Science.gov

Sample records for national carbon storage

  1. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  2. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  3. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Varela, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

  4. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources. Its data and results are reported in three publications: the assessment data publication (this report), the assessment results publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a, USGS Circular 1386), and the assessment summary publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013b, USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3020). This data publication supports the results publication and contains (1) individual storage assessment unit (SAU) input data forms with all input parameters and details on the allocation of the SAU surface land area by State and general land-ownership category; (2) figures representing the distribution of all storage classes for each SAU; (3) a table containing most input data and assessment result values for each SAU; and (4) a pairwise correlation matrix specifying geological and methodological dependencies between SAUs that are needed for aggregation of results.

  5. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  6. New insights into the nation's carbon storage potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a method of securing carbon dioxide (CO2) to prevent its release into the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming as a greenhouse gas. Geologic storage of CO2 in porous and permeable rocks involves injecting high-pressure CO2 into a subsurface rock unit that has available pore space. Biologic carbon sequestration refers to both natural and anthropogenic processes by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored as carbon in vegetation, soils, and sediments.

  7. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  8. National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources -- Trends and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buursink, M. L.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Drake, R., II; Merrill, M. D.; Roberts-Ashby, T. L.; Slucher, E. R.; Warwick, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins or study areas were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the USGS assessment methodology. The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons. To augment the release of the assessment, this study reviews input estimates and output results as a part of the resource calculation. Included in this study are a collection of both cross-plots and maps to demonstrate our trends and interpretations. Alongside the assessment, the input estimates were examined for consistency between SAUs and cross-plotted to verify expected trends, such as decreasing storage formation porosity with increasing SAU depth, for instance, and to show a positive correlation between storage formation porosity and permeability estimates. Following the assessment, the output results were examined for correlation with selected input estimates. For example, there exists a positive correlation between CO2 density and the TASR, and between storage formation porosity and the TASR, as expected. These correlations, in part, serve to verify our estimates for the geologic variables. The USGS assessment concluded that the Coastal Plains Region of the eastern and southeastern United States contains the largest storage resource. Within the Coastal Plains Region, the storage resources from the U.S. Gulf Coast study area represent 59 percent of the national CO2 storage capacity

  9. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and to consult with other Federal and State agencies to locate the pertinent geological data needed for the assessment. The geologic sequestration of CO2 is one possible way to mitigate its effects on climate change. The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment (Open-File Report 2010-1127; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) is based on previous USGS probabilistic oil and gas assessment methodologies. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. The operational unit of the assessment is a storage assessment unit (SAU), composed of a porous storage formation with fluid flow and an overlying sealing unit with low permeability. Assessments are conducted at the SAU level and are aggregated to basinal and regional results. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of SAUs in separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the assessed basin and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  12. Illustrative national scale scenarios of environmental and human health impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tzanidakis, Konstantinos; Oxley, Tim; Cockerill, Tim; ApSimon, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Integrated Assessment, and the development of strategies to reduce the impacts of air pollution, has tended to focus only upon the direct emissions from different sources, with the indirect emissions associated with the full life-cycle of a technology often overlooked. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technologies designed to reduce CO2 emissions, but which may have much broader environmental implications than greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers a wider range of pollutants from a full life-cycle perspective, illustrating a methodology for assessing environmental impacts using source-apportioned effects based impact factors calculated by the national scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). Contrasting illustrative scenarios for the deployment of CCS towards 2050 are presented which compare the life-cycle effects of air pollutant emissions upon human health and ecosystems of business-as-usual, deployment of CCS and widespread uptake of IGCC for power generation. Together with estimation of the transboundary impacts we discuss the benefits of an effects based approach to such assessments in relation to emissions based techniques.

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage Database (CCS) from DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NETL's Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Database includes active, proposed, canceled, and terminated CCS projects worldwide. Information in the database regarding technologies being developed for capture, evaluation of sites for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, estimation of project costs, and anticipated dates of completion is sourced from publically available information. The CCS Database provides the public with information regarding efforts by various industries, public groups, and governments towards development and eventual deployment of CCS technology. The database contains more than 260 CCS projects worldwide in more than 30 countries across 6 continents. Access to the database requires use of Google Earth, as the NETL CCS database is a layer in Google Earth. Or, users can download a copy of the database in MS-Excel directly from the NETL website.

  15. Carbon storage in US wetlands.

    PubMed

    Nahlik, A M; Fennessy, M S

    2016-12-13

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites-indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  16. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites—indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change. PMID:27958272

  17. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  18. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt: Chapter E in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows up on previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of 14 storage assessment units (SAUs) in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and eight SAUs in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt (WIUTB). The GGRB and WIUTB are contiguous with nearly identical geologic units; however, the GGRB is larger in size, whereas the WIUTB is more structurally complex. This report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries, as well as their sealing and reservoir units, are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are typically provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. This geologic information was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of variably attributed well data and a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling.

  19. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming: Chapter C in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rock within the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins of Wyoming. It focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data in a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  20. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  1. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  2. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Permian and Palo Duro Basins and Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin: Chapter K in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resource in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report is the geologic framework document for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins, the combined Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin area, and subbasins therein of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In addition to a summarization of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Though appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of inputs selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial files of boundaries for the SAUs herein, as well as maps of the density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  3. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  4. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Columbia Basin of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and the Western Oregon-Washington basins: Chapter D in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks within the Columbia, Puget, Willapa, Astoria, Nehalem, and Willamette Basins of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. The designated sealing unit in the Columbia Basin is tentatively chosen to be the ubiquitous and thick Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. As a result of uncertainties regarding the seal integrity of the Columbia River Basalt Group, the SAUs were not quantitatively assessed. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on the cell maps.

  5. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  6. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources─South Florida Basin: Chapter L in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2015-08-26

    This report presents five storage assessment units (SAUs) that have been identified as potentially suitable for geologic carbon dioxide sequestration within a 35,075-square-mile area that includes the entire onshore and State-water portions of the South Florida Basin. Platform-wide, thick successions of laterally extensive carbonates and evaporites deposited in highly cyclic depositional environments in the South Florida Basin provide several massive, porous carbonate reservoirs that are separated by evaporite seals. For each storage assessment unit identified within the basin, the areal distribution of the reservoir-seal couplet identified as suitable for geologic Carbon dioxide sequestration is presented, along with a description of the geologic characteristics that influence the potential carbon dioxide storage volume and reservoir performance. On a case-by-case basis, strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are also discussed. Geologic information presented in this report has been employed to calculate potential storage capacities for carbon dioxide sequestration in the storage assessment units assessed herein, although complete assessment results are not contained in this report.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  8. U.S. DOE methodology for the development of geologic storage potential for carbon dioxide at the national and regional scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, Angela; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Bromhal, Grant; Deel, Dawn; Rodosta, Traci; Frailey, Scott; Small, Michael; Allen, Doug; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Fazio, Jim; Huerta, Nicolas; McIntyre, Dustin; Kutchko, Barbara; Guthrie, George

    2011-01-01

    A detailed description of the United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) methodology for estimating CO2 storage potential for oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, and unmineable coal seams is provided. The oil and gas reservoirs are assessed at the field level, while saline formations and unmineable coal seams are assessed at the basin level. The US-DOE methodology is intended for external users such as the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs), future project developers, and governmental entities to produce high-level CO2 resource assessments of potential CO2 storage reservoirs in the United States and Canada at the regional and national scale; however, this methodology is general enough that it could be applied globally. The purpose of the US-DOE CO2 storage methodology, definitions of storage terms, and a CO2 storage classification are provided. Methodology for CO2 storage resource estimate calculation is outlined. The Log Odds Method when applied with Monte Carlo Sampling is presented in detail for estimation of CO2 storage efficiency needed for CO2 storage resource estimates at the regional and national scale. CO2 storage potential reported in the US-DOE's assessment are intended to be distributed online by a geographic information system in NatCarb and made available as hard-copy in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. US-DOE's methodology will be continuously refined, incorporating results of the Development Phase projects conducted by the RCSPs from 2008 to 2018. Estimates will be formally updated every two years in subsequent versions of the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  9. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Denver Basin, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska: Chapter G in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Brennan, Sean T.; Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    This is a report about the geologic characteristics of five storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Denver Basin of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. These SAUs are Cretaceous in age and include (1) the Plainview and Lytle Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Greenhorn Limestone, (4) the Niobrara Formation and Codell Sandstone, and (5) the Terry and Hygiene Sandstone Members. The described characteristics, as specified in the methodology, affect the potential carbon dioxide storage resource in the SAUs. The specific geologic and petrophysical properties of interest include depth to the top of the storage formation, average thickness, net-porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and the area of structural reservoir traps. Descriptions of the SAU boundaries and the overlying sealing units are also included. Assessment results are not contained in this report; however, the geologic information included here will be used to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage volume in the SAUs.

