Major League Baseball Pitchers' Career Length.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rich; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa; Bowman, Ray; Brand, Jefferson C

    2017-02-01

    To investigate variables (injury, position, performance, and pitching volume) that affect the career longevity of Major League Baseball pitchers. To be eligible, pitchers must have entered Major League Baseball between 1989 and 1992 without missing information for the variables on the website http://www.baseball-reference.com. The variables assessed were average innings pitched per year before and after age 25 years, earned run average, walks and hits divided by innings pitched, strikeout to walk ratio, pitching position, time on the disabled list, length of career, and starting and retirement age. We used analysis of variance to compare the differences between groups and a regression model to assess the relationship between variables before age 25 years and career length. Mean retirement age for the group was 31.74 (95% confidence interval 30.83-32.65) and mean career length was 10.97 (95% confidence interval, 10.02-11.92) years. Innings pitched after age 25 years increased slightly, but not significantly, from the number of innings pitched before age 25 years, 85.35 versus 74.25, P = .5063. Career earned run average was not significantly different after age 25 years compared with before age 25 years, 4.83 versus 5.58, respectively, P = .8834. Both strikeout to walk ratio, 1.55 to 1.77, P = .0022, and walks and hits divided by innings pitched, 1.63 to 1.50, P = .0339, improved significantly after age 25 years compared with before age 25 years. The position the player started and ended his career (starter or reliever) did not influence career length. Multiple regression analysis comparing the variables from before age 25 revealed only the number of innings pitched before age 25 were positively related to career length, R 2  = 0.1408, P < .0001. All other variables analyzed before age 25 years were not significantly related to career length. The only studied variable that had significant relationship, which was weak to low, with career length was

  10. Assessment and rehabilitation of chronic low back pain in baseball: part II

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Joseph G.; Zaremski, Jason L.; Herman, Daniel C.; Vincent, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive throwing and hitting motions in baseball place mechanical stresses to the lumbar spine which may cause low back pain (LBP). Pain may be due to vertebral stress reactions or insufficiency fractures, intervertebral disc degeneration or intervertebral disc herniation. Untreated chronic conditions have high potential to lead to a more significant injury such as spondylolysis. Chronic LBP increases the risk for missed playing time, early career termination and lower quality of life after retirement. Proper clinical assessment and prevention/rehabilitation of LBP in this population is thus important for performance, play time and overall long-term quality of life. This narrative review synopsizes the available evidence for assessment and rehabilitation of baseball players with LBP, including the structured rehabilitative techniques and programmes which should be administered to affected players. The state of the evidence suggests that there are deficits in identifying the optimal prevention and rehabilitation prescription components for the variety of LBP-inducing injuries in this athletic population. PMID:28128000

  11. Assessment and rehabilitation of chronic low back pain in baseball: part II.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Joseph G; Zaremski, Jason L; Herman, Daniel C; Vincent, Heather K

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive throwing and hitting motions in baseball place mechanical stresses to the lumbar spine which may cause low back pain (LBP). Pain may be due to vertebral stress reactions or insufficiency fractures, intervertebral disc degeneration or intervertebral disc herniation. Untreated chronic conditions have high potential to lead to a more significant injury such as spondylolysis. Chronic LBP increases the risk for missed playing time, early career termination and lower quality of life after retirement. Proper clinical assessment and prevention/rehabilitation of LBP in this population is thus important for performance, play time and overall long-term quality of life. This narrative review synopsizes the available evidence for assessment and rehabilitation of baseball players with LBP, including the structured rehabilitative techniques and programmes which should be administered to affected players. The state of the evidence suggests that there are deficits in identifying the optimal prevention and rehabilitation prescription components for the variety of LBP-inducing injuries in this athletic population.

  12. Epidemiology of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major and Minor League Baseball Pitchers: Comprehensive Report on 1,313 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; D’Angelo, John; Fealy, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Although much as been done to better understand and characterize the epidemic of UCL reconstruction in pitchers, a comprehensive review of all UCL reconstructions performed in professional baseball pitchers is surprisingly lacking. Accordingly, the purpose of this work was to provide an epidemiologic report on every UCL reconstruction ever performed in professional baseball with a special focus on outcomes (return to play rates and time) and overall survivorship. Methods: Three resources (including the Major League Baseball [MLB] injury tracking system) were combined and cross-referenced to identify all professional baseball players who had ever undergone primary UCL reconstruction (1974 to 2015). Variables analyzed included the date of injury, date of surgery, time out of play, geographical region, and revision status. Trends over time were analyzed collectively and based on level of play at the time of surgery. A minimum of 2 years of follow up was required to determine return to play status. Revision free Kaplan-Meier survivor analysis was performed. Results: A total of 1,313 UCL reconstructions were identified. The annual rate of primary and revision UCL reconstructions rose significantly for all levels of play from 1974 to 2015 and from (p<0.001). The overall mean time to return to play (RTP) was 436 days (range 98 to 1,643). The rate of RTP to any level was 93.9% for MLB pitchers vs. 76.3% for MiLB pitchers (p<0.001), and MLB pitchers RTP at the MLB level in 73.1% of cases. The time to RTP was longer (by 54 days) for revisions (p=0.025) compared to primaries, and MLB pitchers RTP from primary surgery 95.6% of the time but only 81.8% for revision surgery (p=0.008). The revision rate was 10.7%, and the percentage of players free of revision and still playing professional baseball was 92% at 2 years, 53% at 5 years, and 17% at 10 years. Survivorship was improved for players undergoing UCL reconstruction before age 25 opposed to after 25. Conclusion

  13. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Ryan S.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2012-01-01

    Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher's hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap) resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball's velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  14. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  15. Results of Bone Peg Grafting for Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans in Adolescent Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oshiba, Hiroyuki; Itsubo, Toshiro; Ikegami, Shota; Nakamura, Koichi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Bone peg grafting (BPG) has been advocated for early-stage humeral capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (COCD). However, the clinical and radiological results of BPG, along with its indications, have not been described in detail. COCD classified as International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) I or II in adolescent baseball players can be treated successfully by BPG. Case series; Level of evidence, 4 METHODS: Eleven male baseball players (age range at surgery, 13-16 years) who underwent BPG for COCD were enrolled in this study. No improvement had been seen in any patient after 6 months of preoperative nonthrowing observation. During surgery, 2 to 5 bone pegs were inserted into the COCD lesion after confirmation of lesion stability to the bony floor. All patients were directly evaluated at 12 and 24 months after surgery by physical findings, radiological prognosis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Of the 11 patients, 10 could return to comparable baseball ability levels within 12 months. The Timmerman-Andrews score improved significantly from a mean ± SD of 171.8 ± 12.1 preoperatively to 192.3 ± 6.5 at the final observation. Radiological healing of the lesions was determined as complete in 8 patients and partial in 3. Patients possessing a centrally positioned lesion or a lesion <75% of the size of the capitellum tended most strongly to achieve complete radiological healing, while growth plate status appeared unrelated to outcome. The mean Henderson MRI score improved from 6.3 ± 1.5 to 4.8 ± 1.6 at 12 and 24 months after BPG, respectively. MRI findings also suggested that remodeling of COCD lesions had continued to up to 24 months postoperatively. BPG enabled 91% of COCD patients with ICRS OCD I or II to return to preoperative baseball abilities within 12 months. Integration of the grafted site may continue until at least 24 months postoperatively. An ICRS OCD I or II lesion with central positioning and/or occupying <75% of

  16. Epidemiology and Impact of Abdominal Oblique Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; Cohen, Steven B.; Thompson, Matthew; D’ Angelo, John; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oblique injuries are known to be a common cause of time out of play for professional baseball players, and prior work has suggested that injury rates may be on the rise in Major League Baseball (MLB). Purpose: To better understand the current incidence of oblique injuries, determine their impact based on time out of play, and to identify common injury patterns that may guide future injury prevention programs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Using the MLB Health and Injury Tracking System, all oblique injuries that resulted in time out of play in MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) during the 2011 to 2015 seasons were identified. Player demographics such as age, position/role, and handedness were included. Injury-specific factors analyzed included the following: date of injury, timing during season, days missed, mechanism, side, treatment, and reinjury status. Results: A total of 996 oblique injuries occurred in 259 (26%) MLB and 737 (74%) MiLB players. Although the injury rate was steady in MiLB, the MLB injury rate declined (P = .037). A total of 22,064 days were missed at a mean rate of 4413 days per season and 22.2 days per injury. The majority of these occurred during batting (n = 455, 46%) or pitching (n = 348, 35%), with pitchers losing 5 days more per injury than batters (P < .001). The leading side was injured in 77% of cases and took 5 days longer to recover from than trailing side injuries (P = .009). Seventy-nine (7.9%) players received either a corticosteroid or platelet-rich plasma injection, and the mean recovery time was 11 days longer compared with those who did not receive an injection (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the rate of abdominal oblique injuries is on the decline in MLB, this is not the case for MiLB, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of time out of play in professional baseball. The vast majority of injuries occur on the lead side, and these injuries result in the

  17. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  18. Forearm Flexor Injuries Among Major League Baseball Players: Epidemiology, Performance, and Associated Injuries.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Justin L; Trofa, David P; Donohue, Steve; Littlefield, Mark; Schuk, Michael; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Despite evidence highlighting the importance of the forearm flexor muscles of elite baseball players, no studies have reported on the epidemiology of flexor strains and their associated outcomes. To examine the incidence, associated injuries, and outcomes associated with forearm flexor injuries among major and minor league baseball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Injury data attributed to forearm flexor injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and minor league teams between 2010 and 2014 were obtained from the professional baseball Health and Injury Tracking System. This analysis included the number of players injured, seasonal timing of injury, days spent on the disabled list (DL), preinjury performance data, and subsequent injuries. A total of 134 and 629 forearm flexor injuries occurred in MLB and the minor leagues, respectively. The mean player age was 28.6 and 22.8 years in the MLB and minor leagues, respectively. The mean time spent on the DL for MLB players was 117.0 days, as opposed to 93.9 days in the minor leagues ( P = .272). Interestingly, pitcher performance declined in all categories examined leading up to the season of injury, with significant differences in walks plus hits per inning pitched ( P = .04) and strike percentage ( P = .036). Of MLB players with a forearm injury, subsequent injuries included 50 (37.3%) shoulder, 48 (35.8%) elbow, and 24 (17.9%) forearm injuries. Among injured minor league players, subsequent injuries included 170 (27.0%) shoulder, 156 (24.8%) elbow, and 83 (13.2%) forearm injuries. These rates of subsequent injuries were significantly higher compared with the rates of injuries sustained among players without forearm injuries in both leagues ( P < .001). Finally, 26 (19.4%) MLB and 56 (8.9%) minor league players required an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction, rates that were significantly higher compared with players without a flexor strain ( P < .001). Flexor-pronator injuries are responsible for

  19. Internal- and External-Rotation Peak Toque in Little League Baseball Players With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Improved by Closed Kinetic Chain Shoulder Training.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have explored closed kinetic chain (CKC) shoulder exercises (SEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open-chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKC SE in youth baseball players has rarely been attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain. To investigate the effects of CKC SE on the peak torque of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) in youth baseball players. Single-group pretest, posttest. Biomechanics laboratory. 23 Little League Baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome. The CKC SE with a sling was CKC shoulder-flexion exercise, extension exercise, IR exercise, and ER exercise. This exercise regimen was conducted 2 or 3 times/wk for 8 wk. The peak torque of shoulder IR and ER was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric shoulder rotation was performed, with 5 repetitions at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 15 at 180°/s. The IR and ER peak torque significantly increased at each angular velocity after the exercise program. In particular, the increase in IR and ER peak torque values was statistically significant at an angular velocity of 180°/s. CKC SE was effective in increasing shoulder IR and ER strength, demonstrating its potential benefits in the prevention and treatment of shoulder injury. In addition, increased IR peak torque appears to improve throwing velocity in baseball players.

  20. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins; Manchon, Aurelien; Spintronics Theory Group Team

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for few atomic size-nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering. This work was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through the Award No OSR-CRG URF/1/1693-01 from the Office of Sponsored Research (OSR).

  1. Relationship between grip, pinch strengths and anthropometric variables, types of pitch throwing among Japanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high

  2. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes residence halls seeking to meet needs beyond traditional mass housing for the 18- to 22-year-old students: Whittemore Hall at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College (for older students); Small Group Housing at Washington University (grouping students with common interests); and the renovation of the residence hall at Boston's…

  3. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Scott D. Altman, second from left, is inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. At far left, Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF), inducts Altman into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At right is Hall of Famer John Grunsfeld, who spoke on Altman's behalf during the ceremony. At far right is Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., who also was inducted into the AHOF Class of 2018. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  4. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., in the center, is inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. At left, Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF), inducts Jones into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At right is Hall of Famer Storey Musgrave, who spoke on Jones behalf during the ceremony. Also inducted was retired astronaut Scott D. Altman. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  5. NASA's 2004 Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Hall thruster research and development tasks conducted during fiscal year 2004 is presented. These tasks focus on: raising the technology readiness level of high power Hall thrusters, developing a moderate-power/ moderate specific impulse Hall thruster, demonstrating high-power/high specific impulse Hall thruster operation, and addressing the fundamental technical challenges of emerging Hall thruster concepts. Programmatic background information, technical accomplishments and out year plans for each program element performed under the sponsorship of the In-Space Transportation Program, Project Prometheus, and the Energetics Project are provided.

  6. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  7. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W.; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher’s face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers’ facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  8. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  9. A Pilot Study of Horizontal Head and Eye Rotations in Baseball Batting.

    PubMed

    Fogt, Nick; Persson, Tyler W

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure and compare horizontal head and eye tracking movements as baseball batters "took" pitches and swung at baseball pitches. Two former college baseball players were tested in two conditions. A pitching machine was used to project tennis balls toward the subjects. In the first condition, subjects acted as if they were taking (i.e., not swinging) the pitches. In the second condition, subjects attempted to bat the pitched balls. Head movements were measured with an inertial sensor; eye movements were measured with a video eye tracker. For each condition, the relationship between the horizontal head and eye rotations was similar for the two subjects, as were the overall head-, eye-, and gaze-tracking strategies. In the "take" condition, head movements in the direction of the ball were larger than eye movements for much of the pitch trajectory. Large eye movements occurred only late in the pitch trajectory. Gaze was directed near the ball until approximately 150 milliseconds before the ball arrived at the batter, at which time gaze was directed ahead of the ball to a location near that occupied when the ball crosses the plate. In the "swing" condition, head movements in the direction of the ball were larger than eye movements throughout the pitch trajectory. Gaze was directed near the ball until approximately 50 to 60 milliseconds prior to pitch arrival at the batter. Horizontal head rotations were larger than horizontal eye rotations in both the "take" and "swing" conditions. Gaze was directed ahead of the ball late in the pitch trajectory in the "take" condition, whereas gaze was directed near the ball throughout much of the pitch trajectory in the "swing" condition.

  10. Unaccounted Workload Factor: Game-Day Pitch Counts in High School Baseball Pitchers—An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Jones, Deborah L.; Tripp, Brady L.; Bruner, Michelle; Vincent, Heather K.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2018-01-01

    Background: Throwing injuries are common in high school baseball. Known risk factors include excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, the prevalence of pitching injuries among high school players has not decreased. One possibility to explain this pattern is that players accumulate unaccounted pitch volume during warm-up and bullpen activity, but this has not yet been examined. Hypotheses: Our primary hypothesis was that approximately 30% to 40% of pitches thrown off a mound by high school pitchers during a game-day outing are unaccounted for in current data but will be revealed when bullpen sessions and warm-up pitches are included. Our secondary hypothesis was that there is wide variability among players in the number of bullpen pitches thrown per outing. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Researchers counted all pitches thrown off a mound during varsity high school baseball games played by 34 high schools in North Central Florida during the 2017 season. Results: We recorded 13,769 total pitches during 115 varsity high school baseball starting pitcher outings. The mean ± SD pitch numbers per game were calculated for bullpen activity (27.2 ± 9.4), warm-up (23.6 ±8.0), live games (68.9 ±19.7), and total pitches per game (119.7 ± 27.8). Thus, 42.4% of the pitches performed were not accounted for in the pitch count monitoring of these players. The number of bullpen pitches thrown varied widely among players, with 25% of participants in our data set throwing fewer than 22 pitches and 25% throwing more than 33 pitches per outing. Conclusion: In high school baseball players, pitch count monitoring does not account for the substantial volume of pitching that occurs during warm-up and bullpen activity during the playing season. These extra pitches should be closely monitored to help mitigate the risk of overuse injury. PMID:29662911

  11. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Austin V.; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. Purpose: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. Results: A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing “on a line” and 70% reporting long-toss as “not on a line.” Of those throwing “on a line,” 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing “not on a line.” Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P < .001 and P = .026, respectively). ATCs used long-toss more than pitchers for interval throwing programs (P < .001). Conclusion: The definition varies for long-toss throwing distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe

  12. The Epidemiology and Effect of Sliding Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia M; Mayer, Stephanie W; Spiker, Andrea M; D'Angelo, John; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-08-01

    Although sliding occurs frequently in professional baseball, little is known about the epidemiology and effect of injuries that occur during sliding in this population of elite athletes. To describe the incidence and characteristics of sliding injuries, determine their effect in terms of time out of play, and identify common injury patterns that may represent appropriate targets for injury prevention programs in the future. Descriptive epidemiologic study. All offensive sliding injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MLB) that resulted in time out of play during a span of 5 seasons (2011-2015) were identified. In addition to player demographics, data extracted included time out of play, location on field where injury occurred, level of play, treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical), direction of slide (head vs feet first), body region injured, and diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of these injuries, and injury rates were calculated per slide. From 2011 to 2015, 1633 injuries occurred as a result of a slide. The total number of days missed per season was 4263. Surgical intervention was required for 134 (8.2%) injuries, and the mean days missed was 66.5 for players treated surgically and 12.3 days for players treated nonoperatively ( P < .001). MLB players were more likely than MiLB players to require surgical intervention (12.3% vs 7.5%, P = .019). Injuries to the hands/fingers represented 25.3% of all injuries and 31.3% of those requiring surgery. Although the majority of injuries occurred at second base (57%), the per-slide injury rate was similar across all bases ( P = .991). The estimated overall frequency of injury in MLB was once per every 336 slides, and the rate of injury for head- and feet-first slides was 1 in 249 and 413 slides, respectively ( P = .119). Injuries occurring while sliding in professional baseball result in a significant amount of time out of play for these elite athletes

  13. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  14. Comparison of dominant hand range of motion among throwing types in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on baseball pitchers' wrists, elbows, and should joints contributes to our understanding of pitchers' control over delicate joint motion and ball release. However, limited research on forearm, wrist, and hand joints prevents full comprehension of the throwing mechanism. The present descriptive laboratory study quantifies angular performances of hand and wrist joints while pitching breaking balls, including fastballs, curveballs and sliders, among pitchers with different skill levels. Nineteen baseball pitchers performed required pitching tasks (10 from university and 9 from high school). A three-dimensional motion analysis system collected pitching motion data. The range of joint motion in the wrist and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the index and middle fingers were compared among fastballs, curveballs and sliders. Thirteen reflective markers were placed on selected anatomic landmarks of the wrist, middle and index fingers of the hand. Wrist flexion angle in the pitching acceleration phase was larger in fastballs (20.58±4.07°) and sliders (22.48±5.45°) than in curveballs (9.08±3.03°) (p = .001). The flexion angle of the PIP joint was significantly larger in curveballs (38.5±3.8°) than in fastballs (30.3±4.8°) and sliders (30.2±4.5°) (p=.004) of the middle finger. Abduction angle of MP joint on the middle finger was significantly larger in curveballs (15.4 ±3.6°) than in fastballs (8.9±1.2°) and sliders (6.9±2.9°) (p=.001) of the middle finger, and the abduction angle of index finger was significantly larger in sliders (13.5±15.0°) than in fastballs (7.2 ±2.8°) (p=.007). Hand and wrist motion and grip types affect the relative position between fingers and ball, which produces different types of baseball pitches. A larger extension angle of the wrist joint and the coordination of middle and index fingers are crucial when pitching a fastball. Abduction and flexion movement on the MP joint

  15. Return to play after treatment of superior labral tears in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Fedoriw, Wasyl W; Ramkumar, Prem; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M

    2014-05-01

    The published return-to-play (RTP) rates for athletes who have undergone surgical repair of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears vary widely and are generally accepted to be lower in the subset of competitive throwers. The efficacy of nonsurgical treatment for this group is unknown. Nonsurgical treatment of SLAP tears in professional baseball players leads to RTP before consideration of surgical treatment. Incorporating performance statistics and level of competition will result in lower calculated RTP rates than have been previously reported. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of 119 consecutive patients in a single professional baseball organization with persistent shoulder pain that limited the ability to compete was performed. Sixty-eight patients had magnetic resonance imaging-documented SLAP lesions. All patients had failed 1 attempt at rehabilitation but had continued with supervised physical therapy. Treatment was according to an algorithm focusing on the correction of scapular dyskinesia and posterior capsular contracture with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), followed by pain-free return to throwing. Those who failed 2 cycles of nonsurgical treatment were treated surgically. Success was defined by 2 different standards: (1) RTP, in accordance with previous studies; and (2) a more stringent standard of return to the same level/quality of professional competition (A, AA, AAA, etc) with the incorporation of a return to preinjury individual performance statistics (earned run average, walks plus hits per inning pitched), termed "return to prior performance" (RPP). Sixty-eight athletes were identified with SLAP lesions. Twenty-one pitchers successfully completed the nonsurgical algorithm and attempted a return. Their RTP rate was 40%, and their RPP rate was 22%. The RTP rate for 27 pitchers who underwent 30 procedures was 48%, and the RPP rate was 7%. For 10 position players treated nonsurgically, the RTP rate was

  16. Outcomes After Shoulder and Elbow Injury in Baseball Players: Are We Reporting What Matters?

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Meyer, Maximilian A; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-02-01

    Return to play, as well as time to return to play, are the most important metrics considered by athletes when attempting to make treatment decisions after injury. However, the consistency of reporting of these metrics in the scientific literature is unknown. To investigate patterns of outcomes reporting in the medical literature of shoulder and elbow injuries in active baseball players. Systematic review. A systematic review of literature published within the past 10 years was performed to identify all recent clinical studies focusing on shoulder and elbow injuries in baseball players across all levels. Review articles, case reports, and laboratory/biomechanical studies were all excluded. A total of 49 studies were included for review. The majority of studies were either level 3 or level 4 evidence (96%). In total, 71% of studies reported on rates of return to preinjury level of play, whereas 31% of studies reported on time to return to preinjury level of play. Only 47% of studies reported on both rate and time of return to preinjury level of play. A minority of studies (8%) reported patient satisfaction rates. Finally, 27 different subjective and patient-reported outcomes were reported, and none of these appeared in more than 14% of all studies. Time to return to preinjury level of play is inadequately reported in studies of shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Similarly, satisfaction rates and scores are underreported. Finally, the significant variability of subjective and patient-reported outcomes utilized may undermine the ability of clinicians to accurately compare results from different studies.

