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Sample records for national bowel cancer

  1. 'Be Clear on Cancer': the impact of the UK National Bowel Cancer Awareness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Peacock, O; Clayton, S; Atkinson, F; Tierney, G M; Lund, J N

    2013-08-01

    The National Bowel Cancer Awareness Campaign ('Be Clear on Cancer') was launched by the UK government in January 2012, encouraging people with bowel symptoms to present to primary care. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the campaign on colorectal services in secondary care. Suspected cancer 2-week-wait (2WW) patients 3 months before and 3 months after the launch of the campaign were included. Demographics, reason for referral, investigations performed, cost analysis and eventual diagnoses were collected. Three hundred and forty-three patients [median age 70 (36-100) years, 194 (57%) women] were seen and investigated in the 3 months prior to the launch of the campaign at an average cost of £575 per patient. Twenty-seven (8%) were diagnosed with lower gastrointestinal cancer and 29 (8%) with polyps. In the 3 months following the launch, 544 patients [median age 68 (30-92) years, 290 (53%) women] were reviewed (59% increase; P = 0.004). The 'did not attend' rate fell from 10% to 1%. Thirty-two (6%) patients were diagnosed with a lower gastrointestinal cancer and 20 (4%) with colorectal polyps. The cost per colorectal cancer detected rose from £7585.58 before the campaign to £9662.72 after launch (P = 0.04). The 'Be Clear on Cancer' campaign has substantially increased the number of referrals under the 2WW rule, but mainly in the worried well. This has increased demands on both resources (59% more tests) and finance. Cost per cancer detected rose by 27% with no increase in funding to support the increased activity. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating the already widening

  3. The National Bowel Cancer Audit: the risks and benefits of moving to open reporting of clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M R; Tekkis, P P; Stamatakis, J; Smith, J J; Wood, L F; von Hildebrand, M; Poloniecki, J D

    2010-08-01

    The government's proposals to openly report clinical outcomes poses challenges to the National Bowel Cancer Audit now funded by the UK department of health. To identify the benefits and risks of open reporting and to propose ways the risks might be minimized. A review of the literature on clinical audit and the consequences of open reporting. There are significant potential benefits of a national audit of bowel cancer including protecting patients from sub-standard care, providing clinicians with externally validated evidence of their performance, outcome data for clinical governance and evidence that increases in government expenditure are achieving improvements in survival from bowel cancer. These benefits will only be achieved if the audit captures most of the cases of bowel cancer in the UK, the data collected is complete and accurate, the results are risk adjusted and these are presented to the public in a way that is fair, clear and understandable. Involvement of clinicians who have confidence in the results of the audit and who actively compare their own results against a national standard is essential. It is suggested that a staged move to open reporting should minimise the risk of falsely identifying an outlying unit. The fundamental aim of the National Bowel Cancer Audit is the pursuit of excellence by identification and adoption of best practice. This could achieve a continuous improvement in the care of all patients with bowel cancer in the UK. The ACPGBI suggests a safer way of transition to open reporting to avoid at least some of its pitfalls.

  4. Exploring the decision to participate in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn; Callender, Matthew; Hamer, Holly; Rogers, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and one of the most feared diseases in modern society. A combination of early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective treatment provides the best defence against cancer morbidity; therefore, promoting cancer awareness and encouraging cancer screening is a priority in any comprehensive cancer control policy. Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in the UK and in an effort to reduce the high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates, the National Health Service (NHS) has introduced the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHS BCSP). For the NHS BCSP to succeed in its goal of reducing the incidence and prevalence rates for colorectal cancer, individuals need to be persuaded to complete the test. Since it was first introduced in 2007, however, participation rates have been low. In an effort to understand why participation rates remain low, this article reports on the findings of a series of focus groups conducted in the East Midlands of England. These focus groups were designed to explore the factors that influence an individual's decision to participate in cancer screening. The findings revealed eight factors that affected participation in the NHS BCSP: (i) the association of screening with entry into old age; (ii) prior experience with health systems; (iii) the support of a significant other; (iv) individual perceptions of risk (and benefit); (v) fear of becoming a cancer patient after the screening test; (vi) lack of disease symptoms; (vii) embarrassment associated with completing the test and (viii) messages that adopt a paternalistic ethos. Overall, our results suggest that more people may participate in the screening programme if it was more sensitive to these psychosocial and contextual factors that shape an individual's decision to be tested.

  5. Carcinoma In Situ Outcomes in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Breast Cancer Chemoprevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Joseph P.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Clarfeld, Richard B.; Grant, Michael D.; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Background In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), the reduction in risk of noninvasive breast cancer was 50%. There were 93 cases in women receiving placebo and 60 in those receiving tamoxifen (P = .008). Through 7 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of noninvasive breast cancer among the placebo group was 15.8 per 1000 women vs 10.2 per 1000 women in the tamoxifen group. In the initial report of the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR trial), the rate for noninvasive breast cancer was 1.51 per 1000 women assigned to tamoxifen and 2.11 per 1000 women assigned to raloxifene (risk ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval = 0.98 to 2.00). Methods Additional follow-up of the NSABP STAR trial through March 31, 2009 is reported with a focus on noninvasive breast cancer events. Results Through 81 months of median follow-up in the NSABP STAR trial, there are 137 cases of noninvasive breast cancer in the raloxifene group compared with 111 cases in the tamoxifen group (risk ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.61 to 1.70). The occurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ with raloxifene was seen more frequently among women with lower baseline Gail scores and no atypical hyperplasia than in women taking tamoxifen therapy. Raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive breast cancer. Conclusions Although these data indicate that raloxifene offers less protection than tamoxifen for postmenopausal women who are at increased risk for both invasive and noninvasive breast cancer, the favorable risk–benefit profile for raloxifene affords acceptable clinical reduction in the risk of in situ cancers among postmenopausal women. PMID:20956826

  6. The national bowel cancer audit project: the impact of organisational structure on outcome in operative bowel cancer within the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cornish, J A; Tekkis, P P; Tan, E; Tilney, H S; Thompson, M R; Smith, J J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between organisational structure, process and surgical outcomes for bowel cancer surgery. An e-survey was sent to the members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland to determine the organisational structure of their Trusts. Responses were combined with the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBOCAP) data. Items investigated included; number of consultants, nurse specialists, volume of cases and intensive care facilities. Main outcome measures included: 30-day risk-adjusted mortality, length of stay (LOS), lymph node yield and circumferential margin involvement (CRM). One hundred and seventeen Trusts responded (65.8%), matched to 7666 patient episodes (NBOCAP data) from 54 (62.8%)Trusts who submitted data to the audit. Trusts treating <190 cases/annum (p > 0.001), <4 colorectal consultants (p > 0.001), <4 HDU beds (p > 0001) and <8 ITU beds (p > 0001) were more likely to have a 30-day-risk-adjusted mortality twice that of the national mean. Sixty five percent (n = 1603) of Trusts treating ≥ 190 cases/annum harvested ≥ 12 lymph nodes vs. 58.3% (n = 1435) in Trusts <190 cases/annum (p < 0.001). Trusts with ≥ 2 pathologists with an interest in bowel cancer harvested ≥ 12 lymph nodes more frequently (p=<0.001) and were more likely to identify extramural vascular invasion in the specimen (p = 0.015). Negative CRM was achieved in 81.4% (n = 81.4) of patients in Trusts treating ≥ 190 cases vs. 66.5% (n = 569) in Trusts<190 cases/annum (p < 0.001). Trusts offering fast track discharge were more likely to have a LOS < 15 days (p = 0.006). Surgeons treating ≤ 35 cases/annum had increased major post-operative complications (<35 cases = 70.2% vs. ≥ 35 cases = 21.9%; p < 0.001), however 30 day risk adjusted mortality was not increased in surgeons treating <35 cases/annum. This study shows that the organisational infrastructure of hospitals appears to have as great an impact on patient outcomes as the volume of

  7. Colorectal cancer screening in rural and remote areas: analysis of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program data for South Australia.

    PubMed

    Martini, Angelita; Javanparast, Sara; Ward, Paul R; Baratiny, Genevieve; Gill, Tiffany; Cole, Stephen; Tsourtos, George; Aylward, Paul; Jiwa, Moyez; Misan, Gary; Wilson, Carlene; Young, Graeme P

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, colorectal cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and cause of death from malignant diseases, and its incidence is rising. The aim of this article was to present an analysis of National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) data for rural and remote South Australia (SA), in order to identify geographical areas and population groups that may benefit from targeted approaches to increase participation rates in colorectal cancer screening. De-identified data from the NBCSP (February 2007 to July 2008) were provided by Medicare Australia. Mapping and analysis of the NBCSP data was performed using ESRI ArcGIS (http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/index.html) and MapInfo (http://slp.pbinsight.com/info/mipro-sem-au). Data were aggregated to postcode and Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) and participation was then mapped according to overall participation rates, sex, age, Indigenous status and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD). The participants were South Australians who turned 55 and 65 years between 2007 and 2008 who returned the completed NBCSP test sent to them by Medicare Australia. The overall participation rate was 46.1% in rural and remote SA, although this was statistically significantly different (p<.001) according to sex (46.7% for males and 53.3% for females), age (45.2% for those 55 years, and 52% for those 65 years), socio-economic status (from 43% in 'most deprived' quintile to 50% in 'most affluent' quintile) and remoteness (45.6% for metropolitan, 46% for remote and 48.6% for rural areas). Indigenous participation was 0.5%. The findings of this study suggest lower NBCSP participation rates for people from metropolitan and remote areas, compared with those from rural areas. The uptake of cancer screening is lower for older rural and remote residents, men, Indigenous people, lower socioeconomic groups and those living in the Far North subdivision of SA.

  8. Biologics in bowel cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States and second leading cause of cancer death with over 50,000 patients expected to die from their disease in 2017. For patients who present at diagnosis with advanced disease the standard treatment is systemic chemotherapy. Over the last decade a number of biologic therapies have emerged as viable treatment options for advance colorectal cancer. When these new drugs are combined with chemotherapy survival is prolonged, often without a detriment to quality of life. In this chapter we will review the most active biologic options for treatment of colorectal cancer and place them in the context of a rapidly growing field. PMID:28736632

  9. A national cluster-randomised controlled trial to examine the effect of enhanced reminders on the socioeconomic gradient in uptake in bowel cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Raine, Rosalind; Moss, Sue M; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Hans, Ines Kralj; Howe, Rosemary; Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Halloran, Stephen; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Seaman, Helen; Thomas, Mary; Smith, Samuel G; McGregor, Lesley M; Vart, Gemma; Wardle, Jane; Duffy, Stephen W

    2016-12-06

    The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England offers biennial guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBt). There is a socioeconomic gradient in participation and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have worse colorectal cancer survival than more advantaged groups. We compared the effectiveness and cost of an enhanced reminder letter with the usual reminder letter on overall uptake of gFOBt and the socioeconomic gradient in uptake. We enhanced the usual reminder by including a heading 'A reminder to you' and a short paragraph restating the offer of screening in simple language. We undertook a cluster-randomised trial of all 168 480 individuals who were due to receive a reminder over 20 days in 2013. Randomisation was based on the day of invitation. Blinding of individuals was not possible, but the possibility of bias was minimal owing to the lack of direct contact with participants. The enhanced reminder was sent to 78 067 individuals and 90 413 received the usual reminder. The primary outcome was the proportion of people adequately screened and its variation by quintile of Index of Multiple Deprivation. Data were analysed by logistic regression with conservative variance estimates to take account of cluster randomisation. There was a small but statistically significant (P=0.001) increase in participation with the enhanced reminder (25.8% vs 25.1%). There was significant (P=0.005) heterogeneity of the effect by socioeconomic status with an 11% increase in the odds of participation in the most deprived quintile (from 13.3 to 14.1%) and no increase in the least deprived. We estimated that implementing the enhanced reminder nationally could result in up to 80 more people with high or intermediate risk colorectal adenomas and up to 30 more cancers detected each year if it were implemented nationally. The intervention incurred a small one-off cost of £78 000 to modify the reminder letter. The enhanced reminder increases overall uptake and reduces the

  10. The impact of bowel cancer awareness week.

    PubMed

    Pullyblank, A M; Dixon, N; Dixon, A R

    2002-11-01

    To assess knowledge of Bowel Cancer Awareness Week (BCAW) amongst patients attending their general practice surgery and to identify whether BCAW could increase knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. Questionnaire study with ethics committee approval. Patients attending non-emergency clinics in a single general practice during the week following BCAW were given a questionnaire. Respondents were asked for knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms, sources of this information and awareness of BCAW compared to similar knowledge of breast cancer. Seventy-seven patients responded (96% response rate, median age 42, 40% male). Eighty-five percent could name a breast cancer symptom compared to only 44% who could name a colorectal cancer symptom (McNemar's chi2, P < 0.0001). Respondents identified more sources of information for breast than colorectal cancer. Only 21% had heard of BCAW and none could name any symbol for bowel cancer awareness whereas 69% were aware of Breast Cancer Awareness Month and 28% could name its symbol (McNemar's chi2, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were aware of BCAW were 4.6 times more likely to have knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms (95% CI 1.25-17.1). Despite their similar incidence, knowledge of colorectal cancer is much less than breast cancer. In part this may be due to the greater publicity given to breast cancer. BCAW can increase knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms but currently, too few people are aware of it.

  11. Cigarette smoking, obesity, physical activity, and alcohol use as predictors of chemoprevention adherence in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Land, Stephanie R; Cronin, Walter M; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Christian, Nicholas J; Klein, William M P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    The double-blind, prospective, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) showed a 50% reduction in the risk of breast cancer for tamoxifen versus placebo, yet many women at risk of breast cancer do not adhere to the 5-year course. This first report of the rich BCPT drug adherence data examines predictors of adherence. Between June, 1992 and September, 1997 13,338 women at high risk of breast cancer were randomly assigned to 20 mg/d tamoxifen versus placebo; we analyzed the 11,064 enrolled more than 3 years before trial unblinding. Primary endpoint was full drug adherence (100% of assigned pills per staff report, excluding protocol-required discontinuation) at 1 and 36 months; secondary was adequate adherence (76%-100%). Protocol-specified multivariable logistic regression tested lifestyle factors, controlling for demographic and medical predictors. About 13% were current smokers; 60% were overweight/obese; 46% had moderate/heavy physical activity; 21%, 66%, 13% drank 0, 0-1, 1+ drinks per day, respectively; 91% were adequately adherent at 1 month; and 79% were at 3 years. Alcohol use was associated with reduced full adherence at 1 month (P = 0.016; OR = 0.79 1+ vs. 0), as was college education (P <0.001; OR = 0.78 vs. high school); age (P < 0.001; OR = 1.4 age 60+) and per capita household annual income (P < 0.001; OR = 1.2 per $30,000) with increased adherence. Current smoking (P = 0.003; OR = 0.75), age (P = 0.024, OR = 1.1), college education (P = 0.037; OR = 1.4), tamoxifen assignment (P = 0.031; OR = 0.84), and breast cancer risk (P <.001; OR = 1.5 high vs. low) predicted adequate adherence at 36 months. There were no significant associations with obesity or physical activity. Alcohol use and smoking might indicate a need for greater adherence support. ©2011 AACR.

  12. Cigarette smoking, obesity, physical activity, and alcohol use as predictors of chemoprevention adherence in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Breast Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Land, Stephanie R.; Cronin, Walter M.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P.; Christian, Nicholas J.; Klein, William M.P.; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The double-blind, prospective, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) demonstrated a 50% reduction in the risk of breast cancer (BC) for tamoxifen versus placebo, yet many women at risk of BC do not adhere to the 5-year course. This first report of the rich BCPT drug adherence data examines predictors of adherence. Methods 13,338 women at high risk of BC were randomly assigned 6/92-9/97 to 20 mg/day tamoxifen versus placebo; we analyzed the 11,064 enrolled more than 3 years before trial unblinding. Primary endpoint was full drug adherence (100% of assigned pills per staff report, excluding protocol-required discontinuation) at 1 and 36 months; secondary was adequate adherence (76-100%). Protocol-specified multivariable logistic regression tested lifestyle factors, controlling for demographic and medical predictors. Results 13% were current smokers. 60% were overweight/obese. 46% had moderate/heavy physical activity. 21%, 66%, 13% drank 0, 0-1, 1+ drinks/day. 91% were adequately adherent at 1 mo; 79% at 3 yrs. Alcohol use was associated with reduced full adherence at 1 mo (p=.016; odds ratio [OR]=0.79 1+ versus 0), as was age (p<.001; OR=1.4 age 60+), college education (p<.001; OR=0.78) and per-capita household annual income (p<.001; OR=1.2 per $30,000). Smoking (p=.003; OR=0.75), age (p=.024, OR=1.1), college education (p=.037; OR=1.4), tamoxifen assignment (p=.031; OR=.84), and BC risk (p<.001; OR=1.5 high v low) predicted adequate adherence at 36 months. There were no significant associations with obesity or physical activity. Conclusions Alcohol use and smoking might indicate a need for greater adherence support. PMID:21862698

  13. Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in the Preoperative Multimodality Treatment of Rectal Cancer: Surgical End Points From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial R-04

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael J.; Colangelo, Linda H.; Beart, Robert W.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Allegra, Carmen J.; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C.; Shields, Anthony F.; Landry, Jerome C.; Ryan, David P.; Parda, David S.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S.; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S.; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M.; Moore, Dennis F.; Mullane, Michael R.; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Ward, Patrick J.; Wozniak, Timothy F.; Roh, Mark S.; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients and Methods Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m2, 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m2 twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). Results From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Conclusion Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. PMID:24799484

  14. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Malignant Bowel Obstruction in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tran, Elizabeth; Spiceland, Clayton; Sandhu, Nicole P; Jatoi, Aminah

    2016-04-01

    We sought to report incidence, risk factors, and survival related to bowel obstruction in 311 ovarian cancer patients with recurrent disease. A total of 68 (22%) had a documented bowel obstruction during their cancer course, and 49 (16%) developed it after cancer recurrence. Surprisingly, 142 (45%) fit into an "unknown" category (3+ months of data lacking from last contact/death). No risk factors were identified; management included surgery (n = 21), conservative measures (n = 21), and other (n = 7). Documented bowel obstruction was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in survival after cancer recurrence. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction occurs in only a subgroup of patients with ovarian cancer and does not appear to detract from survival after cancer recurrence, limited end-of-life information may be resulting in an underestimation of incidence.

  16. Outpatient management of small bowel obstruction in terminal ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M P; Roberts, J A; Morley, G W

    1987-11-01

    A technique for home gastric decompression and hydration was developed for use in patients with terminal ovarian cancer and bowel obstruction. In three of four patients undergoing a standard gastrostomy the results were unsatisfactory, requiring reintubation. The two most recent patients on whom the technique was used were able to leave the hospital within two weeks despite their bowel obstruction.

  17. Dysplasia and cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Basseri, Robert J; Basseri, Benjamin; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2011-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disease associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although CRC occurs in a minority of IBD patients (1%), it carries a high mortality and accounts for 20% of IBD-related mortality. Established risk factors for the development of CRC in IBD include disease duration of 8 years or more, family history of CRC, extensive colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Meticulous colonoscopy and anti-inflammatory medications can reduce the risk of developing CRC. The future of IBD surveillance involves the use of novel endoscopic techniques (chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy and autofluorescence) to enhance colonoscopic accuracy, in concert with chemopreventative medications to help reduce the risk of CRC in IBD.

  18. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-03-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer.

  19. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  20. Octreotide as Palliative Therapy for Cancer-Related Bowel Obstruction That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  1. Bladder and bowel symptoms in cervical and endometrial cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kristine A; Boyington, Alice R; Judson, Patricia L; Wyman, Jean F

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies likely underestimate the prevalence of bowel and bladder symptoms in gynecologic cancer survivors. We sought to estimate the prevalence of these symptoms in cervical and endometrial cancer survivors who had completed treatment 1 year previously compared with non-cancer controls, and to examine factors associated with more severe symptoms in survivors. As part of a larger quality of life study, survivors who were 1-year posttreatment for cervical or endometrial cancer (n = 104) completed measures of bladder and bowel symptoms. An age-matched and race/ethnicity-matched sample of women with no history of cancer was recruited for comparison purposes. Survivors reported a higher prevalence of bladder symptoms, specifically storage and incontinence symptoms, than non-cancer controls. Prevalence rates for bowel symptoms in survivors were higher than those reported in previous studies. Greater symptom severity was associated with younger age, lower annual incomes, and less education. Other correlates included higher body mass index and history of smoking. As hypothesized, more severe symptoms were associated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic radiation. Bladder and bowel symptoms are more prevalent in cervical and endometrial cancer survivors than non-cancer controls. Future research should replicate these findings in a larger, prospective study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27.

    PubMed

    Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Brown, Ann; Anderson, Stewart; Smith, Roy; Julian, Thomas; Miller, Barbara; Bear, Harry D; Caldwell, Christopher B; Walker, Alonzo P; Mikkelson, Wendy M; Stauffer, Jay S; Robidoux, Andre; Theoret, Heather; Soran, Atilla; Sovan, Atilla; Fisher, Bernard; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman

    2005-04-20

    Experience with sentinel node biopsy (SNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is limited. We examined the feasibility and accuracy of this procedure within a randomized trial in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. During the conduct of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial B-27, several participating surgeons attempted SNB before the required axillary dissection in 428 patients. All underwent lymphatic mapping and an attempt to identify and remove a sentinel node. Lymphatic mapping was performed with radioactive colloid (14.7%), with lymphazurin blue dye alone (29.9%), or with both (54.7%). Success rate for the identification and removal of a sentinel node was 84.8%. Success rate increased significantly with the use of radioisotope (87.6% to 88.9%) versus with the use of lymphazurin alone (78.1%, P = .03). There were no significant differences in success rate according to clinical tumor size, clinical nodal status, age, or calendar year of random assignment. Of 343 patients who had SNB and axillary dissection, the sentinel nodes were positive in 125 patients and were the only positive nodes in 70 patients (56.0%). Of the 218 patients with negative sentinel nodes, nonsentinel nodes were positive in 15 (false-negative rate, 10.7%; 15 of 140 patients). There were no significant differences in false-negative rate according to clinical patient and tumor characteristics, method of lymphatic mapping, or breast tumor response to chemotherapy. These results are comparable to those obtained from multicenter studies evaluating SNB before systemic therapy and suggest that the sentinel node concept is applicable following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  3. Most small bowel cancers are revealed by a complication

    PubMed Central

    Negoi, Ionut; Paun, Sorin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Stoica, Bodgan; Tanase, Ioan; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Beuran, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the pattern of primary small bowel cancers in a tertiary East-European hospital. Methods A retrospective study of patients with small bowel cancers admitted to a tertiary emergency center, over the past 15 years. Results There were 57 patients with small bowel cancer, representing 0.039% of admissions and 0.059% of laparotomies. There were 37 (64.9%) men, mean age of 58 years; and 72 years for females. Out of 57 patients, 48 (84.2%) were admitted due to an emergency situation: obstruction in 21 (38.9%), perforation in 17 (31.5%), upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 8 (14.8%), and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 (3.7%). There were 10 (17.5%) duodenal tumors, 21 (36.8%) jejunal tumors and 26 (45.6%) ileal tumors. The most frequent neoplasms were gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 24 patients (42.1%), adenocarcinoma in 19 (33.3%), lymphoma in 8 (14%), and carcinoids in 2 (3.5%). The prevalence of duodenal adenocarcinoma was 14.55 times greater than that of the small bowel, and the prevalence of duodenal stromal tumors was 1.818 time greater than that of the small bowel. Obstruction was the complication in adenocarcinoma in 57.9% of cases, and perforation was the major local complication (47.8%) in stromal tumors. Conclusion Primary small bowel cancers are usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and revealed by a local complication of the tumor. Their surgical management in emergency setting is associated to significant morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:26676271

  4. Update of the National Surgical Adjvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Victor G.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Cronin, Walter M.; Cecchini, Reena S.; Atkins, James N.; Bevers, Therese B.; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Pajon, Eduardo R.; Wade, James L.; Robidoux, Andre; Margolese, Richard G.; James, Joan; Runowicz, Carolyn D.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Reis, Steven E.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G.; Jordan, V. Craig; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen became the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for reducing breast cancer risk but did not gain wide acceptance for prevention, largely because it increased endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). Raloxifene caused less toxicity, including reduced thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. In this paper, we detail a longer-term analysis of STAR (median follow-up of 81 months vs 47 months in the initial report). We performed this updated analysis in an effort to better understand how these two drugs differ, particularly in regard to their relative effects on noninvasive disease. STAR eligibility criteria included postmenopausal status and 5-year breast cancer risk of at least 1.66% (actual mean risk was 4.03%). STAR women were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 5 years. Of the originally randomized 19,747 women, 19,490 participated in the STAR follow-up described here. The risk ratio (RR; raloxifene:tamoxifen) for invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.47) and for noninvasive disease was 1.22 (95% CI, 0.95–1.59). Compared with the initial results, the RRs widened for invasive and narrowed for noninvasive breast cancer. Toxicity RRs (raloxifene:tamoxifen) were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36–0.83; P = 0.003) for endometrial cancer (this difference was not significant in the initial results), 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12–0.29) for uterine hyperplasia, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60–0.93) for thromboembolic events. There were no significant mortality differences. Long-term, raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer over time to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive

  5. The Half Century of Clinical Trials of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP)

    PubMed Central

    Wickerham, D. Lawrence; O’Connell, Michael J.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Cronin, Walter M.; Geyer, Charles E.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Petrelli, Nicholas; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Julian, Thomas B.; Wolmark, Norman

    2008-01-01

    The supplanting of radical mastectomy by simple mastectomy and then by lumpectomy plus radiation, the use of adjuvant therapy to alter the natural course of breast and colorectal cancer, the use of tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer, and the dramatic improvement in survival demonstrated with the use of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive breast cancer are all the direct results of research that has been carried out over the past 50 years by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. This National Cancer Institute-supported clinical cooperative trials group based in Pittsburgh, PA, currently has 200 member institutions and 700 satellite centers located throughout the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and Ireland. The NSABP’s mandate is to conduct large randomized phase III trials to evaluate therapies designed to improve the treatment and prevention of breast and colorectal cancer. Over the past half century, the NSABP has entered more than 150,000 patients and participants into clinical studies that have changed the treatment of colorectal cancer and have revolutionized the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:18929150

  6. The Incidence of Arm Edema in Women With Breast Cancer Randomized on the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study B-04 to Radical Mastectomy Versus Total Mastectomy and Radiotherapy Versus Total Mastectomy Alone

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, Melvin Land, Stephanie; Begovic, Mirsada; Sharif, Saima

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and factors associated with the development of arm edema in women who participated in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) study B-04. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1974, the NSABP protocol B-04 randomized 1,665 eligible patients with resectable breast cancer to either (1) the Halstead-type radical mastectomy; (2) total mastectomy and radiotherapy to the chest wall, axilla, supraclavicular region, and internal mammary nodes if by clinical examination axillary nodes were involved by tumor; and (3) for patients with a clinically uninvolved axilla, a third arm, total mastectomy alone. Measurements of the ipsilateral and contralateral arm circumferences were to be performed every 3 months. Results: There was at least one recorded measurement of arm circumferences for 1,457 patients (87.5% of eligible patients). There were 674 women (46.3%) who experienced arm edema at some point during the period of follow-up until February 1976. For radical mastectomy patients, total mastectomy and radiotherapy patients, and total mastectomy patients alone, arm edema was recorded at least once in 58.1%, 38.2%, and 39.1% of patients, respectively (p < .001) and at last recorded measurement in 30.7%, 14.8%, and 15.5%, respectively (p = <.001). Increasing body mass index (BMI) also showed a statistically significant correlation with arm edema at any time (p = .001) and at last assessment (p = .005). Conclusions: Patients who undergo mastectomy, including those whose treatment plans do not include axillary dissection or postoperative radiotherapy, suffer an appreciable incidence of arm edema.

  7. The incidence of arm edema in women with breast cancer randomized on the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project study B-04 to radical mastectomy versus total mastectomy and radiotherapy versus total mastectomy alone.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Melvin; Land, Stephanie; Begovic, Mirsada; Sharif, Saima

    2008-03-15

    To determine the incidence and factors associated with the development of arm edema in women who participated in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) study B-04. Between 1971 and 1974, the NSABP protocol B-04 randomized 1,665 eligible patients with resectable breast cancer to either (1) the Halstead-type radical mastectomy; (2) total mastectomy and radiotherapy to the chest wall, axilla, supraclavicular region, and internal mammary nodes if by clinical examination axillary nodes were involved by tumor; and (3) for patients with a clinically uninvolved axilla, a third arm, total mastectomy alone. Measurements of the ipsilateral and contralateral arm circumferences were to be performed every 3 months. There was at least one recorded measurement of arm circumferences for 1,457 patients (87.5% of eligible patients). There were 674 women (46.3%) who experienced arm edema at some point during the period of follow-up until February 1976. For radical mastectomy patients, total mastectomy and radiotherapy patients, and total mastectomy patients alone, arm edema was recorded at least once in 58.1%, 38.2%, and 39.1% of patients, respectively (p<.001) and at last recorded measurement in 30.7%, 14.8%, and 15.5%, respectively (p=or<.001). Increasing body mass index (BMI) also showed a statistically significant correlation with arm edema at any time (p=.001) and at last assessment (p=.005). Patients who undergo mastectomy, including those whose treatment plans do not include axillary dissection or postoperative radiotherapy, suffer an appreciable incidence of arm edema.

  8. Microbiota regulation of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanju; Cao, Anthony T.; Cong, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    The host and microbiota have evolved mechanisms for coexistence over millions of years. Accumulating evidence indicates that a dynamic mutualism between the host and the commensal microbiota has important implications for health, and microbial colonization contributes to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. However, alterations in communication between the mucosal immune system and gut microbial communities have been implicated as the core defect that leads to chronic intestinal inflammation and cancer development. We will discuss the recent progress on how gut microbiota regulates intestinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. PMID:24071482

  9. Intestinal and Extraintestinal Cancers Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Minna; Chang, Liisa; Chang, Hanna M; Chang, Fuju

    2017-06-27

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with its 2 most common entities, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, causes an increased risk of developing intestinal cancers. In fact, malignancies are the second most common cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in both sexes of patients with IBD. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in IBD correlate with the duration of the disease, extent of disease, the association with primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history, and early age at onset. Patients with IBD also have an increased risk for developing a variety of extraintestinal malignancies. In particular, lymphomas, mostly non-Hodgkin lymphomas and skin cancers, are more frequently observed in IBD patients. Longstanding inflammation and the degree of immunosuppression as a result of IBD treatment appear to be the main driving factors for IBD-related carcinogenesis. This review provides an update on the clinical and pathological features of IBD-related intestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. When Good Evidence Is Not Enough: The Role of Context in Bowel Cancer Screening Policy in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flitcroft, Kathy L.; Gillespie, James A.; Carter, Stacy M.; Trevena, Lyndal J.; Salkeld, Glenn P.

    2011-01-01

    Bowel cancer is a serious health problem in developed countries. Australia, the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ) reviewed the same randomised controlled trial evidence on the benefits and harms of population-based bowel cancer screening. Yet only NZ, with the highest age standardised rate of bowel cancer mortality, decided against…

  11. Reproductive history and risk of small bowel cancer by histologic type: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunxia; Lambe, Mats; Martling, Anna; Lagergren, Jesper

    2012-12-01

    The male predominance of the two main histologic malignancies of the small bowel cancer may reflect a role of sex hormones which will be examined in this study. This was a nationwide population-based nested case-control study, based on a cohort of subjects born between 1932 and 2008, as identified in the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. For each case of small bowel cancer, 10 age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected. Number of children and age at having the first child were analyzed in relation to the risk of small bowel cancer using conditional logistic regression, providing odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 632 female cases and 894 male cases of small bowel cancer were included. No overall increased risk of small bowel cancer was found in parous compared to non-parous women (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.67-1.54). There was no association between age at first birth and small bowel cancer (>30 years of age vs <20 years; OR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.72-1.50). No associations were detected in separate analyses of adenocarcinoma or carcinoid of the small bowel. No distinct risk patterns were discerned in men compared to women. Reproductive history does not seem to be associated with the risk of small bowel cancer, independent of histologic type.