  10. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: U.S. Gulf Coast: Chapter H in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Buursink, Marc L.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Edited by Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents 27 storage assessment units (SAUs) within the United States (U.S.) Gulf Coast. The U.S. Gulf Coast contains a regionally extensive, thick succession of clastics, carbonates, salts, and other evaporites that were deposited in a highly cyclic depositional environment that was subjected to a fluctuating siliciclastic sediment supply and transgressive and regressive sea levels. At least nine major depositional packages contain porous strata that are potentially suitable for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration within the region. For each SAU identified within these packages, the areal distribution of porous rock that is suitable for geologic CO2 sequestration is discussed, along with a description of the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net-porous thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Additionally, a characterization of the overlying regional seal for each SAU is presented. On a case-by-case basis, strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are also presented. Geologic information presented in this report has been employed to calculate potential storage capacities for CO2 sequestration in the SAUs that are assessed herein, although complete assessment results are not contained in this report.

  11. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  12. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  13. [Characteristics of carbon storage of Inner Mongolia forests: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Li, Sheng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    Forests in Inner Mongolia account for an important part of the forests in China in terms of their large area and high living standing volume. This study reported carbon storage, carbon density, carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia using the biomass carbon data from the related literature. Through analyzing the data of forest inventory and the generalized allometric equations between volume and biomass, previous studies had reported that biomass carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia was about 920 Tg C, which was 12 percent of the national forest carbon storage, the annual average growth rate was about 1.4%, and the average of carbon density was about 43 t · hm(-2). Carbon storage and carbon density showed an increasing trend over time. Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest and Betula platyphylla forest had higher carbon sequestration capacities. Carbon storage was reduced due to human activities such as thinning and clear cutting. There were few studies on carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia with focus on the soil, showing that the soil car- bon density increased with the stand age. Study on the carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems was still less. Further study was required to examine dynamics of carbon storage in forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, i. e., to assess carbon storage in the forest soils together with biomass carbon storage, to compute biomass carbon content of species organs as 45% in the allometric equations, to build more species-specific and site-specific allometric equations including root biomass for different dominant species, and to take into account the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential.

  14. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  15. Is soil carbon storage underestimated?

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, José Luis

    2010-06-01

    An accurate evaluation of the carbon stored in soils is essential to fully understand the role of soils as source or sink of atmospheric CO(2), as well as the feedback processes involved in soil-atmosphere CO(2) exchange. Depth and strategies of sampling have been, and still are, sources of uncertainties, because most current estimates of carbon storage in soils are based on conventional soil surveys and data sets compiled primarily for agricultural purposes. In a study of the Guadix-Baza basin, a semiarid area of southern Spain, sizeable amounts of carbon have been found stored in the subsoil. Total carbon estimated within 2-m was 141.3 kg Cm(-2) compared to 36.1 kg Cm(-2) if estimates were based solely on conventional soil depths (e.g. 40-cm in Regosols and 100-cm in Fluvisols). Thus, the insufficient sampling depth could lead to considerable underestimation of global soil carbon. In order to correctly evaluate the carbon content in world soils, more specific studies must be planned and carried out, especially in those soils where caliche and other carbonated cemented horizons are present.

  16. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  17. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology of earlier work, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Wells sharing the same well borehole are treated as a single penetration. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  18. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Williston Basin, Central Montana Basins, and Montana Thrust Belt study areas: Chapter J in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Craddock, William H.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    Figures in this report show the study area boundaries along with the SAU extent and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The USGS does not necessarily know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the full extent of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on the cell maps.

  19. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Alaska North Slope and Kandik Basin, Alaska: Chapter I in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Buursink, Marc L.; Covault, Jacob A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven N.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    For each SAU in both of the basins, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 sequestration reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein was employed to calculate the potential storage volume in the various SAUs. Lastly, in this report, we present the rationale for not conducting assessment work in fifteen sedimentary basins distributed across the Alaskan interior and within Alaskan State waters.

  20. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  1. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A.; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S.; Rocha, Mariana F.; Lima, Renato A. F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage. PMID:26824067

  2. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2016-10-12

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future.

  3. Sociology: Learning lessons on carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, David

    2011-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage demonstration projects are focused on learning about technologies through conventional 'learning by doing'. Analysis of three case studies indicates that including other types of learning could bring significant rewards.

  4. Storage stability of ketones on carbon adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Alcaraz, M J; Fuentes, A; Garrido, J; Periago, J F

    2006-09-29

    Activated coconut carbon constitutes the more widely used sorbent for preconcentration of volatile organic compounds in sampling workplace air. Water vapour is always present in the air and its adsorption on the activated carbon surface is a serious drawback, mainly when sampling polar organic compounds, such as ketones. In this case, the recovery of the compounds diminishes; moreover, ketones can be decomposed during storage. Synthetic carbons contain less inorganic impurities and have a lower capacity for water adsorption than coconut charcoal. The aim of this work was to evaluate the storage stability of various ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and cyclohexanone) on different activated carbons and to study the effect of adsorbed water vapour under different storage conditions. The effect of storage temperature on extraction efficiencies was significant for each ketone in all the studied sorbents. Recovery was higher when samples were stored at 4 degrees C. The results obtained for storage stability of the studied ketones showed that the performance of synthetic carbons was better than for the coconut charcoals. The water adsorption and the ash content of the carbons can be a measure of the reactive sites that may chemisorb ketones or catalize their decomposition. Anasorb 747 showed good ketone stability at least for 7 days, except for cyclohexanone. After 30-days storage, the stability of the studied ketones was excellent on Carboxen 564. This sorbent had a nearly negligible ash content and the adsorbed water was much lower than for the other sorbents tested.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Sam

    2007-04-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a technology that could be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from large industrial installations such as fossil fuel-fired power stations by 80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial plant, its transport to a geological storage site and its long-term isolation in a geological storage reservoir. The technology has aroused considerable interest because it can help reduce emissions from fossil fuels which are likely to remain the dominant source of primary energy for decades to come. The main issues for the technology are cost and its implications for financing new or retrofitted plants, and the security of underground storage.

  6. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  7. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  8. Prospects for carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Soren Anderson; Richard Newell

    2003-01-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies remove carbon dioxide from flue gases for storage in geologic formations or the ocean. The study found that CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive within the range of carbon policies discussed domestically and internationally. Current costs are about $200 to $250 per ton of carbon, although costs are sensitive to fuel prices and other assumptions and could be reduced significantly through technical improvements. Near-term prospects favor CCS for certain industrial sources and electric power plants, with storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Deep aquifers may provide an attractive longer-term storage option, whereas ocean storage poses greater technical and environmental uncertainty. Vast quantities of economically recoverable fossil fuels, sizable political obstacles to their abandonment, and inherent delay associated with developing alternative energy sources suggest that CCS should be seriously considered in the portfolio of options for addressing climate change, alongside energy efficiency and carbon-free energy. 61 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  10. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  11. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  12. Metal assisted carbon cold storage of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, J.A.