  17. Error modelling of quantum Hall array resistance standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzano, Martina; Oe, Takehiko; Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Hall array resistance standards (QHARSs) are integrated circuits composed of interconnected quantum Hall effect elements that allow the realization of virtually arbitrary resistance values. In recent years, techniques were presented to efficiently design QHARS networks. An open problem is that of the evaluation of the accuracy of a QHARS, which is affected by contact and wire resistances. In this work, we present a general and systematic procedure for the error modelling of QHARSs, which is based on modern circuit analysis techniques and Monte Carlo evaluation of the uncertainty. As a practical example, this method of analysis is applied to the characterization of a 1 MΩ QHARS developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Software tools are provided to apply the procedure to other arrays.

  18. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. Side-to-side difference in dynamic unilateral balance ability and pitching performance in Japanese collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Futatsubashi, Genki; Taniguchi, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the side-to-side difference in dynamic unilateral balance ability and to determine the correlation of the balance ability with pitching performance in collegiate baseball pitchers. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five Japanese collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. Dynamic balance ability during a unilateral stance was bilaterally evaluated using the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The pitchers threw 20 fastballs at an official pitching distance; the maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy (the number of strike/20 pitches × 100) were assessed. Side-to-side difference in scores of SEBT was assessed using a paired t-test. Correlations between SEBT scores and pitching performance were evaluated for both legs using a Pearson's correlation analysis. [Results] The pivot side showed significantly higher score of the SEBT in the anteromedial direction than the stride side. On the other hand, the SEBT scores in the pivot and stride legs did not have significant correlations with maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that marked side-to-side difference does not exist in the dynamic unilateral balance ability of collegiate baseball pitchers and that the dynamic unilateral balance ability of each leg is not directly related to maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy.

  20. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, two space explorers, Scott D. Altman, second from left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., far right, are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At far left is Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, who inducted Altman and Jones into the AHOF. Second from right is Hall of Famer John Grunsfeld, who spoke on behalf of Altman during the ceremony. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  1. Spectroscopic Research of Lambda Hypdernuclei at JLab Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogami, T.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Baturin, P.; Badui, R.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Chen, C.; Chiba, A.; Christy, E.; Dalton, M.; Danagoulian, S.; De Leo, R.; Doi, D.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fujii, Y.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Jones, M.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Kawama, D.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Maeda, K.; Margaryan, A.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Maxwell, V.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman; Okayasu, Y.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Reinhold, J.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Samanta, C.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shichijo, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tang, L.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ya, L.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Yuan, L.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.

    A Λ hyperon which has a strangeness can be bound in deep inside of a nucleus since a Λ does not suffer from the Pauli exclusion principle from nucleons. Thus, a Λ could be a useful tool to investigate inside of a nucleus. Since 2000, Λ hypernuclear spectroscopic experiments by the (e,e'k) reaction have been performed at the experimental hall C in Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab Hall C). An experiment, JLab E05-115 was carried out to investigate Λ hypernuclei with a wide mass range (the mass number, A = 7, 9, 10, 12, 52). The latest analysis status of JLab E05-115 experiment is discussed in the present article.

  2. Play Ball? Reflections on My Father's Youth Baseball Experiences and Why They Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay C.

    2016-01-01

    The author uses his father's autobiographical writings about the small-town, baseball experiences of his youth as background for discussing the significant cultural shifts that have dramatically changed the nature of the game from a free-play experience for neighborhood kids to an organized youth-league sport. In contrast to his father's day, the…

  3. NASA's Hall Thruster Program 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hall thruster program currently supports a number of tasks related to high power thruster development for a number of customers including the Energetics Program (formerly called the Space-based Program), the Space Solar Power Program, and the In-space Propulsion Program. In program year 2002, two tasks were central to the NASA Hall thruster program: 1) the development of a laboratory Hall thruster capable of providing high thrust at high power-, and 2) investigations into operation of Hall thrusters at high specific impulse. In addition to these two primary thruster development activities, there are a number of other on-going activities supported by the NASA Hall thruster program. These additional activities are related to issues such as high-power power processor architecture, thruster lifetime, and spacecraft integration.

  4. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2004-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  5. Transfer of Training from Virtual to Real Baseball Batting

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The use of virtual environments (VE) for training perceptual-motors skills in sports continues to be a rapidly growing area. However, there is a dearth of research that has examined whether training in sports simulation transfers to the real task. In this study, the transfer of perceptual-motor skills trained in an adaptive baseball batting VE to real baseball performance was investigated. Eighty participants were assigned equally to groups undertaking adaptive hitting training in the VE, extra sessions of batting practice in the VE, extra sessions of real batting practice, and a control condition involving no additional training to the players’ regular practice. Training involved two 45 min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Performance on a batting test in the VE, in an on-field test of batting, and on a pitch recognition test was measured pre- and post-training. League batting statistics in the season following training and the highest level of competition reached in the following 5 years were also analyzed. For the majority of performance measures, the adaptive VE training group showed a significantly greater improvement from pre-post training as compared to the other groups. In addition, players in this group had superior batting statistics in league play and reached higher levels of competition. Training in a VE can be used to improve real, on-field performance especially when designers take advantage of simulation to provide training methods (e.g., adaptive training) that do not simply recreate the real training situation. PMID:29326627

  6. Baseball Stadium Design: Teaching Engineering Economics and Technical Communication in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Newell, James

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a course at Rowan University, based on the economic design of a baseball stadium, that offers an introduction to multidisciplinary engineering design linked with formal training in technical communication. Addresses four pedagogical goals: (1) developing public speaking skills in a realistic, business setting; (2) giving students…

  7. Basic instrumentation for Hall A at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Auerbach, L.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baker, F. T.; Baylac, M.; Beise, E. J.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Bimbot, L.; Black, T.; Boeglin, W. U.; Boykin, D. V.; Brash, E. J.; Breton, V.; Breuer, H.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Carr, R.; Cates, G. D.; Cavata, C.; Chai, Z.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N. S.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Coman, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Colombel, N.; Crateri, R.; Dale, D. S.; Degrande, N.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deur, A.; Dezern, G.; Diederich, B.; Dieterich, S.; di Salvo, R.; Djawotho, P.; Domingo, J.; Ducret, J.-E.; Dutta, D.; Egiyan, K.; Epstein, M. B.; Escoffier, S.; Esp, S.; Ewell, L. A.; Finn, J. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Folts, E.; Fonvieille, H.; Frois, B.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gavalya, A.; Gayou, O.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Giuliani, F.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Gorringe, T.; Gricia, M.; Griffioen, K.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, F. W.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmgren, H.; Holtrop, M.; d'Hose, N.; Hovhannisyan, E.; Howell, C.; Huber, G. M.; Hughes, E.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Iommi, R.; Ireland, D.; Jaminion, S.; Jardillier, J.; Jensen, S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C. E.; Jones, M. K.; Joo, K.; Jutier, C.; Kahl, W.; Kato, S.; Katramatou, A. T.; Kelly, J. J.; Kerhoas, S.; Ketikyan, A.; Khandaker, M.; Khayat, M.; Kino, K.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kox, S.; Kramer, K.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lagamba, L.; Laveissière, G.; Leone, A.; LeRose, J. J.; Marie, F.; Levchuk, L.; Leuschner, M.; Lhuillier, D.; Liang, M.; Livingston, K.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Lourie, R. W.; Lucentini, M.; Madey, R.; Maeda, K.; Malov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marroncle, J.; Martine, J.; Mayilyan, S.; McCarthy, J. S.; McCormick, K.; Mclntyre, J.; McKeown, R. D.; Meekins, D.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Milbrath, B.; Miller, J. A.; Miller, W.; Mitchell, J.; Mougey, J.; Nanda, S.; Nathan, A.; Neyret, D.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.; Papandreou, Z.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Perrino, R.; Petratos, G. G.; Petrosyan, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Platchkov, S.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D. L.; Punjabi, V. A.; Pussieux, T.; Quéméner, G.; Ransomez, R. D.; Ravel, O.; Reitz, B.; Roblin, Y.; Roche, R.; Roedelbronn, M.; Rondon-Aramayo, O. A.; Roos, P. G.; Rosner, G.; Rowntree, D.; Rutledge, G. A.; Rutt, P. M.; Rvachev, M.; Sabatavenere, F.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Santavenere, F.; Sarty, A. J.; Schneider, W. J.; Segal, J. P.; Serdarevic-Offermann, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, T. P.; Soldi, A.; Sorokin, P.; Souder, P.; Spiegel, S. L.; Stevens, M. A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Templon, J. A.; Terasawa, T.; Todor, L.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Van de Vyver, R.; van Verst, S.; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walter, R.; Watson, J. W.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiang, H.; Xiong, F.; Xu, W.; Zainea, D. G.; Zeps, V.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, X.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Zhu, L.; Zolnierczuk, P. A.

    2004-04-01

    The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electro- and photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity and good momentum and angular resolution for at least one of the reaction products. The central components of Hall A are two identical high resolution spectrometers, which allow the vertical drift chambers in the focal plane to provide a momentum resolution of better than 2×10 -4. A variety of Cherenkov counters, scintillators and lead-glass calorimeters provide excellent particle identification. The facility has been operated successfully at a luminosity well in excess of 10 38 cm-2 s-1. The research program is aimed at a variety of subjects, including nucleon structure functions, nucleon form factors and properties of the nuclear medium.

  8. Difference in Functional Performance on the Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test Between High School Baseball Players and Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heather; Poletti, Mary; Butler, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) is a unique movement test where individuals perform at the limits of their stability, requiring the coordination of balance, proprioception, range of motion, and stabilization. It is not yet clear if performance on the YBT-UQ differs between sports with dissimilar emphasis on upper-extremity performance. To compare performance on the YBT-UQ between wrestlers, whose sport requires some degree of closed-chain activity, and baseball players, whose sport is primarily open kinetic chain in nature. Cross-sectional. High school preparticipation physical assessment. 24 healthy high school male wrestlers (mean age 16.12 ± 1.24 y) and 24 healthy high school male baseball players (mean age 15.79 ± 1.25 y). All subjects performed the YBT-UQ, which requires reaching in 3 directions while maintaining a push-up position. The variables of interest include the maximum reach in each direction, as well as the composite score. In addition, asymmetries between limbs for each reach direction were compared. Wrestlers performed significantly better than baseball players in the medial direction, inferolateral direction, and in composite scores. In the medial direction, wrestlers exhibited greater scores (P < .01) on both left and right limbs, 10.5 ± 10.2%LL and 9.95 ± 10.2%LL, respectively. Significant differences (P < .01) were also observed in the inferolateral direction, with a difference of 11.3 ± 12.0%LL on the left and 8.7 ± 11.0%LL on the right. Composite scores were higher (P < .01) for the wrestlers, with a difference of 7.0% on the left and 7.1% on the right. This study suggests that wrestlers perform better on the YBT-UQ than baseball players. The findings may suggest sport-specific normative data for the YBT-UQ in high school athletes.

  9. RELATIONSHIP OF PRESEASON MOVEMENT SCREENS WITH OVERUSE SYMPTOMS IN COLLEGIATE BASEBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Daniel R.; Onate, James A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Cromartie, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Background: The shoulder mobility screen of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) and the upper extremity patterns of the Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) assess global, multi-joint movement capabilities in the upper-extremities. Identifying which assessment can most accurately determine if baseball players are at an increased risk of experiencing overuse symptoms in the shoulder or elbow throughout a competitive season may reduce throwing-related injuries requiring medical attention. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if preseason FMS™ or SFMA scores were related to overuse severity scores in the shoulder or elbow during the preseason and competitive season. Study design: Cohort study. Methods: Sixty healthy, male, Division III collegiate baseball players (mean age = 20.1 ± 2.0 years) underwent preseason testing using the FMS™ shoulder mobility screen, and SFMA upper extremity patterns. Their scores were dichotomized into good and bad movement scores, and were compared to weekly questionnaires registering overuse symptoms and pain severity in the shoulder or elbow during the season. Results: Poor FMS™ performance was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing at least one overuse symptom during the preseason independent of grade and position (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.14, p = 0.03). Poor SFMA performance was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing at least one overuse symptom during the preseason (adjusted OR = 6.10, p = 0.03) and during the competitive season (adjusted OR = 17.07, p = 0.03) independent of grade and position. Conclusion: FMS™ shoulder mobility and SFMA upper extremity pattern performance were related to the likelihood of experiencing overuse symptoms during a baseball season. Participants with poor FMSTM performances may be more likely to experience at least one overuse symptom in their shoulder or elbow during the preseason. Additionally

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted the employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted the employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  12. NASA's Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Mason, Lee S.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hall thruster program has base research and focused development efforts in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program, Space-Based Program, and various other programs. The objective of the base research is to gain an improved understanding of the physical processes and engineering constraints of Hall thrusters to enable development of advanced Hall thruster designs. Specific technical questions that are current priorities of the base effort are: (1) How does thruster life vary with operating point? (2) How can thruster lifetime and wear rate be most efficiently evaluated? (3) What are the practical limitations for discharge voltage as it pertains to high specific impulse operation (high discharge voltage) and high thrust operation (low discharge voltage)? (4) What are the practical limits for extending Hall thrusters to very high input powers? and (5) What can be done during thruster design to reduce cost and integration concerns? The objective of the focused development effort is to develop a 50 kW-class Hall propulsion system, with a milestone of a 50 kW engineering model thruster/system by the end of program year 2006. Specific program wear 2001 efforts, along with the corporate and academic participation, are described.

  13. Isolated glenohumeral range of motion, excluding side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion, in asymptomatic high-school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Takeda, Atsushi; Kawakami, Takeshi; Itami, Yasuo; Watanabe, Chisato; Doi, Munekazu; Neo, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Glenohumeral range of motion is correlated with shoulder capsular condition and is thus considered to be predictive of shoulder pathology. However, in throwing athletes, a side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion makes it difficult to evaluate capsular condition on the basis of glenohumeral range of motion measured by using the conventional technique. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral rotation, excluding side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion, in asymptomatic high-school baseball players. A total of 195 high-school baseball players (52 pitchers and 143 position players; median age, 16 years) and 20 high-school non-throwing athletes (median age, 16 years) without any shoulder symptoms were enroled in this study. Glenohumeral external and internal rotations were measured by using both a conventional technique and our ultrasound-assisted technique. This technique, neutral rotation, was standardized on the basis of the ultrasonographically visualized location of the bicipital groove to exclude side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion from the calculated rotation angle. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of rotational measurements were evaluated by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Isolated glenohumeral rotation measurements, excluding side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion, demonstrated excellent intra-observer (ICC > 0.89) and inter-observer (ICC > 0.78) agreements. Isolated glenohumeral internal rotation was significantly less in the dominant shoulder than in the non-dominant shoulder in asymptomatic baseball players (P < 0.001). Isolated glenohumeral external rotation in baseball players was significantly greater than in non-throwing athletes (P < 0.05). In the baseball players, humeral torsion in the dominant shoulder was significantly greater than that in the non-dominant shoulder (P < 0.001), indicating that the retroversion angle was greater in dominant shoulders than

  14. Predictors of fielding performance in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    The ultimate zone-rating extrapolation (UZR/150) rates fielding performance by runs saved or cost within a zone of responsibility in comparison with the league average (150 games) for a position. Spring-training anthropometric and performance measures have been previously related to hitting performance; however, their relationships with fielding performance measures are unknown. To examine the relationship between anthropometric and performance measurements on fielding performance in professional baseball players. Body mass, lean body mass (LBM), grip strength, 10-yd sprint, proagility, and vertical-jump mean (VJMP) and peak power (VJPP) were collected during spring training over the course of 5 seasons (2007-2011) for professional corner infielders (CI; n = 17, fielding opportunities = 420.7 ± 307.1), middle infielders (MI; n = 14, fielding opportunities = 497.3 ± 259.1), and outfielders (OF; n = 16, fielding opportunities = 227.9 ± 70.9). The relationships between these data and regular-season (100-opportunity minimum) fielding statistics were examined using Pearson correlation coefficients, while stepwise regression identified the single best predictor of UZR/150. Significant correlations (P < .05) were observed between UZR/150 and body mass (r = .364), LBM (r = .396), VJPP (r = .397), and VJMP (r = .405). Of these variables, stepwise regression indicated VJMP (R = .405, SEE = 14.441, P = .005) as the single best predictor for all players, although the addition of proagility performance strengthened (R = .496, SEE = 13.865, P = .002) predictive ability by 8.3%. The best predictor for UZR/150 was body mass for CI (R = .519, SEE = 15.364, P = .033) and MI (R = .672, SEE = 12.331, P = .009), while proagility time was the best predictor for OF (R = .514, SEE = 8.850, P = .042). Spring-training measurements of VJMP and proagility time may predict the defensive run value of a player over the course of a professional baseball season.

  15. Clinical assessment of scapula and hip joint function in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Michael; Hannon, Michael; Ropiak, Christopher; Gerona, Christopher; Mohr, Karen; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2014-10-01

    Proper scapulothoracic and hip mechanics are essential aspects of the throwing kinetic chain. Little is known regarding these entities in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players. Scapular malposition and dyskinesis as well as hip dysfunction are highly prevalent in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players and may be identified by simple clinical testing. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 112 baseball players aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from local Little Leagues, traveling teams, and high schools. Participants were divided into 2 groups: preadolescents (players aged 7-12 years) and adolescents (players aged 13-18 years). Scapular symmetry was tested with the yes/no method of Kibler and by measuring forward shoulder posture via the "coracoid distance." Hip abductor strength was measured by use of a handheld digital dynamometer. Functional gluteal and core strength was assessed by video analysis of the subjects performing the single-legged squat test. Hip range of motion was measured in the prone position by use of a handheld goniometer. Compared with the preadolescent group, the adolescent group had a significantly higher prevalence of scapular dyskinesis in the throwing shoulder (50% vs 25.9%, P = .011). The adolescents had significantly higher normalized hip abduction strength in both the stride (17.41 vs 12.62 N/kg, P < .001) and stance (17.82 vs 12.61 N/kg, P < .001) legs. The preadolescent group was unable to perform the single-legged squat test correctly in either the stance (0% preadolescent vs 13% adolescent, P = .0127) or stride (0% preadolescent vs 9.3% adolescent, P = .0567) leg. The mean coracoid distance was elevated in the dominant (throwing) shoulder after controlling for scapular dyskinesis (P < .0001). Presence of scapular dyskinesis was associated with a higher mean coracoid distance (P = .0067). There was a high prevalence of dominant shoulder scapular dyskinesis in the adolescent compared with the preadolescent group, as

  16. The Effect of Pilates Exercise on Trunk and Postural Stability and Throwing Velocity in College Baseball Pitchers: Single Subject Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Background Baseball pitchers need trunk strength to maximize performance. The Pilates method of exercise is gaining popularity throughout the country as a fitness and rehabilitation method of exercise. However, very few studies exist that examine the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on trunk strength or performance. Objectives Using a single subject, multiple baseline across subjects design, this study examines the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on performance of double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing velocity in college-aged baseball pitchers. Methods A convenience sample of three college baseball pitchers served as the subjects for this single subject design study. For each subject, double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing speed were measured prior to the introduction of the intervention. When baseline test values showed consistent performance, the intervention was introduced to one subject at a time. Intervention was introduced to the other subjects over a period of 4 weeks as they also demonstrated consistent performance on the baseline tests. Intervention was continued with periodic tests for the remainder of the 10 week trial. Results Each subject improved in performance on double leg lowering (increased 24.43-32.7%) and star excursion balance test (increased 4.63-17.84%) after introduction of the intervention. Throwing speed improved in two of the three subjects (up to 5.61%). Discussion and Conclusions The Pilates method of exercise may contribute to improved performance in double leg lowering, star excursion balance tests, and throwing speed in college baseball pitchers. PMID:21522199

  17. Trunk Muscle Function Deficit in Youth Baseball Pitchers With Excessive Contralateral Trunk Tilt During Pitching.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Sakiko; Waldhelm, Andrew G; Sosa, Araceli R; Patel, Ravina R; Kalinowski, Derick L

    2017-09-01

    Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. Cross-sectional study. Baseball practice fields. Twenty-eight youth baseball pitchers. Pitching technique was captured using a video camera. Based on the 2-dimensional trunk contralateral flexion angle, pitchers were categorized into low (<15 degrees), moderate (15-30 degrees), or high (>30 degrees) CLT groups. Maximum isometric strength tests for trunk flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation, measured using a dynamometer. The pitchers with high CLT (n = 10) had longer pitching experience (P = 0.014), produced higher ball speed (P = 0.003) compared with the pitchers with moderate (n = 10) and low (n = 8) CLT, but demonstrated greater asymmetry in trunk rotation strength (relative weakness in rotation strength toward dominant side) compared with the pitchers with low CLT (P = 0.015). Excessive CLT may be a strategy that young pitchers learn to achieve higher ball velocity but also may be associated with imbalance between the oblique muscles on dominant and nondominant side, which may be acquired from repetitive pitching. Strengthening and emphasizing the use of dominant side oblique muscles may keep pitchers from leaning excessively during pitching and thus decrease joint loading.

  18. A longitudinal study on the effects of team building for university baseball team in Japan: from the view point of team-vitalization.

    PubMed

    Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kitamura, Kaoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect in the experience of TB among university baseball team from the view point of team-vitalization. We carry out one university baseball team (102 males, 6 female). The average age of the participants was 19.99 years (SD = 1.41). Then, using Check List of Team- Vitalization that was developed by consulting firm in Japan, we examined the degrees of team-vitalization. The answers of this investigation were collected from the participants at fifth times (before intervention of TB, immediately after TB, after three months of TB, before intervention of follow-up training of TB, and immediately after follow-up training of TB). This study for eight months provided the following three conclusions; 1) University baseball team was vitalized through the experience of TB. 2) Team-vitalization was higher than before TB experience, but this effect of the TB did not seem to be permanent. 3) To keep intervention of TB was very important.

  19. Spectroscopic Research of Lambda Hypdernuclei at JLab Hall C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gogami, Toshiyuki; et. al.,

    2014-03-01

    A Lambda hyperon which has a strangeness can be bound in deep inside of a nucleus since a Λ does not suffer from the Pauli exclusion principle from nucleons. Thus, a Λ could be a useful tool to investigate inside of a nucleus. Since 2000, Lambda hypernuclear spectroscopic experiments by the (e,e'k) reaction have been performed at the experimental hall C in Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab Hall C). An experiment, JLab E05-115 was carried out to investigate Lambda hypernuclei with a wide mass range (the mass number, A = 7, 9, 10, 12, 52). The latest analysis statusmore » of JLab E05-115 experiment is discussed in the present article.« less

  20. Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov Websites

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Tsui discovered the effect. In 1983, Laughlin, then at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , provided the theoretical explanation of the effect in terms of fractionally charged particles. It was a

  1. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  2. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  3. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    PubMed

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  4. Synchronization of spin-transfer torque oscillators by spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg

    2015-02-14

    We have proposed a method to synchronize multiple spin-transfer torque oscillators based on spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects. The proposed oscillator system consists of a series of nano-magnets in junction with a normal metal with high spin-orbit coupling, and an accumulative feedback loop. We conduct simulations to demonstrate the effect of modulated charge currents in the normal metal due to spin pumping from each nano-magnet. We show that the interplay between the spin Hall effect and inverse spin Hall effect results in synchronization of the nano-magnets.