  12. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jannasch, Olof; Udelnow, Andrej; Wolff, Stefanie; Lippert, Hans; Mroczkowski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. We compared cohorts treated in certified and noncertified hospitals regarding preoperative variables and perioperative outcomes. Outcomes were verified by matched-pair analysis. Results. Patients of noncertified hospitals had higher ASA-scores, higher prevalence of risk factors, more distant metastases, lower tumour localization, lower frequency of pelvic MRI, and higher frequencies of missing values and undetermined TNM classifications (significant differences only). Outcome analysis revealed more general complications in certified hospitals (20.3% versus 17.4%, p = 0.03). Both cohorts did not differ significantly in percentage of R0-resections, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, in-hospital death, and abdominal wall dehiscence. Conclusions. The concept of BCC is a step towards improving the structural and procedural quality. This is a good basis for improving outcome quality but cannot replace it. For a primary surgical disease like rectal cancer a specific, surgery-targeted program is still needed. PMID:26064091

  13. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  14. Bowel cancer screening-generated diagnostic conundrum of the century: pseudoinvasion in sigmoid colonic polyps.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Neil A; Griggs, Rebecca K L

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of bowel cancer screening, in the United Kingdom, United States of America, and many other Western countries, has provided considerable interest and no little diagnostic consternation for pathologists. In the United Kingdom, the universal introduction of bowel cancer screening, initially by fecal occult blood testing and more recently by the introduction of flexible sigmoidoscopy, has provided four main areas of pathological diagnostic difficulty. This is the biopsy diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, serrated pathology, the diagnosis and management of polyp cancer, and, finally, the phenomenon of pseudoinvasion/epithelial misplacement (PEM), particularly in sigmoid colonic adenomatous polyps. The diagnostic difficulties associated with the latter phenomenon have provided particular problems that have led to the institution of a UK national 'Expert Board', comprising three pathologists, who adjudicate on difficult cases. The pathological features favoring PEM are well recognized but there is no doubt that there can be profound mimicry of adenocarcinoma, and, as yet, no adjunctive diagnostic tools have been developed to allow the differentiation in difficult cases. Research in this area is proceeding and some methodologies do show promise in this difficult diagnostic area.

  15. Childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease and risk of cancer: a Swedish nationwide cohort study 1964-2014.

    PubMed

    Olén, O; Askling, J; Sachs, M C; Frumento, P; Neovius, M; Smedby, K E; Ekbom, A; Malmborg, P; Ludvigsson, J F

    2017-09-20

    Objective To assess risk of cancer in patients with childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease in childhood and adulthood.Design Cohort study with matched general population reference individuals using multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios.Setting Swedish national patient register (both inpatient and non-primary outpatient care) 1964-2014.Participants Incident cases of childhood onset (<18 years) inflammatory bowel disease (n=9405: ulcerative colitis, n=4648; Crohn's disease, n=3768; unclassified, n=989) compared with 92 870 comparators from the general population matched for sex, age, birth year, and county.Main outcome measures Any cancer and cancer types according to the Swedish Cancer Register.Results During follow-up through adulthood (median age at end of follow-up 27 years), 497 (3.3 per 1000 person years) people with childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease had first cancers, compared with 2256 (1.5 per 1000 person years) in the general population comparators (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.5). Hazard ratios for any cancer were 2.6 in ulcerative colitis (2.3 to 3.0) and 1.7 in Crohn's disease (1.5 to 2.1). Patients also had an increased risk of cancer before their 18th birthday (2.7, 1.6 to 4.4; 20 cancers in 9405 patients, 0.6 per1000 person years). Gastrointestinal cancers had the highest relative risks, with a hazard ratio of 18.0 (14.4 to 22.7) corresponding to 202 cancers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The increased risk of cancer (before 25th birthday) was similar over time (1964-1989: 1.6, 1.0 to 2.4; 1990-2001: 2.3, 1.5 to 3.3); 2002-06: 2.9, 1.9 to 4.2; 2007-14: 2.2, 1.1 to 4.2).Conclusion Childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of any cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers, both in childhood and later in life. The higher risk of cancer has not fallen over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. Linking immunity, epigenetics, and cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Däbritz, Jan; Menheniott, Trevelyan R

    2014-09-01

    Most of what is known about the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pertains to complex interplay between host genetics, immunity, and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications play pivotal roles in intestinal immunity and mucosal homeostasis as well as mediating gene-environment interactions. In this article, we provide a historical account of epigenetic research either directly related or pertinent to the pathogenesis and management of IBD. We further collate emerging evidence supporting roles for epigenetic mechanisms in relevant aspects of IBD biology, including deregulated immunity, host-pathogen recognition and mucosal integrity. Finally, we highlight key epigenetic mechanisms that link chronic inflammation to specific IBD comorbidities, including colitis-associated cancer and discuss their potential utility as novel biomarkers or pharmacologic targets in IBD therapy.

  17. Radiation-induced bowel injury: the impact of radiotherapy on survivorship after treatment for gynaecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kuku, S; Fragkos, C; McCormack, M; Forbes, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The number of women surviving cancer who live with symptoms of bowel toxicity affecting their quality of life continues to rise. In this retrospective study, we sought to describe and analyse the presenting clinical features in our cohort, and evaluate possible predictors of severity and chronicity in women with radiation-induced bowel injury after treatment for cervical and endometrial cancers. Methods: Review of records of 541 women treated within the North London Gynaecological Cancer Network between 2003 and 2010 with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer identified 152 women who reported significant new bowel symptoms after pelvic radiation. Results: Factor analysis showed that the 14 most common and important presenting symptoms could be ‘clustered' into 3 groups with predictive significance for chronicity and severity of disease. Median follow-up for all patients was 60 months. Univariate analysis showed increasing age, smoking, extended field radiation, cervical cancer treatment and the need for surgical intervention to be significant predictors for severity of ongoing disease at last follow-up. On multivariate analysis, only age, cancer type (cervix) and symptom combinations/‘cluster' of (bloating, flatulence, urgency, rectal bleeding and per-rectal mucus) were found to be significant predictors of disease severity. Fifteen (19%) women in the cervical cancer group had radiation-induced bowel injury requiring surgical intervention compared with five (6.7%) in the endometrial cancer group. Conclusion: Women with cervical cancer are younger and appear to suffer more severe symptoms of late bowel toxicity, whereas women treated for endometrial cancer suffer milder more chronic disease. The impact of radiation-induced bowel injury and the effect on cancer survivorship warrants further research into investigation of predictors of severe late toxicity. There is a need for prospective trials to aid early

  18. Is "pelvic radiation disease" always the cause of bowel symptoms following prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Min, Myo; Chua, Benjamin; Guttner, Yvonne; Abraham, Ned; Aherne, Noel J; Hoffmann, Matthew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-02-01

    Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) also widely known as "radiation proctopathy" is a well recognised late side-effect following conventional prostate radiotherapy. However, endoscopic evaluation and/or specialist referral for new or persistent post-prostate radiotherapy bowel symptoms is not routine and serious diagnoses may potentially be missed. Here we report a policy of endoscopic evaluation of bowel symptoms persisting >90 days post radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A consecutive series of 102 patients who had radical prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and who had new or ongoing bowel symptoms or positive faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) on follow up visits more than three months after treatment, were referred for endoscopic examination. All but one (99%) had full colonoscopic investigation. Endoscopic findings included gastric/colonic/rectal polyps (56%), diverticular disease (49%), haemorrhoids (38%), radiation proctopathy (29%), gastritis/oesophagitis (8%) and rarer diagnoses, including bowel cancer which was found in 3%. Only four patients (4%) had radiation proctopathy without associated pathology and 65 patients (63%) had more than one diagnosis. If flexible sigmoidoscopy alone were used, 36.6% of patients and 46.6% patients with polyp(s) would have had their diagnoses missed. Our study has shown that bowel symptoms following prostate IMRT/IGRT are due to numerous diagnoses other than PRD, including malignancy. Routine referral pathways should be developed for endoscopic evaluation/specialist review for patients with new or persistent bowel symptoms (or positive FOBT) following prostate radiotherapy. This recommendation should be considered for incorporation into national guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of bowel cancer registration data in England, 1996–2004

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A M; Morris, E; Thomas, J; Forman, D; Melia, J; Moss, S M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Health Service (NHS) bowel cancer screening programme (BCSP) was initiated across England in April 2006. To determine the feasibility of using national cancer registration data to assess the impact of the BCSP on stage-specific incidence, we studied trends in the incidence rates of colon (ICD10 C18) and rectosigmoid junction and rectum (ICD10 C19–C20) cancers and the completeness of data on Dukes stage in England. Methods: Data were obtained from all nine cancer registries for the period 1996–2004, before the introduction of the BCSP, in men and women aged 50–79 years. Results: Overall, incidence rates declined by 1% per year in the 9 years before the introduction of the BCSP (P<0.001). Dukes stage was recorded for 60% of all registrations but this varied between regions and over time. Only four registries had completeness of 74% or more. Registrations with unknown Dukes stage decreased from 1996 to 2000, and then increased during 2001–2004 affecting trends in stage-specific incidence. Conclusion: To study the impact of the BCSP on stage-specific incidence, regional variations in data completeness need to be addressed. PMID:19773758

  20. Palliative care in patients with ovarian cancer and bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Alberto; Ferrero, A; Fuso, L; Mineccia, M; Porcellana, V; Vassallo, D; Biglia, N; Menato, G

    2015-11-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is usually a pre-terminal event in patients with ovarian cancer. However, because of the lack of data in literature, decisions around surgical intervention, non-resectional procedures, or medical treatment of MBO in patients with ovarian cancer cannot be lightly undertaken. We analyzed medical and surgical procedures, performance status, nutritional status, cachexia, and their prognostic value in this group of patients. We retrospectively selected all consecutive patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who received medical or surgical treatment for MBO between October 2008 and January 2014 at the Academic Department of Gynecological Oncology of Mauriziano Hospital of Turin (Italy). We found 40 patients: 18 of them underwent medical treatment and 22 of them were submitted to surgery. In the group of surgery, the hospitalization was shorter (p 0.02), the pain reduction was more effective (p 0.001), the number of chemotherapy lines was higher (p 0.03), and re-obstruction was more rare (p 0.02). Between the two groups, we did not find any differences in post-palliation episodes of vomit (p 0.83), type of diet (p 0.34), ability to return home (p 0.72), and death setting (p 0.28). Median survival after palliation was longer in the group of surgery (p 0.025). Cachexia, low performance status, and poor nutritional status were significant predictors of worse survival after MBO, independently by the treatment. Surgery has to be considered in patients without serious contraindications; otherwise, a medical protocol, including antisecretory drugs, is the standard of care in frail patients.

  1. Impact of bowel resection margins in node negative colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ricardo; Marinho, Rui; Aparício, David; Fragoso, Marta; Sousa, Marta; Gomes, António; Leichsenring, Carlos; Carneiro, Carla; Geraldes, Vasco; Nunes, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Surgical intestinal resection margins in colon cancer are a longstanding debate in terms the optimal distance between the tumor and the colonic section line. The aim of this study is to define the oncological outcomes in relation to surgical margins, measured in terms or recurrence rate, time-to-recurrence, disease-free survival and overall survival in a population of node negative colon cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective observational longitudinal single institution study. All patients submitted to colon cancer surgery between January 2006 and December 2010 were analyzed. Only node negative patients were included in the study, with analysis of 215 patient charts, divided in two groups (Intestinal margin lower than 5 cm-group 1; and 5 cm or higher-group 2). Mean age of patients was 70.4 years (±11.7), with a male predominance (57.7%). Group 2 more frequently corresponded to Stage II (83 vs 71%; p = 0.05). Global mean total lymph nodes harvested were 12, and were higher in group II than in group I (13.8 ± 8.2 vs 10.4 ± 5.7; p = 0.001). In terms of time-to-recurrence patients of group 2 had longer time than patients of group 1 (32.3 ± 12.1 vs 21.8 ± 13.8 months; p = 0.03), as well as a lower recurrence rate in group I (13.7 vs 17.2%), despite not statistically significant. This study has showed that patients with 5 cm or higher bowel resection margins had longer time-to-recurrence that was statistically significant. Recurrence rates were lower in the group of patients with longer surgical margins, however not statistically significant.

  2. Parameters of small bowel dysfunction in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patton, T.J.; Follen Mitchell, M.; Neely Atkinson, E.; Eifel, P.; Gastorf, L.; Yancey, C.; Miller, D.; Wharton, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    Small bowel dysfunction is an important problem in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cervical cancer and may take many forms. The spectrum of small bowel dysfunction includes subtle findings such as malabsorption and more obvious complications such as obstruction and fistula formation. Predicting who will experience small bowel dysfunction is important so that prospective studies of these compications can be planned. We undertook a controlled retrospective review of patients with stage IB cervical carcinoma looking for parameters of small bowel dysfunction and their predictors to help in the design of a prospective study. This analysis suggests that the interval to development is long. The best predictor of diarrhea requiring medication was the number of laparotomies. A large sample size of stage IB patients would be necessary to prospectively study small bowel dysfunction in this population.

  3. Reasons for non-participation in the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Declan T; Treanor, Charlene; McMullan, Colin; Owen, Tracy; Graham, Adele; Anderson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the reasons why some people do not participate in bowel cancer screening so that steps can be taken to improve informed decision-making. Design Qualitative study, using focus groups with thematic analysis of data to identify, analyse and report patterns. Transcripts were repeatedly read and inductively coded using a phenomenological perspective, and organised into key themes. Setting Belfast and Armagh, two areas of Northern Ireland with relatively low uptake of bowel cancer screening. Participants Ten women and 18 men in three single-gender focus groups (two male and one female), each with 9–10 participants. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling from the general public and were eligible for, but had not taken part in, the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Results Key themes identified were fear of cancer; the test procedure; social norms; past experience of cancer and screening; lack of knowledge or understanding about bowel cancer screening; and resulting behaviour towards the test. Fear about receiving bad news and reluctance to conduct the test themselves were reactions that participants seemed willing to overcome after taking part in open discussion about the test. Conclusions We identified barriers to participation in bowel cancer screening and used these insights to develop new materials to support delivery of the programme. Some of the issues raised have been identified in other UK settings, suggesting that knowledge about barriers, and strategies to improve uptake, may be generalisable. PMID:26353870

  4. Prevalence of genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease in a healthy First Nations cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Travis B.; Bernstein, Charles N.; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Stempak, Joanne M.; Sargent, Michael; Elias, Brenda; Xu, Wei; Pathan, Saad; Silverberg, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease is the result of both genes and environment. Canadian First Nations people, despite living in a region with a high prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, are relatively protected from this disease. We aimed to compare the carriage of genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease in healthy First Nations and white people. Methods: DNA was extracted from the venous blood of healthy First Nations (n = 340) and white (n = 285) participants from Manitoba. Genotyping was performed for 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with known or suspected associations with inflammatory bowel disease. We compared the genotypes between groups by logistic regression, adjusting for multiple testing. We calculated a risk score for the NOD2 gene by adding the number of risk alleles at three important NOD2 SNPs (G908R, R702W and 3020insC). Results: We found genetic variation between white and First Nations participants at 45 of 69 SNPs. Notably, carriage of the ATG16L1 T300A mutation was lower in First Nations participants (p = 4.1 × 10−30). Cumulative carriage of important NOD2 variants was significantly lower among First Nations participants (3.9% v. 15.2%; p < 0.0001 for risk score) than among white participants. Risk variants in IL23R (p = 0.014) and IL12B (p = 1.2 × 10−16), among others, were more prevalent among First Nations participants than among white participants. Interpretation: The low prevalence of variants associated with bacterial processing and handling in First Nations people may explain their relative protection from inflammatory bowel disease. Increased carriage of a number of risk variants, for example in the interleukin-23/Th17 pathway, is especially intriguing given their importance in other inflammatory diseases of high incidence in First Nations populations. PMID:22496383

  5. Impaired Gastric Cancer Survival in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Loes H C; Assendorp, Eemke L; van der Post, Rachel S; Derikx, Lauranne A A P; de Jong, Dirk J; Kievit, Wietske; Pierik, Marieke; van den Heuvel, Tim; Verhoeven, Rob; Overbeek, Lucy I H; Hoentjen, Frank; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2016-12-01

    Both chronic inflammation and reduced immunosurveillance contribute to malignancy development in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous literature suggests that especially Crohn's disease patients are at an increased risk for developing gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to identify risk factors for GC development in IBD and to compare the clinical characteristics of GC in IBD to those in the general population. We retrospectively searched the Dutch Pathology Database to identify all Dutch IBD patients with GC between January 2004 and December 2008. Two case-control studies were performed. I: to identify risk factors for GC in IBD, with controls from the IBD South Limburg (IBDSL) population-based cohort; and II: to compare GC disease course in IBD patients with the general population. General population data were obtained from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry (ECR). We included 59 patients with IBD and GC (cases). Cases were significantly older at IBD diagnosis than IBDSL controls (median age 61 years versus 40; p<0.01), and ulcerative colitis (UC) was more frequent in the case group (69.5% versus 51.4%; p<0.01). We found no difference in age at diagnosis, gender, tumor location and tumor differentiation between IBD GC patients and ECR controls. When corrected for confounders and TNM-stage, IBD patients showed impaired survival (p=0.035; HR 1.385). Survival is significantly reduced in IBD patients compared to the general population in the multivariate analysis of our study, but age at GC diagnosis and TNM-stage were comparable between IBD cases and controls. Elderly onset IBD emerged as a risk factor for GC development in IBD patients, particularly in UC.

  6. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging.

  7. Management patterns and predictors of mortality among US patients with cancer hospitalized for malignant bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Alese, Olatunji B; Kim, Sungjin; Chen, Zhengjia; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2015-06-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction affects an estimated 3% to 15% of patients with cancer, with a mean survival of <4 weeks reported in patients with inoperable malignant bowel obstruction. In the current study, the authors assessed predictors of survival and the influence of treatment modality in US patients with cancer who were hospitalized for malignant bowel obstruction. All the US cancer patients hospitalized with malignant bowel obstruction in 2006 and 2010 were included. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Malignant bowel obstruction diagnoses and treatment variables were identified using Clinical Classifications Software codes based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with a logistic model, weighted chi-square test, and a generalized linear model. The authors identified 942,014 and 1,103,528 hospitalizations for malignant bowel obstruction in 2006 and 2010, respectively. Medical management, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, health insurance coverage, and obesity were found to be significantly associated with better hospital survival. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated significantly increased odds of death with male sex, advanced age, AJCC stage IV disease, multiple comorbid conditions (except acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and weight loss. There were no significant differences with stratification based on the location and etiology of the obstruction (primary tumor vs metastatic). Malignant bowel obstruction is a common cause of death in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer in the United States. The odds of death are especially high in older patients and those with concurrent medical illnesses. Lack of insurance coverage, significant weight loss, and surgical management also appear to be associated with higher mortality in this population. © 2015

  8. National Cancer Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  9. Alternating Systemic and Hepatic Artery Infusion Therapy for Resected Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG)/ National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Phase II Intergroup Trial, N9945/CI-66

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Steven R.; Roh, Mark S.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Nagorney, David M.; Wagman, Lawrence; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Weiland, Timothy L.; Lai, Lily Lau; Schwarz, Roderich E.; Molina, Roy; Dentchev, Todor; Bolton, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Prior trials have shown that surgery followed by hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUDR) alternating with systemic fluorouracil improves survival rates. Oxaliplatin combined with capecitabine has demonstrated activity in advanced colorectal cancer. Based on this observation a trial was conducted to assess the potential benefit of systemic oxaliplatin and capecitabine alternating with HAI of FUDR. The primary end point was 2-year survival. Patients and Methods Patients with liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer amenable to resection or cryoablation were eligible. HAI and systemic therapy was initiated after metastasectomy. Alternating courses of HAI consisted of 0.2 mg/m2/d FUDR and dexamethasone, day 1 through 14 weeks 1 and 2. Systemic therapy included oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 day 1 with capecitabine at 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily, days 1 through 14, weeks 4 and 5. Two additional 3-week courses of systemic therapy were given. Capecitabine was reduced to 850 mg/m2 twice daily after interim review of toxicity. Results Fifty-five of 76 eligible patients were able to initiate protocol-directed therapy and completed median of six cycles (range, one to six). Three postoperative or treatment-related deaths were reported. Overall, 88% of evaluable patients were alive at 2 years. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, a total of 30 patients have had disease recurrence, 11 involving the liver. Median disease-free survival was 32.7 months. Conclusion Alternating HAI of FUDR and systemic capecitabine and oxaliplatin met the prespecified end point of higher than 85% survival at 2 years and was clinically tolerable. However, the merits of this approach need to be established with a phase III trial. PMID:20048179

  10. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese

    2008-01-01

    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise unexplained pyometra. PMID:18606021

  11. Outcomes of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England after the first 1 million tests

    PubMed Central

    Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Coleman, Lynn; Rutter, Matt D; von Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began operating in 2006 with the aim of full roll out across England by December 2009. Subjects aged 60–69 are being invited to complete three guaiac faecal occult blood tests (6 windows) every 2 years. The programme aims to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer by 16% in those invited for screening. Methods All subjects eligible for screening in the National Health Service in England are included on one database, which is populated from National Health Service registration data covering about 98% of the population of England. This analysis is only of subjects invited to participate in the first (prevalent) round of screening. Results By October 2008 almost 2.1 million had been invited to participate, with tests being returned by 49.6% of men and 54.4% of women invited. Uptake ranged between 55–60% across the four provincial hubs which administer the programme but was lower in the London hub (40%). Of the 1.08 million returning tests 2.5% of men and 1.5% of women had an abnormal test. 17 518 (10 608 M, 6910 F) underwent investigation, with 98% having a colonoscopy as their first investigation. Cancer (n=1772) and higher risk adenomas (n=6543) were found in 11.6% and 43% of men and 7.8% and 29% of women investigated, respectively. 71% of cancers were ‘early’ (10% polyp cancer, 32% Dukes A, 30% Dukes B) and 77% were left-sided (29% rectal, 45% sigmoid) with only 14% being right-sided compared with expected figures of 67% and 24% for left and right side from UK cancer registration. Conclusion In this first round of screening in England uptake and fecal occult blood test positivity was in line with that from the pilot and the original European trials. Although there was the expected improvement in cancer stage at diagnosis, the proportion with left-sided cancers was higher than expected. PMID:22156981

  12. A decision aid to support informed choices about bowel cancer screening among adults with low education: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Lyndal; Simpson, Judy M; Barratt, Alexandra; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a decision aid designed for adults with low education and literacy can support informed choice and involvement in decisions about screening for bowel cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Areas in New South Wales, Australia identified as socioeconomically disadvantaged (low education attainment, high unemployment, and unskilled occupations). Participants 572 adults aged between 55 and 64 with low educational attainment, eligible for bowel cancer screening. Intervention Patient decision aid comprising a paper based interactive booklet (with and without a question prompt list) and a DVD, presenting quantitative risk information on the possible outcomes of screening using faecal occult blood testing compared with no testing. The control group received standard information developed for the Australian national bowel screening programme. All materials and a faecal occult blood test kit were posted directly to people’s homes. Main outcome measures Informed choice (adequate knowledge and consistency between attitudes and screening behaviour) and preferences for involvement in screening decisions. Results Participants who received the decision aid showed higher levels of knowledge than the controls; the mean score (maximum score 12) for the decision aid group was 6.50 (95% confidence interval 6.15 to 6.84) and for the control group was 4.10 (3.85 to 4.36; P<0.001). Attitudes towards screening were less positive in the decision aid group, with 51% of the participants expressing favourable attitudes compared with 65% of participants in the control group (14% difference, 95% confidence interval 5% to 23%; P=0.002). The participation rate for screening was reduced in the decision aid group: completion of faecal occult blood testing was 59% v 75% in the control group (16% difference, 8% to 24%; P=0.001). The decision aid increased the proportion of participants who made an informed choice, from 12% in the control group to 34% in

  13. A decision aid to support informed choices about bowel cancer screening among adults with low education: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sian K; Trevena, Lyndal; Simpson, Judy M; Barratt, Alexandra; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten J

    2010-10-26

    To determine whether a decision aid designed for adults with low education and literacy can support informed choice and involvement in decisions about screening for bowel cancer. Randomised controlled trial. Areas in New South Wales, Australia identified as socioeconomically disadvantaged (low education attainment, high unemployment, and unskilled occupations). 572 adults aged between 55 and 64 with low educational attainment, eligible for bowel cancer screening. Patient decision aid comprising a paper based interactive booklet (with and without a question prompt list) and a DVD, presenting quantitative risk information on the possible outcomes of screening using faecal occult blood testing compared with no testing. The control group received standard information developed for the Australian national bowel screening programme. All materials and a faecal occult blood test kit were posted directly to people's homes. Informed choice (adequate knowledge and consistency between attitudes and screening behaviour) and preferences for involvement in screening decisions. Participants who received the decision aid showed higher levels of knowledge than the controls; the mean score (maximum score 12) for the decision aid group was 6.50 (95% confidence interval 6.15 to 6.84) and for the control group was 4.10 (3.85 to 4.36; P<0.001). Attitudes towards screening were less positive in the decision aid group, with 51% of the participants expressing favourable attitudes compared with 65% of participants in the control group (14% difference, 95% confidence interval 5% to 23%; P=0.002). The participation rate for screening was reduced in the decision aid group: completion of faecal occult blood testing was 59% v 75% in the control group (16% difference, 8% to 24%; P=0.001). The decision aid increased the proportion of participants who made an informed choice, from 12% in the control group to 34% in the decision aid group (22% difference, 15% to 29%; P<0.001). More participants in

  14. Outcomes of surgical management of bowel obstruction in relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Kolomainen, D F; Daponte, A; Barton, D P J; Pennert, K; Ind, T E J; Bridges, J E; Shepherd, J H; Gore, M E; Kaye, S B; Riley, J

    2012-04-01

    To describe the outcomes of surgical management of bowel obstruction in relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) so as to define the criteria for patient selection for palliative surgery. 90 women with relapsed EOC underwent palliative surgery for bowel obstruction between 1992 and 2008. Median age at time of surgery for bowel obstruction was 57 years (range, 26 to 85 years). All patients had received at least one line of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median time from diagnosis of primary disease to documented bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 19.5 months (range, 29 days-14 years). Median interval from date of completed course of chemotherapy preceding surgery for bowel obstruction was 3.8 months (range, 5 days-14 years). Ascites was present in 38/90(42%). 49/90(54%) underwent emergency surgery for bowel obstruction. The operative mortality and morbidity rates were 18% and 27%, respectively. Successful palliation, defined as adequate oral intake at least 60 days postoperative, was achieved in 59/90(66%). Only the absence of ascites was identified as a predictor for successful palliation (p=0.049). The median overall survival (OS) was 90.5 days (range, <1 day-6 years). Optimal debulking, treatment-free interval (TFI) and elective versus emergency surgery did not predict survival or successful palliation from surgery for bowel obstruction (p>0.05). Surgery for bowel obstruction in relapsed EOC is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in emergency cases when compared to other gynaecological oncological procedures. Palliation can be achieved in almost two thirds of cases, is equally likely in elective and emergency cases but is less likely in those with ascites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004) of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002) were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5). South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057) compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969) for non-Asians (p < 0.001). Women in both groups who consistently chose to undertake breast cancer screening in rounds 1, 2 and 5 were more likely to complete round 1 bowel cancer screening. However, the likelihood of completion of bowel cancer screening was still significantly lower for South Asians; 49.5% vs. 82.3% for non-Asians, p < 0.001. South Asian women who undertook breast cancer screening in only one round were no more likely to complete bowel cancer screening than those who decided against breast cancer screening in all three rounds. In contrast, similar women in the non-Asian population had an increased likelihood of completing the new bowel cancer screening

  16. Incidence, management, and course of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Algaba, Alicia; Guerra, Iván; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Quintanilla, Elvira; López-Serrano, Pilar; García-Sánchez, María Concepción; Casis, Begoña; Taxonera, Carlos; Moral, Ignacio; Chaparro, María; Martín-Rodríguez, Daniel; Martín-Arranz, María Dolores; Manceñido, Noemí; Menchén, Luis; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Castaño, Ángel; Bermejo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are at increased risk for developing some types of neoplasia. Our aims were to determin the risk for cancer in patients with IBD and to describe the relationship with immunosuppressive therapies and clinical management after tumor diagnosis. Retrospective, multicenter, observational, 5-year follow-up, cohort study. Relative risk [RR] of cancer in the IBD cohort and the background population, therapeutic strategies, and cancer evolution were analyzed. A total of 145 cancers were diagnosed in 133 of 9100 patients with IBD (global cumulative incidence 1.6% vs 2.4% in local population; RR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.78). Patients with IBD had a significantly increased RR of non-melanoma skin cancer [RR = 3.85; 2.53-5.80] and small bowel cancer [RR = 3.70; 1.23-11.13]. After cancer diagnosis, IBD treatment was maintained in 13 of 27 [48.1%] patients on thiopurines, in 2 of 3 on methotrexate [66.6%], none on anti-TNF-α monotherapy [n = 6] and 4 of 12 [33.3%] patients on combined therapy. Rate of death and cancer remission during follow-up did not differ [p > 0.05] between patients who maintained the treatment compared with patients who withdrew [5% vs 8% and 95% vs 74%, respectively]. An association between thiopurines [p = 0.20] or anti-TNF-α drugs [p = 0.77] and cancer was not found. Patients with IBD have an increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancer and small bowel cancer. Immunosuppresive therapy is not related to a higher overall risk for cancer or worse tumor evolution in patients who maintain these drugs after cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Racial and ethnic variation in the incidence of small-bowel cancer subtypes in the United States, 1995-2008.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marc T; Matsuno, Rayna K; Shvetsov, Yurii B

    2013-04-01

    Small-bowel cancer is uncommon and, accordingly, little is known about the epidemiology of this malignancy, especially by race and subtype. The objective of this analysis was to describe the distribution of small-bowel cancer in the United States by demographic, pathological, and clinical features. This study was retrospective in design. Data from 26 population-based cancer registries in the United States from 1995 to 2008 were used. Patients diagnosed with small-bowel cancer (topography codes C17.0-17.3 and C17.8-17.9) were included. The primary outcomes measured were race- and histology-specific incidence (age-adjusted rate trends and age-specific rates) of small-bowel cancer. A total of 56,223 men and women diagnosed with small-bowel cancer were identified. The overall age-adjusted incidence rates for small-bowel cancer were 26.1 in men and 17.7 in women. Neuroendocrine tumors were the most common histological types of small-bowel cancer in men and women, followed by carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. In comparison with whites, the rate of small-bowel cancer was 42% greater in black men, 46% greater in black women, 34% lower in Asian-Pacific Islander men, and 37% lower in Asian-Pacific Islander women. Rates of small-bowel cancer were 24% lower in Hispanic men and 15% lower in Hispanic women than rates in non-Hispanics. The excess of small-bowel cancer in blacks and the deficit in Asian-Pacific Islanders were attributable mainly to the incidence of adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The incidence of GI stromal tumor was significantly higher among Asian-Pacific Islanders. This is one of the largest studies of small-bowel cancer to date. These cancer registry data showed substantial racial and ethnic variation in the incidence of histological subtypes of small-bowel malignancy that suggest possible etiologic diversity and/or disparities in detection.

  18. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug.

  19. Patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Livingstone, Vicki; Savage, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer and the relationship between bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used. Earlier diagnosis of rectal cancer allows for less invasive surgical treatments such as sphincter-saving procedures to be performed. Although a permanent stoma is generally not required, patients experience changes in bowel function following this surgery. However, limited research exists on patients' bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used to manage symptoms following sphincter-saving surgery of rectal cancer. Quantitative descriptive correlational. A convenience sample of 143 patients aged 30 to over 70 years was used. Data were collected (April 2010-December 2010) using the Illness Perception Questionnaires, the Difficulties of Life Scale and a researcher developed Self-care Strategy Measure. The research was underpinned by the Symptom Management Theory. Relating to the four most effective self-care strategies used respondents reporting more bowel symptom were more likely to use the self-care strategy proximity/knowing the location of a toilet at all times. Females, respondents with high timeline cyclical scores and respondents with high physiological responses scores were more likely to use protective clothing. Respondents reporting more bowel symptom and with high social responses scores were more likely to use bowel medication. Females were more likely to wear incontinence pads. This research provides insights into the daily bowel symptom experiences of patients following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. It demonstrates the range of self-care strategies that individuals use to manage their bowel symptoms and the self-care-strategies that were most effective for them. Patients should be encouraged to report on-going bowel problems following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Supportive care for patients

  20. Home bowel cancer tests and informed choice--is current information sufficient?

    PubMed

    Howard, K; Salkeld, G

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the type of information that is available to purchasers of home-based bowel cancer test kits. Manufacturers, pharmacies and independent testing programs were contacted to obtain faecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits. State cancer organisations were contacted for information on bowel cancer screening. Information on bowel cancer, the FOBT kit, the testing process and potential benefits and harms of the screening process were assessed using guidelines provided by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). FOBT kits and cancer organisation information provided adequate information on the purpose of screening, the screening process itself and potential benefits, but provided no information concerning uncertainties of screening or potential harms. On the basis of both the UK GMC criteria and patient desires for information, the information available at present falls short of being considered adequate for an informed decision to purchase a home-based FOBT. We must ensure adequate and balanced information is available to redress the present information asymmetry to facilitate informed participation in a potentially valuable public health initiative.