    1988-01-05

    This patent describes a method of storing hydrogen by sorption on a composite formed of carbon and a transition metal, comprising the steps of contacting gaseous hydrogen with a storage medium formed of high surface area activated carbon combined with an active transition metal in elemental form capable of dissociating the hydrogen, physisorbing the hydrogen on the storage medium, and storing the sorbed hydrogen by maintaining the pressure at or above one bar and maintaining the temperature of the medium in a cold temperature range below 293 K.

  13. Hydrogen storage on activated carbon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The project studied factors that influence the ability of carbon to store hydrogen and developed techniques to enhance that ability in naturally occurring and factory-produced commercial carbon materials. During testing of enhanced materials, levels of hydrogen storage were achieved that compare well with conventional forms of energy storage, including lead-acid batteries, gasoline, and diesel fuel. Using the best materials, an electric car with a modern fuel cell to convert the hydrogen directly to electricity would have a range of over 1,000 miles. This assumes that the total allowable weight of the fuel cell and carbon/hydrogen storage system is no greater than the present weight of batteries in an existing electric vehicle. By comparison, gasoline cars generally are limited to about a 450-mile range, and battery-electric cars to 40 to 60 miles. The project also developed a new class of carbon materials, based on polymers and other organic compounds, in which the best hydrogen-storing factors discovered earlier were {open_quotes}molecularly engineered{close_quotes} into the new materials. It is believed that these new molecularly engineered materials are likely to exceed the performance of the naturally occurring and manufactured carbons seen earlier with respect to hydrogen storage.

  14. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  15. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  16. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    Fossil fuels can be burned to provide on-demand energy at any time, but cleaner renewable energy sources such as the sun and wind are intermittent. Energy storage systems, then, that are efficient and also economical and environmentally benign are key to a future fueled by renewable energy. Carbon-based materials are prototypical systems in all these aspects. Herein, three promising, novel carbon-based materials are presented. These include microporous carbon for supercapacitors produced by the condensation and carbonization of siloxane elastomers, porous graphitic carbon for supercapacitors produced by an aerosol route, and interpenetrating, binder-free carbon nanotube/vanadium nanowire composites for lithium ion battery electrodes produced by chemical crosslinking and aerogel fabrication. These materials syntheses are facile and can be easily scaled up, and their electrochemical performance, especially their energy densities and cycleability, are notable.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Nature Communications article is a product of legacy work that contributes to Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research on technical support and research on the enhancement of Office of Water’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) (SSWR 3.01A). The research is...

  19. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Rogers, Michael Ray; Judkins, Roddie R.

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  20. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    2000-07-18

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  1. Natural Carbonation of Peridotite and Applications for Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, E.; Kelemen, P.; Matter, J.

    2009-05-01

    Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail Ophiolite of Oman is surprisingly rapid and could be further enhanced to provide a safe, permanent method of CO2 storage through in situ formation of carbonate minerals. Carbonate veins form by low-temperature reaction between peridotite and groundwater in a shallow weathering horizon. Reaction with peridotite drives up the pH of the water, and extensive travertine terraces form where this groundwater emerges at the surface in alkaline springs. The potential sink for CO2 in peridotite is enormous: adding 1wt% CO2 to the peridotite in Oman could consume 1/4 of all atmospheric carbon, and several peridotite bodies of comparable size exist throughout the world. Thus carbonation rate and cost, not reservoir size, are the limiting factors on the usefulness of in situ mineral carbonation of peridotite for carbon storage. The carbonate veins in Oman are much younger than previously believed, yielding average 14C ages of 28,000 years. Age data plus estimated volumes of carbonate veins and terraces suggest 10,000 to 100,000 tons per year of CO2 are consumed by these peridotite weathering reactions in Oman. This rate can be enhanced by drilling, hydraulic fracture, injecting CO2-rich fluid, and increasing reaction temperature. Drilling and hydraulic fracture can increase volume of peridotite available for reaction. Additional fracture may occur due to the solid volume increase of the carbonation reaction, and field observations suggest that such reaction-assisted fracture may be responsible for hierarchical carbonate vein networks in peridotite. Natural carbonation of peridotite in Oman occurs at low pCO2, resulting in partial carbonation of peridotite, forming magnesite and serpentine. Raising pCO2 increases carbonation efficiency, forming of magnesite + talc, or at complete carbonation, magnesite + quartz, allowing ˜30wt% CO2 to be added to the peridotite. Increasing the temperature to 185°C can improve the reaction rate by

  2. [Carbon storage and carbon sink of mangrove wetland: research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhi-hua; Li, Zhi-yong

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove forest is a special wetland forest growing in the inter-tidal zone of tropical and subtropical regions, playing important roles in windbreak, promoting silt sedimentation, resisting extreme events such as cyclones and tsunamis, and protecting coastline, etc. The total area of global mangrove forests is about 152000 km2, only accounting for 0. 4% of all forest area. There are about 230 km2 mangrove forests in China. The mangrove forests in the tropics have an average carbon storage as high as 1023 Mg hm-2, and the global mangrove forests can sequestrate about 0. 18-0. 228 Pg C a-1. In addition to plant species composition, a variety of factors such as air temperature, seawater temperature and salinity, soil physical and chemical properties, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and human activities have significant effects on the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forests. Many approaches based onfield measurements, including allometric equations, remote sensing, and model simulation, are applied to quantify the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forest wetland. To study the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove wetland can promote the further understanding of the carbon cycle of mangrove wetland and related controlling mechanisms, being of significance for the protection and rational utilization of mangrove wetland.

  3. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    PubMed

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  4. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Lange, Markus; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sierra, Carlos A; Bessler, Holger; Engels, Christoph; Griffiths, Robert I; Mellado-Vázquez, Perla G; Malik, Ashish A; Roy, Jacques; Scheu, Stefan; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Thomson, Bruce C; Trumbore, Susan E; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-07

    Plant diversity strongly influences ecosystem functions and services, such as soil carbon storage. However, the mechanisms underlying the positive plant diversity effects on soil carbon storage are poorly understood. We explored this relationship using long-term data from a grassland biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and radiocarbon ((14)C) modelling. Here we show that higher plant diversity increases rhizosphere carbon inputs into the microbial community resulting in both increased microbial activity and carbon storage. Increases in soil carbon were related to the enhanced accumulation of recently fixed carbon in high-diversity plots, while plant diversity had less pronounced effects on the decomposition rate of existing carbon. The present study shows that elevated carbon storage at high plant diversity is a direct function of the soil microbial community, indicating that the increase in carbon storage is mainly limited by the integration of new carbon into soil and less by the decomposition of existing soil carbon.