  5. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  6. Development Status of the Helicon Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-15

    Hall thruster , the Helicon Hall Thruster , is presented. The Helicon Hall Thruster combines the efficient ionization mechanism of a helicon source with the favorable plasma acceleration properties of a Hall thruster . Conventional Hall thrusters rely on direct current electron bombardment to ionize the flow in order to generate thrust. Electron bombardment typically results in an ionization cost that can be on the order of ten times the ionization potential, leading to reduced efficiency, particularly at low

  7. A non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement system for Hall Effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Carl Raymond

    A direct, accurate method to measure thrust produced by a Hall Effect thruster on orbit does not currently exist. The ability to calculate produced thrust will enable timely and precise maneuvering of spacecraft---a capability particularly important to satellite formation flying. The means to determine thrust directly is achievable by remotely measuring the magnetic field of the thruster and solving the inverse magnetostatic problem for the Hall current density distribution. For this thesis, the magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned outside the channel of a 1.5 kW Colorado State University Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted electride cathode. In this location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 Gauss, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is greater than tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Due to the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field along with a non-negativity constraint and a zero boundary condition provides current density distributions. Our system measures the sensor outputs at 2 MHz allowing the determination of the Hall current density distribution as a function of time. These data are shown in contour plots in sequential frames. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the discharge current ranged from 0.1 to 10 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 2.0 kW exhibited a breathing mode of 37 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  8. Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.

  9. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Kelvin Manning, associate director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, welcomes guests to the 2018 U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) Induction inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex (KSCVC). Two veteran space explorers were inducted into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. They are Scott D. Altman and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  10. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers Scott D. Altman, at left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They unveiled their plaques, which will be placed in Hall of Fame at the visitor complex. At far right is Master of Ceremonies, John Zarella, former CNN space correspondent. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  11. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers Scott D. Altman, at left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They unveiled their plaques, which will be placed in the Hall of Fame at the visitor complex. At far right is Master of Ceremonies, John Zarella, former CNN space correspondent. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  12. Effect of a 6-Week Weighted Baseball Throwing Program on Pitch Velocity, Pitching Arm Biomechanics, Passive Range of Motion, and Injury Rates.

    PubMed

    Reinold, Michael M; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle; Andrews, James R

    Emphasis on enhancing baseball pitch velocity has become popular, especially through weighted-ball throwing. However, little is known about the physical effects or safety of these programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with weighted baseballs on pitch velocity, passive range of motion (PROM), muscle strength, elbow torque, and injury rates. A 6-week weighted ball training program would result in a change in pitching biomechanical and physical characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Level 1. During the baseball offseason, 38 healthy baseball pitchers were randomized into a control group and an experimental group. Pitch velocity, shoulder and elbow PROM, shoulder strength, elbow varus torque, and shoulder internal rotation velocity were measured in both groups. The experimental group then performed a 6-week weighted ball throwing program 3 times per week using balls ranging from 2 to 32 ounces while the control group only used a 5-ounce regulation baseball. Both groups performed a strength training program. Measurements were then repeated after the 6-week period. Injuries were tracked over the 6-week training program and the subsequent baseball season. The effect of training with a weighted ball program was assessed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance at an a priori significance level of P < 0.05. Mean age, height, mass, and pretesting throwing velocity were 15.3 ± 1.2 years (range, 13-18 years), 1.73 ± 0.28 m, 68.3 ± 11 kg, and 30.3 ± 0.7 m/s, respectively. Pitch velocity showed a statistically significant increase (3.3%) in the experimental group ( P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase of 4.3° of shoulder external rotation in the experimental group. The overall injury rate was 24% in the experimental group. Four participants in the experimental group suffered elbow injuries, 2 during the training program and 2 in the season after training. No pitchers in the control group were

  13. Epidemiologic Measures for Quantifying the Incidence of Concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dalton, Sara L; Broglio, Steven P; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-03-01

    Injury rates compare the relative frequency of sport-related concussions across groups. However, they may not be intuitive to policy makers, parents, or coaches in understanding the likelihood of concussion. To describe 4 measures of incidence (athlete-based rate, athlete-based risk, team-based rate, and team-based risk) during the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years.  Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program in 13 sports (men's baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, and wrestling and women's basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, and volleyball). Collegiate student-athletes. Sport-related concussion data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program during the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years were analyzed. We calculated concussion rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), concussion risk, average number of concussions per team, and percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. During the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years, 1485 concussions were sustained by 1410 student-athletes across 13 sports. Concussion rates ranged from 0.09/1000 AEs in men's baseball to 0.89/1000 AEs in men's wrestling. Concussion risk ranged from 0.74% in men's baseball to 7.92% in men's wrestling. The average ± SD number of concussions per team ranged from 0.25 ± 0.43 in men's baseball to 5.63 ± 5.36 in men's football. The percentage of teams with a concussion ranged from 24.5% in men's baseball to 80.6% in men's football.   Although men's wrestling had a higher concussion rate and risk, men's football had the largest average number of concussions per team and the largest percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. The risk of concussion, average number of concussions per team, and percentage of teams with concussions may be more intuitive measures of incidence for decision

  14. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching

    PubMed Central

    Buffi, James H.; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem. PMID:25281409

  15. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P < .01). For the 2 stress methods, ulnohumeral joint space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P < .01). Strong significant correlations were found between the 2 methods for measurement of medial elbow joint space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P < .01). Gravity stress and 30 N valgus stress may produce different effects with respect to medial elbow joint space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  17. Reliability and Validity of Kinetic and Kinematic Parameters Determined With Force Plates Embedded Under a Soil-Filled Baseball Mound.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Toshimasa; Matsuo, Akifumi; Maeda, Akira; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mizutani, Mirai; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2017-08-01

    We developed a force measurement system in a soil-filled mound for measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) acting on baseball pitchers and examined the reliability and validity of kinetic and kinematic parameters determined from the GRFs. Three soil-filled trays of dimensions that satisfied the official baseball rules were fixed onto 3 force platforms. Eight collegiate pitchers wearing baseball shoes with metal cleats were asked to throw 5 fastballs with maximum effort from the mound toward a catcher. The reliability of each parameter was determined for each subject as the coefficient of variation across the 5 pitches. The validity of the measurements was tested by comparing the outcomes either with the true values or the corresponding values computed from a motion capture system. The coefficients of variation in the repeated measurements of the peak forces ranged from 0.00 to 0.17, and were smaller for the pivot foot than the stride foot. The mean absolute errors in the impulses determined over the entire duration of pitching motion were 5.3 N˙s, 1.9 N˙s, and 8.2 N˙s for the X-, Y-, and Z-directions, respectively. These results suggest that the present method is reliable and valid for determining selected kinetic and kinematic parameters for analyzing pitching performance.

  18. Lower extremity balance is improved at time of return to throwing in baseball players after an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction when compared to pre-operative measurements.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Joseph; Garrison, J Craig; Conway, John

    2014-05-01

    / Lower extremity balance deficits have been shown to lead to altered kinematics and increased injury risk in lower extremity athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity balance in baseball players with an ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tear pre-operatively and post-operatively at the beginning of the pre-return to throwing program stage of rehabilitation (3 months). Thirty-three competitive high school and collegiate male baseball players (18.5 ± 3.2) with a diagnosed UCL tear volunteered for the study. Of the 33 baseball players 29 were pitchers, 1 was a catcher, and 3 were infielders. Participants were seen pre-operatively and at 3 months post operatively. This 3 month point was associated with a follow-up visit to the orthopedic surgeon and subsequent release to begin the pre-return to throwing mark for baseball players following their surgery. Following surgery, each participant followed a standard UCL protocol which included focused lower extremity balance and neuromuscular control exercises. Participants were tested for single leg balance using the Y-Balance Test™ - Lower Quadrant (YBT-LQ) on both their lead and stance limbs. YBT-LQ composite scores were calculated for the stance and lead limbs pre- and post-operatively and compared over time. Paired t-tests were used to calculate differences between time 1 and time 2 (p < 0.05). Baseball players with diagnosed UCL tears demonstrated significant balance deficits on their stance (p < .001) and lead (p = .009) limbs prior to surgery compared to balance measures at the 3-month follow up (Stance Pre-Op = 89.4 ± 7.5%; Stance 3 Month = 94.9 ± 9.5%) (Lead Pre-Op = 90.2 ± 6.7%; Lead 3 Month = 93.6 ± 7.2%). Based on the results of this study, lower extremity balance is altered in baseball players with UCL tears prior to surgery. Statistically significant improvements were seen and balance measures improved at the time of return to throwing. Level 2b.

  19. Hall effect of copper nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. H.; Liu, J. Z.; Li, M.; Yuan, X. M.; Yan, P. X.; Liu, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The Hall effect of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films was investigated in our work. Cu3N films were deposited on glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at different temperatures using pure copper as the sputtering target. The Hall coefficients of the films are demonstrated to be dependent on the deposition gas flow rate and the measuring temperature. Both the Hall coefficient and resistance of the Cu3N films increase with the nitrogen gas flow rate at room temperature, while the Hall mobility and the carrier density of the films decrease. As the temperature changed from 100 K to 300 K, the Hall coefficient and the resistivity of the films decreased, while the carrier density increased and Hall mobility shows no great change. The energy band gap of the Cu3N films deduced from the curve of the common logarithm of the Hall coefficient against 1/T is 1.17-1.31 eV.

  20. Glenohumeral and Hip Range-of-Motion and Strength Measures in Youth Baseball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Josie L.; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The repetitive demands of throwing affect glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM) and strength. Less is known about hip alterations in skeletally immature athletes. Objective:  To compare GH and hip ROM and strength between age, position, and side of youth baseball athletes. Design:  Cross-sectional study. Setting:  Multicenter testing. Patients or Other Participants:  Seventy-two healthy baseball athletes. Participants' self-reported characteristics were age group (7−11 years [n = 28] or 12−18 years [n = 44]), position (pitcher [n = 22], position player [n = 47], unreported [n = 3]), and side (throwing or nonthrowing arm, lead or stance leg). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Bilateral GH and hip internal- and external-rotation ROM were measured passively and summed for total arc of motion (TAM). Glenohumeral and hip rotation and gluteus medius strength were measured. Analyses included linear mixed models. Results:  Glenohumeral internal rotation was less in throwing than in nonthrowing arms (P < .05) except in younger pitchers (P = .86). Compared with older athletes, younger athletes had more GH external rotation (103.3° ± 7.7° versus 97.5° ± 9.4°; P = .002), TAM (156.4° ± 8.7° versus 147.9° ± 10.9°; P = .04), and external rotation in throwing compared with nonthrowing arms (101.9° ± 1.2° versus 97.9° ± 1.1°; P < .001). Glenohumeral TAM was less in throwing than in nonthrowing arms (150.5° ± 2.1° versus 154.9° ± 1.3°; P = .01). Younger athletes had more hip internal rotation (38.9° ± 6.8° versus 31.2° ± 7.5°; P < .001) and TAM (68.4° ± 10.0° versus 60.7° ± 9.8°; P = .001) than older athletes. Lead-leg hip internal-rotation ROM was greater than in the stance leg (34.8° ± 8.9° versus 32.8° ± 7.7°; P = .01). Overall, older players were stronger than younger players (P < .05), and the throwing arm was stronger in internal rotation than the nonthrowing arm (10.12 ± 3.72 lb [4.59 ± 1.69 kg] versus 9.43

  1. Semiclassical theory of Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Rudro

    2014-03-01

    Hall viscosity is an intriguing stress response in quantum Hall systems and is predicted to be observable via the conductivity in an inhomogeneous electric field. This has been studied extensively using a range of techniques, such as adiabatic transport, effective field theories, and Kubo formulae. All of these are, however, agnostic as to the distinction between strongly correlated quantum Hall states and non-interacting ones, where the effect arises due to the fundamental non-commuting nature of velocities and orbit positions in a magnetic field. In this talk I shall develop the semiclassical theory of quantized cyclotron orbits drifting in an applied inhomogeneous electric field and use it to provide a clear physical picture of how single particle properties in a magnetic field contribute to the Hall viscosity-dependence of the conductivity.

  2. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  3. U.S. National Cyberstrategy and Critical Infrastructure: The Protection Mandate and Its Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    revising this thesis, and balancing the coordination needed for: (1) Piano; (2) Soccer /Baseball; (3) Cubmaster Cub Scout Pack-135; (4) Hospitality...disease and pest response; and provides nutritional assistance. Provides the financial infrastructure of the nation. This sector consists of commercial

  4. A Comparison of Selected Kinematic Factors in Male Baseball and Female Fast Pitch Softball Batting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragg, Carolyn; Noble, Larry

    Six female intercollegiate varsity softball players and six male intercollegiate varsity baseball players were filmed from overhead while batting a wiffle ball off a batting tee at hip height. Movements of the hips, trunk, upper body segments, and bat were analyzed. Group comparisons indicated that males had higher peak linear and, angular…

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - There is action on the baseball diamond during a game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - There is action on the baseball diamond during a game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach throws out the first pitch at a local baseball game at Manatees Stadium. KSC employees were hosted by the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach throws out the first pitch at a local baseball game at Manatees Stadium. KSC employees were hosted by the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  7. The effects of 6-week training programs on throwing accuracy, proprioception, and core endurance in baseball.

    PubMed

    Lust, Kathleen R; Sandrey, Michelle A; Bulger, Sean M; Wilder, Nathan

    2009-08-01

    With a limited number of outcomes-based studies, only recommendations for strength-training and rehabilitation programs can be made. To determine the extent to which throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception improved after completion of a 6-week training program that included open kinetic chain (OKC), closed kinetic chain (CKC), and/or core-stability exercises. A 2 x 3 factorial design. Division III college. 19 healthy baseball athletes with a control group of 15. Two 6-week programs including OKC, CKC, and core-stabilization exercises that were progressed each week. Functional throwing-performance index, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test, back-extensor test, 45 degrees abdominal-fatigue test, and right- and left-side bridging test. There was no significant difference between groups. An increase was evident in all pretest-to-posttest results, with improvement ranging from 1.36% to 140%. Both of the 6-week training programs could be used to increase throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception in baseball.

  8. Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, Roger D.

    1996-10-01

    Jefferson Lab's Hall C went into initial operation in November 1995. The hall has a short orbit spectrometer (SOS) for short-lived particles such as pions and kaons and a high-momentum spectrometer (HMS) usually used for electrons. The SOS can also be used for protons. The HMS can range to 7 GeV/c. Both the SOS and HMS have typical resolutions of (10-3). Experiments for this hall range from measuring the neutron electric form factor, to color transparency, to creating strange nuclei. This paper will present the optical capabilities of the spectrometers, the parameters of the detection systems, and the overall beam line characteristics of the hall as determined from the results from the recent physics experiments along with the upcoming experimental schedule. Additional information is available at URL http://www.cebaf.gov/hallc.html.

  9. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Stretching for Baseball Players With Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lane B; Thigpen, Charles A; Hawkins, Richard J; Beattie, Paul F; Shanley, Ellen

    Baseball players displaying deficits in shoulder range of motion (ROM) are at increased risk of arm injury. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best available treatment options to restore shoulder ROM. Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching will result in clinically significant deficit reductions when compared with self-stretching alone. Controlled laboratory study. Shoulder ROM and humeral torsion were assessed in 60 active baseball players (mean age, 19 ± 2 years) with ROM deficits (nondominant - dominant, ≥15°). Athletes were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment of instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching (n = 30) or self-stretching only (n = 30). Deficits in internal rotation, horizontal adduction, and total arc of motion were compared between groups immediately before and after a single treatment session. Treatment effectiveness was determined by mean comparison data, and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis was used for assessing the presence of ROM risk factors. Prior to intervention, players displayed significant ( P < 0.001) dominant-sided deficits in internal rotation (-26°), total arc of motion (-18°), and horizontal adduction (-17°). After the intervention, both groups displayed significant improvements in ROM, with the instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching group displaying greater increases in internal rotation (+5°, P = 0.010), total arc of motion (+6°, P = 0.010), and horizontal adduction (+7°, P = 0.004) compared with self-stretching alone. For horizontal adduction deficits, the added use of instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching decreased the NNT to 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4; P = 0.010). Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching significantly reduces ROM risk factors in baseball players with motion deficits when compared with stretching alone. The added benefits of manual therapy may help to reduce ROM deficits in clinical scenarios where stretching alone is

  10. Associations Among Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion and Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Steve; Anderson, Kyle; Weber, Nick; Bajorek, Jeff; Rand, Kevin; Bey, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The overhead throwing motion is complex, and restrictions in range of motion (ROM) at the hip may place additional demands on the shoulder that lead to injury. However, the relationship between hip and shoulder ROM in athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury is unknown. Objective: To (1) determine if differences exist in hip and shoulder ROM between professional baseball players with a history of shoulder injury and those with no history of shoulder injury and (2) assess relationships between hip and shoulder ROM in these players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-seven professional baseball players. Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures consisted of hip extension and internal rotation, shoulder internal and external rotation, glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, and history of shoulder injury. Differences in shoulder and hip ROM were assessed with a 1-way analysis of variance. Associations between hip and shoulder ROM were assessed with linear regression. Results: Nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury had more external rotation and less internal rotation of the shoulder than nonpitchers with no history of shoulder injury. Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit was greater in both pitchers and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. The relationship between dominant hip extension and shoulder external rotation was significant for pitchers with a history of shoulder injury and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. Conclusions: Shoulder injury may be associated with specific measures of hip and shoulder ROM, and hip extension and shoulder external rotation may be related in baseball players with a history of shoulder injury. Additional research is necessary to understand the specific mechanisms of shoulder injury in the throwing athlete. PMID:20210623

  11. Observation of a superfluid Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A.; Beeler, Matthew C.; Perry, Abigail R.; Phillips, William D.; Spielman, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)—internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect’s sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose–Einstein condensate’s transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system’s global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal. PMID:22699494

  12. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  13. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  14. Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro-Palau, R.; Lafont, F.; Brun-Picard, J.; Kazazis, D.; Michon, A.; Cheynis, F.; Couturaud, O.; Consejo, C.; Jouault, B.; Poirier, W.; Schopfer, F.

    2015-11-01

    The quantum Hall effect provides a universal standard for electrical resistance that is theoretically based on only the Planck constant h and the electron charge e. Currently, this standard is implemented in GaAs/AlGaAs, but graphene's electronic properties have given hope for a more practical device. Here, we demonstrate that the experimental conditions necessary for the operation of devices made of high-quality graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on silicon carbide can be extended and significantly relaxed compared with those for state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs devices. In particular, the Hall resistance can be accurately quantized to within 1 × 10-9 over a 10 T wide range of magnetic flux density, down to 3.5 T, at a temperature of up to 10 K or with a current of up to 0.5 mA. This experimental simplification highlights the great potential of graphene in the development of user-friendly and versatile quantum standards that are compatible with broader industrial uses beyond those in national metrology institutes. Furthermore, the measured agreement of the quantized Hall resistance in graphene and GaAs/AlGaAs, with an ultimate uncertainty of 8.2 × 10-11, supports the universality of the quantum Hall effect. This also provides evidence of the relation of the quantized Hall resistance with h and e, which is crucial for the new Système International d'unités to be based on fixing such fundamental constants of nature.

  15. Comparison of crossover and jab step start techniques for base stealing in baseball.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Tomohisa; Endo, So; Nagahara, Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Base stealing is an important tactic for increasing the chance of scoring in baseball. This study aimed to compare the crossover step (CS) and jab step (JS) starts for base stealing start performance and to clarify the differences between CS and JS starts in terms of three-dimensional lower extremity joint kinetics. Twelve male baseball players performed CS and JS starts, during which their motion and the force they applied to the ground were simultaneously recorded using a motion-capture system and two force platforms. The results showed that the normalised average forward external power, the average forward-backward force exerted by the left leg, and the forward velocities of the whole body centre of gravity generated by both legs and the left leg were significantly higher for the JS start than for the CS start. Moreover, the positive work done by hip extension during the left leg push-off was two-times greater for the JS start than the CS start. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the jab step start may be the better technique for a base stealing start and that greater positive work produced by left hip extension is probably responsible for producing its larger forward ground reaction force.

  16. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients.

  17. Preseason shoulder range of motion screening as a predictor of injury among youth and adolescent baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Ellen; Kissenberth, Micheal J; Thigpen, Charles A; Bailey, Lane B; Hawkins, Richard J; Michener, Lori A; Tokish, John M; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-07-01

    Approximately 6 million youngsters play organized baseball yearly, and injuries are common. Defining of risk factors for injuries in the throwing shoulder has largely been confined to the professional thrower. Unfortunately, these risk factors apply to only 1% of pitchers at risk for injury. Risk factors for injury in youth pitchers have received far less attention than those in more mature professional pitchers. Development of such an understanding would help clarify injury prevention efforts for the other 99% of pitchers actively participating in competitive baseball. This study intended to determine the ability of range of motion (ROM) measures to predict arm injuries in baseball pitchers aged 8 to 18 years. Supine passive shoulder ROM was assessed in 115 pitchers with a digital inclinometer. Two trials of ROM were measured before the season. Arm injuries were prospectively tracked. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify athletes who were at high risk for injury. Statistical significance was set a priori (α = .05). There were 33 injured and 82 uninjured pitchers. Side-to-side differences of horizontal adduction >15° and internal rotation >13° may discriminate between those adolescent pitchers at 4 and 6 times greater risk of injury, respectively. Preseason ROM differences were able to identify those adolescents at high risk for injury during the season. It appears that the risk profile for adolescent pitchers includes horizontal adduction differences that differ from the established prospective profile in adult pitchers. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Hall effect in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiding, C. R.; Wardle, M.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well studied. We present a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, and similarity solutions that demonstrate the profound influence of the Hall effect on the dynamics of collapse. The solutions show that the size and sign of the Hall parameter can change the size of the protostellar disc by up to an order of magnitude and the protostellar accretion rate by 50 per cent when the ratio of the Hall to ambipolar diffusivities is varied between -0.5 ≤ηH/ηA≤ 0.2. These changes depend upon the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the axis of rotation and create a preferred handedness to the solutions that could be observed in protostellar cores using next-generation instruments such as ALMA. Hall diffusion also determines the strength and position of the shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion on to the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating (not examined here), Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, which could give rise to disc formation and resolve the magnetic braking catastrophe. The Hall effect clearly influences the dynamics of gravitational collapse and its role in controlling the magnetic braking and radial diffusion of the field merits further exploration in numerical simulations of star formation.