  1. Bowel Obstruction in Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Winner, Megan; Hershman, Dawn L.; Wright, Jason D.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Bowel obstruction is a common pre-terminal event in abdominal/pelvic cancer that has mainly been described in small single-institution studies. We used a large, population-based database to investigate the incidence, management, and outcomes of obstruction in ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified patients with stages IC-IV ovarian cancer, aged 65 years or older, in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2005. We modeled predictors of inpatient hospitalization for bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis, categorized management of obstruction, and analyzed the associations between treatment for obstruction and outcomes. RESULTS Of 8607 women with ovarian cancer, 1518 (17.6%) were hospitalized for obstruction subsequent to cancer diagnosis. Obstruction at cancer diagnosis (HR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.86–2.52) and mucinous tumor histology (HR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83) were associated with increased risk of subsequent obstruction. Surgical management of obstruction was associated with lower 30-day mortality (13.4% in women managed surgically vs. 20.2% in women managed non-surgically), but equivalent survival after 30 days and equivalent rates of post-obstruction chemotherapy. Median post-obstruction survival was 382 days in women with obstructions of adhesive origin and 93 days in others. CONCLUSION In this large-scale, population-based assessment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, nearly 20% of women developed bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis. While obstruction due to adhesions did not signal the end of life, all other obstructions were pre-terminal events for the majority of patients regardless of treatment. PMID:23274561

  2. Treatment and Survival of Small-bowel Adenocarcinoma in the United States: A Comparison With Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, John I; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Wieghard, Nicole; Mori, Motomi; Vaccaro, Gina M; Sheppard, Brett C; Tsikitis, Vassilki L

    2016-04-01

    Small-bowel adenocarcinoma is rare and fatal. Because of data paucity, there is a tendency to extrapolate treatment from colon cancer, particularly in the adjuvant stetting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current surgical and adjuvant treatments of small-bowel adenocarcinoma and compare with colon cancer. This was a retrospective cohort study. The linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare database was used at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with small-bowel adenocarcinoma and colon cancer identified from 1992 to 2010, using International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3 Revision, site, behavior, and histology codes were included. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and competing risk analysis. A total of 2123 patients with small-bowel adenocarcinoma and 248,862 patients with colon cancer were identified. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with small-bowel adenocarcinoma and colon cancer were 34.9% and 51.5% (p < 0.0001). A total of 1550 patients with small-bowel adenocarcinoma (73.0%) underwent surgery, compared with 177,017 patients with colon cancer (71.1%). The proportion of patients who received chemotherapy was similar, at 21.3% for small bowel and 20.0% for colon. In contrast to colon cancer, chemotherapy did not improve overall or cancer-specific survival for patients with small-bowel adenocarcinoma, regardless of stage. Predictors of poor survival for small-bowel adenocarcinoma on multivariate analysis included advanced age, black race, advanced stage, poor tumor differentiation, high comorbidity index, and distal location. Chemotherapy did not confer additional survival benefit compared with surgery alone (HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.90-1.22)). This was a retrospective review. The reliance on Medicare data limited granularity and may have affected the generalizability of the results. The prognosis for small-bowel adenocarcinoma is worse than that

  3. Challenging diagnostic issues in adenomatous polyps with epithelial misplacement in bowel cancer screening: 5 years' experience of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme Expert Board.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Rebecca K L; Novelli, Marco R; Sanders, D Scott A; Warren, Bryan F; Williams, Geraint T; Quirke, Philip; Shepherd, Neil A

    2017-02-01

    The diagnostic difficulties of differentiating epithelial misplacement from invasive cancer in colorectal adenomatous polyps have been recognised for many years. Nevertheless, the introduction of population screening in the UK has resulted in extraordinary diagnostic problems. Larger sigmoid colonic adenomatous polyps, which are those most likely to show epithelial misplacement, are specifically selected into such screening programmes, because these polyps are likely to bleed and screening is based on the detection of occult blood. The diagnostic challenges associated with this particular phenomenon have necessitated the institution of an 'Expert Board': this is a review of the first five years of its practice, during which time 256 polyps from 249 patients have been assessed. Indeed, the Expert Board contains three pathologists, because those pathologists do not necessarily agree, and a consensus diagnosis is required to drive appropriate patient management. However, this study has shown substantial levels of agreement between the three Expert Board pathologists, whereby the ultimate diagnosis has been changed, from that of the original referral diagnosis, by the Expert Board for half of all the polyps, in the substantial majority from malignant to benign. In 3% of polyp cases, the Expert Board consensus has been the dual diagnosis of both epithelial misplacement and adenocarcinoma, further illustrating the diagnostic difficulties. The Expert Board of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in the UK represents a unique and successful development in response to an extraordinary diagnostic conundrum created by the particular characteristics of bowel cancer screening.

  4. Increased incidence of gallstones and prior cholecystectomy in patients with large bowel cancer.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Gessner, F; Wechsler, J G; Kuhn, K; Orth, K; Ditschuneit, H

    1992-09-01

    In a retrospective study, the frequency of occurrence of gallstones and cholecystectomy in 479 patients with colorectal cancer was compared with that of 483 matched control patients with other malignancies. The mean interval between cholecystectomy and colon cancer diagnosis was 15.1 +/- 9.9 yr (range 2-53 yr), and there was no statistically significant difference, compared with the control group at 13.9 +/- 8.2 yr (range 2-31 yr). In patients with colon cancer, the general increased relative risk of concomitant diagnosed gallstones (relative risk 1.73, p = 0.0123) and the relative risk of cholecystectomy (relative risk 2.08, p = 0.0074) was statistically significant. However, when the data with regard to sex were analyzed, significant differences were observed only in women. Women affected by right colon cancer also had a statistically significant higher incidence of previous cholecystectomy (relative risk 2.86, p = 0.0096), but no significantly higher incidence of concomitant gallstones. The general increased relative risk in patients with right colon cancer and decreased risk in patients with left colon cancer of concomitant gallstones and prior cholecystectomy was statistically significant. Our data provide evidence for the hypothesis that both gallstones and cholecystectomy increase the general risk of large bowel cancer. Therefore, they are also compatible with the possibility that common risk factors causes the association between gallstones and large bowel cancer.

  5. Exploring the Potential of Anticipated Regret as an Emotional Cue to Improve Bowel Cancer Screening Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Amy; Freegard, Suzana; Wilson, Carlene; Flight, Ingrid; Turnbull, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Bowel cancer is currently the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Australia and screening participation is suboptimal. This study examined the role of emotion in the form of anticipated regret (AR) and its relationship to screening intentions. Methods. N = 173 persons aged 45 to 80 years completed a survey measuring demographic variables, readiness to screen, relative importance of health by comparison to other life priorities, satisfaction with current health, and AR if not participating in future bowel cancer screening. Results. AR was a significant predictor of future screening intentions. Those with higher levels of AR were seven times more likely (OR = 7.18) to intend to screen in the future compared to those with lower AR. This relationship was not compromised when controlling for other variables including gender and satisfaction with one's health. AR levels were significantly lower in people who had been screened previously and in those with full health insurance. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that AR is uniquely related to future bowel cancer screening intentions. Future studies should continue to consider this as a useful target for behavioural interventions and identify new ways of delivering these interventions to improve their reach. PMID:28261608

  6. Perforation of the small bowel due to metastasis from tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Keiji; Shimada, Ryu; Horiuchi, Atsushi; Shibuya, Hajime; Nakamura, Keisuke; Iinuma, Hisae; Hayama, Tamuro; Yamada, Hideki; Nozawa, Keijiro; Ishihara, Soichiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Distant small bowel metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are extremely rare, and tongue cancer metastasizing to the small bowel has not been previously reported. We describe a 40-year-old male patient who underwent subtotal gross laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in February 2007 and then presented in November 2008 with severe abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and X-rays revealed free air, suggesting intestinal perforation. Emergency surgery revealed a 10-mm perforation at the ileum and a palpable hard tumor at the perforation site. The ileum was resected, and pathologic findings showed squamous cell carcinoma at the perforation site, which was consistent with metastasis from tongue cancer.

  7. Use of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Distal Large Bowel Cancer in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Keku, Temitope O.; Satia, Jessie A.; Halabi, Susan; Sandler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the belief that the etiology of and risk factors for rectal cancer might differ from those for colon cancer, relatively few studies have examined rectal cancer in relation to use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The authors evaluated the association between NSAIDs and distal large bowel cancer in African Americans and whites, using data from a population-based case-control study of 1,057 incident cases of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction, and rectum and 1,019 controls from North Carolina (2001–2006). NSAID use was inversely associated with distal large bowel cancer in whites (odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.79). The inverse association was evident for all types of NSAIDs but was slightly stronger with prescription NSAIDs, particularly selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.56). Compared with whites, a relatively weak inverse association was found in African Americans (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.40), although odds ratio heterogeneity by race could not be confirmed (P = 0.21). In addition, the strength of the association with NSAIDs varied by tumor location, suggesting more potent effects for rectal and rectosigmoid cancers than for sigmoid cancer. The chemopreventive potential of NSAIDs might differ by population and by tumor characteristics. PMID:18945689

  8. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-κB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-κB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression. PMID:19721007

  9. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-10-06

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-kappaB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-kappaB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression.

  10. Coverage of common cancer types in UK national newspapers: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Konfortion, Julie; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-11

    To determine whether recent newspaper coverage of the four most common cancer types relates to their relative burden and national awareness months, and to identify the subject focus during high-coverage periods. Content analysis using the Nexis newspaper article database. UK 2011-2012. Annual number and ranking, monthly proportions and subject of articles on breast, lung, bowel and prostate cancers. 9178 articles were identified during 2011 and 2012 featuring breast (4237), prostate (1757), lung (1746) and bowel (1438) cancer. Peaks in monthly proportions above the 99% upper confidence limit were identified for each. Breast cancer had the highest coverage of 12% and 17% during its awareness month. Smaller peaks (11%) were identified during Bowel Cancer Awareness month. Prostate cancer received high coverage in relation to the case of the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombing who had been diagnosed with the cancer, and lung cancer in relation to the deaths of celebrities. Breast cancer was covered most often overall and by newspaper category while the lower coverage of other cancer types did not consistently mirror the relative number of new cases each year. The peaks by newspaper category were similar to the overall coverage with few exceptions. UK newspaper coverage of common cancer types other than of the breast appears under-represented relative to their population burden. Coverage of breast cancer and bowel cancer appears to be influenced by their awareness months, while that of prostate cancer and lung cancer is influenced by other media stories. Health-promoting public bodies and campaigners could learn from the success of Breast Cancer Awareness Month and work more closely with journalists to ensure that the relevant messages reach wider audiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Coverage of common cancer types in UK national newspapers: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Konfortion, Julie; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether recent newspaper coverage of the four most common cancer types relates to their relative burden and national awareness months, and to identify the subject focus during high-coverage periods. Design Content analysis using the Nexis newspaper article database. Setting UK 2011–2012. Outcome measures Annual number and ranking, monthly proportions and subject of articles on breast, lung, bowel and prostate cancers. Results 9178 articles were identified during 2011 and 2012 featuring breast (4237), prostate (1757), lung (1746) and bowel (1438) cancer. Peaks in monthly proportions above the 99% upper confidence limit were identified for each. Breast cancer had the highest coverage of 12% and 17% during its awareness month. Smaller peaks (11%) were identified during Bowel Cancer Awareness month. Prostate cancer received high coverage in relation to the case of the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombing who had been diagnosed with the cancer, and lung cancer in relation to the deaths of celebrities. Breast cancer was covered most often overall and by newspaper category while the lower coverage of other cancer types did not consistently mirror the relative number of new cases each year. The peaks by newspaper category were similar to the overall coverage with few exceptions. Conclusions UK newspaper coverage of common cancer types other than of the breast appears under-represented relative to their population burden. Coverage of breast cancer and bowel cancer appears to be influenced by their awareness months, while that of prostate cancer and lung cancer is influenced by other media stories. Health-promoting public bodies and campaigners could learn from the success of Breast Cancer Awareness Month and work more closely with journalists to ensure that the relevant messages reach wider audiences. PMID:25015469

  12. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel.

    PubMed

    Truswell, A S

    2002-03-01

    Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search. These are collected here. Thirty adequate case-control studies have been published up to 1999 (from 16 different countries). Twenty of them found no significant association of (red) meat with colorectal cancer. Of the remaining 10 studies reporting an association, some obtained statistical significance only in rectal or colon cancers, another only in men, not women, or found a stronger association with pasta and rice, or used an inadequate food list in the food frequency questionnaire. Fifteen cohort studies have now been published. Only in three were significant associations of (red) meat found with colorectal cancer. Two of these positive studies were from the same group in the USA (relative risk 1.7). The results of the third positive study appear to conflict with data from part of the vegetarians follow up mortality study. Here, five groups of vegetarians (in three different countries) with socially matched controls were followed up (total 76 000 people). Mortality from colorectal cancer was not distinguishable between vegetarians and controls. While it is still possible that certain processed meats or sausages (with a variety of added ingredients) or meats cooked at very high temperature carry some risk, the relationship between meats in general and colorectal cancer now looks weaker than the 'probable' status it was judged to have by the WCRF in 1997.

  13. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors.

  14. Polyethylene glycol versus sodium picosulfalte bowel preparation in the setting of a colorectal cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Kherad, Omar; Restellini, Sophie; Martel, Myriam; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy is an important predictor of colonoscopy quality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in terms of effectiveness between different existing colon cleansing products in the setting of a colorectal cancer screening program. METHODS: The records of consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy at the Montreal General Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) between April 2013 and April 2014 were retrospectively extracted from a dedicated electronic digestive endoscopic institutional database. RESULTS: Overall, 2867 charts of patients undergoing colonoscopy were assessed, of which 1130 colonoscopies were performed in a screening setting; patients had adequate bowel preparation in 90%. Quality of preparation was documented in only 61%. Bowel preparation was worse in patients receiving sodium picosulfate (PICO) alone compared with polyethylene glycol, in a screening setting (OR 0.3 [95% CI 0.2 to 0.6]). Regardless of the preparation type, the odds of achieving adequate quality cleansing was 6.6 for patients receiving a split-dose regimen (OR 6.6 [95% CI 2.1 to 21.1]). In multivariable analyses, clinical variables associated with inadequate bowel preparation in combined population were use of PICO, a nonsplit regimen and inpatient status. The polyp detection rate was very high (45.6%) and was correlated with withdrawal time. CONCLUSION: Preparation quality needs to be more consistently included in the colonoscopy report. Split-dose regimens increased the quality of colon cleansing across all types of preparations and should be the preferred method of administration. Polyethylene glycol alone provided better bowel cleansing efficacy than PICO in a screening setting but PICO remains an alternative in association with an adjuvant. PMID:26301330

  15. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    PubMed

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics. ©2011 AACR

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Sphincter-Sparing Surgery versus Abdominoperineal Resection in Rectal Cancer: Patient-Reported Outcomes in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Randomized Trial R-04

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marcia M.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Lopa, Samia; Yothers, Greg; Ko, Clifford Y.; Arora, Amit; Atkins, James N.; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini; Robertson, John M.; Eakle, Janice; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Wozniak, Timothy F.; Beart, Robert W.; Wolmark, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Objective NSABP R-04 was a randomized controlled trial of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with resectable stage II–III rectal cancer. We hypothesized that patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) would have a poorer quality of life than those who underwent sphincter-sparing surgery (SSS). Methods To obtain patient-reported outcomes (PROs) we administered two symptom scales at baseline and 1 year postoperatively: the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer module for patients with Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR38). Scoring was stratified by non-randomly assigned definitive surgery (APR vs SSS). Analyses controlled for baseline scores and stratification factors: age, gender, stage, intended surgery, and randomly assigned chemoradiotherapy. Results Of 1,608 randomly assigned patients, 987 had data for planned analyses; 62% underwent SSS; 38% underwent APR. FACT-C total and subscale scores were not statistically different by surgery at one year. For the EORTC-QLQ-CR38 functional scales, APR patients reported worse body image (70.3 vs 77.0, P=0.0005) at one year than did SSS patients. Males undergoing APR reported worse sexual enjoyment (43.7 vs 54.7, P=0.02) at one year than did those undergoing SSS. For the EORTC-QLQ-CR38 symptom scale scores, APR patients reported worse micturition symptoms than the SSS group at one year (26.9 vs 21.5, P=0.03). SSS patients reported worse GI tract symptoms than did the APR patients (18.9 vs 15.2, P<0.0001), as well as weight loss (10.1 vs 6.0, P=0.002). Conclusions Symptoms and functional problems were detected at one year by EORTC-QLQ-CR38, reflecting different symptom profiles in patients who underwent APR than those who underwent SSS. Information from these PROs may be useful in counseling patients anticipating surgery for rectal cancer. PMID:24670844

  17. The Danish National Registry for Biological Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Lone; Jensen, Michael Dam; Larsen, Michael Due; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskær; Thorsgaard, Niels; Vind, Ida; Wildt, Signe; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aims of The Danish National Registry for Biological Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are to ensure that biological therapy and the clinical management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving biological treatment are in accordance with the national clinical guidelines and, second, the database allows register-based clinical epidemiological research. Study population The study population comprises all Danish patients with IBD (both children and adults) with ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBD unclassified who receive biological therapy. Patients will be enrolled consecutively when biological treatment is initiated. Main variables The variables in the database are: diagnosis, time of diagnosis, disease manifestation, indication for biological therapy, previous biological and nonbiological therapy, date of visit, clinical indices, physician’s global assessment, pregnancy and breastfeeding (women), height (children), weight, dosage (current biological agent), adverse events, surgery, endoscopic procedures, and radiology. Descriptive data Eleven clinical indicators have been selected to monitor the quality of biological treatment. For each indicator, a standard has been defined based on the available evidence. National results will be published in an annual report and local results on a quarterly basis. The indicators will be reported as department-specific proportions with 95% confidence intervals, and the national average will be provided for comparison. An estimated 1,200–1,300 new biological therapies are initiated each year in Danish patients with IBD. Conclusion The database will be available for research during 2016. Data will be made available by The Danish Clinical Registries (www.rkkp.dk). PMID:27822107

  18. 78 FR 64507 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... National Cancer Institute and the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... of individual other conducted by the National Cancer Institute, including consideration of personnel...

  19. Malignant Bowel Obstruction in Relapsed Ovarian Cancer With Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: An Occlusive State.

    PubMed

    Martinez Castro, Pedro; Vargas, Lara; Mancheño, Antonio; Martín Utrilla, Salvador; Pascual, Francisco; Romero, Ignacio; Zorrero, Cristina; Bosch, José Manuel; Poveda, Andrés; Minig, Lucas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and oncological outcomes of women with malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) for relapsed ovarian cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis. A retrospective cohort study was performed in all consecutive patients admitted at Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain, between July 2013 and July 2016 with MBO for relapsed ovarian cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis. All patients underwent the same protocol of conservative management. Surgical treatment was indicated only in selected cases. There were a total of 22 patients presenting 59 episodes of MBO; 17 (77.2%) of those patients presented more than 1 episode of MBO. All patients had serous epithelial ovarian cancer; 18 (81.8%) were high grade, and 4 (18.2%) low-grade tumors. The median (range) number of episodes per patient was 3 (range, 1-7) with a mean length of hospitalization of 13 (SD, 13.6) days. The median time interval between episodes of MBO (54 episodes in 17 patients) was 17 days (range, 1-727 days). Twenty of 22 patients died with a median overall survival time from the first episode of MBO of 95 days (95% confidence interval, 49-124 days). Patients with MBO due to relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer in the peritoneal carcinomatosis setting have a short life expectancy, presenting a median of 3 episodes of MBO until death, with a short time interval between episodes. These findings show that bowel obstruction can represent a constant status over time until death.

  20. Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mols, Floortje Korfage, Ida J.; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Kil, Paul J.M.; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems.

  1. National Childhood Cancer Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Reaman

    2007-11-14

    The initiative will enable the COG Biopathology Center (Biospecimen Repository), the Molecular Genetics Laboratory and other participating reference laboratories to upload large data sets to the eRDES. The capability streamlines data currency and accuracy allowing the centers to export data from local systems and import the defined data to the eRDES. The process will aid in the best practices which have been defined by the Office of Biorepository and Biospecimen Research (OBBR) and the Group Banking Committee (GBC). The initiative allows for batch import and export, a data validation process and reporting mechanism, and a model for other labs to incorporate. All objectives are complete. The solutions provided and the defined process eliminates dual data entry resulting in data consistency. The audit trail capabilities allow for complete tracking of the data exchange between laboratories and the Statistical Data Center (SDC). The impact is directly on time and efforts. In return, the process will save money and improve the data utilized by the COG. Ongoing efforts include implementing new technologies to further enhance the current solutions and process currently in place. Web Services and Reporting Services are technologies that have become industry standards and will allow for further harmonization with caBIG (cancer Biolnforrnatics Grid). Additional testing and implementation of the model for other laboratories is in process.

  2. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  3. Recurrent or residual pelvic bowel cancer: accuracy of MRI local extent before salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip; Carrington, Bernadette M; Swindell, Ric; Shanks, Johnathan H; O'dwyer, Sarah T

    2002-06-01

    To determine pre-operative MRI accuracy in assessing local disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer by comparing MRI assessment and staging examination under anaesthesia (EUA), with laparotomy/histopathological findings. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with recurrent (n = 21) or residual (n = 6) pelvic bowel cancer (13 of the rectum, eleven of the anus and three of the colon) underwent EUA and pelvic MRI (1T) using a phased array pelvic coil. Retrospective analysis of eight specific anatomical regions for tumour involvement on MRI was performed. Findings at EUA and biopsy were recorded. The MRI and EUA findings were correlated with findings at surgery and histopathology. Statistical comparison between MRI and EUA results was performed using the chi-squared test. Overall MRI accuracy in determining tumour invasion for all sites assessed was 452/499 (91%), sensitivity was 95/109 (87%), specificity was 357/390 (92%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 95/128 (74%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 357/371 (96%). PPV and NPV for specific areas were 21/38 (55%) and 134/136 (99%) for genitourinary tract, 4/6 (67%) and 61/65 (94%) for pelvic side wall, 21/26 (81%) and 40/41 (98%) for pelvic floor, 1/6 (17%) and 40/43 (93%) for the posterior pelvis pre-sacrum/sacrum. For those anatomical sites evaluated by both EUA and MRI, MRI was superior to EUA, with an accuracy of 89% vs 73% (P < 0.05). MRI is an accurate technique for assessing disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer. Copyright 2002 The Royal College of Radiologists.

  4. What happens when we do not operate? Survival following conservative bowel cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Bethune, R; Sbaih, M; Brosnan, C; Arulampalam, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While surgery is the cornerstone of bowel cancer treatment, it comes with significant risks. Among patients aged over 80 years, 30-day mortality is 13%–15%, and additionally 12% will not return home and go on to live in supportive care. The question for patients and clinicians is whether operative surgery benefits elderly, frail patients. Methods Multidisciplinary team outcomes between October 2010 and April 2012 were searched to conduct a retrospective analysis of patients with known localised colorectal cancer who did not undergo surgery due to being deemed unfit. Results Twenty six patients survived for more than a few weeks following surgery, of whom 20% survived for at least 36 months. The average life expectancy following diagnosis was 1 year and 176 days, with a mean age at diagnosis of 87 years (range 77–93 years). One patient survived for 3 years and 240 days after diagnosis. Conclusions Although surgeons are naturally focused on surgical outcomes, non-operative outcomes are equally as important for patients. Elderly, frail patients benefit less from surgery for bowel cancer and have higher risks than younger cohorts, and this needs to be carefully discussed when jointly making the decision whether or not to operate. PMID:27055410

  5. Impact of general practice endorsement on the social gradient in uptake in bowel cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Rosalind; Duffy, Stephen W; Wardle, Jane; Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen; Howe, Rosemary; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Snowball, Julia; Counsell, Nicholas; Moss, Sue; Hackshaw, Allan; von Wagner, Christian; Vart, Gemma; McGregor, Lesley M; Smith, Samuel G; Halloran, Stephen; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Thomas, Mary C; Atkin, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a socioeconomic gradient in the uptake of screening in the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP), potentially leading to inequalities in outcomes. We tested whether endorsement of bowel cancer screening by an individual's general practice (GP endorsement; GPE) reduced this gradient. Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Over 20 days, individuals eligible for screening in England from 6480 participating general practices were randomly allocated to receive a GP-endorsed or the standard invitation letter. The primary outcome was the proportion of people adequately screened and its variation by quintile of Index of Multiple Deprivation. Results: We enrolled 265 434 individuals. Uptake was 58.2% in the intervention arm and 57.5% in the control arm. After adjusting for age, sex, hub and screening episode, GPE increased the overall odds of uptake (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.10), but did not affect its socioeconomic gradient. We estimated that implementing GPE could result in up to 165 more people with high or intermediate risk colorectal adenomas and 61 cancers detected, and a small one-off cost to modify the standard invitation (£78 000). Conclusions: Although GPE did not improve its socioeconomic gradient, it offers a low-cost approach to enhancing overall screening uptake within the NHS BCSP. PMID:26742011

  6. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles Noah; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-05-01

    First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. Subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn's disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn's disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn's disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 - a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies. First Nations had

  7. Biology of large bowel cancer. Present status and research frontiers.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, M

    1975-12-01

    Man and laboratory rodents exposed to chemical carcinogens both show changes in growth characteristics of colonic epithelial cells during neoplastic transformation. Progressive phases of abnormal cell development appear in colonic epithelial cells which gain an increased ability to proliferate and accumulate in the mucosa. These phases in the expression of neoplastic transformation of colonic cells are best defined in the dominant inherited disease of man as adenomatosis of the colon and rectum. Individuals with inherited adenomatosis and those in lesser risk categories can be classified by cell phenotype based on changes in the proliferation and maturation of colonic and other cells. These classifications are leading to new predictive indices which identify heightened degrees of susceptibility of individuals who are at increased risk for colon cancer, and the stage of development of their disease. The indices also are being used to study the contribution of specific elements in the enviroment that modify or accelerate the progression of disease.

  8. Mortality and cancer in pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Peneau, Anaïs; Savoye, Guillaume; Turck, Dominique; Dauchet, Luc; Fumery, Mathurin; Salleron, Julia; Lerebours, Eric; Ligier, Karine; Vasseur, Francis; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Mouterde, Olivier; Spyckerelle, Claire; Djeddi, Djamal; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne

    2013-10-01

    Although the incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to rise in Northern France, the risks of death and cancer in this population have not been characterized. All patients <17 years, recorded in EPIMAD registry, and diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were included. The observed incidences of death and cancer were compared with those expected in the regional general population obtained by French Statistical Institute (INSEE) and the cancer Registry from Lille. Comparisons were performed using Fisher's exact test and were expressed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios. A total of 698 patients (538 with CD and 160 with UC) were identified; 360 (52%) were men, the median age at IBD diagnosis was 14 years (12-16) and the median follow-up time was 11.5 years (7-15). During follow-up, the mortality rate was 0.84% (6/698) and did not differ from that in the reference population (SMR=1.4 (0.5-3.0); P=0.27). After a median follow-up of 15 years (10-17), 1.3% of patients (9/698) had a cancer: colon (n=2), biliary tract (cholangiocarcinoma; n=1), uterine cervix (n=1), prepuce (n=1), skin (basal cell carcinoma (n=2), hematological (acute leukemia; n=1), and small bowel carcinoid (n=1). There was a significantly increased risk of cancer regardless of gender and age (standardized incidence ratio=3.0 (1.3-5.9); P<0.02). Four out of nine patients who developed a cancer had received immunosuppressants or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy (including combination therapy in three patients). In this large pediatric population-based IBD cohort, mortality did not differ from that of the general population but there was a significant threefold increased risk of neoplasia.

  9. Nationwide bowel cancer screening programme in England: cohort study of lifestyle factors affecting participation and outcomes in women

    PubMed Central

    Blanks, R G; Benson, V S; Alison, R; Brown, A; Reeves, G K; Beral, V; Patnick, J; Green, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2006, the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England (NHSBCSP) began offering routine population-based biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) at ages 60–69. There is, however, limited information on how characteristics of individuals affect participation and outcomes of screening, and we studied this association by linking NHSBCSP data to a large prospective cohort of women. Methods: Electronic linkage of the NHSBCSP and Million Women Study records identified 899 166 women in the study cohort with at least one invitation for screening. NHSBCSP provided information on screening acceptance, FOBt results, screen-detected colorectal cancer and other outcomes. The Million Women Study provided prospectively collected information on personal and lifestyle factors. Multiple regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of factors associated with acceptance and outcomes of screening. Results: Overall, 70% of women (628 976/899 166) accepted their first invitation for bowel cancer screening, of whom 9133 (1.5%) were FOBt-positive, 743 (0.1%) had screen-detected colorectal cancer and 3056 (0.5%) had screen-detected colorectal adenoma. Acceptance was lower in women from the most than the least deprived tertile, in South Asians and in Blacks than in Whites, in current than in never smokers and in obese than in normal weight women: adjusted RRs (95% confidence interval) for acceptance vs not, 0.90 (0.90–0.90); 0.77 (0.75–79); 0.94 (0.92–0.96); 0.78 (0.77–0.78); and 0.88 (0.88–0.89), respectively: P<0.001 for each. These factors were also associated with an increased risk of being FOBt-positive and of having screen-detected adenoma, but were not strongly associated with the risk of screen-detected colorectal cancer. Relative risks for screen-detected adenoma were 1.22 (1.12–1.34), 2.46 (1.75–3.45), 1.61 (1.05–2.48), 1.53 (1.38–1.68) and 1.77 (1.60–1.95), respectively (P<0.001 for all, except for

  10. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute...

  11. 78 FR 15023 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-08

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  12. 77 FR 49450 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-08-16

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  13. 76 FR 28236 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-05-16

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    2012-11-08

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  15. 75 FR 16816 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-02

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  16. 78 FR 4422 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-01-22

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  17. Management and Outcomes of Bowel Obstruction in Patients with Stage IV Colon Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Megan; Mooney, Stephen J.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Wright, Jason D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bowel obstruction is a common complication of late-stage abdominal cancer, especially colon cancer, which has been investigated predominantly in small, single-institution studies. OBJECTIVE We used a large, population-based data set to explore the surgical treatment of bowel obstruction and its outcomes after hospitalization for obstruction among patients with stage IV colon cancer. DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PATIENTS We identified 1004 patients aged 65 years or older in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2005, who were later hospitalized for bowel obstruction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We describe outcomes after hospitalization and analyzed the associations between surgical treatment of obstruction and outcomes. RESULTS Hospitalization for bowel obstruction occurred a median of 7.4 months after colon cancer diagnosis, and median survival after obstruction was approximately 2.5 months. Median hospitalization for obstruction was about 1 week and in-hospital mortality was 12.7%. Between discharge and death, 25% of patients were readmitted to the hospital at least once for obstruction, and, on average, patients lived 5 days out of the hospital for every day in the hospital between obstruction diagnosis and death. Survival was 3 times longer in those whose obstruction claims suggested an adhesive obstruction origin. In multivariable models, surgical compared with nonsurgical management was not associated with prolonged survival (p = 0.134). LIMITATIONS Use of an administrative database did not allow determination of quality of life or relief of obstruction as an outcome, nor could nonsurgical interventions, eg, endoscopic stenting or octreotide, be assessed. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based study of patients with stage IV colon cancer who had bowel obstruction, overall survival following obstruction was poor irrespective of

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer response due to anti-CTLA-4: is it in the flora?