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  7. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  14. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  15. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  16. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  17. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  18. Nitrogen and carbon storage in alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Monson, Russell K; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Forbis, Tara A; Lipson, David A; Jaeger, Charles H

    2006-02-01

    Alpine plants offer unique opportunities to study the processes and economics of nutrient storage. The short alpine growing season forces rapid completion of plant growth cycles, which in turn causes competition between vegetative and reproductive growth sinks during the early part of the growing season. Mobilization of stored nitrogen and carbon reserves facilitates competing sinks and permits successful completion of reproduction before the onset of winter stress. We discuss the theoretical framework for assessing the costs and benefits of nutrient storage in alpine plants in order to lay the foundation for interpretation of observations. A principal point that has emerged from past theoretical treatments is the distinction between reserve storage, defined as storage that occurs with a cost to growth, and resource accumulation, defined as storage that occurs when resource supply exceeds demand, and thus when there is no cost to growth. We then discuss two case studies, one already published and one not yet published, pertaining to the storage and utilization of nitrogen and carbon compounds in alpine plants from Niwot Ridge, Colorado. In the first case, we tested the hypothesis that the seasonal accumulation of amino acids in the rhizome of N-fertilized plants of Bistorta bistortoides provides an advantage to the plant by not imposing a cost to growth at the time of accumulation, but providing a benefit to growth when the accumulated N is remobilized. We show that, as predicted, there is no cost during N accumulation but, not as predicted, there is no benefit to future growth. In the presence of N accumulation, reliance on stored N for growth increases, but reliance on current-season, soil-derived N decreases; thus the utilization of available N in this species is a 'zero sum' process. Inherent meristematic constraints to growth cause negative feedback that limits the utilization of accumulated N and precludes long-term advantages to this form of storage. In the

  19. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  20. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  1. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  2. Carbon Storage in Biologic and Oceanic Reservoirs: Issues and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most discussion of carbon capture and storage have focused on geologic reservoirs because these are the reservoirs most likely to provide for long-term storage with a minimum of adverse environmental consequences. Nevertheless, there is interest in storage in other reservoirs such as the biosphere or the oceans. Storage in biological reservoirs such as forests or agricultural soils may in many cases be relatively inexpensive. Because this biological storage involves carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, it can potentially offset emissions from the transportation sector. Biological storage can be politically popular because it can be deployed with simple technologies, can be deployed in developing countries, and in many cases involves other environmental co-benefits. However, total capacity is limited. Furthermore, biological storage is temporary unless the store is actively maintained forever. Such temporary storage can be valuable, although it is clearly not as valuable as the quasi-permanent storage offered by good geologic storage reservoirs Ocean storage options fall into two main classes. The first involves conventional separation and compression of carbon dioxide from large point sources which would then be piped into the deep ocean and released either into the water or as a lake on the sea floor. In either case, the carbon dioxide would eventually interact with the atmosphere and contribute to ocean acidification. However, there is potential for the development of long-term engineered containment of carbon dioxide on or in the sea floor. The second main ocean storage option involves increasing ocean alkalinity, probably by dissolving carbonate minerals. This approach may offer safe, quasi- permanent, and cost-effective storage in settings where coastal carbon dioxide point sources are co-located with carbonate mineral deposits. Not every location or carbon dioxide source is suitable for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. At this early stage, it is

  3. Designing carbon nanoframeworks tailored for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath; Cheng, Hansong; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2007-05-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we propose a novel class of 3-D materials consisting of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized by organic ligands as potential hydrogen storage media. Specifically, we have carried out density functional theory calculations to determine the stable structures and properties of nanoframeworks consisting of (5, 0) and (3, 3) SWCNTs constrained by phenyl spacers. Valence and conduction properties, as well as normal modes, of pristine nanotubes are found to change significantly upon functionalization, in a way that can serve as experimental diagnostics of the successful synthesis of the proposed framework structures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that such systems are thermodynamically stable for on-board hydrogen storage.

  4. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  5. Valuing National and Basin Level Geologic CO2 Storage Capacity Assessments in a Broader Context

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-01-12

    The technical literature and much of the public policy dialogue about national or basin scale geologic carbon dioxide storage capacity estimates emphasizes the short comings in the methodologies employed in these studies because of their need to employ simplifying assumptions over large volumes of deep geologic structures. This short communication seeks to bring forward a better understanding of the role of these macroscale assessments and their value. In doing so, the author hopes that the there will be a more balanced discussion of macroscale geologic carbon dioxide storage assessments as compliments to the detailed site specific assessments needed to site any given carbon dioxide capture and storage facility.

  6. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  7. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  8. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  13. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  14. [Carbon storage of forest stands in Shandong Province estimated by forestry inventory data].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Mei; Yang, Chuan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Nian; Ge, Li-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Based on the 7th forestry inventory data of Shandong Province, this paper estimated the carbon storage and carbon density of forest stands, and analyzed their distribution characteristics according to dominant tree species, age groups and forest category using the volume-derived biomass method and average-biomass method. In 2007, the total carbon storage of the forest stands was 25. 27 Tg, of which the coniferous forests, mixed conifer broad-leaved forests, and broad-leaved forests accounted for 8.6%, 2.0% and 89.4%, respectively. The carbon storage of forest age groups followed the sequence of young forests > middle-aged forests > mature forests > near-mature forests > over-mature forests. The carbon storage of young forests and middle-aged forests accounted for 69.3% of the total carbon storage. Timber forest, non-timber product forest and protection forests accounted for 37.1%, 36.3% and 24.8% of the total carbon storage, respectively. The average carbon density of forest stands in Shandong Province was 10.59 t x hm(-2), which was lower than the national average level. This phenomenon was attributed to the imperfect structure of forest types and age groups, i. e., the notably higher percentage of timber forests and non-timber product forest and the excessively higher percentage of young forests and middle-aged forest than mature forests.

  15. Estimating ecosystem carbon stocks at Redwood National and State Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Madej, Mary Ann; Seney, Joseph; Deshais, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for ecosystem carbon is increasingly important for park managers. In this case study we present our efforts to estimate carbon stocks and the effects of management on carbon stocks for Redwood National and State Parks in northern California. Using currently available information, we estimate that on average these parks’ soils contain approximately 89 tons of carbon per acre (200 Mg C per ha), while vegetation contains about 130 tons C per acre (300 Mg C per ha). estoration activities at the parks (logging-road removal, second-growth forest management) were shown to initially reduce ecosystem carbon, but may provide for enhanced ecosystem carbon storage over the long term. We highlight currently available tools that could be used to estimate ecosystem carbon at other units of the National Park System.

  16. Spatial dynamics of carbon storage: a case study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sivrikaya, Fatih; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Bozali, Nuri

    2013-11-01

    Forest ecosystems have an important role in carbon cycle at both regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Forest degradation and land cover changes, caused by deforestation and conversion to non-forest area, have a strong impact on carbon storage. The carbon storage of forest biomass and its changes over time in the Hartlap planning unit of the southeastern part of Turkey have been estimated using the biomass expansion factor method based on field measurements of forests plots with forest inventory data between 1991 and 2002. The amount of carbon storage associated with land use and land cover changes were also analyzed. The results showed that the total forested area of the Hartlap planning unit slightly increased by 2.1%, from 27,978.7 ha to 28,282.6 ha during the 11-year period, and carbon storage increased by 9.6%, from 390,367.6 to 427,826.9 tons. Carbon storage of conifer and mixed forests accounted for about 70.6% of carbon storage in 1991, and 67.8% in 2002 which increased by 14,274.6 tons. Land use change and increasing forest area have a strong influence on increasing biomass and carbon storage.

  17. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Wei, Huige; Lu, Yang; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials.These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples. PMID:28347034

  18. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  19. Carbon storage at defect sites in mantle mineral analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Buseck, Peter R.

    2013-10-01

    A significant fraction of Earth's carbon resides in the mantle, but the mode of carbon storage presents a long-standing problem. The mantle contains fluids rich in carbon dioxide and methane, carbonate-bearing melts, carbonate minerals, graphite, diamond and carbides, as well as dissolved carbon atoms in metals. However, it is uncertain whether these can sufficiently account for the total amount of carbon thought to be stored in the mantle and the volume of carbon degassed from the mantle at volcanoes. Moreover, such carbon hosts should significantly affect the physical and chemical behaviour of the mantle, including its melting temperature, electrical conductivity and oxidation state. Here we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to measure the storage of carbon within common mantle mineral analogues--nickel-doped lanthanum chromate perovskite and titanium dioxide--in laboratory experiments at high pressure and temperature. We detect elevated carbon concentrations at defect sites in the nanocrystals, maintained at high pressures within annealed carbon nanocages. Specifically, our experiments show that small stacking faults within the mantle analogue materials are effective carbon sinks at mantle conditions, potentially providing an efficient mechanism for carbon storage in the mantle. Furthermore, this carbon can be readily released under lower pressure conditions, and may therefore help to explain carbon release in volcanic eruptions.