  19. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  20. A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School Baseball Pitcher, Part II: Strength

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaplan, Kevin M.; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Jobe, Frank W.; Morrey, Bernard F.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A database describing the range of normal rotator cuff strength values in uninjured high school pitchers has not been established. Chronologic factors that contribute to adaptations in strength also have not been established. Objectives: To establish a normative profile of rotator cuff strength in uninjured high school baseball pitchers and to determine whether bilateral differences in rotator cuff strength are normal findings in this age group. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Baseball playing field. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 165 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16 ± 1 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 76.8 ± 10.1 kg, pitching experience = 7 ± 2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Isometric rotator cuff strength was measured bilaterally with a handheld dynamometer. We calculated side-to-side differences in strength (external rotation [ER], internal rotation [IR], and the ratio of ER:IR at 90° of abduction), differences in strength by age, and the influence of chronologic factors (participant age, years of pitching experience) on limb strength. Results: Side-to-side differences in strength were found for ER, IR, and ER:IR ratio at 90° of abduction. Age at the time of testing was a significant but weak predictor of both ER strength (R2 = 0.032, P = .02) and the ER:IR ratio (R2 = 0.051, P = .004) at 90° of abduction. Conclusions: We established a normative profile of rotator cuff strength for the uninjured high school baseball pitcher that might be used to assist clinicians and researchers in the interpretation of muscle strength performance in this population. These data further suggested that dominant-limb adaptations in rotator cuff strength are a normal finding in this age group and did not demonstrate that these adaptations were a consequence of the age at the time of testing or the number of years of pitching experience. PMID:21669099

  1. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Carl R.; Farnell, Casey C.; Farnell, Cody C.; Martinez, Rafael A.; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D.; Williams, John D.

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  2. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Carl R; Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Martinez, Rafael A; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D; Williams, John D

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  3. Star Formation and the Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiding, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. This thesis describes a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, presenting similarity solutions that demonstrate that the Hall effect has a profound influence on the dynamics of collapse. ... Hall diffusion also determines the strength of the magnetic diffusion and centrifugal shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally-supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion onto the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, which could give rise to disc formation and resolve the magnetic braking catastrophe. The Hall effect clearly influences the dynamics of gravitational collapse and its role in controlling the magnetic braking and radial diffusion of the field would be worth exploring in future numerical simulations of star formation.

  4. Reduced Spin Hall Effects from Magnetic Proximity.

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2015-03-26

    We investigate temperature-dependent spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in thin Pt and Pd in contact with Permalloy. Our experiments show a decrease of the spin Hall effect with decreasing temperature, which is attributed to a temperature-dependent proximity effect. The spin Hall angle decreases from 0.086 at room temperature to 0.042 at 10 K for Pt and is nearly negligible at 10 K for Pd. By first-principle calculations, we show that the spin Hall conductivity indeed reduces by increasing the proximity-induced spin magnetic moments for both Pt and Pd. This work highlights the important role of proximity-induced magnetic orderingmore » to spin Hall phenomena in Pt and Pd.« less

  5. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  6. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  7. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  8. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  9. A binaural Web-based tour of the acoustics of Troy Music Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Rendell R.; Cooney, James; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2004-05-01

    For classical music to become more widely enjoyed, it must sound exciting. We hypothesize that if people could hear examples of truly exciting acoustics, classical music would be perceived less as a rarefied delicacy and more as a viscerally engaging listening experience. The Troy Savings Bank Music Hall in Troy, New York, is a legendary 1200-seat concert hall famous for its acoustics. Such landmarks are commonly documented architecturally but with few attempts to document their acoustics in a way that it is listenable. Thus, the goal is to capture and sonically disseminate the hall's acoustics through a Web-based acoustical tour, where one can click on various seats to hear binaural auralizations of different instruments and see corresponding views of the stage. The hope is that these auralizations will not only sonically document the acoustics of the hall but also tantalize even geographically distant listeners with binaural samples of how exciting music can be in excellent acoustics. The fun and challenges of devising (let alone standardizing) such an auralization-based system of documentation will be discussed, and a demonstration given. This process can be applied to other historically and acoustically significant spaces. [Work supported by the National Endowment for the Arts.

  10. Comparing the Immediate Effects of a Total Motion Release Warm-up and a Dynamic Warm-up Protocol on the Dominant Shoulder in Baseball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gamma, Stephen C; Baker, Russell; May, James; Seegmiller, Jeff G; Nasypany, Alan; Iorio, Steven M

    2018-04-10

    Gamma, SC, Baker, R, May, J, Seegmiller, JG, Nasypany, A, and Iorio, SM. Comparing the immediate effects of a total motion release warm-up and a dynamic warm-up protocol on the dominant shoulder in baseball athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-A decrease in total range of motion (ROM) of the dominant shoulder may predispose baseball athletes to increased shoulder injury risk; the most effective technique for improving ROM is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of Total Motion Release (TMR) to a generic dynamic warm-up program in baseball athletes. Baseball athletes (n = 20) were randomly assigned to an intervention group: TMR group (TMRG; n = 10) or traditional warm-up group (TWG; n = 10). Shoulder ROM measurements were recorded for internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER), the intervention was applied, and postmeasurements were recorded. Each group then received the other intervention and postmeasurements were again recorded. The time main effect (p ≤ 0.001) and the time × group interaction effect were significant (p ≤ 0.001) for IR and ER. Post hoc analysis revealed that TMR produced significant increases in mean IR (p ≤ 0.005, d = 1.52) and ER (p ≤ 0.018, d = 1.22) of the dominant shoulder initially. When groups crossed-over, the TMRG experienced a decrease in mean IR and ER after the dynamic warm-up, whereas the TWG experienced a significant increase in mean IR (p ≤ 0.001, d = 3.08) and ER (p ≤ 0.001, d = 2.56) after TMR intervention. Total Motion Release increased IR and ER of the dominant shoulder more than a dynamic warm-up. Dynamic warm-up after TMR also resulted in decreased IR and ER; however, TMR after dynamic warm-up significantly improved IR and ER. Based on these results, TMR is more effective than a generic dynamic warm-up for improving dominant shoulder ROM in baseball players.

  11. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  12. Epidemiologic Measures for Quantifying the Incidence of Concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dalton, Sara L.; Broglio, Steven P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Injury rates compare the relative frequency of sport-related concussions across groups. However, they may not be intuitive to policy makers, parents, or coaches in understanding the likelihood of concussion. Objective: To describe 4 measures of incidence (athlete-based rate, athlete-based risk, team-based rate, and team-based risk) during the 2011–2012 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program in 13 sports (men's baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, and wrestling and women's basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, and volleyball). Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate student-athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport-related concussion data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program during the 2011–2012 through 2014–2015 academic years were analyzed. We calculated concussion rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), concussion risk, average number of concussions per team, and percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. Results: During the 2011–2012 through 2014–2015 academic years, 1485 concussions were sustained by 1410 student-athletes across 13 sports. Concussion rates ranged from 0.09/1000 AEs in men's baseball to 0.89/1000 AEs in men's wrestling. Concussion risk ranged from 0.74% in men's baseball to 7.92% in men's wrestling. The average ± SD number of concussions per team ranged from 0.25 ± 0.43 in men's baseball to 5.63 ± 5.36 in men's football. The percentage of teams with a concussion ranged from 24.5% in men's baseball to 80.6% in men's football. Conclusions: Although men's wrestling had a higher concussion rate and risk, men's football had the largest average number of concussions per team and the largest percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. The risk of concussion, average number of

  13. Relationship of biomechanical factors to baseball pitching velocity: within pitcher variation.

    PubMed

    Stodden, David F; Fleisig, Glenn S; McLean, Scott P; Andrews, James R

    2005-02-01

    To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis. Inclusion in the study required each one to demonstrate a variation in velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range 1.8-3.5 m/s) during 6 to 10 fastball pitch trials. Three mixed model analyses were performed to assess the independent effects of 7 kinetic, 11 temporal, and 12 kinematic parameters on pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that elbow flexion torque, shoulder proximal force, and elbow proximal force were the only three kinetic parameters significantly associated with increased ball velocity. Two temporal parameters (increased time to max shoulder horizontal adduction and decreased time to max shoulder internal rotation) and three kinematic parameters (decreased shoulder horizontal adduction at foot contact, decreased shoulder abduction during acceleration, and increased trunk tilt forward at release) were significantly related to increased ball velocity. These results point to variations in an individual's throwing mechanics that relate to pitched ball velocity, and also suggest that pitchers should focus on consistent mechanics to produce consistently high fastball velocities. In addition, pitchers should strengthen shoulder and elbow musculature that resist distraction as well as improve trunk strength and flexibility to maximize pitching velocity and help prevent injury.

  14. Laurance David Hall.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  16. Turbulence Measurements in a Tropical Zoo Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Werner; Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Masoala rainforest hall of the Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, covers a ground surface area of 10,856 m2 and reaches 30 m in height. With its transparent ETFE foiled roof it provides a tropical climate for a large diversity of plants and animals. In combination with an effort to estimate dry deposition of elemental mercury, we made an attempt to measure turbulent transfer velocity with an ultrasonic anemometer inside the hall. Not surprising, the largest turbulence elements were on the order of the hall dimension. Although the dimensions of the hall seem to be small (200,000 m3) for eddy covariance flux measurements and the air circulation inside the hall was extremely weak, the spectra of wind velocity components and virtual (sonic) temperature obeyed the general statistical description expected under unconstrained outdoor measurement conditions. We will present results from a two-week measurement campaign in the Masoala rainforest hall and make a suggestion for the deposition velocity to be used to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric components to the tropical vegetation surface.

  17. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  18. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  19. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    This document consists of two separate publications: (1) "The Power of Knowing", a brief 12-page description of the Chapin Hall Center for Children, and (2) "Projects and Publications", a 67-page list of the center's projects and publications as of Autumn 1997. "The Power of Knowing" describes the Chapin Hall Center…

  20. Investigating Team Coordination in Baseball Using a Novel Joint Decision Making Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Rob; Cooke, Nancy J.; McNeese, Nathan J.; McNabb, Jaimie

    2017-01-01

    A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video cameras that were each placed at one of the typical positions of the four infielders. Each participant viewed temporally occluded videos for one of the four positions and were asked to say either “ball” if they would attempt to field it or the name of the bag that they would cover. The evaluation of two experienced coaches was used to assign a group coordination score for each trajectory and group decision times were calculated. Thirty groups of 4 current college baseball players were: (i) teammates (players from same team/view from own position), (ii) non-teammates (players from different teams/view from own position), or (iii) scrambled teammates (players from same team/view not from own position). Teammates performed significantly better (i.e., faster and more coordinated decisions) than the other two groups, whereas scrambled teammates performed significantly better than non-teammates. These findings suggest that team coordination is achieved through both experience with one’s teammates’ responses to particular events (e.g., a ball hit up the middle) and one’s own general action capabilities (e.g., running speed). The sensitivity of our joint decision making paradigm to group makeup provides support for its use as a method for studying team coordination. PMID:28638354

  1. Hall Thruster Technology for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Oh, David; Aadland, Randall

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Hall thruster designed for Discovery-class NASA science mission applications was evaluated at input powers ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 kilowatts. These data were used to construct a throttle profile for a projected Hall thruster system based on this prototype thruster. The suitability of such a Hall thruster system to perform robotic exploration missions was evaluated through the analysis of a near Earth asteroid sample return mission. This analysis demonstrated that a propulsion system based on the prototype Hall thruster offers mission benefits compared to a propulsion system based on an existing ion thruster.

  2. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  3. Prospective multifactorial analysis of preseason risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Osawa, Toshihisa; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    To prospectively identify preseason physical factors for shoulder and elbow injuries during the season in high school baseball pitchers. The study included 105 high school baseball pitchers [median age 16 (15-17) years]. The range of motion of the shoulder (90° abducted external and internal rotation) and elbow (extension/flexion), shoulder muscle strength (abduction and prone internal and external rotation), shoulder and elbow laxity, horizontal flexion, and scapular dyskinesis were assessed. After the season, the participants completed questionnaires regarding shoulder and/or elbow injuries, with injury defined as an inability to play for ≥1 week due to elbow/shoulder problems. The results of two groups (injured and noninjured) were compared using t tests and Chi-square analyses. Stepwise forward logistic regression models were developed to identify risk factors. Twenty-one injuries were observed. In univariate analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation and total arc of the dominant shoulder and the ratio of prone external rotation in the dominant to nondominant sides in the injured group were significantly less than those in the noninjured group (P = 0.02, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder and prone external rotation ratio were significantly associated with injuries (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). A low prone external rotation ratio and decreased 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder in the preseason were significant risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The results may contribute to reduce the incidence of these injuries. II.

  4. Numerical analysis of Hall effect on the performance of magnetohydrodynamic heat shield system based on nonequilibrium Hall parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat shield system, a novel thermal protection technique in the hypersonic field, has been paid much attention in recent years. In the real flight condition, not only the Lorentz force but also the Hall electric field is induced by the interaction between ionized air post shock and magnetic field. In order to analyze the action mechanisms of the Hall effect, numerical methods of coupling thermochemical nonequilibrium flow field with externally applied magnetic field as well as the induced electric field are constructed and validated. Based on the nonequilibrium model of Hall parameter, numerical simulations of the MHD heat shield system is conducted under two different magnetic induction strengths (B0=0.2 T, 0.5 T) on a reentry capsule forebody. Results show that, the Hall effect is the same under the two magnetic induction strengths when the wall is assumed to be conductive. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the Lorentz force counter stream diminishes a lot and the circumferential component dominates, resulting that the heat flux and shock-off distance approach the case without MHD control. However, for the insulating wall, the Hall effect acts in different ways under these two magnetic induction strengths. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the performance of MHD heat shield system approaches the case neglecting the Hall effect when B0 equals 0.2 T. Such performance becomes worse when B0 equals 0.5 T and the aerothermal environment on the capsule shoulder is even worse than the case without MHD control.

  5. Hall mobility in multicrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, F.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of the carrier mobility in silicon is of utmost importance for photovoltaic applications, as it directly influences the diffusion length and thereby the cell efficiency. Moreover, its value is needed for a correct quantitative evaluation of a variety of lifetime measurements. However, models that describe the carrier mobility in silicon are based on theoretical calculations or fits to experimental data in monocrystalline silicon. Multicrystalline (mc) silicon features crystal defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries, with the latter possibly leading to potential barriers through the trapping of charge carriers and thereby influencing the mobility, as shown, for example, by Maruska et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 381 (1980)]. To quantify the mobilities in multicrystalline silicon, we performed Hall measurements in p-type mc-Si samples of various resistivities and different crystal structures and compared the data to majority carrier Hall mobilities in p-type monocrystalline floatzone (FZ) silicon. For lack of a model that provides reliable values of the Hall mobility in silicon, an empirical fit similar to existing models for conductivity mobilities is proposed based on Hall measurements of monocrystalline p-type FZ silicon. By comparing the measured Hall mobilities obtained from mc silicon with the corresponding Hall mobilities in monocrystalline silicon of the same resistivity, we found that the mobility reduction due to the presence of crystal defects in mc-Si ranges between 0% and 5% only. Mobility decreases of up to 30% as reported by Peter et al. [Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-5 September 2008], or even of a factor of 2 to 3 as detected by Palais et al. [Mater. Sci. Eng. B 102, 184 (2003)], in multicrystalline silicon were not observed.

  6. Performance, Return to Competition, and Reinjury After Tommy John Surgery in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Review of 147 Cases.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Lee, Randall W; Morrow, Zachary S; Gualtieri, Anthony P; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    Pitching performance metrics, durability, and reinjury after Tommy John surgery in professional baseball players have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the likelihood of return to professional competition, reinjury rate, and change in performance after Tommy John surgery in Major League Baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that performance metrics and durability will decline after surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Publicly available records were accessed to generate a list of all Major League Baseball pitchers from 1999 to 2011 who had undergone ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction at any point in their careers; those with multiple reconstructive procedures were excluded. Return to active (≥1 game) or established (≥10 games) competition and/or placement on the disabled list was documented for each player. Among established players, pitching performance was compared pre- and postoperatively, as well as with age-matched control pitchers. Of 147 pitchers included, 80% returned to pitch in at least 1 Major League Baseball game. Only 67% of established pitchers returned to the same level of competition postoperatively, and 57% of established players returned to the disabled list because of injuries to the throwing arm. Finally, performance declined across several metrics after surgery compared with preinjury levels, such as earned run average, batting average against, walks plus hits per inning pitched, percentage of pitches thrown in the strike zone, innings pitched, percentage fastballs thrown, and average fastball velocity (P < .05 for all). However, these declines were not statistically different from similar declines found in age-matched controls who did not undergo Tommy John surgery. Return to the disabled list after Tommy John surgery is common among professional pitchers (>50%), and performance declines across several major metrics after surgery. Patients undergoing Tommy John surgery should be counseled

  7. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  8. A Gift for Reading Hall No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Reading Hall No. 1 of the Russian State Library. He was placed in the first reading hall in the mid-1990s, when the Russian government still honored Soviet traditions of granting certain privileges to certain foreigners. In the first hall, the rules are different. He can request as many books as he wants. He…

  9. Quantum hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Akshay

    We study several quantum phases that are related to the quantum Hall effect. Our initial focus is on a pair of quantum Hall ferromagnets where the quantum Hall ordering occurs simultaneously with a spontaneous breaking of an internal symmetry associated with a semiconductor valley index. In our first example ---AlAs heterostructures--- we study domain wall structure, role of random-field disorder and dipole moment physics. Then in the second example ---Si(111)--- we show that symmetry breaking near several integer filling fractions involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also study ground state of such systems near filling factor one in the absence of valley Zeeman energy. We show that even though the lowest energy charged excitations are charge one skyrmions, the lowest energy skyrmion lattice has charge > 1 per unit cell. We then broaden our discussion to include lattice systems having multiple Chern number bands. We find analogs of quantum Hall ferromagnets in the menagerie of fractional Chern insulator phases. Unlike in the AlAs system, here the domain walls come naturally with gapped electronic excitations. We close with a result involving only topology: we show that ABC stacked multilayer graphene placed on boron nitride substrate has flat bands with non-zero local Berry curvature but zero Chern number. This allows access to an interaction dominated system with a non-trivial quantum distance metric but without the extra complication of a non-zero Chern number.

  10. Overview of Hall D Complex

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    Hall D is a new experimental hall at Jefferson Lab, designed for experiments with a photon beam. The primary motivation for Hall D is the GlueX experiment [1,2], dedicated to meson spectroscopy. The Hall D complex consists of: An electron beam line used to extract the 5.5-pass electrons from the accelerator into the Tagger Hall. The designed beam energy is E e = 12 GeV;The Tagger Hall, where the electron beam passes through a thin radiator (~0.01% R.L.) and is deflected into the beam dump. The electrons that lost >30% of their energy in the radiator are detected with scintillatormore » hodoscopes providing a ~0.1% energy resolution for the tagged photons. Aligned diamond radiators allow to produce linearly polarized photons via the Coherent Bremsstrahlung. The beam dump is limited to 60 kW (5 µA at 12 GeV); The Collimator Cave contains a collimator for the photon beam and dipole magnets downstream in order to remove charged particles. The 3.4 mm diameter collimator, located about 75 m downstream of the radiator, selects the central cone of the photon beam increasing its average linear polarization, up to ~40%in the coherent peak at 9 GeV; Hall D contains several elements of the photon beam line, and themain spectrometer. A Pair Spectrometer consists of a thin converter, a dipole magnet, and a two-arm detector used to measure the energy spectrum of the photon beam. The main spectrometer is based on a 2-T superconducting solenoid, 4 m long and 1.85 m bore diameter. The liquid hydrogen target is located in the front part the solenoid. The charged tracks are detected with a set of drift chambers; photons are detected with two electromagnetic calorimeters. There are also scintillator hodoscopes for triggering and time-of-flight measurements. The spectrometer is nearly hermetic in an angular range of 1° < θ < 120 •. The momentum resolution is σ p /p ~ 1 ₋ ₋3% depending on the polar angle θ. The energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeters is about 7

  11. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers, Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., and Scott D. Altman, front row, center, left and right, respectively, were inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They are standing with previous Hall of Famers, including, Curt Brown, back row, far left, chairman of the board, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Brown performed the induction ceremony. Also in the group is former astronaut and NASA administrator Charlie Bolden, in the center, behind Jones and Altman. In the back row, second from left is John Grunsfeld, who spoke on behalf of Altman during the ceremony. Directly behind Altman is Storey Musgrave, who spoke on behalf of Jones during the ceremony. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  12. Dr. Hall and the work cure.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kathlyn L

    2005-01-01

    Herbert James Hall, MD (1870-1923), was a pioneer in the systematic and organized study of occupation as therapy for persons with nervous and mental disorders that he called the "work cure." He began his work in 1904 during the early years of the Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States. His primary interest was the disorder neurasthenia, a condition with many symptoms including chronic fatigue, stress, and inability to work or perform everyday tasks. The prevailing treatment of the day was absolute bed rest known as the "rest cure." Hall believed that neurasthenia was not caused by overwork but by faulty living habits that could be corrected through an ordered life schedule and selected occupations. He identified several principles of therapy that are still used today including graded activity and energy conservation. Dr. Adolph Meyer credits Hall for organizing the ideas on the therapeutic use of occupation (Meyer, 1922). Hall also provided the name American Occupational Therapy Association for the professional organization and served as the fourth president. For his many contributions to the profession Hall deserves to be recognized as a major contributor to the development and organization of occupational therapy.

  13. Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.

  14. Magnet/Hall-Effect Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed magnet/Hall-effect random-access memory (MHRAM), bits of data stored magnetically in Perm-alloy (or equivalent)-film memory elements and read out by using Hall-effect sensors to detect magnetization. Value of each bit represented by polarity of magnetization. Retains data for indefinite time or until data rewritten. Speed of Hall-effect sensors in MHRAM results in readout times of about 100 nanoseconds. Other characteristics include high immunity to ionizing radiation and storage densities of order 10(Sup6)bits/cm(Sup 2) or more.

  15. 2017 Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In the Space Shuttle Atlantis facility at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation Chairman Dan Brandenstein, left, also a Hall of Fame astronaut, presents inductee Michael Foale with his hall of fame medal. Former NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, right, a Hall of Fame member, presented Foale for induction. During this year's ceremonies, space shuttle astronaut Ellen Ochoa also was enshrined.

  16. 2017 Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In the Space Shuttle Atlantis facility at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation Chairman Dan Brandenstein, left, also a Hall of Fame astronaut, presents inductee Ellen Ochoa with her hall of fame medal. Former Johnson Space Center Director Mike Coats, right, a Hall of Fame member, presented Ochoa for induction. During this year's ceremonies, space shuttle astronaut Michael Foale also was enshrined.