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, Franck; Soularue, Emilie; Coutzac, Clélia; Chaput, Nathalie; Mateus, Christine; Lepage, Patricia; Robert, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors blocking CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) have transfigured our cancer treatment paradigm. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events that share clinical and pathological characteristics with immune-mediated diseases. One of the most severe immune-related adverse event observed with anti-CTLA-4 is an enterocolitis that mirrors naturally occurring inflammatory bowel disease. This paper reviews the clinical, immunological, and microbiota data associated with the immune-related enterocolitis induced by the cancer immunotherapy blocking CTLA-4, ipilimumab. A parallel analysis of the mechanisms underlying inflammatory bowel diseases on the one hand, and anti-CTLA-4-induced colitis on the other hand, stresses the crucial role of the gut microbiota and of resident Treg in the genesis of both iatrogenic and spontaneous inflammatory bowel diseases.

  19. Protective links between vitamin D, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Meeker, Stacey; Seamons, Audrey; Maggio-Price, Lillian; Paik, Jisun

    2016-01-21

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a wide range of diseases and multiple forms of cancer including breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Relatively recent work has demonstrated vitamin D to be critical in immune function and therefore important in inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is increasingly prevalent around the world, with an estimated 30%-50% of children and adults at risk for vitamin D deficiency worldwide, it could have a significant impact on IBD. Epidemiologic studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are a risk factor for IBD and colon cancer, and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased colitis disease activity and/or alleviated symptoms. Patients diagnosed with IBD have a higher incidence of colorectal cancer than the general population, which supports the notion that inflammation plays a key role in cancer development and underscores the importance of understanding how vitamin D influences inflammation and its cancer-promoting effects. In addition to human epidemiological data, studies utilizing mouse models of colitis have shown that vitamin D is beneficial in preventing or ameliorating inflammation and clinical disease. The precise role of vitamin D on colitis is unknown; however, vitamin D regulates immune cell trafficking and differentiation, gut barrier function and antimicrobial peptide synthesis, all of which may be protective from IBD and colon cancer. Here we focus on effects of vitamin D on inflammation and inflammation-associated colon cancer and discuss the potential use of vitamin D for protection and treatment of IBD and colon cancer.

  20. Iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: National Consultant for Gastroenterology Working Group Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Reguła, Jarosław; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). It substantially impairs quality of life, makes therapy more complicated, and increases costs of treatment. It seems that anaemia therapy is suboptimal in this group of patients in the Polish population. The recommendations presented below provide iron deficiency anaemia management clues in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25395998

  1. Bowel Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. It is not a normal part of aging. Causes include Constipation Damage to muscles or nerves of the anus and rectum Diarrhea Pelvic support problems Treatments include changes in diet, medicines, bowel training, or surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. Identifying radiation-induced survivorship syndromes affecting bowel health in a cohort of gynecological cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Steineck, Gunnar; Skokic, Viktor; Bull, Cecilia; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Dunberger, Gail; Bergmark, Karin; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Oh, Jung Hun; Deasy, Joseph O.; Jörnsten, Rebecka

    2017-01-01

    Background During radiotherapy unwanted radiation to normal tissue surrounding the tumor triggers survivorship diseases; we lack a nosology for radiation-induced survivorship diseases that decrease bowel health and we do not know which symptoms are related to which diseases. Methods Gynecological-cancer survivors were followed-up two to 15 years after having undergone radiotherapy; they reported in a postal questionnaire the frequency of 28 different symptoms related to bowel health. Population-based controls gave the same information. With a modified factor analysis, we determined the optimal number of factors, factor loadings for each symptom, factor-specific factor-loading cutoffs and factor scores. Results Altogether data from 623 survivors and 344 population-based controls were analyzed. Six factors best explain the correlation structure of the symptoms; for five of these a statistically significant difference (P< 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) was found between survivors and controls concerning factor score quantiles. Taken together these five factors explain 42 percent of the variance of the symptoms. We interpreted these five factors as radiation-induced syndromes that may reflect distinct survivorship diseases. We obtained the following frequencies, defined as survivors having a factor loading above the 95 percent percentile of the controls, urgency syndrome (190 of 623, 30 percent), leakage syndrome (164 of 623, 26 percent), excessive gas discharge (93 of 623, 15 percent), excessive mucus discharge (102 of 623, 16 percent) and blood discharge (63 of 623, 10 percent). Conclusion Late effects of radiotherapy include five syndromes affecting bowel health; studying them and identifying the underlying survivorship diseases, instead of the approximately 30 long-term symptoms they produce, will simplify the search for prevention, alleviation and elimination. PMID:28158314

  3. The National Cancer Program: Driving Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    An overview of NCI’s role in driving cancer research discoveries: conducting and funding research in challenging areas and providing resources and leadership to national infrastructures for cancer research.

  4. Large bowel resection - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... 26. Read More Colon cancer Colostomy Crohn disease Intestinal obstruction Large bowel resection Ulcerative colitis Patient Instructions Bland ... Diseases Colonic Polyps Colorectal Cancer Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Intestinal Obstruction Ulcerative Colitis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  5. Small bowel resection - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Crohn disease Intestinal obstruction Small bowel resection Patient Instructions Bland diet Crohn ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Intestinal Cancer Intestinal Obstruction Small Intestine Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  6. Risk for Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Fibromyalgia Patients: A National Database Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Yen; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chua-Nan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Various studies have shown that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly associated with other pathologies, including fibromyalgia (FM). The objective of this study was to analyze the differences among risk factors associated with IBS following FM in a nationwide prospective cohort study.We propose that a relationship exists between FM and IBS. This article presents evidence obtained from a cohort study in which we used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to clarify the relationship between FM and IBS. The follow-up period ran from the start of FM diagnosis to the date of the IBS event, censoring, or December 31, 2011. We analyzed the risk of IBS using Cox proportional hazard regression models, including sex, age, and comorbidities.During the follow-up period, from 2000 to 2011, the overall incidence of IBS was higher in FM patients than in non-FM patients (7.47 vs 4.42 per 1000 person-years), with a crude hazard ratio = 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-1.79). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, FM was associated with a 1.54-fold increased risk for IBS.Mutually risk factors may influence the relationship between FM and IBS. We recommend that physiologists conduct annual examinations of FM patients to reduce the incidence of IBS progression.

  7. A theoretical framework to guide a study of patients' bowel symptoms and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Savage, Eileen

    2013-08-01

    A paucity of research is available on patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Most research undertaken to date on patients' bowel symptoms following surgery for rectal cancer has been largely atheoretical. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of choosing a theoretical framework to guide a study of patients' bowel symptoms and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. As a result of a thorough literature review, we determined that the Symptom Management Theory provided the most comprehensive framework to guide our research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 574 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date...

  9. 75 FR 71713 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Basic and Translational Molecular Oncology... of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Rm. 8133, Bethesda...

  10. 77 FR 75640 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Omnibus Review. Date: January 14, 2013..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8049, Bethesda...

  11. 75 FR 28028 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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  12. 76 FR 22407 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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  13. 77 FR 15783 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Nanotechnology Sensing Platforms. Date: March 26... Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd., Conference Room 611, Rockville, MD...

  14. 76 FR 20360 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  15. 76 FR 57063 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 78 FR 19275 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-29

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  18. Possible mechanisms of action of mushroom-derived glucans on inflammatory bowel disease and associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used as a health food or supplement for the prevention and cure of a range of health-statuses or diseases, such as overt inflammation, atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, diabetes and others. We concentrate in this review on the effect and putative mechanism of action of glucans harvested from fungi on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis associated cancer. Many scientists including our own group have examined the immunomodulating effect of isolated polysaccharides-glucans in general and specifically in inflammation associated with cancer. In this manuscript we reviewed the sources, the chemical composition and medicinal properties of polysaccharides extracted from edible mushrooms. In addition we brought insights into their putative mechanisms of action behind each health-promoting activity of these interesting biomolecules. The preventive and therapeutic effects of the medicinal mushrooms and their components have been well documented in mouse and rat model systems and in cancer cell lines being the most striking effects reported to their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effect. Their anticancer effects were demonstrated mainly in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems but a very limited number of studies have been conducted in human populations. We can summarize that oral consumption of several mushrooms glucans is an efficient treatment to prevent colitis-associated dysplasias through modulation of mucosal inflammation and cell proliferation. Identifying new food-derived isolates and understanding their mechanisms of action are the main challenges in using mushrooms glucans for therapeutic purposes in the field of IBD and associated cancer. Only an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action and cross-talk between the inflammatory cell, epithelial cell and fungi derived glucans on which we have a based structural knowledge will lead to well designed intervention clinical human

  19. Incidence and Predictors of Bowel Obstruction in Elderly Patients With Stage IV Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Megan; Mooney, Stephen J.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Wright, Jason D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Research has been limited on the incidence, mechanisms, etiology, and treatment of symptoms that require palliation in patients with terminal cancer. Bowel obstruction (BO) is a common complication of advanced abdominal cancer, including colon cancer, for which small, single-institution studies have suggested an incidence rate of 15% to 29%. Large population-based studies examining the incidence or risk factors associated with BO in cancer are lacking. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with BO in patients with stage IV colon cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING Retrospective cohort, population-based study of patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare claims linked databases who were diagnosed as having stage IV colon cancer from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2005. PATIENTS Patients 65 years or older with stage IV colon cancer (n = 12 553). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Time to BO, defined by inpatient hospitalization for BO. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine associations between BO and patient, prior treatment, and tumor features. RESULTS We identified 1004 patients with stage IV colon cancer subsequently hospitalized with BO (8.0%). In multivariable analysis, proximal tumor site (hazard ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.07–1.40]), high tumor grade (1.34 [1.16–1.55]), mucinous histological type (1.27 [1.08–1.50]), and nodal stage N2 (1.52 [1.26–1.84]) were associated with increased risk of BO, as was the presence of obstruction at cancer diagnosis (1.75 [1.47–2.04]). A more recent diagnosis was associated with decreased risk of subsequent obstruction (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.72–0.98]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this large population of patients with stage IV colon cancer, BO after diagnosis was less common (8.0%) than previously reported. Risk was associated with site and histological type of the primary tumor. Future studies will explore management and

  20. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Klil-Drori, Adi J; Tascilar, Koray; Yin, Hui; Aprikian, Armen; Bitton, Alain; Azoulay, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. By lowering androgen levels, ADT inhibits the progression of prostate cancer, but it may also affect gut autoimmunity. We investigated the association between ADT and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease using a cohort of 31,842 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1988 and 2014, identified in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Exposure to ADT was treated as a time-varying variable and lagged by 1 year to account for diagnostic delays, with nonuse as the reference category. During 133,018 person-years of follow-up, 48 men were newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (incidence rate (IR) = 36/100,000 person-years (PY)) and 12 were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (IR = 9/100,000 PY). In Cox proportional hazards models, ADT was associated with a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis (IR = 24/100,000 PY vs. IR = 50/100,000 PY; hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.99) and a nonsignificant decreased risk of Crohn's disease (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.11, 1.37). These findings indicate that the use of ADT may be associated with intestinal autoimmunity. Further research is warranted to replicate these findings and assess their clinical significance.

  1. The characteristics of large bowel cancer in the low-risk black population of the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Boytchev, H; Marcovic, S; Oettle, G J

    1999-12-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer may follow a different pathogenic pathway in low-risk populations. The black population of the Witwatersrand has been urbanized for a long time, and has a westernized lifestyle, but colorectal cancer is still infrequent. This study aimed to define the characteristics of the disease in this group. All histologically proven large bowel cancers arising in blacks resident in the Witwatersrand in 1991 and 1996 were extracted from the registry records. Mean age was 54.3 years (range 16-90 years); 6% occurred before 30 years and 22% before 40 years. Male:female ratio was 1.32:1. Over three-quarters of the tumours arose in the rectum and sigmoid; there was no evidence of a right-sided preponderance. More than half the cases were advanced at presentation, and nearly one third were mucinous or signet ring on pathological assessment. Associated adenomata were rare (5.2%), suggesting a different pathogenic pathway from the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

  2. Differential microRNA expression tracks neoplastic progression in inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Ziad; Rai, Shesh N.; Eichenberger, M. Robert; Barnes, Christopher; Dworkin, Amy M.; Weller, Clayton; Cohen, Eric; Roberts, Henry; Keskey, Bobby; Petras, Robert E.; Crawford, Nigel P.S.; Galandiuk, Susan

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious complications faced by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the potential development of colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a compelling need to enhance the accuracy of cancer screening of IBD patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNAs that play important roles in CRC oncogenesis. In this study, we report differential miRNA expression in IBD patients with associated CRC, from non-neoplastic tissue to dysplasia and eventually cancer. In addition, we identify and examine the role of dysregulated miRNAs in the TP53 pathway. In our CD patients, six miRNAs were up-regulated from non-neoplastic tissue to dysplasia, but down-regulated from dysplasia to cancer (miR-122, miR-181a, miR-146b-5p, let-7e, miR-17, miR-143) (p<0.001). Six differentially expressed miRNAs affected the TP53 pathway (miR-122, miR-214, miR-372, miR-15b, let-7e, miR-17) (p<0.001). Using two human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT-116), E2F1, an upstream regulator of TP53, was down-regulated in both cell lines transfected with let-7e (p<0.05) as well as in HCT-116 cells transfected with miR-17 (p<0.05). Additionally, cyclin G, a cell-cycle regulator miR-122 target was down-regulated in both cell lines (p<0.05). Unique differentially expressed miRNAs were observed in CD-associated CRC progression. Six of these miRNAs had a tumorigenic effect on the TP53 pathway; the effect of three of which was studied using cell lines. PMID:22241525

  3. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer. PMID:27536369

  4. Utility of Closed Suction Pelvic Drains at Time of Large Bowel Resection for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalogera, Eleftheria; Dowdy, Sean C.; Mariani, Andrea; Aletti, Giovanni; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Cliby, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the use of closed suction pelvic drains placed at time of large bowel resection (LBR) for ovarian cancer (OC) decrease morbidity following anastomotic leak (AL). Methods Consecutive cases of LBR for OC between 01/01/1994 and 06/20/2011 were retrospectively identified. Drains were routinely used until bowel movement. AL was defined as: 1) feculent fluid from drains/wound/vagina, 2) radiographic evidence of AL, or 3) AL found at reoperation. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank-sum, Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used. Results 43 cases met inclusion criteria. AL was characterized by method of diagnosis as follows: change in drain output only (DO, n=8); change in drain output associated with ambiguous clinical signs/symptoms (D-SSX, n=11); or clinical signs/symptoms only (SSX, n=24). The sensitivity of drains in diagnosing AL was 50%. Time to diagnosis was earlier in DO/D-SSX (median 7 vs. 11 days, P=0.003), however, no significant differences were observed in rates of reoperation, length of stay, time to chemotherapy (TTC), and 30- and 90-day mortality between DO/D-SSX and SSX. Comparing cases where no drains were placed (n=5) vs. those with drain (n=38), we observed no differences in outcomes. TTC though statistically significant (47 vs. 59 days, P=0.023) was not clinically significant. Conclusions Though a change in drain output correlated with earlier diagnosis, this did not appear to impact overall outcomes. We did not find strong evidence supporting routine prolonged drainage after LBR for OC. Additionally, absence of change in drain output does not rule out presence of AL. PMID:22617523

  5. Use of CT colonography in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Plumb, Andrew A; Halligan, Steve; Nickerson, Claire; Bassett, Paul; Goddard, Andrew F; Taylor, Stuart A; Patnick, Julietta; Burling, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine use of CT colonography (CTC) in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) and investigate detection rates. Design Retrospective analysis of routinely coded BCSP data. Guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt)-positive screenees undergoing CTC from June 2006 to July 2012 as their first-line colonic investigation were included. Abnormalities found at CTC, subsequent polyp, adenoma and cancer detection and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Detection rates were compared with those observed in gFOBt-positive screenees investigated by colonoscopy. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with variable detection. Results 2731 screenees underwent CTC. Colorectal cancer (CRC) or polyps were suspected in 1027 individuals (37.6%; 95% CI 33.8% to 41.4%); 911 of these underwent confirmatory testing. 124 screenees had CRC (4.5%) and 533 had polyps (19.5%), 468 adenomatous (17.1%). Overall detection was 24.1% (95% CI 21.5% to 26.6%) for CRC or polyps and 21.7% (95% CI 19.2% to 24.1%) for CRC or adenoma. Advanced neoplasia was detected in 504 screenees (18.5%; 95% CI 16.1% to 20.8%). PPV for CRC or polyp was 72.1% (95% CI 66.6% to 77.6%). By comparison, 9.0% of 72 817 screenees undergoing colonoscopy had cancer and 50.6% had polyps; advanced neoplasia was detected in 32.7%. CTC detection rates and PPV were higher at centres with experienced radiologists (>1000 examinations) and at high-volume centres (>175 cases/radiologist/annum). Centres using three-dimensional interpretation detected more neoplasia. Conclusions In the BCSP, detection rates after positive gFOBt are lower for CTC than colonoscopy, although populations undergoing the two tests are different. Centres with more experienced radiologists have higher detection and accuracy. Rigorous quality assurance of BCSP radiology is needed. PMID:23955527

  6. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  7. The effects of aminosalicylates or thiopurines on the risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Carrat, F; Seksik, P; Colombel, J-F; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Beaugerie, L

    2017-02-01

    Whether aminosalicylates or thiopurines reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel (IBD) disease is controversial. To assess simultaneously the chemopreventive effect of aminosalicylates or thiopurines in a case-control study nested in the CESAME observational cohort that enrolled consecutive patients with IBD between May 2004 and June 2005. Patients were followed up to December 2007. Study population comprised 144 case patients who developed CRC from the diagnosis of IBD (65 and 79 cases diagnosed, respectively, before and from 2004, starting year of the prospective observational period of CESAME) and 286 controls matched for gender, age, IBD subtype and year of diagnosis, and cumulative extent of colitis. Exposure to aminosalicylates or thiopurines was defined by an exposure to the treatment during the year of the diagnosis of cancer. The propensity of receiving 5-ASA and thiopurines was quantified by a composite score taking into account patient and IBD characteristics. The role of aminosalicylates or thiopurines was assessed by multivariate analysis. Propensity scores and the history of primary sclerosing cholangitis were entered into the multivariate model for adjustment. By multivariate analysis adjusted for propensity, a significant protective effect of exposure to drugs during the year of cancer was found for aminosalicylates (OR = 0.587, 95% CI: 0.367-0.937, P = 0.0257), but not for thiopurines (OR = 0.762, 95% CI: 0.432-1.343, P = 0.3468). In a case-control study nested in the CESAME cohort, a significant decrease in the risk of colorectal cancer in IBD was associated with exposure to aminosalicylates, not to thiopurines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Core Infrastructure and Methodological Research for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts (UM1). Date...

  9. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Nanotechnology Imaging and Sensing Platforms for Improved Diagnosis of Cancer. Date: August...

  10. National Cancer Moonshot Initiative platform | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the Vice President’s National Cancer Moonshot Initiative, the National Cancer Institute has launched an online engagement platform to enable the research community and the public to submit cancer research ideas to a Blue Ribbon Panel of scientific experts. Any member of the public is encouraged to submit his or her ideas for reducing the incidence of cancer and developing better ways to prevent, treat, and cure all types of cancer. Research ideas may be submitted in the following areas:

  11. The risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in Finland: a follow-up of 20 years.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Pia; Karvonen, Anna-Liisa; Huhtala, Heini; Aitola, Petri; Hyöty, Marja; Nieminen, Ilona; Hemminki, Heini; Collin, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Data on the relative risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are inconsistent. To prevent the development of cancer, endoscopic facilities should be targeted correctly. We report here the results of a 20-year follow-up in Finland and evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic surveillance in cancer prevention. The data were based on an IBD register in our catchment area in 1986-2007. The population-based cohort comprised 1915 patients, 1254 with ulcerative colitis, 550 with Crohn's disease and 111 with inflammatory bowel unclassified. Colorectal cancer cases were obtained from the IBD register; the colorectal cancer figures in the respective population were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Colorectal cancer was found in 21 patients, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) being 1.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.79) for IBD. Colorectal cancer risk was 3.09 (CI 1.50-5.75) for extensive UC, and 3.62 (CI 2.00-11.87) for Crohn's disease affecting the colon. Eleven (52%) of the colorectal cancer cases were TNM stage 3 or 4. In the same observation period 10 colectomies with ileoanal anastomosis were performed with the indication of cancer risk in ulcerative colitis; of these 10 patients only two had no additional risk factors for colorectal cancer, for example primary sclerosing cholangitis, pseudopolyposis or active disease. The risk of colorectal cancer in the cohort was only moderately increased. In the absence of additional risk factors, endoscopic surveillance was of limited benefit. We therefore suggest intensive endoscopy surveillance to be targeted on patients with definite risk factors. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 41273 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Commitee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee A--Cancer Centers. Date: August 4-5...

  13. 78 FR 20118 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Biology and Therapy. Date: April 17...

  14. 75 FR 42449 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee A--Cancer Centers. Date: August 5-6...

  15. 76 FR 9353 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Quantitative Imaging for Tumor Microenvironment. Date...

  16. Plant products with anti-cancer properties employed in the treatment of bowel cancer: literature review 1985 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Hernández, José L; Sandoval González, Guadalupe; Ascencio, Victoria Jayme; Figueroa-Espitia, José L; Fernández Saavedra, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    The use of extracts of plant origin for the treatment of cancer has seen renewed interest. In Mexico, "Herbalists" have practiced since before Spanish times, but now at Mexican medical schools the alternative medicines are not taught. The aim of this work was to carry out a review of the international literature to identify and analyze the use of articles in the treatment of cancer with principles of plant origin. An online review was conducted of citations published between 1985 and 2004, selecting those works in which plant products demonstrated pharmacological activity useful against cancer with particular reference to bowel carcinoma. In 45 articles, we looked for common and scientific names, part of plant and/or its products used as treatment or preventive, used in an experimental in vivo or in vitro model, pharmacological effects and actions, human or animal species studied and apparent efficacy. Fifty-five percent used human cancer cell lines as a model, incubated with plant extracts; 40% used animal species to induce tumors and protect them with plant extracts; only 5% were clinical studies. Additionally, we determined which of these natural products are included in relevant references: two are marketed in Mexico; none were listed in the academic Mexican book "Vademecum Academico de Medicamentos"; one was found in Goodman Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, while three were listed in Katzung's Medical Pharmacology. Experimental data support the empirical use of natural plant products against cancer by their chemopreventive effects, but they are not considered drugs. Despite not being listed as drugs, these remedies should be covered in pharmacology courses when evidence of mechanisms of action is available. Our review suggests that medical schools should review "traditional medicines" in order that graduates know what treatments patients are using and those that may be of value.

  17. 76 FR 42718 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Cancer Therapies. Date: October 13-14, 2011...: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  18. 78 FR 5192 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer..., Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer...

  19. Increased risk for nonmelanoma skin cancers in patients who receive thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Carrat, Fabrice; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Chevaux, Jean-Baptiste; Simon, Tabassome; Carbonnel, Frank; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Godeberge, Philippe; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lémann, Marc; Nahon, Stéphane; Sabaté, Jean-Marc; Tucat, Gilbert; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have been exposed to thiopurines might have an increased risk of skin cancer. We assessed this risk among patients in France. We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 19,486 patients with IBD, enrolled from May 2004 to June 2005, who were followed up until December 31, 2007. The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the general population, used for reference, was determined from the French Network of Cancer Registries. Before the age of 50 years, the crude incidence rates of NMSC among patients currently receiving or who previously received thiopurines were 0.66/1000 and 0.38/1000 patient-years, respectively; these values were 2.59/1000 and 1.96/1000 patient-years for the age group of 50 to 65 years and 4.04/1000 and 5.70/1000 patient-years for patients older than 65 years. Among patients who had never received thiopurines, the incidence of NMSC was zero before the age of 50 years, 0.60/1000 for the ages of 50 to 65 years, and 0.84/1000 for those older than 65 years. A multivariate Cox regression model stratified by propensity score quintiles showed that ongoing thiopurine treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-16.4; P = .0006) and past thiopurine exposure (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3-12.1; P = .02) were risk factors for NMSC. They also identified age per 1-year increase as a risk factor for NMSC (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.11; P < .0001). Ongoing and past exposure to thiopurines significantly increases the risk of NMSC in patients with IBD, even before the age of 50 years. These patients should be protected against UV radiation and receive lifelong dermatologic screening. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 56455 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Proclamation 8556--National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 Proclamation 8557--National Historically... President ] Proclamation 8556 of September 10, 2010 National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... creates a treasured network of support for these courageous children. During National Childhood...

  1. 78 FR 41939 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  2. 78 FR 12766 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  3. Perceptions on the surgical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Spain. Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, Luis; Blanco-Antona, Francisco; Millán-Scheiding, Mónica

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Spain but there is little information on the availability of multidisciplinary care. This study aims to assess surgeon's opinions on the current situation of surgery for IBD in Spain. An electronic closed survey was sent to members of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) from January to March 2015. This was a 52-item anonymised questionnaire with questions about how the treatment of IBD patients is organized in each centre, the existence of specific units, the management strategy in IBD patients, and the opinion of colorectal, general and trainee surgeons about the surgical treatment of IBD in their centre and in Spain. One hundred and ninety-two surgeons responded. Most participants work in tertiary hospitals (45%), most of them from different hospitals, some from the same hospital. Only 50% of hospitals have multidisciplinary teams for IBD. The initial approach is laparoscopic in 56% of cases, and 80% of participants in centres with multidisciplinary teams consider the timing of surgery to be appropriate. The annual number of IBD surgeries in tertiary hospitals is higher than in secondary hospitals in ulcerative colitis (57 vs. 24% 10-15 patients/year, P<.001) and Crohn's disease (68 vs. 28% 3-5 patients/month, P<.001). Most centres operate less than 10 ulcerative colitis patients per year, even larger centres (67%) and they perform ≤3 J-pouches/month (ulcerative colitis and other indications) (P<.001). Ninety-five percent of surgeons consider that centralization of complex cases in specialized units and the creation of national registries should be developed. The majority of participants (70%) believe that there is a deficit in research and educational activities in IBD surgery in Spain. This survey suggests that most Spanish hospitals have a low volume of IBD surgery, even large tertiary hospitals, and many centres do not have a multidisciplinary team dedicated to IBD patients. Most

  4. A retrospective observational study examining the characteristics and outcomes of tumours diagnosed within and without of the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E J A; Whitehouse, L E; Farrell, T; Nickerson, C; Thomas, J D; Quirke, P; Rutter, M D; Rees, C; Finan, P J; Wilkinson, J R; Patnick, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is common in England and, with long-term survival relatively poor, improving outcomes is a priority. A major initiative to reduce mortality from the disease has been the introduction of the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Combining data from the BCSP with that in the National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR) allows all tumours diagnosed in England to be categorised according to their involvement with the BCSP. This study sought to quantify the characteristics of the tumours diagnosed within and outside the BCSP and investigate its impact on outcomes. Methods: Linkage of the NCDR and BCSP data allowed all tumours diagnosed between July 2006 and December 2008 to be categorised into four groups; screen-detected tumours, screening-interval tumours, tumours diagnosed in non-participating invitees and tumours diagnosed in those never invited to participate. The characteristics, management and outcome of tumours in each category were compared. Results: In all, 76 943 individuals were diagnosed with their first primary colorectal cancer during the study period. Of these 2213 (2.9%) were screen-detected, 623 (0.8%) were screening-interval cancers, 1760 (2.3%) were diagnosed in individuals in non-participating invitees and 72 437 (94.1%) were diagnosed in individuals not invited to participate in the programme due to its ongoing roll-out over the time period studied. Screen-detected tumours were identified at earlier Dukes' stages, were more likely to be managed with curative intent and had significantly better outcomes than tumours in other categories. Conclusion: Screen-detected cancers had a significantly better prognosis than other tumours and this would suggest that the BCSP should reduce mortality from colorectal cancer in England. PMID:22850549

  5. Likely effect of adding flexible sigmoidoscopy to the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: impact on colorectal cancer cases and deaths.

    PubMed

    Geurts, S M E; Massat, N J; Duffy, S W

    2015-06-30

    From 2013, once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) at age 55 is being phased into the England National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP), augmenting biennial guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) at ages 60-74. Here, we project the impact of this change on colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and deaths prevented in England by mid-2030. We simulated the life-course of English residents reaching age 55 from 2013 onwards. Model inputs included population numbers, invitation rates and CRC incidence and mortality rates. The impact of gFOBT and FS alone on CRC incidence and mortality were derived from published trials, assuming an uptake of 50% for FS and 57% for gFOBT. For FS plus gFOBT, we assumed the gFOBT effect to be 75% of the gFOBT alone impact. By mid-2030, 8.5 million individuals will have been invited for once-only FS screening. Adding FS to gFOBT screening is estimated to prevent an extra 9627 (-10%) cases and 2207 (-12%) deaths by mid-2030. If FS uptake is 38% or 71%, respectively, an extra 7379 (-8%) or 13 689 (-15%) cases and 1691 (-9%) or 3154 (-17%) deaths will be prevented by mid-2030. Adding once-only FS at age 55 to the NHSBCSP will prevent ∼10,000 CRC cases and ∼2000 CRC deaths by mid-2030 if FS uptake is 50%. In 2030, one cancer was estimated to be prevented per 150 FS screening episodes, and one death prevented per 900 FS screening episodes. The actual reductions will depend on the FS invitation schedule and uptake rates.

  6. Likely effect of adding flexible sigmoidoscopy to the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: impact on colorectal cancer cases and deaths

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, S M E; Massat, N J; Duffy, S W

    2015-01-01

    Background: From 2013, once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) at age 55 is being phased into the England National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP), augmenting biennial guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) at ages 60–74. Here, we project the impact of this change on colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and deaths prevented in England by mid-2030. Methods: We simulated the life-course of English residents reaching age 55 from 2013 onwards. Model inputs included population numbers, invitation rates and CRC incidence and mortality rates. The impact of gFOBT and FS alone on CRC incidence and mortality were derived from published trials, assuming an uptake of 50% for FS and 57% for gFOBT. For FS plus gFOBT, we assumed the gFOBT effect to be 75% of the gFOBT alone impact. Results: By mid-2030, 8.5 million individuals will have been invited for once-only FS screening. Adding FS to gFOBT screening is estimated to prevent an extra 9627 (−10%) cases and 2207 (−12%) deaths by mid-2030. If FS uptake is 38% or 71%, respectively, an extra 7379 (−8%) or 13 689 (−15%) cases and 1691 (−9%) or 3154 (−17%) deaths will be prevented by mid-2030. Conclusions: Adding once-only FS at age 55 to the NHSBCSP will prevent ∼10 000 CRC cases and ∼2000 CRC deaths by mid-2030 if FS uptake is 50%. In 2030, one cancer was estimated to be prevented per 150 FS screening episodes, and one death prevented per 900 FS screening episodes. The actual reductions will depend on the FS invitation schedule and uptake rates. PMID:26110973

  7. Clostridial abdominal gas gangrene masquerading as a bowel perforation in an advanced-stage ovarian cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Abaid, L N; Thomas, R H; Epstein, H D; Goldstein, B H

    2013-08-01

    The coexistence of clostridial gas gangrene and a gynecologic malignancy is extremely rare, with very few cases involving ovarian cancer. A patient originally presented to our gynecologic oncology service with stage IV ovarian cancer; she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On postoperative day 6, the patient developed severe abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis, suggestive of a bowel perforation. Further evaluation confirmed that her symptoms were attributed to Clostridium perfringens-related gas gangrene. Despite immediate surgical intervention, the patient succumbed to her disease. Clostridial gas gangrene is associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Therefore, accurate detection and prompt management are indispensable to ensuring a favorable patient outcome.

  8. 77 FR 46765 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... Proposed Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Strategic Plan. Place: National Institutes of.... ] Contact Person: Thomas M. Vollberg, Sr., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Cancer Institute, National...