  20. Sodium-Ion Storage in Pyroprotein-Based Carbon Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Soo; Park, Kyu-Young; Lee, Byoungju; Cho, Se Youn; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Sung Ju; Kim, Byung Hoon; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Kim, Haegyeom; Lee, Sungho; Park, Yung Woo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Kisuk

    2015-11-18

    Pyroprotein-based carbon nanoplates are fabricated from self-assembled silk proteins as a versatile platform to examine sodium-ion storage characteristics in various carbon environments. It is found that, depending on the local carbon structure, sodium ions are stored via chemi-/physisorption, insertion, or nanoclustering of metallic sodium.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Renwei

    2015-06-15

    Phase I concludes with significant progress made towards the SunShot ELEMENTS goals of high energy density, high power density, and high temperature by virtue of a SrO/SrCO3 based material. A detailed exploration of sintering inhibitors has been conducted and relatively stable materials supported by YSZ or SrZO3 have been identified as the leading candidates. In 15 cycle runs using a 3 hour carbonation duration, several materials demonstrated energy densities of roughly 1500 MJ/m3 or greater. The peak power density for the most productive materials consistently exceeded 40 MW/m3—an order of magnitude greater than the SOPO milestone. The team currently has a material demonstrating nearly 1000 MJ/m3 after 100 abbreviated (1 hour carbonation) cycles. A subsequent 8 hour carbonation after the 100 cycle test exhibited over 1500 MJ/m3, which is evidence that the material still has capacity for high storage albeit with slower kinetics. Kinetic carbonation experiments have shown three distinct periods: induction, kinetically-controlled, and finally a diffusion-controlled period. In contrast to thermodynamic equilibrium prediction, higher carbonation temperatures lead to greater conversions over a 1 hour periods, as diffusion of CO2 is more rapid at higher temperatures. A polynomial expression was fit to describe the temperature dependence of the linear kinetically-controlled regime, which does not obey a traditional Arrhenius relationship. Temperature and CO2 partial pressure effects on the induction period were also investigated. The CO2 partial pressure has a strong effect on the reaction progress at high temperatures but is insignificant at temperatures under 900°C. Tomography data for porous SrO/SrCO3 structures at initial stage and after multiple carbonation/decomposition cycles have been obtained. Both 2D slices and 3D reconstructed representations have

  2. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  3. Filled Carbon Nanotubes: Superior Latent Heat Storage Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a rstudy whose technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of filled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as latent heat storage enhancers, with potential applications as next generation thermal management fluids in diverse applications in industries ranging from high-demand microelectronic cooling, manufacturing, power generation, transportation, to solar energy storage.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Films for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinda, Alina

    With the rising demands for small, lightweight, and long-lasting portable electronics, the need for energy storage devices with both large power and large energy densities becomes vitally important. From their usage in hybrid electric vehicles to wearable electronics, supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries have been the focus of many previous works. Electrode materials with large specific surface areas can enhance the charging speed and total amount of stored energy. To this end, vertically self-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests are well suited, as they possess outstanding electrical conductivities as well as high mechanical strength and large specific surface areas. In addition, forests of vertically aligned CNTs allow the ions within an electrolyte to pass freely between the individual CNTs from electrode to electrode. In order to minimize the system resistance of the battery or supercapacitor, a thin molybdenum current collector layer is deposited beneath catalyst of the CNT forest, thus ensuring that when the CNT forest grows from its substrate, each CNT has an innate connection to the current collector. This versatile CNT-Mo film architecture is used in this work as both supercapacitor as well as lithium-ion battery electrodes. It is desirable to have energy storage devices of adjustable shapes, such that they may conform to the shrinking form factors of modern portable electronics and mechanically flexible electrodes are an attractive prospect. The CNT-Mo film is shown here to easily release from its growth substrate, after which it may be placed onto a number of surfaces and topographies and densified. Two polymer films, KaptonRTM and Thermanox(TM) , have been used as substrates for the demonstrations of flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Test results show that the attached active CNT-Mo film can withstand bending to at least as large an angle as 180°. The specific capacitance of a 5 mm by 5 mm area electrode in the K2SO 4 aqueous electrolyte with

  5. Estimation of carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Ili River Valley, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jing, Guo; renping, Zhang; ranghui, Wang; aimaiti, Yusupujiang; tuerdi, Asiyemu; dongya, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Study on the forest carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution characteristic are helpful for improving the accuracy of carbon estimation and providing the practical basis for better policy making. In this research, the compiled data of 'Xinjiang Forest Resources Survey Results' in 2011 was used as a source data, by using the biomass-volume regression model and average biomass method, the carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution of forest resources in Ili River Valley region were analyzed. Results show that, the total biomass, carbon storage and average carbon density in Ili River valley were 69.647Tg, 34.823Tg and 41.45Mg/hm2 C respectively. From the aspect of spatial distribution, the northwest region of Ili River Valley has high carbon storage and the southeast region has low carbon storage. The southwest region has low carbon density and the northeast region has high carbon density. The value of forest Carbon storage from high to low was: Arbor > Shrub > Sparse forest > Odd tree > Economic forest > Scattered trees. Mature arbor forest plays an important role in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in Ili River Valley region.

  6. Carbon Storage in Wetlands and Lakes of the Eastern US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renik, Byrdie; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon stored underground may participate in a positive feedback with climate warming, as higher temperatures accelerate decomposition reactions and hence CO2 release. Assessing how below-ground carbon storage varies with modern climate and paleoclimate will advance understanding of this feedback in two ways. First, it will estimate the sensitivity of carbon storage to temperature and precipitation changes. Second, it will help quantify the size of carbon stocks available for the feedback, by indicating how current regional climate differences affect carbon storage. Whereas many studies of below-ground carbon storage concentrate on soils, this investigation focuses on the saturated and primarily organic material stored in wetlands and lake sediments. This study surveys research done on organic sediment depth and organic content at 50-100 sites in the eastern U.S., integrating our own research with the work of others. Storage depth is evaluated for sediments from the past 10,000 years, a date reflected in pollen profiles. Organic content is measured chiefly by loss-on-ignition (101). These variables are compared to characteristics of the sites such as latitude, altitude, and vegetation as well as local climate. Preliminary results suggest a strong relationship between latitude and depth of organic material stored over the last 10,000 years, with more accumulation in the northeastern US than the southeastern US. Linking the percent organic matter to actual carbon content is in progress with wetlands from Black Rock Forest and Alpine Swamp.

  7. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  8. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  9. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  10. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods. PMID:19815522

  11. 5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. Annual Report: Carbon Storage (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar, Brian; Guthrie, George

    2013-11-07

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  13. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Sonké, Bonaventure; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Ojo, Lucas O; Phillips, Oliver L; Reitsma, Jan M; White, Lee; Comiskey, James A; Djuikouo K, Marie-Noël; Ewango, Corneille E N; Feldpausch, Ted R; Hamilton, Alan C; Gloor, Manuel; Hart, Terese; Hladik, Annette; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Mbago, Frank M; Ndangalasi, Henry J; Peacock, Julie; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terry; Swaine, Michael D; Taplin, James; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Votere, Raymond; Wöll, Hannsjörg

    2009-02-19

    The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that old-growth forests have increased in carbon storage over recent decades, but the response of one-third of the world's tropical forests in Africa is largely unknown owing to an absence of spatially extensive observation networks. Here we report data from a ten-country network of long-term monitoring plots in African tropical forests. We find that across 79 plots (163 ha) above-ground carbon storage in live trees increased by 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1968 and 2007 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.94; mean interval, 1987-96). Extrapolation to unmeasured forest components (live roots, small trees, necromass) and scaling to the continent implies a total increase in carbon storage in African tropical forest trees of 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.15-0.43). These reported changes in carbon storage are similar to those reported for Amazonian forests per unit area, providing evidence that increasing carbon storage in old-growth forests is a pan-tropical phenomenon. Indeed, combining all standardized inventory data from this study and from tropical America and Asia together yields a comparable figure of 0.49 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (n = 156; 562 ha; CI, 0.29-0.66; mean interval, 1987-97). This indicates a carbon sink of 1.3 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.8-1.6) across all tropical forests during recent decades. Taxon-specific analyses of African inventory and other data suggest that widespread changes in resource availability, such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks, as some theory and models predict.