  17. Effect of excessive contralateral trunk tilt on pitching biomechanics and performance in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Sakiko; Yu, Bing; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A; Li, Li; Myers, Joseph B

    2013-10-01

    There is a growing number of pitching-related upper extremity injuries among young baseball pitchers; however, there is a lack of data on the identification of injury prevention strategies, particularly the prevention of injuries through the instruction/modification of technique. The identification of technical parameters that are associated with increased joint loading is needed. To investigate the effects of excessive contralateral trunk tilt, a common technique identifiable by video observation, on pitching biomechanics and performance in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that this strategy is associated with greater joint loading and poor pitching performance. Descriptive laboratory study; Level of evidence, 3. The 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics, ball speed, and frontal view of the pitching technique from 72 high school baseball pitchers were captured on video and analyzed. The videos were reviewed to determine if the pitcher's trunk was excessively contralaterally tilted at the instant of maximal shoulder external rotation by examining whether the side of the pitcher's head ipsilateral to the throwing limb deviated by more than a head width from a vertical line passing through the pitcher's stride foot ankle. Upper extremity kinetics and upper extremity/trunk kinematics between pitchers with and without excessive contralateral trunk tilt were compared using independent t tests. Compared with pitchers who did not demonstrate excessive contralateral trunk tilt, those with excessive contralateral trunk tilt pitched at a higher ball speed (mean, 32.6 ± 2.2 vs 31.1 ± 2.9 m/s, respectively; P = .019) and experienced a greater elbow proximal force (mean, 103.9 ± 12.7 vs 93.2 ± 13.9 %weight, respectively; P = .001), shoulder proximal force (mean, 104.8 ± 14.1 vs 94.3 ± 15.5 %weight, respectively; P = .004), elbow varus moment (mean, 4.29 ± 0.73 vs 3.84 ± 0.8 %height*weight, respectively; P = .017), and shoulder internal rotation moment

  18. Non-Abelian Bosonization and Fractional Quantum Hall Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah

    A fully satisfying theoretical description for the quantum phase transition between fractional quantum Hall plateaus remains an outstanding problem. Experiments indicate scaling exponents that are not readily obtained in conventional theories. Using insights from duality, we describe a class of quantum critical effective theories that produce qualitatively realistic scaling exponents for the transition. We discuss the implications of our results for the physically-relevant interactions controlling this broad class of quantum critical behavior. Supported by National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1650441.

  19. Deficits in Glenohumeral Passive Range of Motion Increase Risk of Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder injuries from repetitive baseball pitching continue to be a serious, common problem. To determine whether passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was predictive of shoulder injury or shoulder surgery in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with a bubble goniometer during spring training for all major and minor league pitchers of a single professional baseball organization over a period of 8 successive seasons (2005-2012). Investigators performed a total of 505 examinations on 296 professional pitchers. Glenohumeral external and internal rotation was assessed with the pitcher supine and the arm abducted to 90° in the scapular plane with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. Total rotation was defined as the sum of internal and external glenohumeral rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was measured with the pitcher supine and the lateral border of the scapula manually stabilized. After examination, shoulder injuries and injury durations were recorded by each pitcher's respective baseball organization and reported to the league as an injury transaction as each player was placed on the disabled list. Highly significant side-to-side differences were noted within subjects for each range of motion measurement. There were 75 shoulder injuries and 20 surgeries recorded among 51 pitchers, resulting in 5570 total days on the disabled list. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, total rotation deficit, and flexion deficit were not significantly related to shoulder injury or surgery. Pitchers with insufficient external rotation (<5° greater external rotation in the throwing shoulder) were 2.2 times more likely to be placed on the disabled list for a shoulder injury (P = .014; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and were 4.0 times more likely to require shoulder surgery (P = .009; 95% CI, 1.5-12.6). Insufficient shoulder external rotation on the throwing side

  20. A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School Baseball Pitcher, Part I: Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaplan, Kevin M.; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Jobe, Frank W.; Morrey, Bernard F.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The magnitude of motion that is normal for the throwing shoulder in uninjured baseball pitchers has not been established. Chronologic factors contributing to adaptations in motion present in the thrower's shoulder also have not been established. Objectives: To develop a normative profile of glenohumeral rotation motion in uninjured high school baseball pitchers and to evaluate the effect of chronologic characteristics on the development of adaptations in shoulder rotation motion. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Baseball playing field. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 210 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16±1.1 years, height = 1.8 + 0.1 m, mass = 77.5±11.2 kg, pitching experience = 6±2.3 years). Intervention(s): Using standard goniometric techniques, we measured passive rotational glenohumeral range of motion bilaterally with participants in the supine position. Main Outcome Measure(s): Paired t tests were performed to identify differences in motion between limbs for the group. Analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were conducted to identify differences in motion by age. Linear regressions were performed to determine the influence of chronologic factors on limb motion. Results: Rotation motion characteristics for the population were established. We found no difference between sides for external rotation (ER) at 0° of abduction (t209 = 0.658, P = .51), but we found side-to-side differences in ER (t209 = −13.012, P<.001) and internal rotation (t209 = 15.304, P<.001) at 90° of abduction. Age at the time of testing was a significant negative predictor of ER motion for the dominant shoulder (R2 = 0.019, P = .049) because less ER motion occurred at the dominant shoulder with advancing age. We found no differences in rotation motion in the dominant shoulder across ages (F4,205 range, 0.451–1.730, P>.05). Conclusions: This range-of-motion profile might be used to assist with the interpretation of normal and atypical

  1. Remote Diagnostic Measurements of Hall Thruster Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    This paper describes measurements of Hall thruster plumes that characterize ion energy distributions and charge state fractions using remotely...charge state. Next, energy and charge state measurements are described from testing of a 200 W Hall thruster at AFIT. Measurements showed variation in...position. Finally, ExB probe charge state measurements are presented from a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster operated at low discharge voltage levels at AFRL

  2. The Relationship Between the Push Off Ground Reaction Force and Ball Speed in High School Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Sakiko; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-05-01

    Oyama, S and Myers, JB. The relationship between the push off ground reaction force and ball speed in high school baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1324-1328, 2018-Baseball pitching is a sequential movement that requires transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the throwing arm. Therefore, the ground reaction force (GRF) during push off is suggested to play a role in production of ball speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between GRF characteristics during push off and ball speed in high school baseball pitchers. A total of 52 pitchers performed fast pitches from an indoor pitching mound. A force plate embedded in an indoor mound was used to capture the push off GRF. The GRF characteristics (peak anterior, vertical, and resultant forces, vertical and resultant forces at the time of peak anterior GRF, and impulse produced by the anterior GRF) from the 3 fastest strike pitches from each pitcher were used for analyses. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to describe the relationships between ball speed and the GRF characteristics. Ball speed was only weakly correlated with peak resultant force (ρ = 0.32, p = 0.02) and vertical (ρ = 0.45, p < 0.001) and resultant (ρ = 0.42, p = 0.002) forces at the time of peak anterior force. The ball speed was not correlated with other variables. The correlation between ball speed and push off force in high school pitchers was weak, especially when compared with what was reported for adult pitchers in other studies. Unlike for adult pitchers, higher push off force is only weakly correlated with ball velocity in high school pitchers, which suggests that training to better use body momentum may help high school pitchers improve ball speed.

  3. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  4. Editorial Commentary: Changing Times in Sports Biomechanics: Baseball Pitching Injuries and Emerging Wearable Technology.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S

    2018-03-01

    Research has shown relations between amount of baseball pitching and overuse injuries, as well as between poor mechanics and high loads on the elbow and shoulder. However, overuse injuries continue to be a problem from youth to professional sports. Emerging wearable technology may enable players, parents, coaches, leagues, and clinicians to monitor biomechanics during competition and training, reducing the risk of serious injury. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hall thruster with grooved walls

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li Hong; Ning Zhongxi; Yu Daren

    2013-02-28

    Axial-oriented and azimuthal-distributed grooves are formed on channel walls of a Hall thruster after the engine undergoes a long-term operation. Existing studies have demonstrated the relation between the grooves and the near-wall physics, such as sheath and electron near-wall transport. The idea to optimize the thruster performance with such grooves was also proposed. Therefore, this paper is devoted to explore the effects of wall grooves on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster. With experimental measurements, the variations on electron conductivity, ionization distribution, and integrated performance are obtained. The involved physical mechanisms are then analyzed and discussed. The findings helpmore » to not only better understand the working principle of Hall thruster discharge but also establish a physical fundamental for the subsequent optimization with artificial grooves.« less

  6. Spin Hall Effects in Metallic Antiferromagnets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, we investigate four CuAu-I-type metallic antiferromagnets for their potential as spin current detectors using spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect. Nontrivial spin Hall effects were observed for FeMn, PdMn, and IrMn while a much higher effect was obtained for PtMn. Using thickness-dependent measurements, we determined the spin diffusion lengths of these materials to be short, on the order of 1 nm. The estimated spin Hall angles of the four materials follow the relationship PtMn > IrMn > PdMn > FeMn, highlighting the correlation between the spin-orbit coupling of nonmagnetic species and the magnitude of the spinmore » Hall effect in their antiferromagnetic alloys. These experiments are compared with first-principles calculations. Finally, engineering the properties of the antiferromagnets as well as their interfaces can pave the way for manipulation of the spin dependent transport properties in antiferromagnet-based spintronics.« less

  7. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  8. Site and Severity of the Increased Humeral Retroversion in Symptomatic Baseball Players: A 3-dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Itami, Yasuo; Mihata, Teruhisa; Shibano, Koji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Humeral retroversion in baseball players is greater in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder. However, the site and severity of the humeral rotational deformity remain unclear. To evaluate the site of side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion in baseball players and the severity of these changes through 3-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) bone models. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. From 2008 to 2014, we studied 25 baseball players (12 pitchers, 13 fielders) who underwent surgery for throwing-related injuries (shoulder injury, 15 players; elbow injury, 10 players). The mean age (±SD) at the time of surgery was 20.0 ± 5.9 years. A reconstructed 3D CT model of the entire humerus was divided into 15 segments of equal height (overall mean, 21.4 ± 1.0 mm). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion in each segment was calculated by superimposing the model of the dominant side over the mirror-image model of the nondominant side. The overall mean increase in humeral retroversion was 13.0° ± 6.2° on the dominant side. Significant side-to-side differences in retroversion were present throughout the humerus. The largest side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was seen at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles (2.5° ± 4.3°) and around the proximal physis (2.5° ± 1.4°). At the insertions of shoulder capsule and rotator cuff tendons, the superior half of the humeral head was more retroverted than the inferior half (P < .0001). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was significantly greater in the pitchers (16.2° ± 5.1°) than in the fielders (10.0° ± 5.7°) (P = .009), particularly at the proximal physis. Baseball players exhibited significant side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion at multiple sites throughout the humerus, including the proximal humerus near the epiphyseal plate and at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles, the middle of the humeral shaft, and

  9. Nonlinearity in the effect of an inhomogeneous Hall angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2007-03-01

    The differential equation for the electric potential in a conducting material with an inhomogeneous Hall angle is extended to the large-field limit. This equation is solved for a square specimen, using a successive over-relaxation [SOR] technique for matrices of up to 101x101 size, and the Hall weighting function -- the effect of local pointlike perturbations on the measured Hall angle -- is calculated as both the unperturbed Hall angle, θH, and the perturbation, δθH, exceed the linear, small angle limit. Preliminary results show that the Hall angle varies by no more than 5% if both | θH |<1 and | δθH |<1. Thus, previously calculated results for the Hall weighting function can be used for most materials in all but the most extreme magnetic fields.

  10. Giant Hall Photoconductivity in Narrow-Gapped Dirac Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.; Kats, Mikhail A.

    2016-12-01

    Carrier dynamics acquire a new character in the presence of Bloch-band Berry curvature, which naturally arises in gapped Dirac materials (GDMs). Here we argue that photoresponse in GDMs with small band gaps is dramatically enhanced by Berry curvature. This manifests in a giant and saturable Hall photoconductivity when illuminated by circularly polarized light. Unlike Hall motion arising from a Lorentz force in a magnetic field, which impedes longitudinal carrier motion, Hall photoconductivity arising from Berry curvature can boost longitudinal carrier transport. In GDMs, this results in a helicity-dependent photoresponse in the Hall regime, where photoconductivity is dominated by its Hall component. We find that the induced Hall conductivity per incident irradiance is enhanced by up to six orders of magnitude when moving from the visible regime (with corresponding band gaps) to the far infrared. These results suggest that narrow-gap GDMs are an ideal test-bed for the unique physics that arise in the presence of Berry curvature, and open a new avenue for infrared and terahertz optoelectronics.

  11. Cricket’s Contribution to India’s National Solidification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Taiwanization.”34 Their essay discusses the intentional introduction of baseball by the Japanese rulers in the early 20th century. Their study...explored how an authoritarian Japanese rule actively used baseball “as a tool to socialize the Taiwanese into Japanese culture and weaken their armed...resistance.”35 Junwei and Gordon quote a Japanese official tasked with implementing this program: Teaching barbarians to play baseball is an

  12. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  13. Preliminary Study of Arcjet Neutralization of Hall Thruster Clusters (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-18

    Clustered Hall thrusters have emerged as a favored choice for extending Hall thruster options to very high powers (50 kW - 150 kW). This paper...examines the possible use of an arcjet to neutralize clustered Hall thrusters, as the hybrid arcjet- Hall thruster concept can fill a performance niche...and helium, and then demonstrate the first successful operation of a low power Hall thruster -arcjet neutralizer package. In the surrogate anode studies

  14. Hall Thruster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-06

    NASA Glenn engineer Dr. Peter Peterson prepares a high-power Hall thruster for ground testing in a vacuum chamber that simulates the environment in space. This high-powered solar electric propulsion thruster has been identified as a critical part of NASA’s future deep space exploration plans.

  15. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  16. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  18. Coping Behaviors of Residence Hall Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined tertiary-level residence-hall directors' reported coping behaviors for three systems of stress: environmental, personal, and work. It surveyed a convenience sample of 128 respondents using the Brief COPE scale (Carver, 1997). Reported length of service, genders, and hall populations were matched with 28 types of…

  19. Thermally driven anomalous Hall effect transitions in FeRh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Adrian; Rodriguez-Lopez, Pablo; Haney, Paul M.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2018-04-01

    Materials exhibiting controllable magnetic phase transitions are currently in demand for many spintronics applications. Here, we investigate from first principles the electronic structure and intrinsic anomalous Hall, spin Hall, and anomalous Nernst response properties of the FeRh metallic alloy which undergoes a thermally driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition. We show that the energy band structures and underlying Berry curvatures have important signatures in the various Hall effects. Specifically, the suppression of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects in the antiferromagnetic state and a sign change in the spin Hall conductivity across the transition are found. It is suggested that the FeRh can be used as a spin current detector capable of differentiating the spin Hall effect from other anomalous transverse effects. The implications of this material and its thermally driven phases as a spin current detection scheme are also discussed.

  20. Comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-20

    COVERED (FROM - TO) 20-04-2001 to 20-04-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...evaluation of Hall thruster models G. J. M. Hagelaar, J. Bareilles, L. Garrigues, and J.-P. Boeuf CPAT, Bâtiment 3R2, Université Paul Sabatier 118 Route

  1. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  2. The shear-Hall instability in newborn neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondić, T.; Rüdiger, G.; Hollerbach, R.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: In the first few minutes of a newborn neutron star's life the Hall effect and differential rotation may both be important. We demonstrate that these two ingredients are sufficient for generating a "shear-Hall instability" and for studying its excitation conditions, growth rates, and characteristic magnetic field patterns. Methods: We numerically solve the induction equation in a spherical shell, with a kinematically prescribed differential rotation profile Ω(s), where s is the cylindrical radius. The Hall term is linearized about an imposed uniform axial field. The linear stability of individual azimuthal modes, both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric, is then investigated. Results: For the shear-Hall instability to occur, the axial field must be parallel to the rotation axis if Ω(s) decreases outward, whereas if Ω(s) increases outward it must be anti-parallel. The instability draws its energy from the differential rotation, and occurs on the short rotational timescale rather than on the much longer Hall timescale. It operates most efficiently if the Hall time is comparable to the diffusion time. Depending on the precise field strengths B0, either axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric modes may be the most unstable. Conclusions: Even if the differential rotation in newborn neutron stars is quenched within minutes, the shear-Hall instability may nevertheless amplify any seed magnetic fields by many orders of magnitude.

  3. Piezo-Hall effect and fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients of single crystal n-type 3C-SiC(100) with low carrier concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Afzaal; Dao, Dzung Viet; Dinh, Toan; Iacopi, Alan; Walker, Glenn; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Hold, Leonie; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2017-04-01

    This article reports the results on the piezo-Hall effect in single crystal n-type 3C-SiC(100) having a low carrier concentration. The effect of the crystallographic orientation on the piezo-Hall effect has been investigated by applying stress to the Hall devices fabricated in different crystallographic directions. Single crystal n-type 3C-SiC(100) and 3C-SiC(111) were grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition at 1250 °C. Fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients were obtained using the piezo-Hall effect measurements as P11 = (-29 ± 1.3) × 10-11 Pa-1, P12 = (11.06 ± 0.5)× 10-11 Pa-1, and P44 = (-3.4 ± 0.7) × 10-11 Pa-1. It has been observed that the piezo-Hall coefficients of n-type 3C-SiC(100) show a completely different behavior as compared to that of p-type 3C-SiC.

  4. Batch-fabricated high-performance graphene Hall elements

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Shi, Runbo; Liu, Honggang; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2013-01-01

    Hall elements are by far the most widely used magnetic sensor. In general, the higher the mobility and the thinner the active region of the semiconductor used, the better the Hall device. While most common magnetic field sensors are Si-based Hall sensors, devices made from III-V compounds tend to favor over that based on Si. However these devices are more expensive and difficult to manufacture than Si, and hard to be integrated with signal-processing circuits for extending function and enforcing performance. In this article we show that graphene is intrinsically an ideal material for Hall elements which may harness the remarkable properties of graphene, i.e. extremely high carrier mobility and atomically thin active body, to create ideal magnetic sensors with high sensitivity, excellent linearity and remarkable thermal stability. PMID:23383375

  5. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  6. Kinematic and kinetic comparisons between American and Korean professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael; Fleisig, Glen; Barrentine, Steven; Andrews, James; Moorman, Claude

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare kinematic, temporal, and kinetic characteristics of American and Korean professional pitchers in order to investigate differences in pitching mechanics, performance, and injury risks among two different cultures and populations of baseball pitchers. Eleven American and eight Korean healthy professional baseball pitchers threw multiple fastball pitches off an indoor throwing mound positioned at regulation distance from home plate. A Motion Analysis three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 200 Hz video data from four electronically synchronized cameras. Twenty kinematic, six temporal, and 11 kinetic variables were analyzed at lead foot contact, during the arm cocking and arm acceleration phases, at ball release, and during the arm deceleration phase. A radar gun was used to quantify ball velocity. At lead foot contact, the American pitchers had significantly greater horizontal abduction of the throwing shoulder, while Korean pitchers exhibited significantly greater abduction and external rotation of the throwing shoulder. During arm cocking, the American pitchers displayed significantly greater maximum shoulder external rotation and maximum pelvis angular velocity. At the instant of ball release, the American pitchers had significantly greater forward trunk tilt and ball velocity and significantly less knee flexion, which help explain why the American pitchers had 10% greater ball velocity compared to the Korean pitchers. The American pitchers had significantly greater maximum shoulder internal rotation torque and maximum elbow varus torque during arm cocking, significantly greater elbow flexion torque during arm acceleration, and significantly greater shoulder and elbow proximal forces during arm deceleration. While greater shoulder and elbow forces and torques generated in the American pitchers helped generate greater ball velocity for the American group, these greater kinetics may

  7. Safety halls--an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Anders; Gregersen, Nils Petter; Nolén, Sixten; Engström, Inger

    2005-01-01

    In most countries, drivers licensing systems usually include teaching some aspects of using safety equipment (e.g., airbags and seat belts). However, there is now evidence worldwide that such education is inadequate, as indicated by, for example, the overrepresentation of young drivers who do not use seat belts. A randomized controlled study was conducted in Sweden to evaluate the effects of visiting a facility known as a "safety hall" in combination with the mandatory skid training. The results were assessed to determine the effects of the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers in the following subjects: airbags, securing loads, seat belts, sitting posture, speed, and tires. An experimental group and a control group comprising 658 and 668 learners, respectively, answered identical questionnaires on three different occasions (pretest, posttest 1, and posttest 2). The results show that, for most of the topics considered, knowledge and attitudes in both groups were better at posttest 2 than at the pretest, and in general, the best knowledge and attitudes were found in the experimental group. The combined safety/skid training seems to have had the greatest effect on seat belts and loads. The findings also indicate that the safety halls can be further improved to achieve an even better effect. The use of safety halls has improved the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers concerning several important areas related to traffic safety. Since knowledge and attitudes are important predictors of behavior, implementing safety halls can be expected to lead to improvements, especially regarding the use of safety belts and securing loads.

  8. The Food Environment of Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Drury-Brown, Marcie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sports, such as youth baseball (YB), are popular outlets for increasing activity, yet there has been no investigation of food environments surrounding them. The aim of this study was to observe the types of foods available and consumed by players and spectators at YB events. Methods: This was an observational assessment, by environmental scan, of foods consumed by players and family members at a YB field in northwest North Carolina. Results: Participants included boys from six YB teams (n=51) between 8 and 11 years of age and families. A total of 12 YB games were observed. Most team snacks (72%) consisted of high-calorie food items, including French fries, candy, and cookies; most beverages (53%) consumed by players were sugar sweetened. We observed 313 spectators and players, who consumed a total of 249 foods and 276 beverages. Most food and beverage items (89%) were purchased from the concession stand, of which 73% were considered less-healthy options. Conclusions: High-calorie snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages dominate the YB environment. Despite the benefits of participating in sports, families of children participating in sports leagues may be increasing their risk for poor nutritional habits as a result of increased exposure to unhealthy foods and disruption of meal times. PMID:24745374

  9. The food environment of youth baseball.

    PubMed

    Irby, Megan B; Drury-Brown, Marcie; Skelton, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    Sports, such as youth baseball (YB), are popular outlets for increasing activity, yet there has been no investigation of food environments surrounding them. The aim of this study was to observe the types of foods available and consumed by players and spectators at YB events. This was an observational assessment, by environmental scan, of foods consumed by players and family members at a YB field in northwest North Carolina. Participants included boys from six YB teams (n=51) between 8 and 11 years of age and families. A total of 12 YB games were observed. Most team snacks (72%) consisted of high-calorie food items, including French fries, candy, and cookies; most beverages (53%) consumed by players were sugar sweetened. We observed 313 spectators and players, who consumed a total of 249 foods and 276 beverages. Most food and beverage items (89%) were purchased from the concession stand, of which 73% were considered less-healthy options. High-calorie snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages dominate the YB environment. Despite the benefits of participating in sports, families of children participating in sports leagues may be increasing their risk for poor nutritional habits as a result of increased exposure to unhealthy foods and disruption of meal times.