  9. Are there biological differences between screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Rees, Colin J; Gill, Michael; Parker, Clare E; Bevan, Roisin; Perry, Sarah L; Bury, Yvonne; Mills, Sarah; Bradburn, D Michael; Bramble, Michael; Hull, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Background: We measured biomarkers of tumour growth and vascularity in interval and screen-detected colorectal cancers (CRCs) in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in order to determine whether rapid tumour growth might contribute to interval CRC (a CRC diagnosed between a negative guaiac stool test and the next scheduled screening episode). Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 71 CRCs (screen-detected 43, interval 28) underwent immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Ki-67, in order to measure the microvessel density (MVD) and proliferation index (PI), respectively, as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Results: Interval CRCs were larger (P=0.02) and were more likely to exhibit venous invasion (P=0.005) than screen-detected tumours. There was no significant difference in MVD or PI between interval and screen-detected CRCs. More interval CRCs displayed MSI-high (14%) compared with screen-detected tumours (5%). A significantly (P=0.005) higher proportion (51%) of screen-detected CRC resection specimens contained at least one polyp compared with interval CRC (18%) resections. Conclusions: We found no evidence of biological differences between interval and screen-detected CRCs, consistent with the low sensitivity of guaiac stool testing as the main driver of interval CRC. The contribution of synchronous adenomas to occult blood loss for screening requires further investigation. PMID:27219017

  10. Are there biological differences between screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Rees, Colin J; Gill, Michael; Parker, Clare E; Bevan, Roisin; Perry, Sarah L; Bury, Yvonne; Mills, Sarah; Bradburn, D Michael; Bramble, Michael; Hull, Mark A

    2016-07-12

    We measured biomarkers of tumour growth and vascularity in interval and screen-detected colorectal cancers (CRCs) in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in order to determine whether rapid tumour growth might contribute to interval CRC (a CRC diagnosed between a negative guaiac stool test and the next scheduled screening episode). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 71 CRCs (screen-detected 43, interval 28) underwent immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Ki-67, in order to measure the microvessel density (MVD) and proliferation index (PI), respectively, as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Interval CRCs were larger (P=0.02) and were more likely to exhibit venous invasion (P=0.005) than screen-detected tumours. There was no significant difference in MVD or PI between interval and screen-detected CRCs. More interval CRCs displayed MSI-high (14%) compared with screen-detected tumours (5%). A significantly (P=0.005) higher proportion (51%) of screen-detected CRC resection specimens contained at least one polyp compared with interval CRC (18%) resections. We found no evidence of biological differences between interval and screen-detected CRCs, consistent with the low sensitivity of guaiac stool testing as the main driver of interval CRC. The contribution of synchronous adenomas to occult blood loss for screening requires further investigation.

  11. Colorectal cancer surveillance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: What is new?

    PubMed Central

    Guagnozzi, Danila; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies assessing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have found an increased risk globally estimated to be 2 to 5 times higher than for the general population of the same age group. The real magnitude of this risk, however, is still open to debate. Research is currently being carried out on several risk and protective factors for CRC that have recently been identified in IBD patients. A deeper understanding of these factors could help stratify patient risk and aid specialists in choosing which surveillance program is most efficient. There are several guidelines for choosing the correct surveillance program for IBD patients; many present common characteristics with various distinctions. Current recommendations are far from perfect and have important limitations such as the fact that their efficiency has not been demonstrated through randomized controlled trials, the limited number of biopsies performed in daily endoscopic practice, and the difficulty in establishing the correct time to begin a given surveillance program and maintain a schedule of surveillance. That being said, new endoscopic technologies should help by replacing random biopsy protocols with targeted biopsies in IBD patients, thereby improving the efficiency of surveillance programs. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing these techniques into daily endoscopic practice. PMID:22523611

  12. Survival of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With or Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Baochi; Zhao, Jingkun; Guan, Shaopei; Lu, Aiguo

    2016-03-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the influence of IBD on CRC prognosis. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare survival in CRC patients with IBD (IBD-CRC) and without IBD. An electronic search was conducted via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify eligible trials until July 2015. We pooled the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to quantitatively assess the survival of CRC in patients with or without IBD. In addition, clinicopathological parameters of IBD-CRC versus non-IBD CRC were evaluated. Twelve studies containing a total of 3472 IBD-CRC patients were eligible according to our selection criteria. Our analysis indicated that CRC patients with IBD had shorter overall survival than those without IBD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19-1.29). IBD-CRC showed a propensity to develop in proximal colon [odds ratio (OR) 2.52, 95% CI 1.35-4.72] and correlated with worse differentiation of tumor (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26-1.99) compared to non-IBD CRC. Meta-regression analysis showed that sample size (P = 0.002) could explain 99.01% inter-study heterogeneity. This meta-analysis found poorer overall survival in CRC patients with IBD than CRC patients without IBD, and further prospective research to confirm these findings is warranted.

  13. Colon cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: unclear gain but no psychological pain?

    PubMed

    Mountifield, R; Bampton, P; Prosser, R; Mikocka-Walus, A; Andrews, J M

    2014-02-01

    Surveillance for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is widely practised despite a lack of convincing mortality reduction. The psychological impact of this approach is largely unexplored. To examine psychological well-being among IBD subjects undergoing colonoscopic surveillance for colorectal cancer (CRC). A cross-sectional study was performed by interrogating an IBD database for subjects currently enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programmes. Identified surveillance subjects were age- and gender-matched with IBD control subjects not meeting surveillance criteria. Subjects were mailed a questionnaire including demographic details, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey to assess quality of life, the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and a Risk Perception Questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-nine of 286 (49%) subjects responded, 53% male, 46% Crohn disease. Fifty-six per cent respondents were in the surveillance group. Surveillance subjects were older (55.4 vs 51.1 years; P = .048) with longer disease duration, but otherwise had comparable demographics with controls. Overall, quality of life was not significantly different between cohorts (mean SF-36 63.82 vs 65.48; P = 0.70). Groups did not differ on any locus of control classification (P = 0.52), nor was there any difference between mean scores on 'state' subscales of the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory: anxiety (P = 0.91), curiosity (P = 0.12), anger (P = 0.81) or depression (P = 0.70). Both groups grossly overestimated their perceived lifetime risk of CRC at 50%, with no difference between surveillance and control subjects (P = 1.0). Enrolment in colonoscopic colon cancer surveillance does not appear to impair psychological well-being in individuals with IBD despite longer disease duration. IBD patients overestimate their risk of CRC. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of

  14. Cystic fibrosis as a bowel cancer syndrome and the potential role of CK2.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anil

    2008-09-01

    Chloride is critical in creating differential pH values inside various organelles (Golgi for example) by linking ATP hydrolysis to trans-bilayer proton movement. This proton-ATPase drives anions such as chloride through unrelated channels in the endosomal/organellar bilayer thus loading HCl into different lipid-encased cellular compartments. Critically, intraorganellar pH (and ion channel content/activities) differs during different phases of the cell cycle. The cystic fibrosis (CF) chloride channel protein CFTR is a member of the ABC family (ABCC7) and resides in many endosomal membranes trafficking to the epithelial surface and back again. Recently, it has become clear that human CF has an unusually high incidence of cancer in the bowel with correspondingly elevated gut epithelial proliferation rates observed in CF mice. In this review, emphasis is placed on CK2 & CF because CK2 controls not only proliferation but also four different members of the ABC superfamily including the multi-drug resistance protein P-glycoprotein and CFTR itself. In addition, CK2 also regulates a critical cancer-relevant and CFTR-regulated cation channel (ENaC) that mediates the cellular accumulation of sodium ions within epithelia such as the colon and lung. Not only are ENaC and CFTR both abnormal in CF cells, but ENaC also 'carries' CK2 to the cell membrane in oocytes, only provided its two target phosphosites are intact. CK2 may be a critical regulator of cell proliferation in conjunction with regulation of ion channels such as CFTR, other ABC members and the cation channel ENaC. The emerging idea is that CFTR may control membrane-CK2 as much as membrane-CK2 controls CFTR.

  15. Chronic intestinal inflammation: inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Deborah C.; Shaker, Anisa; Levin, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine. The prevalence in the United States is greater than 200 cases per 100,000, with the total number of IBD patients between 1 and 1.5 million. CD may affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but most commonly involves the distal part of the small intestine or ileum, and colon. UC results in colonic inflammation that can affect the rectum only, or can progress proximally to involve part of or the entire colon. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and weight loss. A serious long-term complication of chronic inflammation is the development of colorectal cancer. A genetic basis for IBD had long been recognized based on the increased familial risk. However, significant discordance for CD in twins, and a much less robust phenotypic concordance for UC, suggested additional factors play a role in disease pathogenesis, including environmental factors. In the past several years, progress in understanding the molecular basis of IBD has accelerated, beginning with the generation of animal models of colitis and progressing to the identification of specific genetic markers from candidate gene, gene linkage, and genome-wide association analyses. Genetic studies have also resulted in the recognition of the importance of environmental factors, particularly the crucial role of the gut microbiota in CD and UC. Altered immune responses to the normal intestinal flora are key factors in IBD pathogenesis. In this research topic, the genetic basis of IBD, the genetic and cellular alterations associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, and the emerging role of the intestinal microbiota and other environmental factors will be reviewed. PMID:22586430

  16. Influence of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel activity after laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Bujun; Zhao, Hongmei; Lin, Rui; Wang, Jialiang; Chen, Quanning; Liu, Liming; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In some studies, gum-chewing was demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on resumption of bowel function; however, other contradictory findings in other studies refute the effects of gum-chewing on peristaltic movements and digestive system stimulation. In addition, most previous studies were after colorectal or gynecology surgery, whereas few reports focused on the effect of gum-chewing after gastrectomy. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel function in patients who had undergone laparoscopic gastrectomy. Methods: From March 2014 to March 2016, 75 patients with gastric cancer received elective laparoscopic surgery in Shanghai Tongji hospital and were postoperatively randomly divided into 2 groups: 38 in a gum-chewing (Gum) group and 37 in a control (No gum) group. The patients in the Gum group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily, each time for at least 15 minutes, until the day of postoperative exhaust defecation. Results: The mean time to first flatus (83.4 ± 35.6 vs. 79.2 ± 24.2 hours; P = 0.554) and the mean time to first defecation (125.7 ± 41.2 vs. 115.4 ± 34.2 hours; P = 0.192) were no different between the no gum and Gum groups. There was also no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative ileus (P = 0.896) and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.109) between the 2 groups. The postoperative pain score at 48 hours (P = 0.032) in the Gum group was significantly higher than in the no gum group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in regards to patient demographics, comorbidities, duration of surgery, complications, and nausea/vomiting score. Conclusion: Gum-chewing after laparoscopic gastrectomy did not hasten the return of gastrointestinal function. In addition, gum-chewing may increase patient pain on the second postoperative day. PMID:28353600

  17. 75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI-CNP (U54) Review. Date: April 7-9, 2010...

  18. 76 FR 14675 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; IMAT. Date: April 6, 2011. Time: 3 p.m. to 5 p...

  19. 76 FR 20693 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee G--Education. Date: May 24, 2011...

  20. 76 FR 26310 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Population-based Research Optimizing Screening...

  1. 75 FR 42449 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory...

  2. 75 FR 37451 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Director's Consumer Liaison Group. The meeting will be...

  3. 75 FR 79010 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology ] Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee G--Education. Date: January 25, 2011...

  4. 76 FR 78013 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee G--Education. Date: January 24, 2012...

  5. 75 FR 21643 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee F--Manpower & Training. Date: May 11...

  6. 75 FR 66770 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer...

  7. 78 FR 18357 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group Subcommittee J--Career Development. Date: July 1-2...

  8. 75 FR 56548 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee F--Manpower & Training. Date...

  9. 76 FR 1446 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee F--Manpower & Training. To review...

  10. 78 FR 20119 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Transition to Independence. Date...

  11. 76 FR 69744 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Cancer Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents...

  12. 77 FR 24969 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development. Date: June 12...

  13. 76 FR 50234 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee G--Education. Date: September 20-21...

  14. 76 FR 44021 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ....392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of......

  15. 75 FR 80510 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Novel Digital X-ray Sources for Cancer Imaging... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard...

  16. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tho, Lye Mun . E-mail: l.tho@beatson.gla.ac.uk; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V{sub 5}, V{sub 1}, etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p < 0.03), with strongest correlation at lowest doses. Median VSB differed significantly between patients experiencing Grade 0-1 and Grade 2-4 diarrhea (p {<=} 0.05). No correlation was found with anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, age, body mass index, sex, tumor position, or number of fields. Analysis of 8 patients showed that inverse planning reduced median dose to small bowel by 5.1 Gy (p = 0.008) and calculated late normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) by 67% (p = 0.016). We constructed a model using mathematical analysis to predict for acute diarrhea occurring at V{sub 5} and V{sub 15}. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further

  17. 75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  18. 77 FR 20831 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and ] Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  19. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans.

  20. Early stopping of a clinical trial when there is evidence of no treatment benefit: protocol B-14 of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.

    PubMed

    Dignam, J J; Bryant, J; Wieand, H S; Fisher, B; Wolmark, N

    1998-12-01

    Although several randomized clinical trials in the 1980s indicated a benefit from the use of tamoxifen in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer, questions have remained regarding the optimal duration of drug administration. In 1982, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) initiated a randomized trial to compare 5 years of tamoxifen to placebo among breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors and no evidence of axillary node involvement. By 1987, evidence of a substantial benefit for tamoxifen led the NSABP to extend this trial to determine whether longer duration tamoxifen therapy would be additionally beneficial. This study randomized patients who had completed 5 years of tamoxifen free of breast cancer recurrence or other events to either tamoxifen or placebo for an additional 5 years. By 1994, 1172 women had entered the study and accrual was closed. In late 1995, the trial was terminated on the basis of interim findings indicating that a benefit for continuing tamoxifen would not be realized. The closure has prompted controversy among cancer researchers, because there are currently at least three tamoxifen duration trials in progress, whereas results from two other studies evaluating 5-year duration therapy versus longer therapy were recently published. Here, we provide details of the statistical rationale contributing to our decision to recommend early closure of the study. We then consider other possible approaches to assessing the appropriateness of early termination in the face of evidence against a benefit, including Bayesian methods, which can be used to incorporate a range of prior beliefs regarding the efficacy of a treatment with accruing information from the trial. We also briefly discuss results of the other published studies.

  1. 78 FR 38355 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI National Clinical Trials Network. Date... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9606 Medical Center Drive, 7W514, MSC 9750, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  2. 77 FR 75639 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Cancer Research Strategic Plan. Place: The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory--Department of Energy.... Vollberg, Sr., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6116...

  3. 78 FR 64959 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Brain Tumor Consortium. Date: November 5,...

  4. 76 FR 81952 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... . ] Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel SPORE in Lymphoma, Brain,...

  5. 76 FR 62422 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... of meetings of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. The meetings will be open..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer...

  6. 76 FR 39884 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. The meeting will be open to..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  7. 76 FR 26310 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  8. 78 FR 312 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and... Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer...

  9. 76 FR 7575 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  10. Diagnosis and management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Amanda; Hollis, Genevieve; Stricker, Carrie Tompkins

    2010-12-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, including constipation; dry, hard stools; straining; and incomplete evacuation. The use of a prophylactic bowel regimen that includes a stimulant laxative and stool softener generally is accepted and should be initiated at the start of opioid therapy. Effective prevention and treatment of OBD reduce the risk of associated physiologic complications and can improve pain management and quality of life for patients and their families.

  11. Extracolonic Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Data from the GETECCU Eneida Registry.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, María; Ramas, M; Benítez, J M; López-García, A; Juan, A; Guardiola, J; Mínguez, M; Calvet, X; Márquez, L; Fernández Salazar, L I; Bujanda, L; García, C; Zabana, Y; Lorente, R; Barrio, J; Hinojosa, E; Iborra, M; Cajal, M Domínguez; Van Domselaar, M; García-Sepulcre, M F; Gomollón, F; Piqueras, M; Alcaín, G; García-Sánchez, V; Panés, J; Domènech, E; García-Esquinas, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Gisbert, J P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was (a) To know the prevalence and distribution of extracolonic cancer (EC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); (b) To estimate the incidence rate of EC; (c) To evaluate the association between EC and treatment with immunosuppressants and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. This was an observational cohort study. IBD and inclusion in the ENEIDA Project (a prospectively maintained registry) from GETECCU. Patients with EC before the diagnosis of IBD, lack of relevant data for this study, and previous treatment with immunosuppressants other than corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, or anti-TNF agents. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the impact of several variables on the risk of EC, and any differences between survival curves were evaluated using the log-rank test. Stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to investigate factors potentially associated with the development of EC, including drugs for the treatment of IBD, during follow-up. A total of 11,011 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed for a median of 98 months. Forty-eight percent of patients (5,303) had been exposed to immunosuppressants or anti-TNF drugs, 45.8% had been exposed to thiopurines, 4.7% to methotrexate, and 21.6% to anti-TNF drugs. The prevalence of EC was 3.6%. In the multivariate analysis, age (HR=1.05, 95% CI=1.04-1.06) and having smoked (hazards ratio (HR)=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-1.80) were the only variables associated with a higher risk of EC. Neither immunosuppressants nor anti-TNF drugs seem to increase the risk of EC. Older age and smoking were associated with a higher prevalence of EC.

  12. Reporting small bowel dose in cervix cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yixiang; Dandekar, Virag; Chu, James C H; Turian, Julius; Bernard, Damian; Kiel, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel (SB) is an organ at risk (OAR) that may potentially develop toxicity after radiotherapy for cervix cancer. However, its dose from brachytherapy (BT) is not systematically reported as in other OARs, even with image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). This study aims to introduce consideration of quantified objectives for SB in BT plan optimization and to evaluate the feasibility of sparing SB while maintaining adequate target coverage. In all, 13 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 45Gy in 25 fractions followed by high dose rate (HDR)-BT boost of 28Gy in 4 fractions using tandem/ring applicator. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained to define the gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and OARs (rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, and SB). Treatment plans were generated for each patient using GEC-ESTRO recommendations based on the first CT/MRI. Treatment plans were revised to reduce SB dose when the [Formula: see text] dose to SB was > 5Gy, while maintaining other OAR constraints. For the 7 patients with 2 sets of CT and MRI studies, the interfraction variation of the most exposed SB was analyzed. Plan revisions were done in 6 of 13 cases owing to high [Formula: see text] of SB. An average reduction of 19% in [Formula: see text] was achieved. Meeting SB and other OAR constraints resulted in less than optimal target coverage in 2 patients (D90 of HR-CTV < 77Gyαβ10). The highest interfraction variation was observed for SB at 16 ± 59%, as opposed to 28 ± 27% for rectum and 21 ± 16% for bladder. Prospective reporting of SB dose could provide data required to establish a potential correlation with radiation-induced late complication for SB.

  13. A comparison of two methods of palliation of large bowel obstruction due to irremovable colon cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard; Marsh, Ralph; Corson, John; Seymour, Keith

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Untreated malignant large bowel obstruction is rapidly fatal. Short-term palliation of symptoms can be achieved by formation of a stoma in those patients for whom resection surgery is inappropriate. In the final months of life, a stoma represents a significant burden for both patients and carers. Palliative endoluminal stenting may therefore be an attractive alternative option for this poor prognostic group. PATIENTS: Thirty-six patients were studied of whom 18 had obstructing left-sided colon cancer relieved by placement of endoluminal stents. These were compared with 18 historical controls with similar clinicopathological features that were treated more conventionally with palliative stoma formation in the same hospital. RESULTS: Patients in the two groups had similar sex distribution (P = 0.5); however, patients undergoing palliative stoma formation were significantly younger than patients being stented (P = 0.0065). As well as being older, there was a trend towards greater co-morbidities, stent patients having higher ASA grades (P = 0.01). Both groups of patients gained relief of obstructive symptoms. There were no differences in survival (P = 0.5) or in hospital mortality (2 in each group). The median length of palliation is 92 days (42-infinity days) for stenting and 121 days (89-281 days) for palliative stoma formation. Formation of a stoma required a significantly longer stay in ITU (P = 0.003) but total hospital stay was similar. CONCLUSIONS: As an alternative to palliative surgery, selected patients benefit from colonic endoluminal stenting with relief of obstructive symptoms and no adverse effect on survival. They may be spared the potential problems associated with palliative stoma formation and the morbidity of surgery. Stenting can be offered to the very frail patient who would otherwise be managed conservatively. PMID:15005927

  14. 75 FR 3240 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 76 FR 17930 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  16. 75 FR 71134 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November...

  17. 75 FR 14173 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ....393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March...

  18. 78 FR 27411 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ....393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 6,...

  19. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnership Scientific Progress Reports SUMMARY..., Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives, Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research, National Cancer... (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Platform Partnership Scientific Progress Reports, 0925-NEW...

  20. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/Taking-Part-in-Cancer-Treatment-Research-Studies NIH Senior Health http://nihseniorhealth.gov/breastcancer/ ...

  1. The Experience of Extended Bowel Resection in Individuals With a High Metachronous Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Emma J.; Trainer, Alison H.; Heriot, Alexander G.; Lynch, Craig; Parry, Susan; Win, Aung K.; Keogh, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To ascertain individual experiences of extended bowel resection as treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) in those with a high metachronous CRC risk, including the self-reported adequacy of information received at different time points of treatment and recovery. Research Approach Qualitative. Setting Participants were recruited through the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry and two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 18 individuals with a high metachronous CRC risk who had an extended bowel resection from 6–12 months ago. Methodologic Approach Semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings In most cases, the treating surgeon decided on the best option regarding surgical treatment. Participants felt well informed about the surgical procedure. Information related to surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment from surgery was not always adequate. Many participants described ongoing worry about developing another cancer. Conclusions Patients undergoing an extended resection to reduce metachronous CRC risk require detailed information delivered at more than one time point and relating to several different aspects of the surgical procedure and its outcomes. Interpretation An increased emphasis should be given to the provision of patient information on surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment. Colorectal nurses could provide support for some of the reported unmet needs. PMID:27314187

  2. Efficacy of Gum Chewing on Bowel Movement After Open Colectomy for Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Masaki, Tadahiko; Kogawa, Koji; Matsuoka, Hiroyoshi; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    Prolonged intestinal paralysis can be a problem after gastrointestinal surgery. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have suggested the efficacy of gum chewing for the prevention of postoperative ileus. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of gum chewing for the recovery of bowel function after surgery for left-sided colorectal cancer and to determine the physiological mechanism underlying the effect of gum chewing on bowel function. This was a single-center, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, prospective randomized trial. The study was conducted at a general hospital in Japan. Forty-eight patients with left-sided colorectal cancer were included. The patients were randomly assigned to a gum group (N = 25) and a control group (N = 23). Four patients in the gum group and 1 in the control group were subsequently excluded because of difficulties in continuing the trial, resulting in the analysis of 21 and 22 patients in the respective groups. Patients in the gum group chewed commercial gum 3 times a day for ≥5 minutes each time from postoperative day 1 to the first day of food intake. The time to first flatus and first bowel movement after the operation were recorded, and the colonic transit time was measured. Gut hormones (gastrin, des-acyl ghrelin, motilin, and serotonin) were measured preoperatively, perioperatively, and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Gum chewing did not significantly shorten the time to the first flatus (53 ± 2 vs. 49 ± 26 hours; p = 0.481; gum vs. control group), time to first bowel movement (94 ± 44 vs. 109 ± 34 hours; p = 0.234), or the colonic transit time (88 ± 28 vs. 88 ± 21 hours; p = 0.968). However, gum chewing significantly increased the serum levels of des-acyl ghrelin and gastrin. The main limitation was a greater rate of complications than anticipated, which limited the significance of the findings. Gum chewing changed the serum levels of des-acyl ghrelin and gastrin, but we were unable to

  3. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases: a population-based study (1976-2008).

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Lepage, Côme; Jooste, Valérie; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Faivre, Jean; Bouvier, Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Few data are available on the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) in population-based cohorts. Among the 19,451 new cases of CRC recorded in the Burgundy digestive cancer registry between 1976 and 2008, all cases of IBD-associated CRC were identified. Incidence rates were age-standardized according to the world standard population. Prognosis was determined using univariate and multivariate relative survival. Thirty-eight IBD-associated CRC were identified (ulcerative colitis, n = 29; Crohn's disease, n = 9). The mean age at CRC diagnosis was greater for patients without IBD than those with IBD (70.9 vs. 56.9 years, respectively; P < 0.001). Distributions of gender, stage at presentation, location, and histological type of CRC did not differ from those of sporadic cases. The overall world age-standardized incidence of IBD-associated CRC per 100,000 was 0.11 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.03) for men and 0.06 (SD: 0.02) for women. Only age was independently associated with IBD-associated CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.43; P < 0.001). Treatment modalities did not differ between IBD and non-IBD patients. Five-year relative survival was 51.9% (95% CI: 51.1-52.8%) in non-IBD patients and 41.3% (95% CI: 24.6-57.2%) in IBD patients (P = 0.201). After adjustment for age, gender, and stage at diagnosis, the excess hazard of death was 1.46 times higher in IBD than in non-IBD patients (95% CI: 0.94-2.27; P = 0.070). Apart from age, the characteristics of IBD-associated CRC were similar to those of non-IBD CRC. The prognosis of CRC may be poorer in patients with IBD than in those without IBD. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  4. Small Bowel Carcinomas in Coeliac or Crohn's Disease: Clinico-pathological, Molecular, and Prognostic Features. A Study From the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Alessandro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Furlan, Daniela; Klersy, Catherine; Grillo, Federica; Fiocca, Roberto; Mescoli, Claudia; Rugge, Massimo; Nesi, Gabriella; Fociani, Paolo; Sampietro, Gianluca; Ardizzone, Sandro; Luinetti, Ombretta; Calabrò, Antonio; Tonelli, Francesco; Volta, Umberto; Santini, Donatella; Caio, Giacomo; Giuffrida, Paolo; Elli, Luca; Ferrero, Stefano; Latella, Giovanni; Ciardi, Antonio; Caronna, Roberto; Solina, Gaspare; Rizzo, Aroldo; Ciacci, Carolina; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Salemme, Marianna; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cannizzaro, Renato; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Biancone, Livia; Monteleone, Giovanni; Orlandi, Augusto; Santeusanio, Giuseppe; Macciomei, Maria C; D'Incà, Renata; Perfetti, Vittorio; Sandri, Giancarlo; Silano, Marco; Florena, Ada M; Giannone, Antonino G; Papi, Claudio; Coppola, Luigi; Usai, Paolo; Maccioni, Antonio; Astegiano, Marco; Migliora, Paola; Manca, Rachele; Martino, Michele; Trapani, Davide; Cerutti, Roberta; Alberizzi, Paola; Riboni, Roberta; Sessa, Fausto; Paulli, Marco; Solcia, Enrico; Corazza, Gino R

    2017-08-01

    An increased risk of small bowel carcinoma [SBC] has been reported in coeliac disease [CD] and Crohn's disease [CrD]. We explored clinico-pathological, molecular, and prognostic features of CD-associated SBC [CD-SBC] and CrD-associated SBC [CrD-SBC] in comparison with sporadic SBC [spo-SBC]. A total of 76 patients undergoing surgical resection for non-familial SBC [26 CD-SBC, 25 CrD-SBC, 25 spo-SBC] were retrospectively enrolled to investigate patients' survival and histological and molecular features including microsatellite instability [MSI] and KRAS/NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, HER2 gene alterations. CD-SBC showed a significantly better sex-, age-, and stage-adjusted overall and cancer-specific survival than CrD-SBC, whereas no significant difference was found between spo-SBC and either CD-SBC or CrD-SBC. CD-SBC exhibited a significantly higher rate of MSI and median tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes [TIL] than CrD-SBC and spo-SBC. Among the whole SBC series, both MSI─which was the result of MLH1 promoter methylation in all but one cases─and high TIL density were associated with improved survival at univariable and stage-inclusive multivariable analysis. However, only TILs retained prognostic power when clinical subgroups were added to the multivariable model. KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification were detected in 30% and 7% of cases, respectively, without prognostic implications. In comparison with CrD-SBC, CD-SBC patients harbour MSI and high TILs more frequently and show better outcome. This seems mainly due to their higher TIL density, which at multivariable analysis showed an independent prognostic value. MSI/TIL status, KRAS mutations and HER2 amplification might help in stratifying patients for targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  5. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-05-10

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 304 ``Development of Blood-based Methods for the Detection of Cancer Recurrence in Post-Therapy Breast Cancer Patients. Date: June 4, 2013... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  6. 76 FR 577 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Therapeutic Strategies for Cancer. Date... Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8135, Bethesda, MD 20852, 301-594-5659, mh101v@nih...

  7. 78 FR 58321 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel NCI, Omnibus Cancer Imaging. Date: October 23... Cancer Institute Shady Grove, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 3W034, Rockville, MD 20850, (Telephone...

  8. 78 FR 26055 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-03

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Early-Stage Development of Informatics... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  9. 78 FR 26055 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-03

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Anticancer Agents. Date: May 23...

  10. 75 FR 21644 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-26

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development. ] Date: May...

  11. 76 FR 3641 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-01-20

    ... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Methylation Meeting. Date: March 8, 2011. Time...

  12. 75 FR 65364 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-22

    ... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Epitope Mapping Technologies. Date: December 14...

  13. 76 FR 16431 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-23

    ... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Lymphoma, Breast, Ovarian...

  14. 78 FR 26056 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-03

    ... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Omnibus Review. Date: May 29, 2013. Time...

  15. 77 FR 76057 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-12-26

    ... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee F--Institutional Training and...

  16. 75 FR 21645 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-26

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee G--Education. Date: June 15, 2010...

  17. 76 FR 21386 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-04-15

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Protein Technologies. Date: May 2, 2011. Time...

  18. 77 FR 28612 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-15

    ... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Limited Competition: Comprehensive Partnerships...

  19. 77 FR 4052 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-01-26

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development. Date...

  20. 78 FR 8155 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-02-05

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Immunology. ] Date: March 15, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5..., Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  1. 77 FR 12600 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-03-01

    ...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Behavioral Research in Cancer Control (R03). Date: March...; Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies. Date: March 8, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Research Infrastructure Support for HMOs....

  2. 76 FR 3642 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-01-20

    ... Cancer Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment. Date: March 8, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  3. 75 FR 30407 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-06-01

    ..., 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. ] Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Gastrointestinal Cancers. Date: June 25, 2010. Time: 1 p....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  4. 77 FR 28613 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

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    2012-05-15

    ... Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board; Ad hoc Subcommittee on Global Cancer Research. Open: June 24, 2012, 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Global Cancer Research. Place: Hyatt Regency..., Executive Secretary, NCAB Ad hoc Subcommittee on Global Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute,...

  5. 78 FR 28237 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-05-14

    ... Abundance Cancer-Related Proteins/ Peptides. Date: June 20, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  6. 75 FR 26267 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-05-11

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  7. 77 FR 65004 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Cancer Institute, including...

  8. 78 FR 44577 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors ad hoc Subcommittee on HIV...: National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors ad hoc Subcommittee on HIV and AIDS Malignancy. Date...

  9. 75 FR 52537 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee J--Population and Patient-Oriented... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8111, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7481...

  10. 76 FR 51378 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. The meeting will be open to... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer...

  11. 76 FR 51378 - National Cancer Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board, September 13, 2011... Register on August 10, 2011, 76 FR 49493. This notice is amended to add the National Cancer Advisory Board...

  12. 76 FR 22407 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee J--Population and Patient-Oriented... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8111, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7481...

  13. 75 FR 992 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... given of the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public as... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board; Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Experimental...

  14. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Phase IIB Bridge Awards. Date: June 29-30... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Rm 8053, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7421...

  15. 78 FR 38355 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, July 23, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to July 23, 2013, 04:00 p.m., National Cancer Institute Shady Grove, 9609...

  16. 75 FR 44272 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee G--Education. Date: October 19-20... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8115, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-9767...

  17. 77 FR 64526 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to... the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... projects conducted by the National Cancer Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications...

  18. 75 FR 57473 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, T32 Review. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 5 p..., Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH...

  19. 78 FR 17419 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Sensors and Mobile Devices for Health Monitoring..., National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8055B, Bethesda, MD 20892-8329, 301-594-1215...

  20. 78 FR 16861 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Tissue Culture Tumor Microenvironment. Date... Activities, NIH National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 7149, Bethesda, MD 20892-8329, 301...

  1. 78 FR 71627 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; K22 Grant Applications for PAR-12-121. Date...: National Cancer Institute Shady Grove, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 7W030, Rockville, MD 20850...

  2. 78 FR 9932 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; R01 Grant Applications. Date: March 1, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Cancer...

  3. 75 FR 11894 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Director's Consumer Liaison Group. The meeting will be... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer...

  4. 76 FR 66733 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to... the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... projects conducted by the National Cancer Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications...

  5. 76 FR 28238 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development. Date: June 28... Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

  6. 76 FR 42720 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development. Date: October... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd, Rm 8113, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-5655...

  7. 78 FR 46357 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the teleconference meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of...., National Cancer Institute, NIH, Building 10, Room 10S255, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 which was...