  14. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Chen, A; Peng, C; Zhao, S; Ci, L

    2001-06-22

    The location and mechanisms responsible for the carbon sink in northern mid-latitude lands are uncertain. Here, we used an improved estimation method of forest biomass and a 50-year national forest resource inventory in China to estimate changes in the storage of living biomass between 1949 and 1998. Our results suggest that Chinese forests released about 0.68 petagram of carbon between 1949 and 1980, for an annual emission rate of 0.022 petagram of carbon. Carbon storage increased significantly after the late 1970s from 4.38 to 4.75 petagram of carbon by 1998, for a mean accumulation rate of 0.021 petagram of carbon per year, mainly due to forest expansion and regrowth. Since the mid-1970s, planted forests (afforestation and reforestation) have sequestered 0.45 petagram of carbon, and their average carbon density increased from 15.3 to 31.1 megagrams per hectare, while natural forests have lost an additional 0.14 petagram of carbon, suggesting that carbon sequestration through forest management practices addressed in the Kyoto Protocol could help offset industrial carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

    1992-12-04

    Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

  16. Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects

    SciTech Connect

    MacDicken, K.G.

    1997-10-01

    As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

  17. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  18. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  20. Hydrogen storage using carbon adsorbents: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A. C.; Heben, M. J.

    2001-03-01

    Interest in hydrogen as a fuel has grown dramatically since 1990, and many advances in hydrogen production and utilization technologies have been made. However, hydrogen storage technologies must be significantly advanced if a hydrogen based energy system, particularly in the transportation sector, is to be established. Hydrogen can be made available on-board vehicles in containers of compressed or liquefied H2, in metal hydrides, via chemical storage or by gas-on-solid adsorption. Although each method possesses desirable characteristics, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. Gas-on-solid adsorption is an inherently safe and potentially high energy density hydrogen storage method that could be extremely energy efficient. Consequently, the hydrogen storage properties of high surface area ``activated'' carbons have been extensively studied. However, activated carbons are ineffective in storing hydrogen because only a small fraction of the pores in the typically wide pore-size distribution are small enough to interact strongly with hydrogen molecules at room temperatures and moderate pressures. Recently, many new carbon nanostructured absorbents have been produced including graphite nanofibers and carbon multi-wall and single-wall nanotubes. The following review provides a brief history of the hydrogen adsorption studies on activated carbons and comments on the recent experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrogen adsorption properties of the new nanostructured carbon materials.

  1. On carbon dioxide storage based on biomineralization strategies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Park, Seung-Bin; Jeong, Soon-Kwan; Lim, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Si-Hyun; Trachtenberg, Michael C

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the separation and storage of the global warming greenhouse gas CO(2), and the use of natural biocatalysts in the development of technologies to improve CO(2) storage rates and provide new methods for CO(2) capture. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has recently been used as a biocatalyst to sequester CO(2) through the conversion of CO(2) to HCO(-) in the mineralization of CaCO(3). Biomimetic CaCO(3) mineralization for carbon capture and storage offers potential as a stable CO(2) capture technology. In this report, we review recent developments in this field and assess disadvantages and improvements in the use of CA in industrial applications. We discuss the contribution that understanding of mechanisms of CO(2) conversion to CO(3)(-) in the formation and regeneration of bivalve shells will make to developments in biomimetic CO(2) storage.

  2. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  3. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  4. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source II storage ring vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, Hsiao-Chaun; Hetzel, Charles; Leng, Shuwei; Wilson, King; Xu, Huijuan; Zigrosser, Douglas

    2016-04-05

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II, completed in 2014, is a 3-GeV synchrotron radiation (SR) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been in steady operation since. With a design electron current of 500 mA and subnanometer radians horizontal emittance, this 792-m circumference storage ring is providing the highest flux and brightness x-ray beam for SR users. Also, the majority of the storage ring vacuum chambers are made of extruded aluminium. Chamber sections are interconnected using low-impedance radiofrequency shielded bellows. SR from the bending magnets is intercepted by water-cooled compact photon absorbers resided in the storage ring chambers. Finally, this paper presents the design of the storage ring vacuum system, the fabrication of vacuum chambers and other hardware, the installation, the commissioning, and the continuing beam conditioning of the vacuum systems.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source II storage ring vacuum systems

    DOE PAGES

    Hseuh, Hsiao-Chaun; Hetzel, Charles; Leng, Shuwei; ...

    2016-04-05

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II, completed in 2014, is a 3-GeV synchrotron radiation (SR) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been in steady operation since. With a design electron current of 500 mA and subnanometer radians horizontal emittance, this 792-m circumference storage ring is providing the highest flux and brightness x-ray beam for SR users. Also, the majority of the storage ring vacuum chambers are made of extruded aluminium. Chamber sections are interconnected using low-impedance radiofrequency shielded bellows. SR from the bending magnets is intercepted by water-cooled compact photon absorbers resided in the storage ring chambers. Finally, thismore » paper presents the design of the storage ring vacuum system, the fabrication of vacuum chambers and other hardware, the installation, the commissioning, and the continuing beam conditioning of the vacuum systems.« less

  7. Storage of Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Human Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown that urban areas have carbon density comparable with tropical forest. Carbon density of urban areas may be even higher, because the density of organic carbon only was taking into account. Human settlements store carbon in two forms such as organic and inorganic. Carbon is stored in organic form in living biomass such as trees, grasses or in artifacts derived from biomass such as wooden furniture, building structures, paper, clothes and shoes made from natural materials. Inorganic carbon or fossil carbon, meanwhile, is primarily stored in objects fabricated by people like concrete, plastic, asphalt, and bricks. The key difference between organic and inorganic forms of carbon is how they return to the gaseous state. Organic carbon can be returned to the atmosphere without applying additional artificial energy through decomposition of organic matter, whereas energy input such as burning is needed to release inorganic carbon. In this study I compare inorganic with organic carbon storage, discuss their carbon residence time, decomposition rates, and possible implications for carbon emissions.

  8. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Martin J P; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J T; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Timothy R; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K, Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Leal, Miguel E; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R; Morandi, Paulo S; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R; Primack, Richard B; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W; Thomas, Sean C; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-17

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  9. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity. PMID:28094794

  10. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; de Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  11. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  12. Lithium storage mechanism in nongraphitizable carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Aisaku; Ishikawa, Minoru; Masuko, Jiro; Sonobe, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Takao; Chuman, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    A nongraphitizable carbon prepared from the cross-linked petroleum pitch and carbonized at 1,473 K was found to have a unique structure and a charge capacity of more than 600 Ah/kg. A main peak of the {sup 7}Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra of the charged carbon shifted downfield with an increase of charge capacity. A Knight shift of lithium in the carbon charged to 600 Ah/kg reached 110 ppm when LiCl was used as the reference of 0 ppm. This shift was clearly distinguished from that of the lithium state in the first stage of the graphite intercalation compound, because the latter was observed at 45 ppm. A modified extended Huekel molecular orbital calculation showed that the average net electron density on lithium atoms drastically increased with increasing concentration of lithium atoms if the aromatic molecular planes are more than 0.5 nm apart. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that lithium atoms form clusters in this nongraphitizable carbon.