  10. Hall viscosity and electromagnetic response of electrons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mohammad; Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni

    The Hall viscosity is a dissipationless component of the viscosity tensor of an electron liquid with broken time- reversal symmetry, such as a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall state. Similar to the Hall conductivity, the Hall viscosity is an anomalous transport coefficient; however, while the former is connected with the current response, the latter stems from the stress response to a geometric deformation. For a Galilean-invariant system such as 2DEG, the current density is indeed the generator of the geometric deformation: therefore a connection between the Hall connectivity and viscosity is expected and by now well established. In the case of graphene, a non-Galilean-invariant system, the existence of such a connection is far from obvious, as the current operator is essentially different from the momentum operator. In this talk, I will first present our results of the geometric Hall viscosity of electrons in single-layer graphene. Then, from the expansion of the nonlocal Hall conductivity for small wave vectors, I demonstrate that, in spite of the lack of Galilean invariance, an effective mass can be defined such that the relationship between the Hall conductivity and the viscosity retains the form it has in Galilean-invariant systems, not only for a large number of occupied Landau levels, but also, with very high accuracy, for the undoped system.

  11. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  12. Simmons Hall, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelar, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of Simmons Hall, an undergraduate dormitory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, as well as floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  13. Remnant Geometric Hall Response in a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Justin H; Song, Justin C W; Refael, Gil

    2016-12-02

    Out-of-equilibrium systems can host phenomena that transcend the usual restrictions of equilibrium systems. Here, we unveil how out-of-equilibrium states, prepared via a quantum quench in a two-band system, can exhibit a nonzero Hall-type current-a remnant Hall response-even when the instantaneous Hamiltonian is time reversal symmetric (in contrast to equilibrium Hall currents). Interestingly, the remnant Hall response arises from the coherent dynamics of the wave function that retain a remnant of its quantum geometry postquench, and can be traced to processes beyond linear response. Quenches in two-band Dirac systems are natural venues for realizing remnant Hall currents, which exist when either mirror or time-reversal symmetry are broken (before or after the quench). Its long time persistence, sensitivity to symmetry breaking, and decoherence-type relaxation processes allow it to be used as a sensitive diagnostic of the complex out-of-equilibrium dynamics readily controlled and probed in cold-atomic optical lattice experiments.

  14. A Behavioral Weight Control Program for Residence Hall Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke, Jane A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared a weight control treatment specifically tailored to the needs of residence hall students with a standardized behavioral procedure. Although posttreatment results indicated a very slight and nonsignificant advantage for the residence hall condition, this was not true at follow-up. Suggests the residence hall procedure may be overly…

  15. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greets baseball legend Williams following a parade in Cocoa Beach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (left) greets baseball legend Ted Williams at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  16. Roles of nonlocal conductivity on spin Hall angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shufeng

    2017-10-01

    Spin Hall angle characterizes the rate of spin-charge current conversion and it has become one of the most important material parameters for spintronics physics and device application. A long-standing controversy is that the spin Hall angles for a given material measured by spin pumping and by spin Hall torque experiments are inconsistent and they could differ by as much as an order of magnitude. By using the linear response spin transport theory, we explicitly formulate the relation between the spin Hall angle and measured variables in different experiments. We find that the nonlocal conductivity inherited in the layered structure plays a key role to resolve conflicting values of the spin Hall angle. We provide a generalized scheme for extracting spin transport coefficients from experimental data.

  17. Spin torque efficiency of Ta, W, and Pt in metallic bilayers evaluated by harmonic Hall and spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the efficiency of current-induced torque, i.e., the spin torque efficiency, in in-plane magnetized heavy metal/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures (heavy metals = Pt, W, and Ta) using the harmonic Hall technique and the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We find that the amplitude of the external magnetic field has a strong influence on the spin torque efficiency evaluation by the harmonic Hall measurements. This can be corrected by measuring the corresponding Hall resistance susceptibility. The sign and magnitude of the resulting Slonczewski-like spin torque efficiencies are in agreement with previous reports and the measurements utilizing the spin Hall magnetoresistance, except for the Pt underlayer films. The origin of the discrepancy for the Pt underlayer films is unclear. The field like torque efficiencies, upon subtracting the Oersted field contribution, are quite low or negligible. This is in significant contrast to what has been found for the field like torque in heterostructures with perpendicular magnetization. These results suggest that a more advanced model is required in order to describe accurately spin transport and momentum transfer at metallic interfaces.

  18. Predicting intentions to eat a healthful diet by college baseball players: applying the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Male undergraduate college baseball players (mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 20.25 [1.12]). Prediction of behavioral intention to eat a healthful diet. Regression analysis was used to assess how well the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior predicted behavioral intention to eat a healthful diet. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control variables accounted for 72% of the variance in behavioral intention to eat a healthful diet. Attitude had the greatest influence on intention (beta = .383, P < .001), followed by subjective norms (beta = .291, P < .001), and perceived behavioral control (beta = .269, P < .001). Athletes' daily schedule and their perception of the impact of a healthful diet on their focus and concentration had the biggest impact on intention to eat healthful food. University athletic administration must emphasize providing access to healthful food, especially during the season, both at home and while traveling to games.

  19. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  20. Impact of 12-s Rule on Performance and Muscle Damage of Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sun-Chin; Wang, Chia-Chi; Lee, Shin-DA; Lee, Y U Chung; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Chen, Yi-Liang; Fogt, Donovan L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2016-12-01

    A recent US Major League Baseball (MLB) rule change requires baseball pitchers to deliver pitches within 12 s. To examine the effect of three between-pitch rest intervals on throwing performance during a simulated seven-inning game and muscle damage during postgame recovery. A randomized counterbalanced study. Seven intercollegiate pitchers threw 15 pitches per inning for seven innings with rest interval trials of 8, 12, and 20 s between pitches and 5 min between innings. Pitchers threw aimed fastballs at their best effort. Trials were separated by ≥2 wk. Progressive decreases in pitching speed and accuracy below baseline (first inning of 20-s trial) occurred after fourth inning during the 8-s and 12-s trials, but not the 20-s trial. Plasma creatine kinase elevated 48 h later for the 8-s and 12-s trials (+105% and +75%, P < 0.01), but not the 20-s trial (+26%, no significance). A transient interleukin (IL)-6 surges immediately after the game for the 8- and 12-s trials (+265%, +128%, P < 0.01) above baseline. IL-6 reversed below the level of 20-s trial at 48 h after game, whereas IL-10 increased significantly above the level of 20-s trial. Under the same pitching load, decreasing rest interval from 20 to 12 s or less results in an early-onset performance loss during a game and increases in muscle damage and inflammation for more than 2 d after a game. Our data do not favor the current rule change in concern of keeping musculoskeletal health of pitchers.

  1. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  2. HEDSA Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2017-10-01

    HEDSA will hold its Town Hall meeting on Wednesday October 25 at 12:30pm in the Wisconsin Center. The new steering committee members and HEDSA leadership will be announced. A report will be given on 2017 HEDSA activities. Program Managers from Federal Funding Agencies such as OFES, NNSA, AFOSR and NSF will provide updates on the state of sponsored research in HED plasmas, and to engage the community in an open dialogue. The HEDSA Town Hall is a ``bring your own lunch'' meeting. Current members of HEDSA and all graduate students are strongly encouraged to attend. To join HEDSA please visit HEDSA.org

  3. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top…

  4. 5. ROOFTOPS, ISHERWOOD HALL (BUILDING NO. 104), GRIFFIN (BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ROOFTOPS, ISHERWOOD HALL (BUILDING NO. 104), GRIFFIN (BUILDING NO. 110), MELVILLE HALL (BUILDING NO. 116) LOOKING WEST FROM CLOCK TOWER OF MAHAN HALL - U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  5. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Saper, Michael; Shung, Joseph; Pearce, Stephanie; Bompadre, Viviana; Andrews, James R

    2018-04-01

    The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions in adolescent athletes has increased over the past 2 decades. Clinical results in this population have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and return to sport after UCL reconstruction in a large group of adolescent baseball players. We hypothesized that excellent clinical outcomes and high rates of return to sport would be observed in this population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We reviewed 140 adolescent (aged ≤19 years) baseball players who underwent UCL reconstruction with the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique by a single surgeon. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, injury characteristics, operative details, and surgical complications. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Conway scale, the Andrews-Timmerman (A-T) score, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) score, and a 0- to 100-point subjective scale for elbow function and satisfaction. Return to sporting activity was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery was 18.0 years (range, 13-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 57.9 months (range, 32.4-115.4 months). Over half (60%) of patients were high school athletes. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 6.9 months (range, 0.5-60.0 months). Partial tears were identified in 57.9% of patients, and 41.3% of patients had preoperative ulnar nerve symptoms. Graft type included the ipsilateral palmaris in 77.1% of patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 25% of patients. Outcomes on the Conway scale were "excellent" in 86.4% of patients. The mean A-T and KJOC scores were 97.3 ± 6.1 and 85.2 ± 14.6, respectively. Mean patient satisfaction was 94.4. Overall, 97.8% of patients reported returning to sport at a mean of 11.6 months (range, 5-24 months), and 89.9% of patients returned to sport at the same level of

  6. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael; Shung, Joseph; Pearce, Stephanie; Bompadre, Viviana; Andrews, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions in adolescent athletes has increased over the past 2 decades. Clinical results in this population have not been well studied. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and return to sport after UCL reconstruction in a large group of adolescent baseball players. We hypothesized that excellent clinical outcomes and high rates of return to sport would be observed in this population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We reviewed 140 adolescent (aged ≤19 years) baseball players who underwent UCL reconstruction with the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique by a single surgeon. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, injury characteristics, operative details, and surgical complications. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Conway scale, the Andrews-Timmerman (A-T) score, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) score, and a 0- to 100-point subjective scale for elbow function and satisfaction. Return to sporting activity was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 18.0 years (range, 13-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 57.9 months (range, 32.4-115.4 months). Over half (60%) of patients were high school athletes. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 6.9 months (range, 0.5-60.0 months). Partial tears were identified in 57.9% of patients, and 41.3% of patients had preoperative ulnar nerve symptoms. Graft type included the ipsilateral palmaris in 77.1% of patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 25% of patients. Outcomes on the Conway scale were “excellent” in 86.4% of patients. The mean A-T and KJOC scores were 97.3 ± 6.1 and 85.2 ± 14.6, respectively. Mean patient satisfaction was 94.4. Overall, 97.8% of patients reported returning to sport at a mean of 11.6 months (range, 5

  7. The Effect of Intermittent Vest Cooling on Thermoregulation and Cardiovascular Strain in Baseball Catchers.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stacy H; Szymanski, David J; Ryan, Greg A; Herron, Robert L; Bishop, Phil A

    2017-08-01

    Bishop, SH, Szymanski, DJ, Ryan, GA, Herron, RL, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent vest cooling on thermoregulation and cardiovascular strain in baseball catchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2060-2065, 2017-Baseball catchers are exposed to multiple physiological challenges while playing outside during the spring and summer months, many of which deal with recovery and thermoregulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent cooling on core temperature, cardiovascular strain, exertion, and recovery during a simulated catching performance in the heat. Six trained college-aged baseball catchers performed in a controlled, hot (35° C), and humid (25% relative humidity) environment in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Ice vest cooling (VC) was used as a cooling modality and was compared with a control of no cooling (NC). Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived recovery scale (PRS) were recorded before and after each simulated inning. All activities took place in a heat chamber, and each inning consisted of catchers receiving 12 pitches in their position followed by 6 minutes of recovery. Nine total innings were performed, and 27 total innings were performed with each of the 2 treatments. A significantly smaller mean Tre change was seen in VC when compared with NC (0.58 ± 0.2° C, 0.98 ± 0.2° C, p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly lower and PRS was significantly improved for VC compared with NC (both p ≤ 0.05). Mean recovery HR during VC was significantly lower than NC in the fifth (VC = 84 ± 8 b·min, NC = 90 ± 9 b·min, p = 0.04), seventh (VC = 84 ± 3 b·min, NC = 92 ± 7 b·min, p = 0.02), and ninth (VC = 85 ± 7 b·min, NC = 93 ± 5 b·min, p = 0.01) innings. Heart rate during catching was significantly lower at the end of the VC trials when compared with NC (108 ± 16 b·min vs. 120 ± 19 b·min, p = 0.02, respectively

  8. Anomalous Hall effect in calcium-doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Scott Alan

    The physical origin of the anomalous (proportional to magnetization) Hall effect is not very well understood. While many theories account for a Hall effect proportional to the magnetization of a material, these theories often predict effects significantly smaller than those found in ferromagnetic materials. An even more significant deficiency of the conventional theories is that they predict an anomalous Hall resistivity that is proportional to a power of the resistivity, and in the absence of a metal insulator transition cannot account for the anomalous Hall effect that peaks near TC. Recent models based on a geometric, or Berry, phase have had a great deal of success describing the anomalous Hall effect in double-exchange systems (e.g., lanthanum manganite and chromium dioxide). In gadolinium, as in double-exchange magnets, the exchange interaction is mediated by the conduction electrons and the anomalous Hall effect may therefore resemble that of CrO2 and other metallic double-exchange ferromagnets. Lanthanum cobaltite is similar to manganite in many ways, but a strong double-exchange interaction is not present. Calcium-doped lanthanum cobaltite films were found to have the largest anomalous Hall effect of any ferromagnetic metal. The primary purpose of this study is to gain insight into the origin of the anomalous Hall effect with the hope that these theories can be extended to account for the effect in other materials. The Hall resistivity, magnetoresistance, and magnetization of a Gadolinium single crystal were measured in fields up to 30 T. Cobaltite films were grown via laser ablation and characterized by a variety of techniques. Hall resistivity, magnetoresistance, magnetization, and magnetothermopower of L 1-xCaxCoO3 samples with 0.15 < x < 0.4 were measured in fields up to 7 T. The Gd results suggest that Berry's phase contributes partially to the Hall effect near TC. Berry's phase theories hold promise for explaining the large anomalous Hall effect in

  9. Performance of an 8 kW Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-12

    For the purpose of either orbit raising and/or repositioning the Hall thruster must be capable of delivering sufficient thrust to minimize transfer...time. This coupled with the increasing on-board electric power capacity of military and commercial satellites, requires a high power Hall thruster that...development of a novel, high power Hall thruster , capable of efficient operation over a broad range of Isp and thrust. We call such a thruster the bi

  10. Spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Masashige; Sigrist, Manfred

    2001-08-01

    In a chiral superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry a ``spontaneous Hall effect'' may be observed. We analyze this phenomenon by taking into account the surface properties of a chiral superconductor. We identify two main contributions to the spontaneous Hall effect. One contribution originates from the Bernoulli (or Lorentz) force due to spontaneous currents running along the surfaces of the superconductor. The other contribution has a topological origin and is related to the intrinsic angular momentum of Cooper pairs. The latter can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons-like term in the low-energy field theory of the superconductor and has some similarities with the quantum Hall effect. The spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral superconductor is, however, nonuniversal. Our analysis is based on three approaches to the problem: a self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory, and a hydrodynamic formulation. All three methods consistently lead to the same conclusion that the spontaneous Hall resistance of a two-dimensional superconducting Hall bar is of order h/(ekFλ)2, where kF is the Fermi wave vector and λ is the London penetration depth; the Hall resistance is substantially suppressed from a quantum unit of resistance. Experimental issues in measuring this effect are briefly discussed.

  11. Changes in pitching mechanics after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in major league baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Portney, Daniel A; Lazaroff, Jake M; Buchler, Lucas T; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is a common procedure performed on Major League Baseball pitchers. Variations in pitching mechanics before and after UCL reconstructive surgery are not well understood. Publicly available pitch tracking data (PITCHf/x) were compared for all Major League Baseball pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction between 2008 and 2013. Specific parameters analyzed were fastball percentage, release location, velocity, and movement of each pitch type. These data were compared before and after UCL reconstructive surgery and compared with a randomly selected control cohort. There were no statistically significant changes in pitch selection or pitch accuracy after UCL reconstruction, nor was there a decrease in pitch velocity. The average pitch release location for 4-seam and 2-seam fastballs, curveballs, and changeups is more medial after UCL reconstruction (P < .01). Four-seam fastballs and sliders showed decreased horizontal breaking movement after surgery (P < .05), whereas curveballs showed increased downward breaking movement after surgery (P < .05). Pitch selection, pitch velocity, and pitch accuracy do not significantly change after UCL reconstruction, nor do players who require UCL reconstruction have significantly different pitch selection, velocity, or accuracy than a randomly selected control cohort. Pitch release location is more medial after UCL reconstruction for all pitch types except sliders. Breaking movement of fastballs, sliders, and curveballs changes after UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  13. Tutorial: Physics and modeling of Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Hall thrusters are very efficient and competitive electric propulsion devices for satellites and are currently in use in a number of telecommunications and government spacecraft. Their power spans from 100 W to 20 kW, with thrust between a few mN and 1 N and specific impulse values between 1000 and 3000 s. The basic idea of Hall thrusters consists in generating a large local electric field in a plasma by using a transverse magnetic field to reduce the electron conductivity. This electric field can extract positive ions from the plasma and accelerate them to high velocity without extracting grids, providing the thrust. These principles are simple in appearance but the physics of Hall thrusters is very intricate and non-linear because of the complex electron transport across the magnetic field and its coupling with the electric field and the neutral atom density. This paper describes the basic physics of Hall thrusters and gives a (non-exhaustive) summary of the research efforts that have been devoted to the modelling and understanding of these devices in the last 20 years. Although the predictive capabilities of the models are still not sufficient for a full computer aided design of Hall thrusters, significant progress has been made in the qualitative and quantitative understanding of these devices.

  14. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  15. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Use of the Spencer Technique on Collegiate Baseball Players: Effect on Physical Performance and Self-Report Measures.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Janine E; Grana, Matthew J; England, Stacey; Banyas, Paige M; Palmer, Benjamin D; Placke, Arielle E; Rieck, William A; Eade, Amber M

    2017-03-01

    Repeated overhead throwing in baseball players alters range of motion (ROM), contributing to shoulder injury. The Spencer technique has been used, anecdotally, to reduce the effects of throwing-induced limitations in ROM. To quantify the effects of a single administration of the Spencer technique on the ROM and performance of collegiate baseball pitchers. Pitchers from the Seton Hill University men's baseball team were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: Spencer technique or sham therapy. The first week consisted of baseline outcome measurements (1 week before treatment), including ROM (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation) of the dominant throwing arm, 10 maximum velocity throws, and self-reported performance using the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score (KJOC-SES). The second week consisted of pretreatment ROM measurement, followed by a single treatment and repeated measurement of all outcomes. Of 16 players, 15 met inclusion criteria. An effect of training on ROM between weeks 1 and 2 for all players consisted of significantly decreased internal rotation (P=.02) and increased external rotation (P=.04). A differential effect of treatment was found on the mean difference in internal rotation after treatment, compared with the mean difference before treatment on the same day (P=.01). Additionally, a trend toward statistical significance for abduction (P=.08) was noted. Analyses reveal that these effects were caused by significant increases in the internal rotation and abduction for the Spencer group only (P=.02). All other analyses of ROM, as well as performance measured by maximum velocity throws and the KJOC-SES, revealed no differential effect of treatment. The results of this study support the use of the Spencer technique in counteracting the potentially negative effects of repeated throwing on internal rotation. However, a single administration did not affect functional ability in this

  17. 27. FIRST FLOOR CENTRAL HALL, EAST WALL, DETAIL OF ENTABLATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. FIRST FLOOR CENTRAL HALL, EAST WALL, DETAIL OF ENTABLATURE SHOWING EGG AND DART OVOLO AND GUTTAE OF THE THIRD MUTULE FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Intrinsic quantum spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects in h-Sb/Bi epitaxial growth on a ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2016-06-07

    Exploring a two-dimensional intrinsic quantum spin Hall state with a large band gap as well as an anomalous Hall state in realizable materials is one of the most fundamental and important goals for future applications in spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Here, by combining first-principles calculations with a tight-binding model, we predict that Sb or Bi can epitaxially grow on a stable and ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film substrate, forming a flat honeycomb sheet. The flatness of Sb or Bi provides an opportunity for the existence of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, with its position effectively tuned by surface hydrogenation. The Dirac points in spin up and spin down channels split due to the proximity effects induced by MnO2. In the presence of both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find two band gaps exhibiting a large band gap quantum spin Hall state and a nearly quantized anomalous Hall state which can be tuned by adjusting the Fermi level. Our findings provide an efficient way to realize both quantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall conductivity in a single material.

  19. Establishment of a Hall Thruster Cluster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    DURIP funds were used to develop a Hall thruster cluster test facility centered around the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility and a 2x2 cluster of BUSEK 600 W BHT-600 Hall thrusters. This capability will facilitate our three-year program to address the issue of high-power CDT operation and to provide insight on how chamber effects influence CDT engine/cluster characteristics.