  8. 78 FR 54477 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to October 21, 2013, 3:00 p.m., National Cancer Institute Shady Grove, West...

  9. 76 FR 7869 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Director's Consumer Liaison Group. The meeting will be... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer...

  10. 76 FR 59413 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee J--Population and Patient-Oriented... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8111, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7481...

  11. 77 FR 46765 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be closed to the public... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board. Closed: September 5, 2012. Time: 1 p.m...

  12. 75 FR 32489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee H--Clinical Groups. Date: July 19-20... Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

  13. 78 FR 38355 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, July 08, 2013, 12:00 p.m. to July 08, 2013, 02:00 p.m., National Cancer Institute Shady Grove, 9609...

  14. 78 FR 60887 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. The meeting will be open to... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Cancer...

  15. 75 FR 32486 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Cancer Institute, including...

  16. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board, June 27, 2011, 6 p... 27069. This notice is amending the National Cancer Advisory Board meeting scheduled for June 28-29, 2011...

  17. Association of urinary phenolic compounds, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrheal symptoms: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Punyanganie S; Yang, Xuan; Korzenik, Joshua R; Goldman, Rose H; Arheart, Kristopher L; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life. In the present study we examine relationships between urinary environmental phenolic compounds, chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Data was obtained from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, inflammatory markers and urinary phenolic chemical concentrations. Only participants with complete environmental phenols & parabens component were included in our analysis. Chronic diarrheal symptoms were determined by using the 2009-2010 NHANES questionnaire which included questions pertaining to bowel health. We utilized chronic bowel leakage symptoms as a surrogate marker for chronic diarrhea. The presence of IBD was also analyzed from 2009 to 2010 NHANES data, as a sub-analysis for arthropathy directly querying the presence or absence of IBD. Among the subset of 5218 American adults aged 20-80 years in the NHANES study period who completed environmental phenols & parabens component, 25.5% reported chronic diarrheal symptoms. Abnormal markers of inflammation were present in 2200 (42.2%) of respondents. For IBD, 19 individuals with arthropathy confirmed a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and 1 person confirmed a Crohn's diagnosis. After adjustment for demographics, inflammatory and subsample weighing; lower paraben levels were

  18. 78 FR 55750 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Innovative Technologies for Cancer...

  19. Challenges in Designing a National Surveillance Program for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Long, Millie D.; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D.; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gil; Bernstein, Charles N.; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S.; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A.; Rothman, Kenneth; Leleiko, Neal S.; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D.; Sands, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the history of US government funding for surveillance programs in IBD, provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the United States (US), and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, in order to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, as well as potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the US. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus upon “surveillance of the burden of disease,” including 1) natural history of disease and 2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments. PMID:24280882

  20. National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship

    MedlinePlus

    ... said, “The ACA is the law of the land for the foreseeable future.” But this week lawmakers ... Care Act (ACA) is the “law of the land for the foreseeable future.” The National Coalition for ...

  1. Review of bowel dysfunction of rectal cancer patients during the first five years after sphincter-preserving surgery: a population in need of nursing attention.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaobin; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Ching, Shirley Siu Yin

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the longitudinal changes in bowel dysfunction among patients with rectal cancer within the first five years following sphincter-preserving resection. A series of literature searches were conducted on six English-language electronic databases. Articles published after 1990 were searched. A total of 29 articles (reporting 27 studies) was found. Bowel dysfunction, including an alteration in the frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, abnormal sensations, and difficulties with evacuation, is reported among patients with rectal cancer within the first five years after sphincter-preserving resection. These problems are most frequent and severe within the first year, especially within the first six months, and stabilize after one year. Some of the problems may last for years. Supportive care for bowel dysfunction is needed, and should include the provision of information and psychological support delivered in multiple steps. Oncology nurses can play an important role in providing supportive care for rectal cancer patients with bowel dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defecation into clothing without forewarning and mean radiation dose to bowel and anal-sphincter among gynecological cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Steineck, Gunnar; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Nyberg, Tommy; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Al-Abany, Massoud; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the relationship between mean radiation dose to the bowels and the anal-sphincter and occurrence of 'defecation into clothing without forewarning', a specific and serious fecal incontinence symptom after gynecological radiotherapy. Additional potential risk factors associated with the symptom are explored. Data were collected for 519 eligible gynecological cancer survivors, treated with pelvic radiotherapy, with a median follow-up of 5.8 years, using a study-specific questionnaire and medical records. Correlations between defecation into clothing without forewarning and mean dose to organs at risk; the anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were investigated, also taking other risk factors into account. Twelve percent reported having had the symptom at least once in the preceding six months. Mean doses >50 Gy to the anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were related to the occurrence of the symptom. Significantly associated risk factors were deliveries with high birth weight, heart failure and lactose and/or gluten intolerance. After adjusting for these factors, mean doses >50 Gy to the anal-sphincter region, the sigmoid and the small intestines remained related to the occurrence of the symptom. Mean doses to the bowels and anal-sphincter region are related to the risk of defecation into clothing without forewarning in long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy. Further radiobiological modeling may distinguish which organ(s) contribute most to development of the symptom.

  3. Dismicrobism in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer: Changes in response of colocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Tralongo, Pietro; Damiani, Provvidenza; Sinagra, Emanuele; Di Trapani, Benedetto; Zeenny, Marie Noelle; Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Jurjus, Abdo; Leone, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of 10%-15% developing colorectal cancer (CRC) that is a common disease of high economic costs in developed countries. The CRC has been increasing in recent years and its mortality rates are very high. Multiple biological and biochemical factors are responsible for the onset and progression of this pathology. Moreover, it appears absolutely necessary to investigate the environmental factors favoring the onset of CRC and the promotion of colonic health. The gut microflora, or microbiota, has an extensive diversity both quantitatively and qualitatively. In utero, the intestine of the mammalian fetus is sterile. At birth, the intestinal microbiota is acquired by ingesting maternal anal or vaginal organisms, ultimately developing into a stable community, with marked variations in microbial composition between individuals. The development of IBD is often associated with qualitative and quantitative disorders of the intestinal microbial flora (dysbiosis). The healthy human gut harbours about 10 different bacterial species distributed in colony forming units which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and in the progression of diseases such as IBD and CRC. In healthy subjects, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but other factors such as endoluminal temperature, competition between different bacterial strains, peristalsis and drugs can influence the intestinal microenvironment. The microbiota exerts diverse physiological functions to include: growth inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, synthesis of compounds useful for the trophism of colonic mucosa, regulation of intestinal lymphoid tissue and synthesis of amino acids. Furthermore, mucus seems to play an important role in protecting the intestinal mucosa and maintaining its integrity. Changes in the microbiota composition are mainly

  4. Dismicrobism in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer: changes in response of colocytes.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Tralongo, Pietro; Damiani, Provvidenza; Sinagra, Emanuele; Di Trapani, Benedetto; Zeenny, Marie Noelle; Hussein, Inaya Hajj; Jurjus, Abdo; Leone, Angelo

    2014-12-28

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of 10%-15% developing colorectal cancer (CRC) that is a common disease of high economic costs in developed countries. The CRC has been increasing in recent years and its mortality rates are very high. Multiple biological and biochemical factors are responsible for the onset and progression of this pathology. Moreover, it appears absolutely necessary to investigate the environmental factors favoring the onset of CRC and the promotion of colonic health. The gut microflora, or microbiota, has an extensive diversity both quantitatively and qualitatively. In utero, the intestine of the mammalian fetus is sterile. At birth, the intestinal microbiota is acquired by ingesting maternal anal or vaginal organisms, ultimately developing into a stable community, with marked variations in microbial composition between individuals. The development of IBD is often associated with qualitative and quantitative disorders of the intestinal microbial flora (dysbiosis). The healthy human gut harbours about 10 different bacterial species distributed in colony forming units which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and in the progression of diseases such as IBD and CRC. In healthy subjects, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but other factors such as endoluminal temperature, competition between different bacterial strains, peristalsis and drugs can influence the intestinal microenvironment. The microbiota exerts diverse physiological functions to include: growth inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, synthesis of compounds useful for the trophism of colonic mucosa, regulation of intestinal lymphoid tissue and synthesis of amino acids. Furthermore, mucus seems to play an important role in protecting the intestinal mucosa and maintaining its integrity. Changes in the microbiota composition are mainly

  5. 5-Aminosalicylate use and colorectal cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease: a large epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    van Staa, T P; Card, T; Logan, R F; Leufkens, H G M

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients taking aminosalicylates (5-ASA) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) which contains the primary care records of five million people in the UK was used to identify users of mesalazine, balsalazide, olsalazine, or sulfasalazine with a history of IBD. In a nested case control analysis, each incident CRC case with any use of a 5-ASA in the six months before the CRC diagnosis was matched by age, sex, and calendar time to six control patients who were also currently using a 5-ASA. Patients were then classified according to regularity of use. The analysis was controlled for body mass index, IBD duration, history of colorectal polyps, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, aspirin, immunosuppressants, oral and rectal glucocorticoids, prior gastrointestinal hospitalisation, recorded colonoscopy, and number of visits to the general practitioner for IBD symptoms in the 6–24 months before diagnosis. Results: The study population included 18 969 patients, of whom 100 had developed CRC during 5-ASA exposure. Most of these cases had a history of ulcerative colitis (76 patients). In the case control analysis, regular users, defined as having six or more 5-ASA prescriptions in the previous 12 months, were found to have a decreased risk of CRC compared with irregular users (crude odds ratio (OR) 0.7 (0.44–1.03); adjusted OR 0.60 (0.38–0.96)). Regular users of sulfasalazine with 6–12 prescriptions before had an adjusted OR of 0.95 (0.22–4.11); with 13–30 prior prescriptions this was 0.41 (0.14–1.20) and with >30 prior prescriptions this was 0.77 (0.37–1.60). For mesalazine users, these values were 1.13 (0.49–2.59), 0.30 (0.11–0.83), and 0.31 (0.11–0.84), respectively. Conclusion: These results show that regular 5-ASA use is associated with some reduction in the risk of CRC

  6. 78 FR 66020 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis; Panel Person-Centered Outcomes Research Resource... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower;......

  7. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ..., zouzhiq@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support;...

  8. The straight to test endoscopy service for suspected colorectal cancer: meeting national targets but are we meeting our patients' expectations?

    PubMed

    Hitchins, C R; Lawn, A; Whitehouse, G; McFall, M R

    2014-08-01

    The NHS Cancer Plan describes initiatives to improve patient care in the UK, including the two-week rule cancer referral pathway. To meet this target a straight to test (STT) endoscopy service was devised to expedite diagnosis of suspected colorectal cancer. Our novel study aimed to determine patient satisfaction with this new approach to rapid access investigation. An anonymized questionnaire was posted to 300 patients who had undergone STT endoscopy in our unit between January and June 2010. It assessed satisfaction with the service overall, time from referral to investigation, pre-test information, bowel preparation instructions and time to results as well as preference for a traditional pre-test or post-test outpatient appointment and awareness that the referral was for suspected bowel cancer. In all, 174 questionnaires were obtained (58% yield; mean age 68.8; 44.8% men). 82.2% of patients were 'very satisfied' with the service overall, 82.8% with time from referral to test, 75.2% with time from test to results, 73% with endoscopy information and 69.5% with bowel preparation instructions. Eight per cent would rather have seen a specialist prior to endoscopy, 31.6% would have preferred a post-test appointment and 68.4% of patients were aware that referral was for suspected bowel cancer. Straight to test is popular with patients. It offers a fast and cost effective service in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and meets national targets whilst reducing the volume burden on outpatient clinics. However, its success heavily relies on accurate communication between general practitioner, patient and secondary care. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Positive detection of exfoliated colon cancer cells on linear stapler cartridges was associated with depth of tumor invasion and preoperative bowel preparation in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Kishiko; Endo, Shungo; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate exfoliated cancer cells (ECCs) on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomotic sites in colon cancer. We prospectively analyzed ECCs on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomosis in 100 colon cancer patients who underwent colectomy. Having completed the functional end-to-end anastomosis, the linear stapler cartridges were irrigated with saline, which was collected for cytological examination and cytological diagnoses were made by board-certified pathologists based on Papanicolaou staining. The detection rate of ECCs on the linear stapler cartridges was 20 %. Positive detection of ECCs was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.012) and preoperative bowel preparation (p = 0.003). There were no marked differences between ECC-positive and ECC-negative groups in terms of the operation methods, tumor location, histopathological classification, and surgical margins. Since ECCs were identified on the cartridge of the linear stapler used for anastomosis, preoperative mechanical bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol solution and cleansing at anastomotic sites using tumoricidal agents before anastomosis may be necessary to decrease ECCs in advanced colon cancer.

  10. Bowel incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... control of their bowels. Exercises to make the anal and pelvic muscles stronger can help the bowels ... Gynecological, prostate, or rectal surgery. Injury to the anal muscles due to childbirth (in women). Nerve or ...

  11. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  12. 75 FR 2878 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Crystal City, 2399 Jefferson... Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8113... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116...

  13. Incidence and prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma in Danish patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease: a national cohort study, 1978-2003.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ekbom, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CC), but quantitative data are scant. Furthermore, little is known about the impact of IBD on CC occurrence and prognosis. Based on nationwide population-based registries we compared the incidence and survival of CC patients with and without IBD from 1978 to 2003. We used the National Registry of Patients and the Danish Cancer Registry to identify patients with IBD and CC. From the Civil Registration System we identified population controls. We calculated incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (compared with population controls), and absolute cumulative risks. We also computed median survival in CC patients with and without IBD. 2,725 CC patients were identified. The incidence of CC among the 41,280 IBD patients was 7.6 per 100,000 person years compared with 1.9 per 100,000 among the 412,796 population controls (four-fold increased risk). The 10 year cumulative risk of CC in IBD patients was 0.07%. Sub analyses showed that the increased risk of CC was more pronounced in male IBD patients and in patients with ulcerative colitis. We found a decreasing CC incidence in IBD patients over calendar time. CC patients with IBD were, on average, 15 years younger at cancer diagnosis than IBD-free CC patients, and median survival was 1 month in both groups. In conclusion, the absolute risk of CC in IBD patients was low and the CC incidence decreased over calendar time. The prognosis was equally grave, regardless of the presence of IBD.

  14. 75 FR 29769 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... 1, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National....395, Cancer ] Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  15. Papillary thyroid cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: Is there a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Sonu, Irene S; Blonski, Wojciech; Lin, Ming Valerie; Lewis, James; Aberra, Faten; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To formally study age of diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and evaluate the prevalence of PTC in IBD patients compared to a control population. METHODS: We were interested in testing the hypothesis that patients with IBD are more likely to be diagnosed with PTC than a control population. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Health System’s electronic database. Outpatients from 1998-2009 were included in the search, and patients in the cohort were selected based on ICD-9 codes. Inclusion criteria included the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) and the concurrent diagnosis of thyroid cancer in comparison to a control population. Using these methods 912 patients with CD and 1774 with UC were compared to 1638 diverticulitis and 19 447 asthma controls. Statistics were performed using corrected chi-square analysis. The primary outcome for this study was the diagnosis of PTC. Approval to conduct this study was obtained by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pennsylvania. RESULTS: The mean age was 47.5 years (range: 18-102 years) and 66% patients were female. An analysis of variance model was used to compare the age of PTC diagnosis between the CD, UC, asthma and diverticulitis groups, and a statistically significant difference in age at PTC diagnosis was noted across all groups (F = 6.35, df = 3, P = 0.0006). The age of PTC diagnosis in CD patients was statistically significantly lower than UC, asthma, and diverticulitis patients (average PTC diagnosis age for CD 25, UC 49, asthma 45, diverticulitis 63). After covarying for sex and age in 2009, the difference in age at PTC diagnosis remained statistically significant (F = 4.13, df = 3, P = 0.0089). A total of 86 patients were diagnosed with PTC. Nine patients (0.5%) with UC were diagnosed with PTC. Patients with UC were not shown to be more likely to develop PTC [odds

  16. Costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of a biennial faecal occult blood test screening program for bowel cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pignone, Michael P; Flitcroft, Kathy L; Howard, Kirsten; Trevena, Lyndal J; Salkeld, Glenn P; St John, D James B

    2011-02-21

    To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of biennial bowel cancer screening for Australian residents aged 50-74 years. Identification of existing economic models from 1993 to 2010 through searches of PubMed and economic analysis databases, and by seeking expert advice; and additional modelling to determine the costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of biennial faecal occult blood test screening for the five million adults in Australia aged 50-74 years. Estimated number of deaths from bowel cancer prevented, costs, and cost-effectiveness (cost per life-year gained [LYG]) of biennial bowel cancer screening. We identified six relevant economic analyses, all of which found colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to be very cost-effective, with costs per LYG under $55,000 per year in 2010 Australian dollars. Based on our additional modelling, we conservatively estimate that full implementation of biennial screening for people aged 50-74 years would have gross costs of $150 million, reduce CRC mortality by 15%-25%, prevent 300-500 deaths from bowel cancer, and save 3600-6000 life-years annually, for an undiscounted cost per LYG of $25,000-$41,667, compared with no screening, and not taking cost savings as a result of treatment into consideration. The additional expenditure required, after accounting for reductions in CRC incidence, savings in CRC treatment costs, and existing ad-hoc colonoscopy use, is likely to be less than $50 million annually. Full implementation of biennial faecal occult blood test screening in Australia can reduce bowel cancer mortality, and is an efficient use of health resources that would require modest additional government investment.

  17. Costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of a biennial faecal occult blood test screening program for bowel cancer in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pignone, Michael P; Flitcroft, Kathy L; Howard, Kirsten; Trevena, Lyndal J; Salkeld, Glenn P; St John, D James B

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of biennial bowel cancer screening for Australian residents aged 50–74 years. Design and setting Identification of existing economic models from 1993 to 2010 through searches of PubMed and economic analysis databases, and by seeking expert advice; and additional modelling to determine the costs and cost-effectiveness of full implementation of biennial faecal occult blood test screening for the five million adults in Australia aged 50–74 years. Main outcome measures Estimated number of deaths from bowel cancer prevented, costs, and cost-effectiveness (cost per life-year gained [LYG]) of biennial bowel cancer screening. Results We identified six relevant economic analyses, all of which found colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to be very cost-effective, with costs per LYG under $55 000 per year in 2010 Australian dollars. Based on our additional modelling, we conservatively estimate that full implementation of biennial screening for people aged 50–74 years would have gross costs of $150 million, reduce CRC mortality by 15%–25%, prevent 300–500 deaths from bowel cancer, and save 3600–6000 life-years annually, for an undiscounted cost per LYG of $25 000–$41 667, compared with no screening, and not taking cost savings as a result of treatment into consideration. The additional expenditure required, after accounting for reductions in CRC incidence, savings in CRC treatment costs, and existing ad-hoc colonoscopy use, is likely to be less than $50 million annually. Conclusions Full implementation of biennial faecal occult blood test screening in Australia can reduce bowel cancer mortality, and is an efficient use of health resources that would require modest additional government investment. PMID:21401458

  18. 75 FR 54161 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  20. 78 FR 66034 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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  1. 75 FR 21002 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board Ad hoc Subcommittee on...: National Cancer Advisory Board Subcommittee on Clinical Investigations. Open: June 27, 2011, 6 p.m. to 7:30... given of the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public...

  16. Excess risk of urinary tract cancers in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bourrier, A; Carrat, F; Colombel, J-F; Bouvier, A-M; Abitbol, V; Marteau, P; Cosnes, J; Simon, T; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Beaugerie, L

    2016-01-01

    The risk of urinary tract cancers, including kidney and bladder cancers, was increased in transplant recipients receiving thiopurines. To assess the risk of urinary tract cancers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving thiopurines in the CESAME observational cohort. Between May 2004 and June 2005, 19 486 patients with IBD, 30.1% of whom were receiving thiopurines, were enrolled. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR: 29-40). Ten and six patients developed respectively kidney and bladder cancer. The incidence rates of urinary tract cancer were 0.48/1000 patient-years in patients receiving thiopurines (95% CI: 0.21-0.95), 0.10/1000 patient-years in patients who discontinued thiopurines (95% CI: 0.00-0.56) and 0.30/1000 patient-years in patients never treated with thiopurines (95% CI: 0.12-0.62) at entry. The standardised incidence ratio of urinary tract cancer was 3.40 (95% CI: 1.47-6.71, P = 0.006) in patients receiving thiopurines, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.01-3.56, P = 0.92) in patients previously exposed to thiopurines and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.47-12.42, P = 0.78) in patients never treated with thiopurines. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of urinary tract cancer between patients receiving thiopurines and those not receiving thiopurines was 2.82 (95% CI: 1.04-7.68, P = 0.04). Other significant risk factors were male gender (HR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.12-14.10, P = 0.03) and increasing age (HR after 65 years (ref <50): 13.26, 95% CI: 3.52-50.03, P = 0.0001). Patients with IBD receiving thiopurines have an increased risk of urinary tract cancers. Clinically relevant excess risk is observed in older men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Does bowel preparation for inflammatory bowel disease surgery matter?

    PubMed

    Shwaartz, C; Fields, A C; Sobrero, M; Divino, C M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if bowel preparation influences outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing surgery. The database of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Procedure Targeted Colectomy, from 2012 to 2014 was analyzed. Inflammatory bowel disease patients undergoing colorectal resection with or without bowel preparation were included in the study. In all, 3679 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were identified. 42.5% had no bowel preparation, 21.5% had mechanical bowel preparation only, 8.8% had oral antibiotic bowel preparation only and 27.2% had combined mechanical and oral antibiotic preparation. Combined mechanical and oral antibiotic preparation is associated with lower rates of anastomotic leak, ileus, surgical site infection, organ space infection, wound dehiscence and sepsis/septic shock. Combined mechanical and oral antibiotic preparation for inflammatory bowel disease patients undergoing colectomy is associated with decreased rates of surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, ileus. Combined bowel preparation should be the standard of care for inflammatory bowel disease patients undergoing colorectal resection. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Dietary Practices, Addictive Behavior and Bowel Habits and Risk of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: a Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ali; Hussain, Mehwish; ur Rahman, Ata; Farooqui, Waqas Ahmed; Rasheed, Abdur; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2015-01-01

    The abrupt rise of colorectal cancer in developing countries is raising concern in healthcare settings. Studies on assessing relationships with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in the Pakistani population have been limited. The present investigation was designed to examine associations of dietary practices, addictive behavior and bowel habits in developing colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients in a low-resource setup. An age-gender matched case control study was conducted from October 2011 to July 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were from the surgical oncology department of a public sector tertiary care hospital, while their two pair-matched controls were recruited from the general population. A structured questionnaire was used which included questions related to demographic characteristics, family history, dietary patterns, addictive behavior and bowel habits. A family history of cancer was associated with a 2.2 fold higher chance of developing CRC. Weight loss reduced the likelihood 7.6 times. Refraining from a high fat diet and consuming more vegetables showed protective effects for CRC. The risk of CRC was more than twice among smokers and those who consumed Asian specific addictive products as compared to those who avoid using these addictions (ORsmoking: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.08 - 4.17, ORpan: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.6 - 5.33, ORgutka: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14 - 3.97). Use of NSAID attenuated risk of CRC up to 86% (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.31). Most of the findings showed concordance with the literature elucidating protective effects of consuming vegetables and low fat diet while documenting adverse associations with family history, weight loss, constipation and hematochezia. Moreover, this study highlighted Asian specific indigenous addictive products as important factors. Further studies are needed to validate the findings produced by this research.

  19. State of Adult Trainee Inflammatory Bowel Disease Education in the United States: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Benjamin L.; Ha, Christina; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Rieder, Florian; Bewtra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fundamentals of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) education begin during gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training. We performed a survey of GI fellowship program directors (PD) and trainees with the aim to further examine the current state of IBD training in the United States. Materials and Methods A 15-question PD survey and 19-question trainee survey was performed using an online platform. Results Surveys were completed by 43/161 (27%) PDs and 160 trainees. All trainee years were equally represented. A significant proportion of trainees was unsure or felt their inpatient (32%) or outpatient (43%) training was inadequate. Only 28% of trainees were satisfied with their current level of IBD exposure during training. Fewer than half the trainees reported comfort in the management of pouch or stoma issues, the pregnant IBD patient, or post-operative management. The proportion of PDs viewing a competency as essential for trainee education strongly correlated with trainee comfort in that area (Pearson’s rho = 0.793, p<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression, monthly IBD didactics was the only variable independently associated with satisfaction with current level of training (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9–9.0). Conclusions Over one-third of participating GI trainees did not feel “confident” or “mostly comfortable” with their level of IBD training, with varying comfort regarding different competencies in IBD management. These findings suggest that specific areas of IBD training may require additional focus during training and can provide the basis for the development of an IBD core competency curriculum. PMID:27306068

  20. Evaluation of a service intervention to improve awareness and uptake of bowel cancer screening in ethnically-diverse areas

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, J; Massat, N J; Khagram, L; Ariyanayagam, S; Garner, A; Khatoon, S; Rainbow, S; Rangrez, S; Colorado, Z; Hu, W; Parmar, D; Duffy, S W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uptake of bowel cancer screening is lowest in London, in populations of lower socio-economic status, and in particular ethnic or religious groups. Methods: We report on the evaluation of two interventions to improve uptake in an area including populations of low socio-economic status and considerable ethnic diversity. The interventions were face-to-face health promotion on bowel cancer screening at invitees' general practice and health promotion delivered by telephone only. Nine large general practices in East London were chosen at random to offer face-to-face health promotion, and nine other large practices to offer telephone health promotion, with 24 practices of similar size as comparators. Data at practice level were analysed by Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon tests and grouped-logistic regression. Results: There were 2034 invitees in the telephone intervention practices, 1852 in the face-to-face intervention practices and 5227 in the comparison practices. Median gFOBt kit uptake in the target population (aged 59–70) was 46.7% in the telephone practices, 43.8% in the face-to-face practices and 39.1% in the comparison practices. Significant improvements in the odds of uptake were observed following telephone intervention in both males (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.20–1.61, P<0.001) and females (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.29–1.73, P<0.001), while the face-to-face intervention mainly impacted uptake in males (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.36), P<0.001) but did not lead to a significant increase in females (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.96–1.29, P=0.2). Conclusions: Personally delivered health promotion improved uptake of bowel cancer screening in areas of low socio-economic status and high ethnic diversity. The intervention by telephone appears to be the most effective method. PMID:24983374

  1. Novel Synthetic Oxazines Target NF-κB in Colon Cancer In Vitro and Inflammatory Bowel Disease In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Hanumappa; Sukhorukov, Alexey Yu; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Girish, Kesturu S.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M. E.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Sethi, Gautam; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been linked with the pathogenesis of several proinflammatory diseases including number of cancers and inflammatory bowel diseases. In the present work, we evaluated the anticancer activity of 1,2-oxazines derivatives against colorectal cancer cell lines and identified 2-((2-acetyl-6,6-dimethyl-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazin-3-yl)methyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (API) as the lead anticancer agent among the tested compounds. The apoptosis inducing effect of API was demonstrated using flow cytometry analysis and measuring the caspase 3/7 activity in API treated cells. Based on the literature on inhibition of NF-κB by oxazines, we evaluated the effect of 1,2-oxazines against the ability of NF-κB binding to DNA, NF-κB-dependent luciferase expression and IκBα phosphorylation. We found that, API abrogate constitutive activation of NF-κB and inhibits IκBα phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. Our in silico analysis revealed the binding of oxazines to the hydrophobic cavity that present between the interface of p65 and IκBα. Given the relevance with aberrant activation of NF-κB in inflammation bowel disease (IBD), we evaluated the effect of API on dextran sulphate sodium-induced IBD mice model. The treatment of IBD induced mice with API decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in colonic extract, modulated the colon length and serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10. Furthermore, the histological analysis revealed the restoration of the distorted cryptic epithelial structure of colon in the API treated animals. In conclusion, we comprehensively validated the NF-κB inhibitory efficacy of API that targets NF-κB in in vitro colon cancer and an in vivo inflammatory bowel disease model. PMID:27685808

  2. Kinetics of inflammatory markers following cancer-related bowel and liver resection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally described as a cytokine that inhibits migration of macrophages at the site of inflammation. Subsequently it was also identified as a stress-induced hormone released from the anterior pituitary lobe in response to some pro-inflammatory stimuli like endotoxins and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α). Aim To compare postoperative changes in serum MIF levels of patients undergoing bowel and liver resections. It has clinical relevance to describe the kinetics of this crucial mediator of systemic inflammation in surgery. Methods A total of 58 patients were studied over 4 years. Group A (28 patients) underwent only hepatic resection without enterotomy. Group B (30 patients) had bowel resection with enterotomy. MIF, IL-1β, IL-8, prealbumin, albumin, α1-glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein levels were measured preoperatively, immediately following surgery, and postoperatively for three consecutive days. To evaluate organ functions, multiple organ dysfunction score was used. Results A significantly higher level of MIF (4,505 pg/mL) was found in group A when compared to that of group B immediately following surgery. Other parameters monitored in this study were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusion Higher elevations in MIF levels with liver resections, compared to bowel resections, might be attributable to MIF release from damaged liver cells. The presumably minimal endotoxin exposure during bowel surgery was either insufficient or inefficient to induce relevant MIF elevations in our patients. To fully delineate implications of this finding further studies are needed. PMID:21091281

  3. Perioperative outcomes following radical prostatectomy for patients with disseminated cancer: An analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database

    PubMed Central

    Satkunasivam, Raj; Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Byrne, James; Hoffman, Azik; Cheung, Douglas C.; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Nathens, Avery B.; Nam, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine whether patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) in the context of disseminated cancer have higher 30-day complications. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Men undergoing RP (from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014) for prostate cancer were identified and stratified by presence (n=97) or absence (n=27 868) of disseminated cancer. The primary outcome was major complications (death, re-operation, cardiac or neurologic events) within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious, venous thromboembolic, and bleeding complications; prolonged length of stay; and concomitant procedures (bowel-related, cystectomy, urinary diversion, and major ureteric reconstruction). Odds ratios (OR) for each complication were calculated using univariable logistic regression. Results We did not identify a difference in major complication rates (OR 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–7.16). Patients with disseminated cancer had increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.04–10.48) and transfusion (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18–5.05), but similar odds of pulmonary and infectious complications and length of stay. Bowel procedures were rare, however, a significantly higher proportion of patients with disseminated cancer required bowel procedures (2.1% vs. 0.3%; p=0.03). Patients with disseminated cancer undergoing RP had greater comorbidities and higher predicted probability of morbidity and mortality. This study is limited by its retrospective design, lack of cancer-specific variables, and prostatectomy-specific complications. Conclusions RP in the context of disseminated cancer may be associated with increased perioperative complications. Caution should be exercised in embarking on this practice outside of clinical trials. PMID:28096918

  4. 77 FR 59934 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Biology-1. Date: November 7-8, 2012... Panel; Cancer Biology-2. Date: November 7-8, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  5. Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk Receptor Signaling in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colitis-associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Leighton, Jonathan A.; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    Three receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAM) and their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, have emerged as potent negative regulators of innate immune responses. A number of studies using genetic ablation of TAM loci in mice have elucidated the mechanism of TAM engagement and function during the immune response and removal of apoptotic cells. Following phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or the induction of T-cell dependent adaptive immune responses, ligand-induced TAM signaling dampens proinflammatory cytokine production and thus prevents exaggerated or prolonged inflammation. It is believed that the TAM pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Suppression of inflammation and removal of apoptotic cells followed by tissue repair are essential processes for disease remission and the successful management of inflammatory bowel disease. In light of the key role of TAMs in controlling inflammatory responses, here, we review the recent advances on TAM research vis-à-vis the resolution of intestinal inflammation. Targeted activation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases may represent a potent therapeutic opportunity in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24846720

  6. 75 FR 32487 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... National Cancer Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below in accordance with..., and evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National...

  7. 75 FR 3243 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. The meeting will be open to... the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National...