  13. Can intensive management increase carbon storage in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.

    1991-01-01

    A possible response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is to attempt to increase the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial vegetation. One approach to increasing the size of the terrestrial carbon sink is to increase the growth of forests by utilizing intensive forest management practices. The paper uses data from the literature and from forest growth and yield models to analyze the impact of three management practices on carbon storage: thinning, fertilization, and control of competing vegetation. Using Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) as example species, results showed that thinning generally does not increase carbon storage, and may actually cause a decrease. The exception is thinning of very dense young stands.

  14. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  15. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  16. Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon (GOSAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J C

    2002-04-02

    GOSAC was an EC-funded project (1998-2001) focused on improving the predictive capacity and accelerating development of global-scale, three-dimensional, ocean carbon-cycle models by means of standardized model evaluation and model intercomparison. Through the EC Environment and Climate Programme, GOSAC supported the participation of seven European modeling groups in the second phase of the larger international effort OCMIP (the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project). OCMIP included model comparison and validation for both CO{sub 2} and other ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers. Beyond the international OCMIP effort, GOSAC also supported the same EC ocean carbon cycle modeling groups to make simulations to evaluate the efficiency of purposeful sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean. Such sequestration, below the thermocline has been proposed as a strategy to help mitigate the increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Some technical and scientific highlights of GOSAC are given.

  17. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

  18. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  19. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  20. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  1. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  2. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  3. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  4. Carbon storage by urban soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pouyat, Richard V; Yesilonis, Ian D; Nowak, David J

    2006-01-01

    We used data available from the literature and measurements from Baltimore, Maryland, to (i) assess inter-city variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools (1-m depth) of six cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Oakland, and Syracuse); (ii) calculate the net effect of urban land-use conversion on SOC pools for the same cities; (iii) use the National Land Cover Database to extrapolate total SOC pools for each of the lower 48 U.S. states; and (iv) compare these totals with aboveground totals of carbon storage by trees. Residential soils in Baltimore had SOC densities that were approximately 20 to 34% less than Moscow or Chicago. By contrast, park soils in Baltimore had more than double the SOC density of Hong Kong. Of the six cities, Atlanta and Chicago had the highest and lowest SOC densities per total area, respectively (7.83 and 5.49 kg m(-2)). On a pervious area basis, the SOC densities increased between 8.32 (Oakland) and 10.82 (Atlanta) kg m(-2). In the northeastern United States, Boston and Syracuse had 1.6-fold less SOC post- than in pre-urban development stage. By contrast, cities located in warmer and/or drier climates had slightly higher SOC pools post- than in pre-urban development stage (4 and 6% for Oakland and Chicago, respectively). For the state analysis, aboveground estimates of C density varied from a low of 0.3 (WY) to a high of 5.1 (GA) kg m(-2), while belowground estimates varied from 4.6 (NV) to 12.7 (NH) kg m(-2). The ratio of aboveground to belowground estimates of C storage varied widely with an overall ratio of 2.8. Our results suggest that urban soils have the potential to sequester large amounts of SOC, especially in residential areas where management inputs and the lack of annual soil disturbances create conditions for net increases in SOC. In addition, our analysis suggests the importance of regional variations of land-use and land-cover distributions, especially wetlands, in estimating urban SOC pools.

  5. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Morrison, Robert L.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  6. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  7. Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Daniel P

    2009-09-25

    The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  9. Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Todd-Brown, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    The size of the terrestrial sink remains uncertain. This uncertainty presents a challenge for projecting future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Terrestrial carbon storage is dependent on the availability of nitrogen for plant growth, and nitrogen limitation is increasingly included in global models. Widespread phosphorus limitation in terrestrial ecosystems may also strongly regulate the global carbon cycle, but explicit considerations of phosphorus limitation in global models are uncommon. Here we use global state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate model projections of terrestrial net primary productivity and carbon storage from 1860-2100 estimates of annual new nutrient inputs from deposition, nitrogen fixation, and weathering; and estimates of carbon allocation and stoichiometry to evaluate how simulated CO2 fertilization effects could be constrained by nutrient availability. We find that the nutrients required for the projected increases in net primary productivity greatly exceed estimated nutrient supply rates, suggesting that projected productivity increases may be unrealistically high. Accounting for nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus limitation lowers projected end-of-century estimates of net primary productivity by 19% and 25%, respectively, and turns the land surface into a net source of CO2 by 2100. We conclude that potential effects of nutrient limitation must be considered in estimates of the terrestrial carbon sink strength through the twenty-first century.

  10. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angela L.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Strazisar, Brian; Rodosta, Traci D.; Guthrie, William J.; Allen, Douglas E.; Guthrie, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  11. The 1981 National Waste Terminal Storage Program Information Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    Topics covered include: overview of the national waste terminal storage (NWTS) program; site characterization; repository development; regulatory framework; systems; socioeconomic evaluation; site screening/characterization support activities; repository data base development; regulatory implementation; systems performance assessment; sociopolitical initiatives; Earth sciences; international waste management; waste package development; quality assurance; and Overviews of NWTS Projects.

  12. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2016-07-12

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  13. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2015-05-04

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  14. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Takao

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  15. Relationships among carbon inputs, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil carbon storage in a monoculture corn ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M. J.; Brown, K.; Hofmockel, K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon inputs are positively associated with soil organic carbon storage. Soil organic carbon can be stored in relatively stable pools through: silt + clay association and aggregation. Current models predict that the proportion of new carbon inputs that can be stabilized by silt + clay and aggregates decreases in proportion to the amount of organic matter already present in the fraction. Accordingly, as the capacity to stabilize organic matter approaches zero (full capacity), the efficiency of organic matter stabilization decreases and a greater proportion of organic matter inputs is respired as CO2 or accumulate as litter or easily mineralizable particulate organic matter. The organic matter storage capacity of silt + clay particles is a function of soil texture and mineralogy whereas aggregate storage capacity is also affected by biological factors such as mycorrhizae abundance. We explored relationships among net primary production (carbon inputs), mycorrhizae, and soil organic matter storage in a long-term monoculture corn ecosystem. Replicated plots of corn were grown with one of five nitrogen fertilizer input rates (0-228 kg ha-1 h-y) to impart differences in net primary productivity. The fertilizer rates had no effect on soil C/N ratio. However, the fertilizer rate was positively associated with mycorrhizae abundance and soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increases were the result of an increase in soil aggregate-protected carbon only; silt + clay associated carbon did not differ with fertilizer rate. These results are inconsistent with models that predict aggregate and silt + clay pools reach capacity at similar rates. A positive correlation among soil carbon stored in aggregates and mycorrhizae helps to explain this result.

  16. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  17. 3 CFR - A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... country's geologic capacity to store carbon dioxide and promoting geological storage demonstration... Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary... deployment of clean coal technologies, particularly carbon capture and storage (CCS), will help position...

  18. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ruz, Priyanka Banerjee, Seemita; Sudarsan, V.; Pandey, M.

    2015-06-24

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, {sup 13}C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp{sup 2} hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ∼ 10 kJ mol{sup −1}at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotube paper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z P; Ng, S H; Wang, J Z; Huang, Z G; Liu, H K; Too, C O; Wallace, G G

    2006-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) papers were successfully prepared by dispersing SWNTs in Triton X-100 solution, then filtered by PVDF membrane (0.22 microm pore size). The electrochemical behavior and the reversible hydrogen storage capacity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) papers have been investigated in alkaline electrolytic solutions (6 N KOH) by cyclic voltammetry, linear micropolarization, and constant current charge/discharge measurements. The effect of thickness and the addition of carbon black on hydrogen adsorption/desorption were also investigated. It was found that the electrochemical charge-discharge mechanism occurring in SWNT paper electrodes is somewhere between that of carbon nanotubes (physical process) and that of metal hydride electrodes (chemical process), and consists of a charge-transfer reaction (Reduction/Oxidation) and a diffusion step (Diffusion).