  20. Direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Wanjun; Zhang, Xichao; Yu, Guoqiang; ...

    2016-09-19

    The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons/holes) as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin texture with a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. In spite of the recent progress made on investigating magnetic skyrmions, direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect has remained elusive. Here, by using a current-induced spin Hall spin torque, we experimentally demonstrate the skyrmion Hall effect, and the resultantmore » skyrmion accumulation, by driving skyrmions from the creep-motion regime (where their dynamics are influenced by pinning defects) into the steady-flow-motion regime. Lastly, the experimental observation of transverse transport of skyrmions due to topological charge may potentially create many exciting opportunities, such as topological selection.« less

  1. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  2. Direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, Wanjun; Zhang, Xichao; Yu, Guoqiang

    The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons/holes) as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin texture with a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. In spite of the recent progress made on investigating magnetic skyrmions, direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect has remained elusive. Here, by using a current-induced spin Hall spin torque, we experimentally demonstrate the skyrmion Hall effect, and the resultantmore » skyrmion accumulation, by driving skyrmions from the creep-motion regime (where their dynamics are influenced by pinning defects) into the steady-flow-motion regime. Lastly, the experimental observation of transverse transport of skyrmions due to topological charge may potentially create many exciting opportunities, such as topological selection.« less

  3. Mouthguard BITES (Behavior, Impulsivity, Theory Evaluation Study): What Drives Mouthguard Use Among High School Basketball and Baseball/Softball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Christy L.; McKenzie, Lara B.; Roberts, Kristin J.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. “Impulsive delay discounting” (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players’ mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys’ and girls’ basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p < 0.001) and higher delayed discounting (p = 0.016) after adjusting for school, sport, and sex. Voluntary mouthguard use among high school athletes playing basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes’ use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific

  4. The success of return to sport after ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Scott D; Bullock, Garrett S; Goode, Adam P; Garrigues, Grant E; Ruch, David S; Reiman, Michael P

    2018-03-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament injury (UCLI) has significantly increased in overhead sports during the past 2 decades. Differences in return to sport (RTS) and RTS at previous level (RTSP) after UCLI have not been differentiated. A computer-assisted literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and SportDiscus databases using keywords related to RTS for UCLI was implemented. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used for study methodology. Quality assessment was conducted using a modified Downs and Black scale. A total of 22 retrospective, level 3b or 4, studies (n = 2289) qualified for analysis. Overall RTS proportion was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86%-94%) and overall RTSP proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75%-84%), both with significant heterogeneity (P < .001, I 2  = 74%-84%). RTS and RTSP proportions were 89% (95% CI, 83%-94%) and 78% (95% CI, 72%-83%) for Major League Baseball players, 91% (95% CI, 77%-99%) and 67% (95% CI, 52%-81%) for Minor League Baseball players, 95% (95% CI, 75%-100%) and 92% (95% CI, 82%-98%) for collegiate players, and 93% (95% CI, 81%-100%) and 83% (95% CI, 77%-89%) for high school players, respectively. Increased earned run average, walks, and hits per inning pitched, decreased innings pitched, and decreased fastball velocity were found after UCLI. Low-level, high-bias evidence demonstrates overall RTS proportion is higher than RTSP, regardless of treatment type for UCLI. Although RTS proportions remained consistent across various levels of play, RTSP proportions were lower in professional players, particularly Minor League Baseball compared with collegiate and high school players. Pitching performance significantly decreased postoperatively in most studies. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. L'effet Hall Quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Thomas

    Nous proposons une methode permettant d'obtenir une expression pour la conductivite de Hall de structures electroniques bidimensionnelles et nous examinons celle -ci a la limite d'une temperature nulle dans le but de verifier l'effet Hall quantique. Nous allons nous interesser essentiellement a l'effet Hall quantique entier et aux effets fractionnaires inferieurs a un. Le systeme considere est forme d'un gaz d'electrons en interaction faible avec les impuretes de l'echantillon. Le modele du gaz d'electrons consiste en un gaz bidimensionnel d'electrons sans spin expose perpendiculairement a un champ magnetique uniforme. Ce dernier est decrit par le potentiel vecteur vec{rm A} defini dans la jauge de Dingle ou jauge symetrique. Conformement au formalisme de la seconde quantification, l'hamiltonien de ce gaz est represente dans la base des etats a un-corps de Dingle |n,m> et exprime ainsi en terme des operateurs de creation et d'annihilation correspondants a_sp{ rm n m}{dag} et a _{rm n m}. Nous supposons de plus que les electrons du niveau fondamental de Dingle interagissent entre eux via le potentiel coulombien. La methode utilisee fait appel a une equation mai tresse a N-corps, de nature quantique et statistique, et verifiant le second principe de la thermodynamique. A partir de celle-ci, nous obtenons un systeme d'equations differentielles appele hierarchie d'equations quantique dont la resolution nous permet de determiner une equation a un-corps, dite de Boltzmann quantique, et dictant l'evolution de la moyenne statistique de l'operateur non-diagonal a _sp{rm n m}{dag } a_{rm n}, _{rm m}, sous l'action du champ electrique applique vec{rm E}(t). C'est sa solution Tr(p(t) a _sp{rm n m}{dag} a_{rm n},_ {rm m}), qui definit la relation de convolution entre la densite courant de Hall vec{rm J}_{rm H }(t) et le champ electrique vec {rm E}(t) dont la transformee de Laplace-Fourier du noyau nous fournit l'expression de la conductivite de Hall desiree. Pour une valeur de

  6. Concussions are associated with decreased batting performance among Major League Baseball players.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Erin B; Abar, Beau; Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Daniel; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2015-05-01

    Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors identified MLB players who sustained a concussion between 2007 and 2013 through league disabled-list records and a Baseball Prospectus database. For a comparison group, they identified players who went on paternity or bereavement leave during the same period. Using repeated-measures generalized linear models, the authors compared 7 batting metrics between the 2 groups for the 2 weeks upon return, as well as 4 to 6 weeks after return, controlling for pre-leave batting metrics, number of days missed, and position. The authors identified 66 concussions and 68 episodes of bereavement/paternity leave to include in the analysis. In the 2 weeks after return, batting average (.235 vs .266), on-base percentage (.294 vs .326), slugging percentage (.361 vs .423), and on-base plus slugging (.650 vs .749) were significantly lower among concussed players relative to the bereavement/paternity leave players (time×group interaction, P<.05). In weeks 4 to 6 after leave, these metrics were slightly lower in concussed players but not statistically significantly so. Although concussed players may be asymptomatic upon return to play, the residual effects of concussion on the skills required for batting may still be present. Further work is needed to clarify the mechanism through which batting performance after concussion is adversely affected and to identify better measures to use for return-to-play decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Optimum Design Rules for CMOS Hall Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Biondi, Michele; Romani, Aldo; Tartagni, Marco; Sangiorgi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript analyzes the effects of design parameters, such as aspect ratio, doping concentration and bias, on the performance of a general CMOS Hall sensor, with insight on current-related sensitivity, power consumption, and bandwidth. The article focuses on rectangular-shaped Hall probes since this is the most general geometry leading to shape-independent results. The devices are analyzed by means of 3D-TCAD simulations embedding galvanomagnetic transport model, which takes into account the Lorentz force acting on carriers due to a magnetic field. Simulation results define a set of trade-offs and design rules that can be used by electronic designers to conceive their own Hall probes. PMID:28375191

  8. Optimum Design Rules for CMOS Hall Sensors.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Biondi, Michele; Romani, Aldo; Tartagni, Marco; Sangiorgi, Enrico

    2017-04-04

    This manuscript analyzes the effects of design parameters, such as aspect ratio, doping concentration and bias, on the performance of a general CMOS Hall sensor, with insight on current-related sensitivity, power consumption, and bandwidth. The article focuses on rectangular-shaped Hall probes since this is the most general geometry leading to shape-independent results. The devices are analyzed by means of 3D-TCAD simulations embedding galvanomagnetic transport model, which takes into account the Lorentz force acting on carriers due to a magnetic field. Simulation results define a set of trade-offs and design rules that can be used by electronic designers to conceive their own Hall probes.

  9. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  10. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  11. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  12. Acoustic Requirements for a Multi-Purpose Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, W. Allen

    2002-01-01

    This case study examines the proposed design of a new lecture/recital hall in Centennial Hall at Lynchburg College that will be used for lectures, public events, a film studies course, and musical recitals. It explores the audio-visual challenges presented by the differing acoustical requirements for the building. (EV)

  13. Experimental test of 200 W Hall thruster with titanium wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Yu, Daren

    2017-05-01

    We designed a 200 W Hall thruster based on the technology of pushing down a magnetic field with two permanent magnetic rings. Boron nitride (BN) is an important insulating wall material for Hall thrusters. The discharge characteristics of the designed Hall thruster were studied by replacing BN with titanium (Ti). Experimental results show that the designed Hall thruster can discharge stably for a long time under a Ti channel. Experiments were performed to determine whether the channel and cathode are electrically connected. When the channel wall and cathode are insulated, the divergence angle of the plume increases, but the performance of the Hall thruster is improved in terms of thrust, specific impulse, anode efficiency, and thrust-to-power ratio. Ti exhibits a powerful antisputtering capability, a low emanation rate of gas, and a large structural strength, making it a potential candidate wall material in the design of low-power Hall thrusters.

  14. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large currentmore » density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.« less

  15. Treatment for Ulnar Neuritis Around the Elbow in Adolescent Baseball Players: Factors Associated With Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Satake, Hiroshi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Harada, Mikio; Uno, Tomohiro; Mura, Nariyuki; Takagi, Michiaki

    2017-03-01

    Ulnar neuritis around the elbow is one of the injuries seen in throwing athletes. Outcomes of nonsurgical treatment and factors associated with failure outcomes have not been reported. To investigate the outcomes of treatments for ulnar neuritis in adolescent baseball players. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We assessed 40 male baseball players with a mean age of 15.0 years (range, 13-17 years) who presented with ulnar neuritis. There were 19 pitchers and 21 fielders whose throwing side was affected. All patients had elbow pain, and 13 patients had hand numbness on the ulnar side. The mean Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) overhead athlete shoulder and elbow score was 52.5 at the first follow-up visit (n = 36 patients). Thirteen patients were identified with ulnar nerve subluxation, and 23 patients had concomitant elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury. All patients underwent nonsurgical treatment, which included rehabilitation exercises and prohibition of throwing. If the nonsurgical treatment failed, we recommended surgical treatment. We investigated the outcomes of the nonsurgical and surgical treatments. Return to sports was evaluated, combined with factors associated with return to sports in nonsurgical treatment by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The mean follow-up period was 23.6 months (range, 6-39 months). After nonsurgical treatment, 24 patients (60%) returned to the previous competition level after a mean of 2.4 months. Two patients returned to a recreational level. One patient gave up playing baseball at 2 months. The remaining 13 patients underwent surgery and returned to sports after a mean of 2.0 months postoperatively, and 12 had no limitation of sports activities. Multivariate logistical regression analysis demonstrated that hand numbness, ulnar nerve subluxation, and UCL injury were associated with failure of nonsurgical treatment ( P < .05). In addition, KJOC score of <45 at the first follow-up tended to be

  16. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  17. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  18. Residence Hall Fires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how one college's experience with a tragic fire in one of its residence halls prompted a reevaluation of its fire-prevention-and-response strategies. Staff training, sprinkler installation, new alarm systems, and exit hardware to help make building exiting more efficient are discussed. (GR)

  19. Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).

  20. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in-space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This paper describes the electrical configuration testing of the HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Center's Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined were 1) thruster body tied to facility ground, 2) thruster floating, and 3) thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster was also configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  1. Perception of music dynamics in concert hall acoustics.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array. By paired comparison, naive subjects selected the stimuli that they considered to change more during the music. Furthermore, the subjects described their foremost perceptual criteria for each selection. The most distinct perceptual factors differentiating the rendering of music dynamics between halls include the dynamic range, and varying width of sound and reverberance. The results confirm the hypothesis that the concert halls render the performed music dynamics differently, and with various perceptual aspects. The analysis against objective room acoustic parameters suggests that the perceived dynamic contrasts are pronounced by acoustics that provide stronger sound and more binaural incoherence by a lateral sound field. Concert halls that enhance the dynamics have been found earlier to elicit high subjective preference.

  2. Successful NCAA Division I Baseball Coaches' Understandings of Their Roles and Responsibilities as Leaders in a Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Certain coaches seem to have a basic blueprint for success that consistently puts them at the forefront of their respective industries. Within this blueprint are various components of leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify how successful NCAA Division I baseball coaches understand their roles and responsibilities as leaders in a…

  3. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  4. Graphene/Si CMOS hybrid hall integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-07

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  5. Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2007-02-16

    The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system.

  6. Relationship between physical fitness at the end of pre-season and the in-season game performance in Japanese female professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Hiramoto, Machiko; Miura, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akito; Eto, Toshiaki; Saotome, Homare; Kida, Noriyuki; Morihara, Toru

    2017-10-30

    This study examined anthropometric and fitness profiles of Japanese female professional baseball players and investigated the relationship between players' physical fitness and in-season game performance. Fifty-seven players who were registered in the Japan Women's Baseball League (JWBL) participated. Height, weight, grip strength, back strength, knee-extension and -flexion strength, hamstring extensibility, vertical jump height, and horizontal jump distance were measured at pre-season (February and March) in 2013. Game performance during the 2013 season (March to November) was obtained from official JWBL statistics. Vertical jump height showed significant positive correlations with individual performance records [e.g., total bases (r = 0.551), slugging percentage (r = 0.459), and stolen bases (r = 0.442)]. Similar relationships were observed between horizontal jump distance and performance statistics in most cases. In contrast, grip, back, and lower-limb strength, and hamstring extensibility were not significantly correlated with game performance. Stepwise regression analysis selected vertical jump height as an independent variable, significantly correlating with several game performance measures (e.g., total bases: adjusted R = 0.257). Also, vertical jump height and body mass index were identified as independent variables significantly associated with stolen bases (adjusted R = 0.251). Maximal jump performance, rather than simple isometric muscle strength or flexibility, is a good performance test that can be used at the end of pre-season to predict in-season batting and stolen base performance. Our findings demonstrate the importance of constructing pre-season training programs to enhance lower-limb muscular power that is linked to successful in-season performance in female baseball players.

  7. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p < 0.001). A significant height reduction was shown for OLL from 1970 to 1990 (p ≤ 0.05), being the only significant decrease in physical size; yet, leaders were heavier and taller compared with the MLB reference population (p < 0.014). Results show that physical size has evolved in MLB, with the OLL being the largest players shown at each year in succession. Professional baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.

  8. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plume Characteristics of the BHT-HD-600 Hall Thruster (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Hall thruster on spacecraft, a number of plume properties have been measured. These include current density using a Faraday probe, ion energy distribution using a retarding potential analyzer, and ion species fractions using an E x B probe. The BHT-HD-600 Hall thruster is a nominally 600 W xenon Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc. for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. Plume characterization of Hall thrusters is required to fully understand the impacts of thruster operation on spacecraft. Much of these plume data are

  10. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  11. A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.

  12. A New Definition in Atlanta: Q&A with Beverly Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Beverly Hall has been superintendent of Atlanta Public Schools since 1999. Before coming to Atlanta, Hall was state district superintendent of Newark Public Schools, deputy chancellor for instruction of New York City Public Schools, superintendent of Community School District 27 in New York City, and a principal in Brooklyn. Hall chairs Harvard…

  13. Quantum Hall Ferroelectrics and Nematics in Multivalley Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, Inti; Zhu, Zheng; Fu, Liang

    2017-10-01

    We study broken symmetry states at integer Landau-level fillings in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low-energy dispersions are anisotropic. When the Fermi surface of individual pockets lacks twofold rotational symmetry, like in bismuth (111) [Feldman et al. , Observation of a Nematic Quantum Hall Liquid on the Surface of Bismuth, Science 354, 316 (2016), 10.1126/science.aag1715] and in Sn1 -xPbxSe (001) [Dziawa et al., Topological Crystalline Insulator States in Pb1 -xSnxSe , Nat. Mater. 11, 1023 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3449] surfaces, interactions tend to drive the formation of quantum Hall ferroelectric states. We demonstrate that the dipole moment in these states has an intimate relation to the Fermi surface geometry of the parent metal. In quantum Hall nematic states, like those arising in AlAs quantum wells, we demonstrate the existence of unusually robust Skyrmion quasiparticles.

  14. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers carefully align a mounting bracket attached to an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft with the top of a pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The Blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft, formerly flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was loaned to the city for display following its recent retirement. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  15. Nonequilibrium Hall Response After a Topological Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, F. Nur; Mueller, Erich; Oktel, M. O.

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically study the Hall response of a lattice system following a quench where the topology of a filled band is suddenly changed. In the limit where the physics is dominated by a single Dirac cone, we find that the change in the Hall conductivity is two-thirds of the quantum of conductivity. We explore this universal behavior in the Haldane model, and discuss cold-atom experiments for its observation. Beyond linear response, the Hall effect crosses over from fractional to integer values. We investigate finite-size effects, and the role of the harmonic confinement. Furthermore, we explore the magnetic field quenches in ladders formed in synthetic dimensions. This work is supported by TUBITAK, NSFPHY-1508300, ARO-MURI W9111NF-14-1-0003.

  16. Summative Report on Time Out of Play for Major and Minor League Baseball: An Analysis of 49,955 Injuries From 2011 Through 2016.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S; van der List, Jelle P; Conte, Stan; Conway, Justin; Altchek, David W; Coleman, Struan H; Pearle, Andrew D

    2018-06-01

    Recent epidemiologic reports have demonstrated rising injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Although several studies have recently been published on specific injuries, the majority of injuries have not yet been formally studied. The purpose of this study is to (1) generate a summative analysis of all injuries that occur in MLB and MiLB, (2) identify the 50 most common injuries, and (3) generate focused reports and fact sheets on the characteristics of each of those diagnoses. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System was used to identify injuries occurring in MLB and MiLB players from 2011 to 2016. Injuries were defined as those that occurred during normal baseball activity and resulted in at least 1 day out of play. A multitude of player and injury characteristics were analyzed, and detailed reports of the 50 most commonly occurring injuries were generated. A total of 49,955 injuries occurred during the study period; 45,123 were non-season ending, and they resulted in 722,176 days out of play. The mean (median) days missed per injury was 16 (6) days. Overall, 39.1% of all injuries occurred in pitchers. The upper extremity was involved in 39% of injuries, while 35% occurred in the hip/groin/lower extremity. Surgery was required in 6.5% of cases, and 9.7% of injuries were season ending. Hamstring strains were the most common injury (n = 3337), followed by rotator cuff strain/tear (n = 1874), paralumbar muscle strain (n = 1313), biceps tendinitis (n = 1264), oblique strain (n = 1249), and elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury (n = 1191). The diagnoses that were most likely to end a player's season were elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury (60% season ending) and superior labrum anterior and posterior tear (50.9% season ending). Contrary to prior reports relying on disabled list data, the annual number of injuries in professional baseball remained steady from 2011 to 2016. Similar trends

  17. End-hall thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Day, M. L.; Haag, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The end-Hall thruster can provide electric propulsion with fixed masses, specific impulses, and power-to-thrust ratios intermediate of an arcjet and a gridded (electrostatic) ion thruster. With these characteristics, this thruster is a candidate for missions of intermediate difficulty, such as the north-south stationkeeping of geostationary satellites.

  18. Intrinsic Spin-Hall Effect in n-Doped Bulk GaAs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the bulk Dresselhauss (k{sup 3}) spin-orbit coupling term leads to an intrinsic spin-Hall effect in n-doped bulk GaAs, but without the appearance of uniform magnetization. The spin-Hall effect in strained and unstrained bulk GaAs has been recently observed experimentally by Kato et. al. [1]. We show that the experimental result is quantitatively consistent with the intrinsic spin-Hall effect due to the Dresselhauss term, when lifetime broadening is taken into account. On the other hand, extrinsic contribution to the spin-Hall effect is several orders of magnitude smaller than the observed effect.

  19. Quiet eye gaze behavior of expert, and near-expert, baseball plate umpires.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane G; Hines, Bridget B; Smith, Melissa S

    2013-02-01

    The quiet eye gaze behavior of 4 near-expert and 4 expert baseball umpires who called balls and strikes in simulated pitch-hit situations was assessed with a mobile eye cornea tracker system. Statistical analyses of the umpires' gaze behavior (fixation/pursuit tracking, saccades, and blinks)--onset, duration, offset, and frequency--were performed between and within 4 stages (pitcher's preparation, pitcher's delivery, ball in flight, and umpire call) by umpire's skill level. The results indicated that the quiet eye of expert umpires at onset of the pitcher's release point occurred earlier and was longer in duration than near-expert umpires. Expert expert umpires. The area outside the pitcher's ball release point may be the key environment cue for the behind-the-plate umpire.

  20. Adaptability of expert visual anticipation in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sean; Fadde, Peter J; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2017-09-01

    By manipulating stimulus variation in terms of opponent pitcher actions, this study investigated the capability of expert (n = 30) and near-expert (n = 95) professional baseball batters to adapt anticipation skill when using the video simulation temporal occlusion paradigm. Participants watched in-game footage of two pitchers, one after the other, that was temporally occluded at ball release and various points during ball flight. They were required to make a written prediction of pitch types and locations. Per cent accuracy was calculated for pitch type, for pitch location, and for type and location combined. Results indicated that experts and near-experts could adapt their anticipation to predict above guessing level across both pitchers, but adaptation to the left-handed pitcher was poorer than the right-handed pitcher. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were found in terms of superior adaptation by experts over near-experts at the ball release and early ball flight occlusion conditions. The findings of this study extend theoretical and applied knowledge of expertise in striking sports. Practical application of the instruments and findings are discussed in terms of applied researchers, practitioners and high-performance staff in professional sporting organisations.

  1. How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance.

    PubMed

    Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi

    2017-02-07

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock. Surprisingly, we found that jet lag impaired major parameters of home-team offensive performance, for example, slugging percentage, but did not similarly affect away-team offensive performance. On the other hand, jet lag impacted both home and away defensive performance. Remarkably, the vast majority of these effects for both home and away teams could be explained by a single measure, home runs allowed. Rather than uniform effects, these results reveal surprisingly specific effects of circadian misalignment on athletic performance under natural conditions.

  2. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process. PMID:24998222

  3. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  4. Formulation of the relativistic quantum Hall effect and parity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonaga, Kouki; Hasebe, Kazuki; Shibata, Naokazu

    2016-06-01

    We present a relativistic formulation of the quantum Hall effect on Haldane sphere. An explicit form of the pseudopotential is derived for the relativistic quantum Hall effect with/without mass term. We clarify particular features of the relativistic quantum Hall states with the use of the exact diagonalization study of the pseudopotential Hamiltonian. Physical effects of the mass term to the relativistic quantum Hall states are investigated in detail. The mass term acts as an interpolating parameter between the relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum Hall effects. It is pointed out that the mass term unevenly affects the many-body physics of the positive and negative Landau levels as a manifestation of the "parity anomaly." In particular, we explicitly demonstrate the instability of the Laughlin state of the positive first relativistic Landau level with the reduction of the charge gap.

  5. Hole mobilities and the effective Hall factor in p-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.; Irmer, G.; Monecke, J.; Siegel, W.

    1997-06-01

    We prove the effective Hall factor in p-GaAs to be larger than values discussed in the literature up to now. The scattering rates for the relevant scattering mechanisms in p-GaAs have been recalculated after critical testing the existing models. These calculations allow to deduce theoretical drift and theoretical Hall mobilities as functions of temperature which can be compared with measured data. Theoretical Hall factors in the heavy and light hole bands and an effective Hall factor result. The calculated room temperature values of the drift mobility and of the effective Hall factor are 118 cm2/V s and 3.6, respectively. The fitted acoustic deformation potential E1=7.9 eV and the fitted optical coupling constant DK=1.24×1011 eV/m are close to values published before. It is shown that the measured strong dependence of the Hall mobility on the Hall concentration is not mainly caused by scattering by ionized impurities but by the dependence of the effective Hall factor on the hole concentration.

  6. 4. MESS HALL, FRONT DETAIL OVER DOOR, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MESS HALL, FRONT DETAIL OVER DOOR, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Mess Hall, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, east of Officers' Quarters & Administration Building, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  7. 3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 2. MESS HALL, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING EAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MESS HALL, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    17394 4 / 13 HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Hall Effect Thrusters (HET): Traditionally Modeled in R-Z Named for Hall Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid...HET): Traditionally Modeled in R-Z Named for Hall Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid Solve Ohm’s Law→ No e−-momentum Zθ Unrolled to YZ...Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid Solve Ohm’s Law→ No e−-momentum Zθ Unrolled to YZ Electron ExB Drift Unmagnetized Ions Results in Hall Current

  10. High-performance vision training improves batting statistics for University of Cincinnati baseball players.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph F; Ellis, James K; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p = 0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters.