  8. A comparison of self-perceived health status in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome patients from a Canadian national population survey

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Linda YL; Nabalamba, Alice; Graff, Leslie A; Bernstein, Charles N

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences exist in perceptions of physical health, mental health and stress levels between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, which had a sample size of 132,947 Canadians. Information on 4441 participants aged 19 years or older who reported that they had been diagnosed with Crohn’s disease (n=474), ulcerative colitis (n=637) or IBS (n=3330) was analyzed regarding perceptions of their physical health, mental health, stress levels and activity levels. RESULTS: Overall, IBD patients reported being in fair to poor health (P<0.01) more often than IBS patients. In addition, IBS patients were more likely than IBD patients to report poor mental health status (P<0.01) and greater stress levels (P<0.01). In multivariate analyses, having IBS or IBD along with another chronic disease significantly increased the odds of reporting poorer health status. CONCLUSIONS: People with IBD were more likely to experience fair or poor general health. IBS patients reported higher levels of stress and poorer mental health than IBD patients. When IBS or IBD coexisted with another chronic condition, activity participation at home and at work was significantly more likely to be impaired. PMID:18478133

  9. Emerging Epidemic of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Middle Income Country: A Nation-wide Study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Vahedi, Homayoon; Gohari, Kimiya; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Zali, Mohammad-Reza; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Safaripour, Alireza; Aghazadeh, Rahim; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Fakheri, Hafez; Somi, Mohammad H; Maleki, Iradj; Hoseini, Vahid; Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Adibi, Payman; Tavakoli, Hamid; Taghavi, Alireza; Zahedi, Mohammad-Javad; Amiriani, Taghi; Tabib, Masoud; Alipour, Zainab; Nobakht, Hossein; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Sadreddini, Masoud; Bakhshipour, Alireza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khosravi, Pejman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Merat, Shahin; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Barazandeh, Farhad; Arab, Peyman; Baniasadi, Nadieh; Pournaghi, Seyyed-Javad; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Farzadfar, Farshad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) hasn't been reported in Iran. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of IBD and its trend in Iran at national and subnational level from 1990 to 2012. We conducted a systematic review of English and Persian databases about the epidemiology of IBD. We also collected outpatient data from 17 provinces of Iran using almost all public and private referral gastroenterology clinics. Prevalence and incidence rate was calculated at national and subnational levels. The Kriging method was used to extrapolate provinces with missing data and GPR model to calculate time trends of rates at subnational level. We found 16 case series, two population-based studies, and two review articles. We collected 11,000 IBD cases from outpatient databases. Among them, 9,269 (84.26%) had ulcerative colitis (UC), 1,646 (14.96%) had Crohn's disease (CD), and 85 had intermediate colitis (IC). A total of 5,452 (49.56%) patients were male. Mean age at diagnosis was 32.80 years (CI: 13 - 61) for UC and 29.98 years (CI: 11 - 58) for CD. Annual incidences of IBD, UC, and CD in 2012 were 3.11, 2.70, and 0.41 per 100,000 subjects respectively. Prevalence of IBD, UC, and CD in 2012 were 40.67, 35.52, and 5.03 per 100,000 subjects respectively. The incidence of UC and CD showed a significant increase during the study period (P for trend < 0.05). The incidence and prevalence of IBD are increasing in Iran. Establishing a national IBD registry seems necessary for comprehensive care of IBD patients in Iran.

  10. Incidence of, phenotypes of and survival from small bowel cancer in Denmark, 1994-2010: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bojesen, Rasmus Dahlin; Andersson, Mikael; Riis, Lene Buhl; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine

    2016-09-01

    Small bowel cancer (SBC) is a rare and highly heterogeneous disease in respect to both anatomical distribution and histological morphology. We aimed to conduct a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study of the incidence of, phenotypes of, stage of, synchronous/metachronous cancer occurrence of and survival from SBC during 1994-2010. The study population included all individuals aged 16 years or older living in Denmark during 1994-2010 (n = 7,070,142). Patients with SBC were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry. Incidence rates were calculated overall and according to the anatomical origin and morphological subtype. Patients were followed up from the date of cancer diagnosis to the date of emigration, death or the end of the study (31 December 2010). SBC was diagnosed in 1088 patients during 1994-2010. The total annual incidence of SBC was 1.10 per 100,000 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.17 per 100,000], with an annual percentage change of 1.9 % (95 % CI 0.6-3.1 %, p = 0.003) during the observation period. This increase was mainly explained by an increase in the occurrence of duodenal adenocarcinomas, with an annual percentage change of 7.5 % (95 % CI 4.9-10.2 %, p < 0.001). Further, 29 % of all SBC patients had metastatic cancer at the time of diagnosis and 32 % had one or more synchronous/metachronous cancers. All morphological subtypes were associated with poor 5-year prognoses, in particular duodenal adenocarcinomas, with a 5-year survival rate of only 16 % (95 % CI 12-22 %). The incidence of SBC has increased in recent decades, mainly because of a large increase in the incidence of duodenal adenocarcinomas, which are also associated with the poorest prognosis.

  11. Should adhesive small bowel obstruction be managed laparoscopically? A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah; Baum, Kerry; Filho, Jorge DeAmorim; Nirula, Ram

    2014-03-01

    Celiotomy is the most common approach for refractory small bowel obstruction (SBO). Small reviews suggest that a laparoscopic approach is associated with shorter stay and less morbidity. Given the limitations of previous studies, we sought to evaluate outcomes of laparoscopic (L) compared with open (O) adhesiolysis for SBO, using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Patients from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005 to 2009 database who underwent surgery for SBO were stratified based on surgical approach. A propensity score to undergo L instead of O was calculated based on demographics, comorbidities, physiology, and laboratory values. Logistic regression was then used to determine differences in outcomes between those propensity score-matched patients who actually underwent L compared with O surgery. There were 6,762 patients who underwent adhesiolysis. The propensity score-matching process created 222 matched patients in L and O groups. Laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower rates of any complication (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.60), including superficial site infections (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.49), intraoperative transfusion (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.90), and shorter hospital stay (4 days vs. 10 days; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in operative time, rates of reoperation within 30 days, or mortality. Laparoscopic treatment of SBO is associated with lower rates of postoperative morbidity compared with laparotomy as well as shorter hospital stay. Laparoscopic treatment of surgical SBO is not associated with higher rates of early reoperation and seems to be associated with lower resource use. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  12. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United... nearly 40,000 lives will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we reaffirm our commitment to supporting breast cancer research, and to educating all Americans about its risk...

  13. 78 FR 9933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... meeting is to evaluate requests for development resources for potential new cancer diagnostics. The... of the potential diagnostics to improve the treatment of cancer. The research proposals and the...

  14. 76 FR 37357 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... other developmental programs for potential new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of... improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research proposals and the discussions could...

  15. 78 FR 15021 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal... resources for development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer...

  16. 76 FR 42719 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research...

  17. 76 FR 66733 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research...

  18. 76 FR 66733 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... other developmental programs for potential new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of... improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research proposals and the discussions could...

  19. 77 FR 15782 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research...

  20. 75 FR 57474 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance... in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: President's Cancer Panel. Date: October 26, 2010. Time...

  1. 75 FR 71712 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research...

  2. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance... in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: President's Cancer Panel. Date: February 1, 2011. Time...

  3. 77 FR 36564 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: HPV Vaccination as a Model Cancer Prevention Method: State of the... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  4. 77 FR 63845 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance... in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: President's Cancer Panel; Date: November 16, 2012....

  5. 77 FR 59406 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of... Committee: National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. Date: November 5, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. to...

  6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Parasite Infection in a Developing Nation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Benshoff, Matthew; Cáceres, Mercedes; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Schmulson, Max; Peña, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Postinfectious IBS is defined in the industrialized world as IBS onset following a sentinel gastrointestinal infection. In developing nations, where repeated bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal infections are common, the IBS pathophysiology may be altered. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between intestinal parasite infection and IBS in the “nonsterile” developing world environment. IBS subjects were identified from a population-based sample of 1624 participants using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire. Stool samples from cases and randomly selected controls were examined for ova and parasites. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between IBS and parasite infection. The overall IBS prevalence among participants was 13.2% (9.3% males, 15.9% females). There was no difference in parasite carriage between IBS cases and controls, 16.6% versus 15.4% (P = 0.78), nor among IBS subtypes. The pathophysiology of post-infectious IBS may be altered in the developing world as compared to industrialized nations and warrants investigation. PMID:22474433

  7. 75 FR 13559 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, April...

  8. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  9. 78 FR 34395 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and...

  10. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  11. 75 FR 32957 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific...

  12. 75 FR 11896 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  13. 78 FR 9932 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific...

  14. 75 FR 33628 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and...

  15. 75 FR 4093 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board, February 8, 2010, 6...

  16. 78 FR 17936 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  17. 77 FR 13133 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  18. 78 FR 9932 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  19. 78 FR 17421 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  20. 78 FR 58323 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  1. 77 FR 8890 - National Cancer Institute Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors, March 5...

  2. 78 FR 69858 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Director's Consumer...

  3. 76 FR 37358 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  4. 76 FR 66732 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and...

  5. 77 FR 15782 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel...

  6. 78 FR 66374 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 4:00 p.m. to October 16, 2013...

  7. 77 FR 26303 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer Institute...

  8. 78 FR 66946 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, December 04, 2013, 01:00 p.m. to December 04,...

  9. 78 FR 13881 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee, March 13...

  10. 77 FR 12601 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute, March 13, 2012, 8:30...

  11. 77 FR 16044 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP), April 10, 201...

  12. 77 FR 34396 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee, July 11, 2012, 9...

  13. 78 FR 64228 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 16, 2013, 04:00 p.m. to October 17, 201...

  14. 76 FR 11800 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, March 24, 2011, 12 p.m. to March 24, 2011, 2 p....

  15. 75 FR 66771 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, December 6, 2010, 8 a.m. to December 6, 2010,...

  16. 75 FR 7485 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, February 24, 2010, 8 a.m. to February 26, 2010, 6 p.m.,...

  17. 77 FR 64817 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  18. 78 FR 29758 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2), notice is hereby given of meeting of the National Cancer...

  19. 77 FR 58851 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  20. 75 FR 63494 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  1. 78 FR 64958 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 4:00 p.m. to October 16,...

  2. 77 FR 55848 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  3. 78 FR 64223 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 07, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to November...

  4. 77 FR 5029 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  5. 78 FR 16273 - National Cancer Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to March 28, 2013,...

  6. 77 FR 5032 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  7. 78 FR 66946 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 03, 2013, 09:00 a.m. to October 03,...

  8. 75 FR 8373 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Advisors, March 8, 2010, 8 a.m. to March 9,...

  9. 76 FR 51044 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  10. 78 FR 9402 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  11. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  12. 78 FR 64226 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 16, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to October 16,...

  13. 76 FR 53687 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Cancer...

  14. 78 FR 64228 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 17, 2013, 05:00 p.m. to October 18,...

  15. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, June 7, 2013, 9:00 a.m. to June 7, 2013, 10:00...

  16. 78 FR 7794 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, March 11, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to March 12, 2013,...

  17. 78 FR 30932 - National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, June 7, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to June 7, 2013, 1:00...

  18. 78 FR 70312 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board, December 09, 2013, 06:00 p.m. to December 10, 2013, 05:00...

  19. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8552 of August 31, 2010 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. This year alone, nearly 218,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more...

  20. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United... cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every corner of the United States--in 2013 alone, more than 230,000 women and over 2,000 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and...

  1. 75 FR 54451 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... family history of ovarian cancer or breast cancer, and those over age 55--to protect their health by... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8551 of August 31, 2010 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... against ovarian cancer, this disease continues to claim more lives than any other gynecologic...

  2. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ..., who have a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, or who have had certain cancers in the past are... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8853 of August 31, 2012 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the... their lives to ovarian cancer. They are mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers,...

  3. 78 FR 54741 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9008 of August 30, 2013 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the... Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our support to everyone touched by this disease, we remember those we... ovarian cancer. Because ovarian cancer often goes undetected until advanced stages, increasing...

  4. 77 FR 70170 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... purpose of this meeting is to evaluate requests for preclinical development resources for potential new....D., Executive Secretary, Discovery Experimental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, NIH....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower;...

  5. 78 FR 36201 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... meeting is to evaluate requests for development resources for potential new cancer diagnostics. The... of the potential diagnostics to improve the treatment of cancer. The research proposals and the... new diagnostics for cancer. Place: National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room...

  6. CRCHD Launches National Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.

  7. Modulatory roles of microRNAs in the regulation of different signalling pathways in large bowel cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mamoori, Afraa; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert Anthony; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-03-01

    There are emerging data to suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) have significant roles in regulating the function of normal cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). This review aims to analyse the roles of miRNAs in the regulation of colon CSCs through their interaction with various signalling pathways. Studies showed a large number of miRNAs that are reported to be deregulated in colon CSCs. However, few of the studies available were able to outline the function of miRNAs in colon CSCs and uncover their signalling pathways. From those miRNAs, which are better described, miR-21 followed by miR-34, miR-200 and miR-215 are the most reported miRNAs to have roles in colon CSC regulation. In particular, miRNAs have been reported to regulate the stemness features of colon CSCs mainly via Wnt/B-catenin and Notch signalling pathways. Additionally, miRNAs have been reported to act on processes involving CSCs through cell cycle regulation genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The relative paucity of data available on the significance of miRNAs in CSCs means that new studies will be of great importance to determine their roles and to identify the signalling pathways through which they operate. Such studies may in future guide further research to target these genes for more effective cancer treatment. miRNAs were shown to regulate the function of cancer stem cells in large bowel cancer by targeting a few key signalling pathways in cells.

  8. A prospective study on the efficacy of octreotide in the management of malignant bowel obstruction in gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Watari, Hidemichi; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Wakui, Yukio; Nomura, Eiji; Hareyama, Hitoshi; Tanuma, Fumie; Hattori, Rifumi; Azuma, Masaki; Kato, Hidenori; Takeda, Naoki; Ariga, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2012-05-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO), of which symptoms lead to a poor quality of life, is a common and distressing clinical complication in advanced gynecologic cancer. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the clinical efficacy of octreotide to control vomiting in patients with advanced gynecologic cancer with inoperable gastrointestinal obstruction. Patients with advanced gynecologic cancer, who presented at least one episode of vomiting per day due to MBO, were enrolled in this prospective study from 2006 to 2009. Octreotide was administered when necessary at doses starting with 300 μg up to 600 μg a day by continuous infusion for 2 weeks. Primary end point was vomiting control, which was evaluated by common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3 (CTCAE v3.0). Adverse events were also evaluated by CTCAE v3.0. Twenty-two cases were enrolled in this study. Octreotide controlled vomiting in 15 cases (68.2%) to grade 0 and 3 cases (13.6%) to grade 1 on CTCAE v3.0. Overall response rate to octreotide treatment was 81.8% in our patients' cohort. Among 14 cases without nasogastric tube, the overall response rate was 93.1% (13/14). Among 8 cases with nasogastric tube, 4 cases were free of tube with decrease of drainage, and overall response rate was 62.5% (5/8). No major adverse events related to octreotide were reported. We conclude that 300-μg/d dose of octreotide was effective and safe for Japanese patients with MBO by advanced gynecologic cancer. Octreotide could contribute to better quality of life by avoiding placement of nasogastric tube.

  9. Evaluation of clinical outcomes with alvimopan in clinical practice: a national matched-cohort study in patients undergoing bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Conor P; Craver, Christopher; Gibbons, Melinda M; Rachfal, Amy W; VandePol, Christine J; Cook, Suzanne F; Poston, Sara A; Calloway, Michael; Techner, Lee

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate in-hospital clinical outcomes after open and laparoscopic bowel resection (BR) with or without alvimopan treatment. Delayed return of gastrointestinal function after BR may be associated with greater postoperative morbidity and increased hospital length of stay (LOS). In clinical trials, alvimopan--a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist--accelerated gastrointestinal recovery after open BR. A retrospective matched-cohort study (NCT01150760) was conducted using a national inpatient database. Each alvimopan patient was exact matched (surgical procedure, surgeon specialty) and propensity score matched (baseline characteristics) to a nonalvimopan BR patient. Outcomes included gastrointestinal and other morbidity (cardiovascular, pulmonary, infection, cerebrovascular, thromboembolic); mortality; readmission rate; and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (intent-to-treat [ITT] population). Postoperative LOS and estimated cost were also compared (modified ITT population). Each cohort included 3525 ITT patients with similar baseline characteristics. Gastrointestinal (29.8% vs 35.7%) and other morbidity (cardiovascular [19.4% vs 24.0%], pulmonary [7.3% vs 10.5%], infectious [9.6% vs 11.8%], thromboembolic [1.2% vs 2.1%]), mortality (0.4% vs 1.0%), and mean ICU stay (0.3 vs 0.6 days) were lower in the alvimopan group (P ≤ 0.003 for each). Postoperative LOS and estimated direct cost were lower for all alvimopan patients and after laparoscopic and open BR (LOS: -1.1, -0.8, and -1.8 days respectively; cost: -$2345, -$1382, and -$3218, respectively; P ≤ 0.0008 for each). On average, alvimopan-treated patients had a lower incidence of mortality and most incidents of morbidities. Length of stay, ICU use, and estimated cost were also lower with comparable readmissions. These results in patients outside the clinical trial setting include laparoscopic colectomy and demonstrate a potential association between acceleration of gastrointestinal recovery and improved

  10. Robust Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Findings from a Nationally Representative Canadian Study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Lateef, Rusan; Sulman, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    Although the link between inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and depression is well accepted, less is known about the relationship between IBD and anxiety disorders and factors associated with anxiety among those with IBD. Data were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. The survey response rate was 68.9%. Two sets of analyses were undertaken. First, a series of logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odd ratios of generalized anxiety disorder among those with IBD compared with those without (n = 22,522). The fully adjusted model controlled for sociodemographics, depression, substance abuse/dependence, pain, and adverse childhood experiences. Second, among those with IBD (n = 269), significant correlates of generalized anxiety disorder were identified using logistic regression. The presence of generalized anxiety disorder was determined using the WHO-CIDI lifetime criteria, and IBD was assessed by a self-reported health professional diagnosis. Individuals with IBD had over twice the odds of anxiety compared with those without IBD, even when controlling for a range of potential explanatory factors (odds ratio = 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-3.16). Controlling for chronic pain and childhood adversities attenuate the relationship the most. Among those with IBD, a history of childhood sexual abuse, female gender, and chronic pain are the strongest correlates of anxiety. Those with Crohn's and ulcerative colitis were equally vulnerable to generalized anxiety disorder. Our findings show that IBD is robustly related to generalized anxiety disorder. Health care professionals should be aware of the increased prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder among their patients with IBD, particularly women, those in chronic pain, and those with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

  11. 76 FR 80375 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive M, 1750 Rockville Pike... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116...

  12. 76 FR 26309 - National Cancer Institute; Notice Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...: Washington DC North Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD 20877. Contact Person: Lalita D... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 7141, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  13. 78 FR 8156 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ..., the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Circulating Tumor Cell Devices...

  14. 77 FR 24968 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... meeting is to evaluate requests for preclinical development resources, biologics, clinical assays and...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP). Date: July 31...

  15. Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Opot, E N; Magoha, G A

    2000-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.

  16. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  17. Treatment of stomach cancer, a national experience.

    PubMed

    Valen, B; Viste, A; Haugstvedt, T; Eide, G E; Søreide, O

    1988-07-01

    A total of 1165 patients with stomach cancer were entered into a prospective, observational national study. They represented 54 per cent of all stomach cancer patients reported to the Cancer Registry in Norway during the study period, and data are analysed for three hospital levels (local, county and university hospitals). The median age was 71 years (range 18-96 years). The median pretreatment delay was 113 days, and 46 per cent of patients had a performance status (Karnofsky index) of less than or equal to 80. The diagnosis was confirmed by pre-operative histology in 88 per cent of cases. In all, 88 per cent of patients underwent surgery, the resectability rate was 67 per cent and 50 per cent had a potential curative operation. Total gastrectomy was most commonly performed. Lymph node dissection was performed in 14 per cent of those undergoing a curative resection. The postoperative complication rate was 27 per cent but varied with the type of operation, being highest in proximal resection (55 per cent) and lowest after distal resection (19 per cent). A total of 7 per cent of the patients died postoperatively. Most patients had advanced disease at the time of treatment and only 6 per cent had stage I tumours. There were significant differences in patient and treatment characteristics between the three hospital levels. In conclusion, patient selection bias which will influence results does occur. A fairly aggressive attitude towards local disease was found, but the low proportion of patients undergoing lymph node dissection not only leads to questions regarding the efficacy of this treatment policy, but also casts doubt on the validity of staging of stomach cancer. Morbidity and mortality rates are still high. The consequences of the differences revealed between hospital groups are difficult to interpret. Proponents of both regionalization of treatment and small hospital care may find arguments for their case in the data.

  18. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes.

  19. About the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. The lab addresses some of the most urgent and intractable probl

  20. About the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. The lab addresses some of the most urgent and intractable probl

  1. 78 FR 57400 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...: Biomedical Cloud Technology; Electronic Health Records; Advocate and Organizational Engagement; and Proposed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to...

  2. 78 FR 8157 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of...

  3. 75 FR 39546 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications, the disclosure of which ] would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of...

  4. 77 FR 19674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of...

  5. Identification of a common variant with potential pleiotropic effect on risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Hamed; Gong, Jian; Brenner, Hermann; Austin, Thomas R.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Baba, Yoshifumi; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bézieau, Stéphane; Caan, Bette; Campbell, Peter T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Conti, David V.; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gala, Manish; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard; Hazra, Aditi; Henderson, Brian; Haiman, Chris; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Küry, Sébastien; LaCroix, Andrea; Marchand, Loic Le; Lemire, Mathieu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Ma, Jing; Manson, JoAnn E.; Morikawa, Teppei; Nan, Hongmei; Ng, Kimmie; Newcomb, Polly A.; Nishihara, Reiko; Potter, John D.; Qu, Conghui; Schoen, Robert E.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Taverna, Darin; Thibodeau, Stephen; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Zanke, Brent W.; Casey, Graham; Hudson, Thomas J.; Kraft, Peter; Peters, Ulrike; Slattery, Martha L.; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have separately identified many genetic susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), there has been no large-scale examination for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, for these conditions. We used logistic regression modeling to examine the associations of 181 UC and CD susceptibility variants previously identified by GWAS with risk of CRC using data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We also examined associations of significant variants with clinical and molecular characteristics in a subset of the studies. Among 11794 CRC cases and 14190 controls, rs11676348, the susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for UC, was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (P = 7E−05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of CRC with each copy of the T allele was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.96). The association of the SNP with risk of CRC differed according to mucinous histological features (P heterogeneity = 0.008). In addition, the (T) allele was associated with lower risk of tumors with Crohn’s-like reaction but not tumors without such immune infiltrate (P heterogeneity = 0.02) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) but not microsatellite stable or MSI-low tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.03). The minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348, located downstream from CXCR2 that has been implicated in CRC progression, is associated with a lower risk of CRC, particularly tumors with a mucinous component, Crohn’s-like reaction and MSI-high. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of inflammatory bowel disease patients for complications such as CRC. PMID:26071399

  6. The risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a hospital-based cohort study from Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Su; Park, Sang Hyoung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Soh, Jae Seung; Lee, Seohyun; Bae, Jung Ho; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yoon, Yong Sik; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Limited data are available on the incidence and risk factors of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Information on 5212 Korean patients with IBD (2414 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 2798 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) was retrieved from the IBD registry of Asan Medical Center. Data on CRC incidence for the entire Korean population were derived from the Korean Statistical Information Service. During 39,951 person-years of follow-up (17,679 for CD and 22,272 for UC), 30 patients (12 with CD and 18 with UC) developed CRC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of CRC was 6.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.10-10.48) for CD and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.00-2.66) for UC; it was 9.69 (95% CI, 5.01-16.93) for CD with colonic involvement and 4.31 (95% CI, 2.46-7.00) for extensive UC. The SIR was also increased in patients diagnosed with IBD at younger than 30 years old. CRC location was the low rectum in 11 of 12 CD patients (91.7%). The cumulative probability of rectal cancer was higher in CD patients with a perianal fistula than in those without a perianal fistula (p = 0.02). A high prevalence of perianal fistulas in Korean CD patients may be the cause of the predominance of low rectal cancer in this population and the higher SIR of CRC in Koreans than in Westerners. In contrast, the SIR of CRC in Korean UC patients may be similar to that in Western UC patients.

  7. KRAS and TP53 mutations in inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Lijun; Kim, John J; Shen, Jinhua; Chen, Binrui; Dai, Ning

    2017-01-07

    Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria. KRAS mutation was less frequent (RR=0.71, 95%CI 0.56-0.90; P=0.004) while TP53 mutation was more common (RR=1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39; P<0.001) in patients with IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Both KRAS (RR=3.09, 95%CI 1.47-6.51; P=0.003) and TP53 (RR=2.15, 95%CI 1.07-4.31 P=0.03) mutations were more prevalent in patients with IBD-CRC compared to IBD without dysplasia. In conclusion, IBD-CRC and S-CRC appear to have biologically different molecular pathways. TP53 appears to be more important than KRAS in IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Our findings suggest possible roles of TP53 and KRAS as biomarkers for cancer and dysplasia screening among patients with IBD and may also provide targeted therapy in patients with IBD-CRC.

  8. Small bowel metastasis from pancreatic cancer in a long-term survival patient with synchronous advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Morena; Corte, Carminia Maria Della; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Scotti, Valerio; Rambaldi, Pier Francesco; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Accardo, Marina; De Vita, Ferdinando; Santini, Mario; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Morgillo, Floriana

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor that originates from the surface of the pleura. Approximately 70% of cases are associated with chronic asbestos exposure. MPM is regarded as an incurable disease, with a median survival of ~2 years following intensive multimodality treatment. Pancreatic cancer is a malignancy also associated with a poor prognosis, with only 2% of patients surviving for 5 years. The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed with an advanced stage of disease and experience a poor response to therapy. The development of synchronous MPM and other types of cancer is rare. The present study describes a patient with synchronous, biphasic MPM and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, who was treated with a multimodal therapeutic approach with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Due to a suspected diagnosis of ‘acute abdomen’, an emergency small intestine resection was performed and a subsequent diagnosis of moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma was confirmed. During a further immunohistochemical examination, pathologists determined that the small bowel metastasis descended from pancreatic cancer. The onset of bowel metastasis is an event rarely associated with MPM, and has not been previously described in the literature for cases of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, the present study describes the first case of intestinal metastasis from pancreatic cancer in a long-term survival patient with biphasic MPM. PMID:28105159

  9. Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gore, Richard M; Silvers, Robert I; Thakrar, Kiran H; Wenzke, Daniel R; Mehta, Uday K; Newmark, Geraldine M; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2015-11-01

    Small bowel obstruction and large bowel obstruction account for approximately 20% of cases of acute abdominal surgical conditions. The role of the radiologist is to answer several key questions: Is obstruction present? What is the level of the obstruction? What is the cause of the obstruction? What is the severity of the obstruction? Is the obstruction simple or closed loop? Is strangulation, ischemia, or perforation present? In this presentation, the radiologic approach to and imaging findings of patients with known or suspected bowel obstruction are presented.

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Cancers Using Radioactive Gold Nanoparticles and Wireless Fluorescence Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, M.; Qaradaghi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic and diagnosis properties of radioactive gold nanoparticle (198-AuNPs) cause them to be suitable for detection and treatment of tumors. Objective Electrical and optical properties of PEG-198AuNPs were examined in this paper. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-198 AuNPs can be used for treatment and diagnosis of small intestine tumors. Methods Wireless fluorescence capsule endoscopy will be able to detect emission lights of triggered Au by external light. First, the output electrical field was calculated by DDSCAT software. Secondly, tumor and distribution of PEG-198 gold nanoparticles were modeled using Monte Carlo simulation and finally dose delivered throughout a solid tumor when the PEG-198 gold nanoparticles linked to each cell was calculated. Results Polyethylene Glycol functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess optimized sizes (30 nm core diameter and 70 nm hydrodynamic diameters) to target individual tumor cells. Surface distribution to receive doses of up to 50Gy was simulated.  Activities and absorbed doses by the tumors with 0.25cm and 0.5cm radius were 187.9mCi and 300mCi and 72 and 118 Gy,respectively. Conclusion Therapeutic and diagnosis properties of 198-AuNPs show that it can be used for treatment and detection of small bowel tumors in early stage of growing. PMID:27026950

  11. Monitoring the delivery of cancer care: Commission on Cancer and National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richelle T; Stewart, Andrew K; Winchester, David P

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of the Commission on Cancer (CoC) is to ensure the delivery of comprehensive, high-quality care that improves survival while maintaining quality of life for patients with cancer. This article examines the initiatives of the CoC toward achieving this goal, utilizing data from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to monitor treatment patterns and outcomes, to develop quality measures, and to benchmark hospital performance. The article also highlights how these initiatives align with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations for improving the quality of cancer care and briefly explores future projects of the CoC and NCDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 62244 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology National Cancer Institute. The meeting will be closed to... Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, BSC Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology Meeting. Date: November 13, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  13. 75 FR 6043 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: March 15-16, 2010... government-issued photo ID, driver's license, or passport) and to state the purpose of their visit...

  14. 76 FR 62079 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: November 15, 2011... will be asked to show one form of identification (for example, a government-issued photo ID, driver's...

  15. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: July 9, 2012. Time: 8... show one form of identification (for example, a government-issued photo ID, driver's license, or...

  16. 77 FR 6130 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: March 13, 2012....

  17. 76 FR 33321 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: July 11, 2011....

  18. 75 FR 62547 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: November 15-16,...

  19. 78 FR 36200 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9609 Medical Center Drive, 7W106, Bethesda, MD 20892..., 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 7W412, Bethesda, MD...

  20. 75 FR 21645 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116.... Place: Renaissance M Street Hotel, 1143 New Hampshire Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20037. Contact Person... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Rm. 7073, Bethesda, MD...

  1. 75 FR 36661 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8131, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-1402... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd.,...

  2. 78 FR 16274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the President's Cancer...

  3. 78 FR 66374 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Subcommittee A--Cancer Centers, December 5, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to December 6, 2013, 01:00...

  4. 78 FR 50064 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the President's Cancer...

  5. 77 FR 35414 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee; Ad hoc Clinical Trials and Strategic Planning Subcommittee. Date: June 29, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory...

  6. Informed choice in bowel cancer screening: a qualitative study to explore how adults with lower education use decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sian K; Kearney, Paul; Trevena, Lyndal; Barratt, Alexandra; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Offering informed choice in screening is increasingly advocated, but little is known about how evidence‐based information about the benefits and harms of screening influences understanding and participation in screening. Objective  We aimed to explore how a bowel cancer screening decision aid influenced decision making and screening behaviour among adults with lower education and literacy. Methods  Twenty‐one men and women aged 55–64 years with lower education levels were interviewed about using a decision aid to make their screening decision. Participants were purposively selected to include those who had and had not made an informed choice. Results  Understanding the purpose of the decision aid was an important factor in whether participants made an informed choice about screening. Participants varied in how they understood and integrated quantitative risk information about the benefits and harms of screening into their decision making; some read it carefully and used it to justify their screening decision, whereas others dismissed it because they were sceptical of it or lacked confidence in their own numeracy ability. Participants’ prior knowledge and beliefs about screening influenced how they made sense of the information. Discussion and conclusions  Participants valued information that offered them a choice in a non‐directive way, but were concerned that it would deter people from screening. Healthcare providers need to be aware that people respond to screening information in diverse ways involving a range of literacy skills and cognitive processes. PMID:22512746

  7. 77 FR 60605 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans from... combatting this devastating illness, more than 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this...

  8. 76 FR 62285 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8724 of October 3, 2011 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the... of our commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously... recent decades in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of breast cancer. Still, this...

  9. 77 FR 73667 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Small Grants for Behavioral Research in Cancer Control. Date: January 9-10, 2013. Time: 10...

  10. 78 FR 54737 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9006 of August 30, 2013 National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... commitment to curing childhood cancer and offers our support to the brave young people who are fighting this... forward. We are funding extensive research into the causes of childhood cancer and its safest and...

  11. 77 FR 55091 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8851 of August 31, 2012 National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By... lives taken too soon, stand with the families facing childhood cancer today, and rededicate ourselves to... understand, treat, and control childhood cancer. Thanks to ongoing advances in research and treatment, the...

  12. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8706 of September 1, 2011 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Prostate cancer is the second leading... only by the men living with and fighting prostate cancer, but also by their families, friends,...