  11. Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation for osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mirzayan, Raffy; Lim, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a rare yet debilitating injury seen in young athletes. This is the first report in the literature describing fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (FOCAT) to treat OCD of the capitellum. Nine male baseball players (mean age, 15.3; range, 14-18 years), with OCD of the capitellum were treated with FOCAT. There were 6 pitchers and 3 position players. A ligament-sparing, mini-open approach was used. A fresh femoral hemicondyle was used as a donor source. Of the 9 patients, 7 required 1 plug and 2 required 2 plugs. The average plug diameter was 11 mm (range, 8-18 mm). Five plugs were press fit, and 4 required additional fixation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 48.4 months (range, 11-90 months). Preoperative and postoperative outcome scores were calculated using the paired t test. The Mayo Elbow Performance score improved from an average 57.8 to 98.9 (P < .01). The Oxford Elbow Score improved from 22.4 to 44.8 (P < .01). The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score improved from 35.2 to 5.4 (P < .01). The visual analog scale score improved from 7.8 to 0.5 (P < .01). The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow score improved from 32.6 to 82.5 (P < .01). All patients returned to throwing and were still active in their sport or played at least 2 years of baseball before leaving the sport unrelated to the elbow. FOCAT for OCD of the capitellum in properly selected cases is a viable treatment with significant functional improvement and pain reduction in throwers. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in major league baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Conte, Stan; Coleman, Struan H; Pearle, Andrew D; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the rate of return to play among Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), (2) determine the impact of ACL injury on ability to perform baseball-specific planting and pivoting tasks (batting and stealing bases), and (3) to explore the effect of the injured side on these metrics. ACL injury data from 1999 to 2012 were compiled, along with player performance statistics recorded for players with at least 30 games before ACL injury. Predictor variables included side of injury and outcome variables focused on batting average, stolen bases, and number of times caught stealing before injury and after surgery. Twenty-three of 26 (88%) players were able to return to at least 30 games after ACLR, although they experienced a decline of 21.2% in number of games played (P = .004). Those who had a ACLR for a rear batting leg injury averaged a 12.3% decline in batting average, whereas those who had ACLR for a lead leg injury had a 6.4% increase in batting average (P = .04). Side of injury was not predictive of stolen base metrics. The overall rate of return to play among MLB position players after ACLR was 88%, although there was a 21.2% decline in the number of games played postoperatively. Injury to the rear batting leg resulted in a lower returning batting average compared with an injury to the lead batting leg. Side of injury had no effect on stolen bases or on the number of times a player was caught stealing. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are quantum spin Hall edge modes more resilient to disorder, sample geometry and inelastic scattering than quantum Hall edge modes?

    PubMed

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-04-13

    On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin-orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible--the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case.

  14. 5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. 6. PHOTOCOPY, PLAN AND SCHEDULE DRAWING OF MESS HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, PLAN AND SCHEDULE DRAWING OF MESS HALL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  16. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION AND SECTION DRAWING OF MESS HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION AND SECTION DRAWING OF MESS HALL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. 4. MESS HALL, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MESS HALL, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  18. Switch Hitting in Baseball: Apparent Rule-following, not Matching

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T. Mary

    2011-01-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule “bat opposite the pitcher,” not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice. PMID:21909169

  19. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  20. Performance of a Low-Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent mission studies have shown that a Hall thruster which operates at relatively constant thrust efficiency (45-55%) over a broad power range (300W - 3kW) is enabling for deep space science missions when compared with slate-of-the-art ion thrusters. While conventional (annular) Hall thrusters can operate at high thrust efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad power envelope down to 0 (100 W) while maintaining relatively high efficiency. In this note we report the measured performance (I(sub sp), thrust and efficiency) of a cylindrical Hall thruster operating at 0 (100 W) input power.

  1. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p < 0.001) and higher delayed discounting (p = 0.016) after adjusting for school, sport, and sex. Voluntary mouthguard use among high school athletes playing basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific

  2. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  3. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW. PMID:26516864

  4. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  5. Large thermal Hall effect in a frustrated pyrochlore magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberger, Max; Krizan, Jason; Cava, Robert J.; Ong, N. Phuan

    2015-03-01

    In frustrated magnetism, the nature of the ground state and its elementary excitations are a matter of considerable debate. We present a detailed study of the full thermal conductivity tensor κij, including the Righi-Leduc (or thermal Hall) effect, in single crystals of the frustrated quantum spin-ice pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7. The off-diagonal response κxy / T is large in this insulating material, despite the absence of itinerant electrons experiencing the Lorentz force. Our experiments over the temperature range of 0 . 8 - 200 K and in fields up to 14 T reveal a remarkable phenomenology: A sizeable field-linear Hall effect κxy / T is observed below 100 K, and its slope with respect to magnetic field increases strongly as we cool the sample. We observe significant curvature in the field dependence of κxy / T below 15 K. At the lowest temperatures, both κxx / T and the initial slope limB-->0 [κxy / TB ] are constant in temperature, behavior reminiscent of fermionic heat conduction in dirty metals. Experimental methods and verification of the intrinsic nature of the effect will be discussed. R.J.C. and N.P.O. are supported by a MURI Grant (ARO W911NF-12-1-0461) and by the US National Science Foundation (Grant Number DMR 0819860).

  6. Proton Knock-Out in Hall A

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kees de Jager

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the {sup 16}O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from {sup 2}H to {sup 16}O. In this review the results of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of future accomplishments.

  7. Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In a ceremony set beneath Space Shuttle Atlantis, veteran astronauts C. Michael Foale and Ellen Ochoa are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Foale and Ochoa make up the 16th group of space shuttle astronauts to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, and their addition to the group brings the total number of inductees to 95. More than 20 legendary astronauts were on hand to welcome the inductees, including: Robert Cabana, Dan Brandenstein, Al Worden, Charlie Duke, Charles Bolden, Michael Coats, Robert Crippen, Rhea Seddon, and Fred Gregory.

  8. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  9. Performance after rotator cuff tear and operative treatment: a case-control study of major league baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G Russell; Sennett, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Case-control study. Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study.

  10. Hall Sweet Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    Many urban and commuter universities have their sights set on students who are unlikely to connect with the college and likely to fail unless the right strategies are put in place to help them graduate. In efforts to improve retention rates, commuter colleges are looking to an unusual suspect: residence halls. The author discusses how these…

  11. Hall Effect Spintronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy were examined, and finally, the magnetoresistance and Hall effect in Manganese- doped Germanium was...interest in ferromagnetic semiconductors. Germanium doped with Mn is particularly interesting Distribution A: Approved for public release...unavoidable, and doped films are strongly inhomogeneous with GexMny, metallic precipitates coexisting with Mn-rich regions and Mn dilute matrix

  12. Observation of anomalous Hall effect in a non-magnetic two-dimensional electron system

    PubMed Central

    Maryenko, D.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Bahramy, M. S.; Ernst, A.; Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Nagaosa, N.; Kawasaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE≈20°. Such a behaviour is consistent with Giovannini–Kondo model in which the anomalous Hall effect arises from the skew scattering of electrons by localized paramagnetic centres. Our study unveils a new aspect of many-body interactions in two-dimensional electron systems and shows how the anomalous Hall effect can emerge in a non-magnetic system. PMID:28300133

  13. Return-to-Play Outcomes in Professional Baseball Players After Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries: Comparison of Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Ford, Gregory M; Genuario, James; Kinkartz, Jason; Githens, Thomas; Noonan, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary static stabilizer to valgus stress of the elbow. Injuries to the UCL are common in baseball pitchers. In the 1970s, reconstructive surgery was developed. Return-to-play (RTP) rates of 67% to 95% after reconstruction have been reported. There is a paucity of published studies among professional baseball players reporting RTP with nonoperative treatment. To identify professional baseball players' ability to RTP after the nonoperative treatment of UCL injuries based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grade. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A review of elbow injuries among a professional baseball organization from 2006 to 2011 was performed. MRI was performed on all players. Forty-three UCL injuries were diagnosed. Treatment included rehabilitation, surgery, or both. Rates of RTP and return to the same level of play or higher (RTSP) were calculated and correlated with the MRI grade, location of injury, and player position. MRI grading was as follows: I, intact ligament with or without edema; IIA, partial tear; IIB, chronic healed injury; and III, complete tear. Forty-three UCL injuries in 43 players were diagnosed. Eight had complete tears (grade III), were treated operatively with UCL reconstruction, and had an RTP rate of 75% and RTSP rate of 63% (5/8 returned to the same level and 1 to a lower level). All 8 were pitchers. The remaining 35 players had incomplete injuries (4 grade I, 8 grade IIA, and 23 grade IIB), consisting of 24 pitchers and 11 positional players. Of these 35 players, 1 underwent surgery without attempted rehabilitation, 3 initiated rehabilitation until MRI was performed and then underwent surgery, and 3 underwent surgery after failed rehabilitation. The 7 players who underwent UCL reconstruction surgery had an RTP rate of 100% and RTSP rate of 86% (6/7 returned to the same level and 1 to a lower level). The remaining 28 with nonoperative treatment had both RTP and RTSP rates of 93

  14. Nonlinear excitation of long-wavelength modes in Hall plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hall plasmas with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions exhibit a wide range of small scale fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range as well as low-frequency large scale modes. Modulational instability of lower-hybrid frequency modes is investigated in this work for typical conditions in Hall plasma devices such as magnetrons and Hall thrusters. In these conditions, the dispersion of the waves in the lower-hybrid frequency range propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field is due to the gradients of the magnetic field and the plasma density. It is shown that such lower-hybrid modes are unstable with respect to the secondary instability of the large scale quasimode perturbations. It is suggested that the large scale slow coherent modes observed in a number of Hall plasma devices may be explained as a result of such secondary instabilities.

  15. Performance Characteristics of a 5 kW Laboratory Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Characteristics of a 5 kW Laboratory Hall Thruster James M. Haas’, Frank S. Gulczinski III%, and Alec D. Gallimoret Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion...the information learned from the study of this thruster applicable to the understanding of its commercial counterparts. INTRODUCTION Hall thrusters are...few in number at this time; and those that do exist are intended primarily Current generation Hall thruster research has for flight qualification

  16. Performance Potential of Plasma Thrusters: Arcjet and Hall Thruster Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-17

    FUNDING NUMBERS Performance Potential of Plasma Thrusters: \\ Arcjet and Hall Thruster Modeling FQ 8671-9300908 S ,,G-AFOSR-91-0256 6. AUTHOR(S) Manuel...models for the internal physics and the performance of hydrogen arcjets and Hall thrusters , respectively. These are thought to represent the state of...work. 93-24268 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PAGES Electric Propulsion, Arcjets, Hall Thrusters 15 16. PRICE COOE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION I18

  17. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, S.

    2006-02-01

    In this Letter we present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump and skew-scattering contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show that their effects scale as σxySJ/σxySS˜(ℏ/τ)/ɛF, with τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n- and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, where σs(c) is the spin Hall (charge) conductivity, which is in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1105514 in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  18. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show their effects scale as σxy^SJ/σxy^SS ˜(/τ)/ɛF, where τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n-doped and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining analytical formulas for the SJ and SS contributions. Moreover, the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity is found as σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  19. Anomalous Hall Resistance in Bilayer Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Suzuki, S.; Tsitsishvili, G.

    2007-04-01

    Interlayer phase coherence has revealed various novel features in bilayer quantum Hall (QH) systems. It is shown to make the QH resistance vanish instead of developing a Hall plateau in a bilayer counterflow geometry. It also induces another anomalous QH resistance discovered in a drag experiment. These theoretical results explain recent experimental data due to Kellogg et al. [PRL 93 (2004) 036801;PRL 88 (2002) 126804] and Tutuc et al.[PRL 93 (2004) 036802].

  20. Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  1. An evaluation of krypton propellant in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, Jesse Allen

    Due to its high specific impulse and low price, krypton has long sparked interest as an alternate Hall thruster propellant. Unfortunately at the moment, krypton's relatively poor performance precludes it as a legitimate option. This thesis presents a detailed investigation into krypton operation in Hall thrusters. These findings suggest that the performance gap can be decreased to 4% and krypton can finally become a realistic propellant option. Although krypton has demonstrated superior specific impulse, the xenon-krypton absolute efficiency gap ranges between 2 and 15%. A phenomenological performance model indicates that the main contributors to the efficiency gap are propellant utilization and beam divergence. Propellant utilization and beam divergence have relative efficiency deficits of 5 and 8%, respectively. A detailed characterization of internal phenomena is conducted to better understand the xenon-krypton efficiency gap. Krypton's large beam divergence is found to be related to a defocusing equipotential structure and a weaker magnetic field topology. Ionization processes are shown to be linked to the Hall current, the magnetic mirror topology, and the perpendicular gradient of the magnetic field. Several thruster design and operational suggestions are made to optimize krypton efficiency. Krypton performance is optimized for discharge voltages above 500 V and flow rates corresponding to an a greater than 0.015 mg/(mm-s), where alpha is a function of flow rate and discharge channel dimensions (alpha = m˙alphab/Ach). Performance can be further improved by increasing channel length or decreasing channel width for a given flow rate. Also, several magnetic field design suggestions are made to enhance ionization and beam focusing. Several findings are presented that improve the understanding of general Hall thruster physics. Excellent agreement is shown between equipotential lines and magnetic field lines. The trim coil is shown to enhance beam focusing

  2. View of north front and west sides of hall, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north front and west sides of hall, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  3. Mixed-state Hall effect of high-T(c) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byeongwon

    In this dissertation, we presented the study on the mixed-state Hall effect of high-Tc superconductors (HTSs). In order to understand the mechanisms of the puzzling phenomena in the mixed-state Hall effect of HTSs, the Hall sign anomaly and scaling behavior, Hall measurements are conducted in several HTS thin films. We investigate the mechanism of the sign reversal of the Hall resistivity in Tl-2201 films when the electronic band structure is varied through the underdoped, optimally doped, and overdoped regions. It is found that the Hall sign reversals are an intrinsic property of HTSs and determined by electronic band structure. Although pinning is not found to be the mechanism behind sign reversals, pinning can suppress the appearance of the Hall sign reversal. Therefore, it is concluded that two (or more) sign reversals are a generic behavior of HTSs. From a systematic study of the vortex phase diagram, we discover several new features of the vortex liquid. In the presence of pinning, the vortex-liquid phase can be divided into two regions, a glassy liquid (GL) where vortices remain correlated as manifested in non-Ohmic resistivity, and a regular liquid (RL) where resistivity becomes Ohmic as vortices become uncorrelated. The field dependence of the Hall angle is found to be linear in the RL and nonlinear in the GL. Generally the decoupling line (Hk- T), which is defined as a boundary between the GL and the RL, is lower than the depinning line (Hd-T). As pinning increases the Hk-T may approach the Hd-T, thus vortices are decoupled and depinned nearly simultaneously. For a weak pinning system, on the other hand, the Hk-T and the Hd-T are well separated so that single vortices remain pinned in the region Hk ≤ H ≥ Hd. The behavior of s xy is also investigated in the GL and the RL. In the GL s xy is observed to strongly depend on pinning due to the inter-vortex correlation whereas in the RL s xy is independent of pinning since the pinning effect is scaled out.

  4. Probing the thermal Hall effect using miniature capacitive strontium titanate thermometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tinsman, Colin; Li, Gang; Asaba, Tomoya

    2016-06-27

    The thermal Hall effect is the thermal analog of the electrical Hall effect. Rarely observed in normal metals, thermal Hall signals have been argued to be a key property for a number of strongly correlated materials, such as high temperature superconductors, correlated topological insulators, and quantum magnets. The observation of the thermal Hall effect requires precise measurement of temperature in intense magnetic fields. Particularly at low temperature, resistive thermometers have a strong dependence on field, which makes them unsuitable for this purpose. We have created capacitive thermometers which instead measure the dielectric constant of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}). SrTiO{sub 3}more » approaches a ferroelectric transition, causing its dielectric constant to increase by a few orders of magnitude at low temperature. As a result, these thermometers are very sensitive at low temperature while having very little dependence on the applied magnetic field, making them ideal for thermal Hall measurements. We demonstrate this method by making measurements of the thermal Hall effect in Bismuth in magnetic fields of up to 10 T.« less

  5. Accelerating 3D Hall MHD Magnetosphere Simulations with Graphics Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, C.; Dorelli, J.

    2017-12-01

    The resolution required to simulate planetary magnetospheres with Hall magnetohydrodynamics result in program sizes approaching several hundred million grid cells. These would take years to run on a single computational core and require hundreds or thousands of computational cores to complete in a reasonable time. However, this requires access to the largest supercomputers. Graphics processing units (GPUs) provide a viable alternative: one GPU can do the work of roughly 100 cores, bringing Hall MHD simulations of Ganymede within reach of modest GPU clusters ( 8 GPUs). We report our progress in developing a GPU-accelerated, three-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic code and present Hall MHD simulation results for both Ganymede (run on 8 GPUs) and Mercury (56 GPUs). We benchmark our Ganymede simulation with previous results for the Galileo G8 flyby, namely that adding the Hall term to ideal MHD simulations changes the global convection pattern within the magnetosphere. Additionally, we present new results for the G1 flyby as well as initial results from Hall MHD simulations of Mercury and compare them with the corresponding ideal MHD runs.

  6. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Han; Yongjie, Ding; Xu, Zhang; Liqiu, Wei; Daren, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.

  7. Effort Thrombosis Presenting as Pulmonary Embolism in a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, Brandon D.; Anz, Adam W.; Dugger, Keith; Sakryd, Gary A.; Noonan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effort thrombosis, or Paget-Schroetter’s syndrome, is a rare subset of thoracic outlet syndrome in which deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity occurs as the result of repetitive overhead motion. It is occasionally associated with pulmonary embolism. This case of effort thrombosis and pulmonary embolus was in a 25-year-old major league professional baseball pitcher, in which the only presenting complaints involved dizziness and shortness of breath without complaints involving the upper extremity—usually, a hallmark of most cases of this condition. The patient successfully returned to play for 5 subsequent seasons at the major league level after multimodal treatment that included surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome. Objective: Though rare, effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of throwing athletes with traditional extremity-focused symptoms and in cases involving pulmonary or thoracic complaints. Rapid diagnosis is a critical component of successful treatment. PMID:23015912

  8. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  9. Hall effect spintronics for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, A.; Kopnov, G.; Karpovski, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the concept of magnetic gas detection by the extraordinary Hall effect. The technique is compatible with the existing conductometric gas detection technologies and allows the simultaneous measurement of two independent parameters: resistivity and magnetization affected by the target gas. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by detecting low concentration hydrogen using thin CoPd films as the sensor material. The Hall effect sensitivity of the optimized samples exceeds 240% per 104 ppm at hydrogen concentrations below 0.5% in the hydrogen/nitrogen atmosphere, which is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of the conductance detection.

  10. High-performance LED luminaire for sports hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.

  11. Kids in the Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resident hall furniture design that meets student needs as well as the needs of administrators and parents. Furniture design issues examined include the higher expectations of students in their living environment, the need for greater flexibility in space utilization, and adaptability to technology. (GR)

  12. What do you measure when you measure the Hall effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Knickerbocker, C. J.

    1993-02-01

    A formalism for calculating the sensitivity of Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities of the sample material or the magnetic field is developed. This Hall weighting function g(x,y) is calculated for various placements of current and voltage probes on square and circular laminar samples. Unlike the resistivity weighting function, it is nonnegative throughout the entire sample, provided all probes lie at the edge of the sample. Singularities arise in the Hall weighting function near the current and voltage probes except in the case where these probes are located at the corners of a square. Implications of the results for cross, clover, and bridge samples, and the implications of our results for metal-insulator transition and quantum Hall studies are discussed.

  13. Detail of main hall porch on east elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main hall porch on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Interior detail of platform in main hall, with desk, flag, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of platform in main hall, with desk, flag, and banners, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  15. Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…

  16. How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance

    PubMed Central

    Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock. Surprisingly, we found that jet lag impaired major parameters of home-team offensive performance, for example, slugging percentage, but did not similarly affect away-team offensive performance. On the other hand, jet lag impacted both home and away defensive performance. Remarkably, the vast majority of these effects for both home and away teams could be explained by a single measure, home runs allowed. Rather than uniform effects, these results reveal surprisingly specific effects of circadian misalignment on athletic performance under natural conditions. PMID:28115724

  17. A SIR/CAR Systems Analysis of the Longitudinal Changes in Little League Baseball Comparing Windsor with the Rest of Ontario and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarebski, John; Moriarty, Dick

    The trends and changes occurring in Windsor District 5 Little League Baseball between 1971 and 1978 were closely monitored in order for researchers to discern the results of Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) intervention in these programs. Comparisons of the 1972, 1976, and 1978 studies reveal that the values focus of…

  18. Nonequilibrium Fractional Hall Response After a Topological Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Nur; Mueller, Erich; Oktel, M. O.

    When a system is suddenly driven between two topologically different phases, aspects of the original topology survive the quench, but most physical observables (edge currents, Hall conductivity) appear to be non-universal. I will present the non-equilibrium Hall response of a Chern insulator following a quench where the mass term of a single Dirac cone changes sign. In the limit where the physics is dominated by a single Dirac cone, we theoretically find that the Hall conductivity universally changes by two-thirds of the quantum of conductivity. I will analyze this universal behavior by considering the Haldane model, and discuss experimental aspects for its observation in cold atoms. This work is supported by TUBITAK, NSFPHY-1508300, ARO-MURI W9111NF-14-1-0003.

  19. Rule-based fault diagnosis of hall sensors and fault-tolerant control of PMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Gu, Jing; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Dongbin

    2013-07-01

    Hall sensor is widely used for estimating rotor phase of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM). And rotor position is an essential parameter of PMSM control algorithm, hence it is very dangerous if Hall senor faults occur. But there is scarcely any research focusing on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of Hall sensor used in PMSM. From this standpoint, the Hall sensor faults which may occur during the PMSM operating are theoretically analyzed. According to the analysis results, the fault diagnosis algorithm of Hall sensor, which is based on three rules, is proposed to classify the fault phenomena accurately. The rotor phase estimation algorithms, based on one or two Hall sensor(s), are initialized to engender the fault-tolerant control algorithm. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect 60 Hall fault phenomena in total as well as all detections can be fulfilled in 1/138 rotor rotation period. The fault-tolerant control algorithm can achieve a smooth torque production which means the same control effect as normal control mode (with three Hall sensors). Finally, the PMSM bench test verifies the accuracy and rapidity of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect all Hall sensor faults promptly and fault-tolerant control algorithm allows the PMSM to face failure conditions of one or two Hall sensor(s). In addition, the transitions between health-control and fault-tolerant control conditions are smooth without any additional noise and harshness. Proposed algorithms can deal with the Hall sensor faults of PMSM in real applications, and can be provided to realize the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of PMSM.

  20. Factors That Are Associated With Physical Activity Among Visitors To Urban National Parks: Are There Group Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    1 = Baseball/ Softball 2 = Basketball 3 = Biking 4 = Bird Watching 5 = Boating (sailing, kayaking, canoeing) 6 = Fishing 7 = Flying a Kite 8...visit to Fort Dupont Park today: Select all that apply. 1 = Baseball/ Softball 2 = Basketball 3 = Biking 4 = Bird Watching 5 = Boating (sailing...select which of the following activities you did during your visit to Rock Creek Park today: Select all that apply. 1 = Baseball/ Softball 2