  13. Report to the Nation shows cancer death rates dropping

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, shows that overall cancer death rates continued to decline in the United States among both men and women, among all major racial and ethnic groups, and for all of the most common cancer s

  14. Mesenteric ischemia after capecitabine treatment in rectal cancer and resultant short bowel syndrome is not an absolute contraindication for radical oncological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perpar, Ana; Brecelj, Erik; Kozjek, Nada Rotovnik; Anderluh, Franc; Oblak, Irena; Vidmar, Marija Skoblar; Velenik, Vaneja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Thrombotic events, arterial or venous in origin, still remain a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The propensity for their development in oncology patients is partially a consequence of the disease itself and partially a result of our attempts to treat it. One of the rarest and deadliest thromboembolic complications is arterial mesenteric ischemia. The high mortality rate is caused by its rarity and by its non-specific clinical presentation, both of which make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. Hence, most diagnoses and treatments occur late in the course of the disease. The issue survivors of arterial mesenteric ischemia may face is short bowel syndrome, which has become a chronic condition after the introduction of parenteral nutrition at home. Case report. We present a 73-year-old rectal cancer patient who developed acute arterial mesenteric thrombosis at the beginning of the pre-operative radiochemotherapy. Almost the entire length of his small intestine, except for the proximal 50 cm of it, and the ascending colon had to be resected. After multiorgan failure his condition improved, and he was able to successfully complete radical treatment (preoperative radiotherapy and surgery) for the rectal carcinoma, despite developing short bowel syndrome (SBS) and being dependent upon home-based parenteral nutrition to fully cover his nutritional needs. Conclusions. Mesenteric ischemia and resultant short bowel syndrome are not absolute contraindications for radical oncological treatment since such patients can still achieve long-term remission. PMID:26029030

  15. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  16. Influence of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel activity after laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ge, Bujun; Zhao, Hongmei; Lin, Rui; Wang, Jialiang; Chen, Quanning; Liu, Liming; Huang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    In some studies, gum-chewing was demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on resumption of bowel function; however, other contradictory findings in other studies refute the effects of gum-chewing on peristaltic movements and digestive system stimulation. In addition, most previous studies were after colorectal or gynecology surgery, whereas few reports focused on the effect of gum-chewing after gastrectomy. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel function in patients who had undergone laparoscopic gastrectomy. From March 2014 to March 2016, 75 patients with gastric cancer received elective laparoscopic surgery in Shanghai Tongji hospital and were postoperatively randomly divided into 2 groups: 38 in a gum-chewing (Gum) group and 37 in a control (No gum) group. The patients in the Gum group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily, each time for at least 15 minutes, until the day of postoperative exhaust defecation. The mean time to first flatus (83.4 ± 35.6 vs. 79.2 ± 24.2 hours; P = 0.554) and the mean time to first defecation (125.7 ± 41.2 vs. 115.4 ± 34.2 hours; P = 0.192) were no different between the no gum and Gum groups. There was also no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative ileus (P = 0.896) and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.109) between the 2 groups. The postoperative pain score at 48 hours (P = 0.032) in the Gum group was significantly higher than in the no gum group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in regards to patient demographics, comorbidities, duration of surgery, complications, and nausea/vomiting score. Gum-chewing after laparoscopic gastrectomy did not hasten the return of gastrointestinal function. In addition, gum-chewing may increase patient pain on the second postoperative day.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of GP endorsement on increasing participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The success and cost-effectiveness of bowel cancer screening depends on achieving and maintaining high screening uptake rates. The involvement of GPs in screening has been found to improve patient compliance. Therefore, the endorsement of screening by GPs may increase uptake rates amongst non-responders. Methods/Design A two-armed randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a GP endorsed reminder in improving patient participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP). Up to 30 general practices in the West Midlands with a screening uptake rate of less than 50% will be recruited and patients identified from the patient lists of these practices. Eligible patients will be those aged 60 to 74, who have previously been invited to participate in bowel screening but who have been recorded by the Midlands and North West Bowel Cancer Screening Hub as non-responders. Approximately 4,380 people will be randomised in equal numbers to either the intervention (GP letter and duplicate FOBt kit) or control (no additional contact) arms of the trial. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the uptake rate of FOBt screening for bowel cancer between the intervention and control groups at 13 weeks after the GP endorsed reminder and duplicate FOBt kit are sent. Secondary outcome measures will be subgroup analyses of uptake according to gender, age and deprivation quartile, and the validation of methods for collecting GP, NHSBCSP and patient costs associated with the intervention. Qualitative work (30 to 40 semi-structured interviews) will be undertaken with individuals in the intervention arm who return a FOBt kit, to investigate the relative importance of the duplicate FOBt kit, reminder to participate, and GP endorsement of that reminder in contributing to individuals' decisions to participate in screening. Discussion Implementing feasible, acceptable and cost-effective strategies to improve screening uptake amongst non

  18. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer Solutions AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research (OCNR), National...

  19. Impact of National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Centers on Ovarian Cancer Treatment and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Campos, Belinda; Chavez, Leo R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The regional impact of care at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCI-CCC) on adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) ovarian cancer treatment guidelines and survival is unclear. STUDY DESIGN We performed a retrospective population-based study of consecutive patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2006 in southern California. Patients were stratified according to care at an NCI-CCC (n = 5), non-NCI high-volume hospital (≥10 cases/year, HVH, n = 29), or low-volume hospital (<10 cases/year, LVH, n = 158). Multivariable logistic regression and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of NCI-CCC status on treatment guideline adherence and ovarian cancer-specific survival. RESULTS A total of 9,933 patients were identified (stage I, 22.8%; stage II, 7.9%; stage III, 45.1%; stage IV, 24.2%), and 8.1% of patients were treated at NCI-CCCs. Overall, 35.7% of patients received NCCN guideline adherent care, and NCI-CCC status (odds ratio [OR] 1.00) was an independent predictor of adherence to treatment guidelines compared with HVHs (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99) and LVHs (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.67). The median ovarian cancer-specific survivals according to hospital type were: NCI-CCC 77.9 (95% CI 61.4 to 92.9) months, HVH 51.9 (95% CI 49.2 to 55.7) months, and LVH 43.4 (95% CI 39.9 to 47.2) months (p < 0.0001). National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center status (hazard ratio [HR] 1.00) was a statistically significant and independent predictor of improved survival compared with HVH (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33) and LVH (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.47). CONCLUSIONS National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center status is an independent predictor of adherence to ovarian cancer treatment guidelines and improved ovarian cancer-specific survival. These data validate NCI-CCC status as a structural health care characteristic correlated with

  20. Impact of National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Centers on ovarian cancer treatment and survival.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Campos, Belinda; Chavez, Leo R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2015-05-01

    The regional impact of care at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCI-CCC) on adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) ovarian cancer treatment guidelines and survival is unclear. We performed a retrospective population-based study of consecutive patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2006 in southern California. Patients were stratified according to care at an NCI-CCC (n = 5), non-NCI high-volume hospital (≥ 10 cases/year, HVH, n = 29), or low-volume hospital (<10 cases/year, LVH, n = 158). Multivariable logistic regression and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of NCI-CCC status on treatment guideline adherence and ovarian cancer-specific survival. A total of 9,933 patients were identified (stage I, 22.8%; stage II, 7.9%; stage III, 45.1%; stage IV, 24.2%), and 8.1% of patients were treated at NCI-CCCs. Overall, 35.7% of patients received NCCN guideline adherent care, and NCI-CCC status (odds ratio [OR] 1.00) was an independent predictor of adherence to treatment guidelines compared with HVHs (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99) and LVHs (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.67). The median ovarian cancer-specific survivals according to hospital type were: NCI-CCC 77.9 (95% CI 61.4 to 92.9) months, HVH 51.9 (95% CI 49.2 to 55.7) months, and LVH 43.4 (95% CI 39.9 to 47.2) months (p < 0.0001). National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center status (hazard ratio [HR] 1.00) was a statistically significant and independent predictor of improved survival compared with HVH (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33) and LVH (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.47). National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center status is an independent predictor of adherence to ovarian cancer treatment guidelines and improved ovarian cancer-specific survival. These data validate NCI-CCC status as a structural health care characteristic correlated with superior ovarian cancer quality measure

  1. Micropapillary Bladder Cancer: Insights from the National Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Wilson; Matulay, Justin T.; James, Maxwell B.; Onyeji, Ifeanyi C.; Theofanides, Marissa C.; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; DeCastro, G. Joel; Wenske, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) is a variant histology of urothelial carcinoma (UC) that is associated with poor outcomes however given its rarity, little is known outside of institutional reports. We sought to use a population-level cancer database to assess survival outcomes in patients treated with surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for all cases of MPBC and UC using International Classification of Disease-O-3 morphologic codes between 2004–2014. Primary outcome was survival outcomes stratified by treatment modality. Treatments included radical cystectomy (RC) with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). Results: Overall 869 patients with MPBC and 389,603 patients with UC met the inclusion criteria. Median age of the MPBC cohort was 69.9 years (58.9–80.9) with the majority of the cohort presenting with high-grade (89.3%) and muscle invasive or locally advanced disease (47.6%). For cT1 MPBC, outcomes of RC and BPS were not statistically different. For≥cT2 disease, NAC showed a survival benefit compared with RC alone for UC but not for MPBC. On multivariable analysis, MPBC histology independently predicted worse increased risk of death. On subanalysis of the MPBC RC patients, NAC did not improve survival outcomes compared with RC alone. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization and early cystectomy did not show a survival benefit in patients with MPBC. This histology independently predicts decreased survival and prognosis is poor regardless of treatment modality. Further research should focus on developing better treatment options for this rare disease. PMID:28035322

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Irritable Bowel Syndrome Print A ... to minimize or prevent these symptoms. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a fairly common ...

  3. Investigation of body image as a mediator of the effects of bowel and GI symptoms on psychological distress in female survivors of rectal and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Catherine; Rodriguez, Vivian M; Carter, Jeanne; Temple, Larissa; Nelson, Christian; DuHamel, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    Treatment for rectal and anal cancer (RACa) can result in persistent bowel and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Body image problems may develop over time and exacerbate symptom-related distress. RACa survivors are an understudied group, however, and factors contributing to post-treatment well-being are not well understood. This study examined whether poorer body image explained the relation between symptom severity and psychological distress. Participants (N = 70) completed the baseline assessment of a sexual health intervention study. Bootstrap methods tested body image as a mediator between bowel and GI symptom severity and two indicators of psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), controlling for relevant covariates. Measures included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-CR38) Diarrhea, GI Symptoms, and Body Image subscales and Brief Symptom Index Depression and Anxiety subscales. Women averaged 55 years old (SD = 11.6), White (79 %), and were 4 years post-treatment. Greater Depression was related to poorer Body Image (r = -.61) and worse Diarrhea (r = .35) and GI Symptoms (r = .48). Greater Anxiety was related to poorer Body Image (r = -.42) and worse GI Symptoms (r = .45), but not Diarrhea (r = .20). Body Image mediated the effects of bowel and GI symptoms on Depression, but not on Anxiety. Long-term bowel and GI dysfunction are distressing and affect how women perceive and relate to their bodies, exacerbating survivorship difficulties. Interventions to improve adjustment post-treatment should address treatment side effects, but also target body image problems to alleviate depressive symptoms. Reducing anxiety may require other strategies. Body image may be a key modifiable factor to improve well-being in this understudied population. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm findings.

  4. Bowel Retraining: Strategies for Establishing Bowel Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jump to Topic Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Laxatives Tips on Finding a Doctor Bowel training ... Treatment Treatment Overview Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Hirschsprung's Disease Laxatives Stool Form Guide Tips on ...

  5. 76 FR 19257 - National Cancer Control Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Wednesday, No. 66 April 6, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8644 --National Cancer Control Month, 2011 Proclamation 8645 --National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 Proclamation 8646 --National Financial...

  6. 76 FR 11800 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings....m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of...

  7. 77 FR 2557 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2), notice is hereby given of the meeting of the National...

  8. 78 FR 2682 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2), notice is hereby given of the meeting of the National...

  9. 78 FR 48455 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National...

  10. Recommendations for a national agenda to substantially reduce cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Saslow, Debbie; Alexander, Kenneth; Chernofsky, Mildred R.; Crosby, Richard; Derting, Libby; Devlin, Leah; Dunton, Charles J.; Engle, Jeffrey; Fernandez, Maria; Fouad, Mona; Huh, Warner; Kinney, Walter; Pierce, Jennifer; Rios, Elena; Rothholz, Mitchel C.; Shlay, Judith C.; Shedd-Steele, Rivienne; Vernon, Sally W.; Walker, Joan; Wynn, Theresa; Zimet, Gregory D.; Casey, Baretta R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and new HPV screening tests, combined with traditional Pap test screening, provide an unprecedented opportunity to greatly reduce cervical cancer in the USA. Despite these advances, thousands of women continue to be diagnosed with and die of this highly preventable disease each year. This paper describes the initiatives and recommendations of national cervical cancer experts toward preventing and possibly eliminating this disease. Methods In May 2011, Cervical Cancer-Free America, a national initiative, convened a cervical cancer summit in Washington, DC. Over 120 experts from the public and private sector met to develop a national agenda for reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in the USA. Results Summit participants evaluated four broad challenges to reducing cervical cancer: (1) low use of HPV vaccines, (2) low use of cervical cancer screening, (3) screening errors, and (4) lack of continuity of care for women diagnosed with cervical cancer. The summit offered 12 concrete recommendations to guide future national and local efforts toward this goal. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be greatly reduced by better deploying existing methods and systems. The challenge lies in ensuring that the array of available prevention options are accessible and utilized by all age-appropriate women—particularly minority and underserved women who are disproportionately affected by this disease. The consensus was that cervical cancer can be greatly reduced and that prevention efforts can lead the way towards a dramatic reduction in this preventable disease in our country. PMID:23828553

  11. Benefit from exemestane as extended adjuvant therapy after 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen: intention-to-treat analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast And Bowel Project B-33 trial.

    PubMed

    Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Smith, Roy E; Ganz, Patricia A; Land, Stephanie R; Eisen, Andrea; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Farrar, William B; Atkins, James N; Pajon, Eduardo R; Vogel, Victor G; Kroener, Joan F; Hutchins, Laura F; Robidoux, André; Hoehn, James L; Ingle, James N; Geyer, Charles E; Costantino, Joseph P; Wolmark, Norman

    2008-04-20

    Patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer have considerable residual risk for recurrence after completing 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. In May 2001, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) initiated accrual to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the steroidal aromatase inhibitor exemestane as extended adjuvant therapy in this setting. Postmenopausal patients with clinical T(1-3)N(1)M(0) breast cancer who were disease free after 5 years of tamoxifen were randomly assigned to 5 years of exemestane (25 mg/d orally) or 5 years of placebo. Our primary aim was to test whether exemestane prolongs disease-free survival (DFS). In October 2003, results of National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) MA.17 showing benefit from adjuvant letrozole in this setting necessitated termination of accrual to B-33, unblinding, and offering of exemestane to patients in the placebo group. At the time of unblinding, 1,598 patients had been randomly assigned; 72% in the exemestane group continued on exemestane and 44% in the placebo group elected to receive exemestane. With 30 months of median follow-up, original exemestane assignment resulted in a borderline statistically significant improvement in 4-year DFS (91% v 89%; relative risk [RR] = 0.68; P = .07) and in a statistically significant improvement in 4-year relapse-free survival (RFS; 96% v 94%; RR = 0.44; P = .004). Toxicity, assessed up to time of unblinding, was acceptable for the adjuvant setting. Despite premature closure and crossover to exemestane by a substantial proportion of patients, original exemestane assignment resulted in non-statistically significant improvement in DFS and in statistically significant improvement in RFS.

  12. National CT Colonography Trial (ACRIN 6664): Comparison of Three Full-Laxative Bowel Preparations in More Than 2500 Average-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Amy K.; Kuo, Mark D.; Blevins, Meridith; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Yee, Judy; Dachman, Abraham; Menias, Christine O.; Siewert, Betina; Cheema, Jugesh I.; Obregon, Richard G.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Zimmerman, Peter; Horton, Karen M.; Coakley, Kevin; Iyer, Revathy B.; Halvorsen, Robert A.; Casola, Giovanna; Johnson, C. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to compare the effect of three different full-laxative bowel preparations on patient compliance, residual stool and fluid, reader confidence, and polyp detection at CT colonography (CTC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 2531 patients underwent CTC followed by colonoscopy for the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) National CTC Trial. Of this total, 2525 patients used one of three bowel preparations with bisacodyl tablets and stool and fluid tagging: 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG); 90 mL of phosphosoda; or 300 mL of magnesium citrate. Patients reported percent compliance with the bowel preparation and radiologists graded each CTC examination for the amount of residual fluid and stool on a scale from 1 (none) to 4 (nondiagnostic). Reader confidence for true-positive findings was reported on a 5-point scale: 1 (low) to 5 (high). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting polyps ≥ 6 mm and ≥ 1 cm compared with colonoscopy were calculated for each preparation. RESULTS The most commonly prescribed preparation was phosphosoda (n = 1403) followed by PEG (n = 1020) and magnesium citrate (n = 102). Phosphosoda had the highest patient compliance (p = 0.01), least residual stool (p < 0.001), and highest reader confidence versus PEG for examinations with polyps (p = 0.06). Magnesium citrate had significantly more residual fluid compared with PEG and phosphosoda (p = 0.006). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting colon polyps ≥ 6 mm and ≥ 1 cm did not differ significantly between preparations. CONCLUSION Polyp detection was comparable for all three preparations, although phosphosoda had significantly higher patient compliance and the least residual stool. PMID:21512073

  13. Nearly a Third of High-Grade Dysplasia and Colorectal Cancer Is Undetected in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Eluri, Swathi; Parian, Alyssa M; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Ha, Christina Y; Brant, Steven R; Dudley-Brown, Sharon; Efron, Jonathan E; Fang, Sandy G; Gearhart, Susan L; Marohn, Michael R; Meltzer, Stephen J; Bashar, Safar; Truta, Brindusa; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Lazarev, Mark G

    2017-06-19

    It is unclear whether intensive surveillance protocols have resulted in a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To determine the prevalence and characteristics of IBD associated high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or CRC that was undetected on prior colonoscopy. This is a single-center, retrospective study from 1994 to 2013. All participants had a confirmed IBD diagnosis and underwent a colectomy with either HGD or CRC found in the colectomy specimen.The undetected group had no HGD or CRC on prior colonoscopies. The detected group had HGD or CRC identified on previous biopsies. Of 70 participants, with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 47), Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 21), and indeterminate colitis (n = 2), 29% (n = 20) had undetected HGD/CRC at colectomy (15 HGD and 5 CRC). In the undetected group, 75% had prior LGD, 15% had indefinite dysplasia, and 10% had no dysplasia (HGD was found in colonic strictures). Patients in the undetected group were more likely to have pancolitis (55 vs. 20%) and multifocal dysplasia (35 vs. 8%). The undetected group was less likely to have CRC at colectomy (25 vs. 62%). There was a trend toward right-sided HGD/CRC at colectomy (40 vs. 20%; p = 0.08). In addition, 84% of the lesions found in the rectum at colectomy were not seen on prior colonoscopy in the undetected group. The prevalence of previously undetected HGD/CRC in IBD found at colectomy was 29%. The high proportion of undetected rectal and right-sided HGD/CRC suggests that these areas may need greater attention during surveillance.

  14. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N.; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N.; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  15. Predictors of grade 3 or higher late bowel toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation for cervical cancer: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates relationship between dose-volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct comparison of Seprafilm® versus Adept ® versus no additive for reducing the risk of small-bowel obstruction in colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Suk; Baek, Jeong Heum; Lee, Woon Kee

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of using sodium hyaluronate-based bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm(®)) versus 4 % icodextrin solution (Adept(®)) versus no additive intraoperatively and to prevent postoperative small-bowel obstruction in patients undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. The subjects of this retrospective study were 454 patients, who underwent CRC surgery between February 2007 and January 2010. Among the 454 enrolled patients, 114 patients received Seprafilm(®), 180 patients received Adept(®), and 160 patients received no additive, based on the year of their surgery. The overall incidences of small-bowel obstruction were 8.8, 4.3, and 6.9 %, for the Adept(®), Seprafilm(®), and no additive (control) groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the Adept(®) group than in the Seprafilm(®) and control groups (Adept(®) vs. Seprafilm(®), P = 0.043; Adept(®) vs. control group, P = 0.002). No significant difference was found between the Seprafilm group and the control group (P = 0.549). Adept(®) solution and Seprafilm(®) did not alter the liver and renal function, as assessed by blood chemistry. The use of Adept(®) significantly increased the incidence of small-bowel obstruction in patients undergoing CRC surgery.

  17. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population.

  18. The National LGBT Cancer Action Plan: A White Paper of the 2014 National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities

    PubMed Central

    Margolies, Liz; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli; Walland, Jonathan; Radix, Asa; Rice, David; Buchting, Francisco O.; Sanchez, Nelson F.; Bare, Michael G.; Boehmer, Ulrike; Cahill, Sean; Griebling, Tomas L.; Bruessow, Diane; Maingi, Shail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite growing social acceptance of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender (LGBT) persons and the extension of marriage rights for same-sex couples, LGBT persons experience stigma and discrimination, including within the healthcare system. Each population within the LGBT umbrella term is likely at elevated risk for cancer due to prevalent, significant cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use and human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, cancer incidence and mortality data among LGBT persons are lacking. This absence of cancer incidence data impedes research and policy development, LGBT communities' awareness and activation, and interventions to address cancer disparities. In this context, in 2014, a 2-day National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities was convened by a planning committee for the purpose of accelerating progress in identifying and addressing the LGBT communities' concerns and needs in the spheres of cancer research, clinical cancer care, healthcare policy, and advocacy for cancer survivorship and LGBT health equity. Summit participants were 56 invited persons from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada, representatives of diverse identities, experiences, and knowledge about LGBT communities and cancer. Participants shared lessons learned and identified gaps and remedies regarding LGBT cancer concerns across the cancer care continuum from prevention to survivorship. This white paper presents background on each of the Summit themes and 16 recommendations covering the following: sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in national and state health surveys and research on LGBT communities and cancer, the clinical care of LGBT persons, and the education and training of healthcare providers.

  19. Investigation of Body Image as a Mediator of the Effects of Bowel and GI Symptoms on Psychological Distress in Female Survivors of Rectal and Anal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Catherine; Rodriguez, Vivian M.; Carter, Jeanne; Temple, Larissa; Nelson, Christian; DuHamel, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment for rectal and anal cancer (RACa) can result in persistent bowel and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Body image problems may develop over time and exacerbate symptom-related distress. RACa survivors are an understudied group, however, and factors contributing to post-treatment well-being are not well understood. This study examined whether poorer body image explained the relation between symptom severity and psychological distress. Methods Participants (N=70) completed the baseline assessment of a sexual health intervention study. Bootstrap methods tested body image as a mediator between bowel and GI symptom severity and two indicators of psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), controlling for relevant covariates. Measures included the EORTC-QLQ-CR38 Diarrhea, GI Symptoms, and Body Image subscales and Brief Symptom Index Depression and Anxiety subscales. Results Women averaged 55 years old (SD=11.6), White (79%), and 4-years post-treatment. Greater Depression related to poorer body image (r=−.61) and worse diarrhea (r=.35) and GI symptoms (r=.48). Greater Anxiety related to poorer body image (r=−.42) and worse GI symptoms (r=.45), but not diarrhea (r=.20). Body image mediated the effects of bowel and GI symptoms on Depression, but not on Anxiety. Conclusions Long-term bowel and GI dysfunction are distressing and affect how women perceive and relate to their bodies, exacerbating survivorship difficulties. Interventions to improve adjustment post-treatment should address treatment side effects, but also target body image problems to alleviate depressive symptoms. Reducing anxiety may require other strategies. Body image may be a key modifiable factor to improve well-being in this understudied population. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm findings. PMID:26446699

  20. 76 FR 1625 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development, Career Development. Date: February 22-23, 2011. Time: February 22, 2011, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  1. 75 FR 48699 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development, NCI-I Career Development. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  2. 76 FR 80374 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group... the Institute's/Center's home page: http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/irg/irg.htm , where an...

  3. 77 FR 26301 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-05-03

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Tumor Cells Diagnostic Nanotechnology. Date...). Contact Person: Virginia P. Wray, Ph.D., Deputy Chief, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of...., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities,...

  4. 78 FR 54261 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., 2013, 09:00 a.m. to September 24, 2013, 04:00 p.m., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), Room E111, 8560 Progress Drive, Frederick, MD 21702 which...

  5. 78 FR 26379 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-05-06

    ... Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9609 Medical Center Drive....D., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Garden Inn and Homewood Suites,...

  6. 78 FR 3901 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-01-17

    ...: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, ] 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8135, Bethesda, MD...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville...

  7. 77 FR 12318 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP). Date: April 10... 20852. Contact Person: Tracy G. Lively, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, Clinical Assay Development Program...

  8. [Legislation of cancer registries in Japan- an outline of the national cancer registry].

    PubMed

    Nishino, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    The national cancer registry in Japan will commence operations in January 2016 under the Cancer Registry Promotion Act, which was established in December 2013. Although data on cancer incidence and survival rates in Japan have been available for limited regions for a long time, accurate nationwide data obtained from the national cancer registry database will contribute to the planning and evaluation of cancer control in Japan. It is expected that this database will be utilized in evaluating the quality of medical care for cancer patients, in assessing the accuracy of cancer screening, and in follow-up surveys in nationwide cohort studies. Furthermore, under the Cancer Registry Promotion Act, hospitals will be permitted to obtain vital patient information from data registered in the national cancer registry database, which will promote the publication of survival rates for cancer patients and accelerate research at hospitals. The founding of the Japanese national cancer registry is a landmark development in the promotion of cancer control and cancer research in Japan and it is essential that the Japanese population benefits from the information obtained from this database.

  9. CAD of colon cancer on CT colonography cases without cathartic bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Linguraru, Marius George; Zhao, Shan; Van Uitert, Robert L; Liu, Jiamin; Fletcher, Joel G; Manduca, Armando; Summers, Ronald M

    2008-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems must show sufficient versatility to produce robust analysis on a large variety of data. In the case of colonography, CAD has not been designed to cope with the presence of stool, although labeling the stool with high contrast agents replaces the use of laxatives and reduces the patient discomfort. This procedure introduces additional challenges for the diagnosis, such as poorly tagged stool, stool sticking to colonic walls, and heterogeneous stool (tagged stool mixed with air or untagged stool). Our study proposes a robust algorithm for heterogeneous stool removal to be employed as a preprocessing module for CAD systems in colonic cancer detection. Colonoscopy data are automatically cleansed of residual stool to enhance the polyp appearance for improved diagnosis. The algorithm uses expectation-maximization, quadratic regression, level sets and minimum variance. Results show stool removal accuracy on polyps which are partially or fully covered by stool. The results are robust on stool lining and large pools of heterogeneous and weakly-tagged stool. The automatic detection of colon polyps using our CAD system on cathartic-free data improves considerably with the addition of the automatic stool removal module from 74% to 86% true positive (TP) rate at 6.4 false positives (FP)/case.

  10. Risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a nationwide population-based cohort study with 30 years of follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, Michael D; Farkas, Dora K; Long, Millie D; Erichsen, Rune; Sandler, Robert S; Sørensen, Henrik T; Baron, John A

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding the risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed to understand the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and their treatments. We performed a nationwide historical cohort study using Danish health care databases. We identified patients with a diagnosis of CD or UC, recorded from 1978 through 2010, and followed them up until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer incidence in CD and UC patients with that expected in the general population. Excluding cancers diagnosed within 1 year of IBD diagnosis, 772 cases of invasive cancer occurred among 13,756 patients with CD (SIR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4) and 2331 occurred among 35,152 patients with UC (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). CD was associated weakly with gastrointestinal cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and extraintestinal cancers (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), with the strongest associations for hematologic malignancies (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), smoking-related cancers (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8), and melanoma (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Associations between UC and gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers were weaker (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; and SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, respectively). The relative risk of extraintestinal cancers among patients with IBD was relatively stable over time, although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers decreased. Patients with IBD, particularly CD, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. The relative risk of gastrointestinal malignancy has decreased since 1978, without a concomitant increase in the risk of nongastrointestinal malignancy. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictive proteomic biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease-associated cancer: Where are we now in the era of the next generation proteomics?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Na Young; Han, Young-Min; Chung, Mi Kyung; Lee, Hoo Keun; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic medicine have opened up the possibility of tailored medicine that may eventually replace traditional “one-size-fits all” approaches to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to exploring the interactions between hosts and microbes, referred to as the microbiome, a variety of strategies that can be tailored to an individual in the coming era of personalized medicine in the treatment of IBD are being investigated. These include prompt genomic screening of patients at risk of developing IBD, the utility of molecular discrimination of IBD subtypes among patients diagnosed with IBD, and the discovery of proteome biomarkers to diagnose or predict cancer risks. Host genetic factors influence the etiology of IBD, as do microbial ecosystems in the human bowel, which are not uniform, but instead represent many different microhabitats that can be influenced by diet and might affect processes essential to bowel metabolism. Further advances in basic research regarding intestinal inflammation may reveal new insights into the role of inflammatory mediators, referred to as the inflammasome, and the macromolecular complex of metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria. Collectively, knowledge of the inflammasome and metagenomics will lead to the development of biomarkers for IBD that target specific pathogenic mechanisms involved in the spontaneous progress of IBD. In this review article, our recent results regarding the discovery of potential proteomic biomarkers using a label-free quantification technique are introduced and on-going projects contributing to either the discrimination of IBD subtypes or to the prediction of cancer risks are accompanied by updated information from IBD biomarker research. PMID:25309077

  12. Essential medicines for cancer: WHO recommendations and national priorities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jane; Barr, Ronald; Shulman, Lawrence N; Forte, Gilles B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine, for essential anti-cancer medicines, the alignment of national lists of essential medicines and national reimbursable medicines lists with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Model Lists. Methods National medicine lists for 135 countries with per-capita gross national incomes below 25 000 United States dollars in 2015 were compared with WHO’s 2013 and 2015 Model Lists of Essential Medicines. Correlations between numbers of anti-cancer medicines included in national lists and gross national income (GNI), government health expenditure and number of physicians per 1000 population were evaluated. Findings Of the 25 anti-cancer medicines on the 2013 Model List and the 16 added via the 2015 revision of the Model List, 0–25 (median: 17) and 0–15 (median: 3) appeared in national lists, respectively. There was considerable variability in these numbers within and between World Bank income groups. Of the 16 new medicines included in the 2015 Model List, for example, 0–10 (median: 1) and 2–15 (median: 10) were included in the national lists of low-income and high-income countries, respectively. The numbers of these new medicines included in national lists were significantly correlated (P ≤ 0.0001) with per-capita GNI (r = 0.45), per-capita annual government health expenditure (r = 0.33) and number of physicians per 1000 population (r = 0.48). Twenty-one countries (16%) included the targeted anti-cancer medicines imatinib, rituximab and trastuzumab in their national lists. Conclusion Substantial numbers of anti-cancer medicines are included in national lists of low- and middle-income countries but the availability, affordability, accessibility and administration feasibility of these medicines, at country-level, need assessment. PMID:27843163

  13. 75 FR 26968 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Emphasis Panel; Adult Brain Tumor Consortium. Date: May 20, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To...

  14. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Subcommittee I--Career Development, June 28,...

  15. 78 FR 64958 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Subcommittee J--Career Development, October...

  16. 77 FR 59935 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Subcommittee J--Career Development, November...

  17. 75 FR 79009 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice... Therapeutics Program (NExT), January 6, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin.... This notice is amending the location of the meeting from the Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin...

  18. 77 FR 22580 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meeting...

  19. 76 FR 5595 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meeting...

  20. 78 FR 10622 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific...

  1. 76 FR 73653 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting...

  2. 77 FR 28613 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meeting...

  3. 75 FR 5092 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meeting...

  4. 76 FR 76981 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meeting...

  5. 77 FR 68136 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice... Communications will convene at the same location on November 28, 2012, however, the start and end times have...

  6. 78 FR 78982 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person...: February 4, 2014. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: Ongoing and New Activities at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. Place: National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive,...

  7. 78 FR 59362 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as ] amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings....

  8. 75 FR 68611 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... given of the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public as... Board. Open: December 7, 2010, 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Agenda: Program reports and presentations; business of the Board. Place: National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C Wing,...

  9. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  10. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  11. 77 FR 21787 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The...

  12. 77 FR 56215 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  13. 78 FR 10622 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of...

  14. 77 FR 55849 - National Cancer Institute ;Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ;Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  15. 75 FR 63493 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  16. 78 FR 64229 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The...

  17. 78 FR 25459 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The...

  18. 78 FR 64222 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The...

  19. 78 FR 7790 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The...

  20. 78 FR 25459 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The...