  1. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Priyanka; Banerjee, Seemita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, 13C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp2 hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ˜ 10 kJ mol-1at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  2. Family Matters: Sphagnaceae Versus Cyperaceae in Peatland Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Gemma, M.; Fedio, C.; Pavia, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands are a vitally important part of the Earth's carbon cycle. What is unclear, however, is how peatland type influences the rate of carbon accumulation, the fate of that accumulated carbon in the short and long term, and the role of methane in the overall carbon cycle. Studies of modern peatlands have shown that fens (dominated by Cyperaceae) may accumulate peat more quickly than bogs (dominated by Sphagnaceae), but in many downcore studies, bog peat may have higher apparent accumulation rates. These generalizations, however, do not apply in all locations, climates, or times throughout the Holocene. To address this conundrum, we present data from several peatland locations throughout the circum-Arctic to determine what types of environments and climate regimes are effective for the long-term storage of carbon, fens or bogs, and what climate conditions promote the development of each peatland type. Our sites include peatlands in the Arctic and boreal regions of North America and Asia. We use a multiproxy approach to directly compare the apparent carbon accumulation rate and methane-recycling rate with peatland type and specific hydroclimatic parameters. To reconstruct peatland type, we use macrofossil analysis. We use compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers to assess hydrological parameters such as growing season evaporation and seasonality of precipitation. We use the carbon isotope ratios of these same compounds to reconstruct the rate of methane recycling. By reconstructing peat type, carbon cycle and hydroclimatic parameters in the same samples, we most effectively compare their mutual influence.

  3. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  4. Landscape configuration modulates carbon storage in seagrass sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricart, Aurora M.; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has increased interest in seagrass systems as natural carbon sinks and recent studies have estimated the carbon stocks associated with seagrass meadows. However, the factors that affect their variability remain poorly understood. This paper assesses how landscape-level attributes (patch size and matrix composition) influence carbon storage in seagrass sediments. We quantified the organic carbon (Corg) content and other geochemical properties (δ13C and particle size) in surface sediments of continuous Posidonia oceanica meadows, patchy meadows interspersed with rocky-algal reefs and patchy meadows on sedimentary bottoms. We also took samples of potential carbon sources for isotopic composition determination. Our results indicate that the continuous meadows accumulated larger amounts of Corg than patchy meadows, whether embedded in a rock or sand matrix. The Corg from continuous meadows was also more 13C enriched, which suggests that a high proportion of the carbon was derived from plant material (autochthonous sources); in contrast in patchy meadows (especially in a sand matrix), lower δ13C values indicated a higher contribution from allochthonous sources (mainly suspended particulate organic matter, SPOM). These findings suggest that the sediment of continuous meadows stores more Corg in than that of patchy meadows. This is probably due to the increased contribution from seagrass leaves, which are much more refractory than SPOM. In general, certain landscape configurations, and especially patchiness, appear to reduce the carbon storage capacity of seagrasses. Since the current decline of seagrass is leading to habitat fragmentation, our results increase the argument for the promotion of effective measures to preserve the integrity of these natural carbon sinks.

  5. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389

  6. [Effects of climate change on forest soil organic carbon storage: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Cheng-yi; Guo, Guang-fen

    2010-07-01

    Forest soil organic carbon is an important component of global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition directly affect terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and global carbon balance. Climate change would affect the photosynthesis of forest vegetation and the decomposition and transformation of forest soil organic carbon, and further, affect the storage and dynamics of organic carbon in forest soils. Temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and other climatic factors all have important influences on the forest soil organic carbon storage. Understanding the effects of climate change on this storage is helpful to the scientific management of forest carbon sink, and to the feasible options for climate change mitigation. This paper summarized the research progress about the distribution of organic carbon storage in forest soils, and the effects of elevated temperature, precipitation change, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on this storage, with the further research subjects discussed.

  7. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  8. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomass can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.

  9. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; ...

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  10. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  12. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, James

    2013-09-30

    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  14. [Vegetation carbon storage in Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains].

    PubMed

    Qi, Guang; Wang, Qing-Li; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Qi, Lin; Wang, Qing-Wei; Ye, Yu-Jing; Dai, Li-Min

    2011-02-01

    Through sampling site investigation, this paper studied the carbon storage of arbor, herb, and whole vegetation in 10-, 12-, 15-, 26-, and 61-year old Larix gmelinii plantations in Huzhong Forestry Bureau of Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, and 'temporal for spatial' method was employed to approach the variations of the vegetation carbon storage during the growth of the plantations. The results revealed that the vegetation carbon storage in the plantations increased with stand age, and reached 105.69 t x hm(-2) at age of 61 years, representing a marked role as a carbon sink. The L. gmelinii plantations at the ages from 15 to 26 years had the strongest capability in carbon sequestration, in which, the carbon storage in trunk occupied 54.3% -73.9% of the total carbon storage of arbor, and, with the increase of stand age, the trunk's carbon storage to the total carbon storage of arbor as well as the trunk's carbon density increased. As for the other organs, the rate of their carbon storage to the total carbon storage of arbor decreased with stand age, while their carbon density increased first but eventually leveled off or had a slight decrease till at age of 61 years. Based on these results, the rotation age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains would properly be lengthened to at least 60 years.

  15. A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, P.A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

  16. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance. PMID:26601241

  17. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance.

  18. Novel Carbons as Electrodes for Electrical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk I will speculate about directions for carbon materials as the electrode(s) in EES systems such as ultracapacitors and Li ion batteries. Perhaps the penultimate electrode material for ultracapacitors (based on charge storage by electrical double layer capacitance, EDLC) would be a ``negative curvature carbon'' (NCC, akin to the Schwartzite structures) with atom thick walls, and possibly substitutionally doped with, e.g., N atoms in case the all-carbon structure were limited by quantum (i.e., intrinsic) capacitance. Such an NCC would have a distribution of pore sizes that would likely (for optimal performance) span ``mesoscale'' and ``microscale'' pores, which in the parlance of porous materials means pores ``above 2-3 nanometers'' and pores ``below about 2 nanometers,'' respectively. Making such materials offers exciting challenges for materials chemists/synthetic chemists, and to date only the ``basic'' Schwarzite structures (ideal crystals studied by DFT with periodic boundary conditions and relatively simple unit cells) have been modeled in terms of properties such as their electronic states and in some cases, potential as all carbon ferromagnets. I identified the NCCs as candidates for EES for ultracapacitors, in a paper published in Science in 2011 with coauthors. We made an aperiodic carbon that had atom thick walls and surface areas as high as 3200 m2/g, along with ``good'' powder electrical conductivity, high carbon content, and apparently close to 100% trivalently bonded carbon in the walls of this very porous carbon. We have learned in one set of experiments, as published in Energy and Environmental Science, that doping with N atoms can increase the EDLC, which we suggest could be a consequence of limiting quantum capacitance in the all-carbon analogue.

  19. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have

  20. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  1. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Estimation of Potential Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacities of Onshore Sedimentary Basins in Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of the five main onshore sedimentary basins (Chungnam, Gyeongsang, Honam, Mungyeong, and Taebaeksan Basins) in Republic of Korea are estimated based on the methods suggested by the United States National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The target geologic formations considered for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the sedimentary basins are sandstone and coal beds. The density of carbon dioxide is set equal to 446.4 kg/m3. The adsorption capacity and density of coal (anthracite) are set equal to 2.71 × 10-2 kg/kg and 1.82 × 103 kg/m3, respectively. The average storage efficiency factors for sandstone and coal are set equal to 2.5% and 34.0%, respectively. The Chungnam Basin has the sandstone volume of 72 km3 and the coal volume of 1.24 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Chungnam Basin is 3.8%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Chungnam Basin are estimated to be 31 Mton and 21 Mton, respectively. The Gyeongsang Basin has the sandstone volume of 1,960 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is 4.6%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is estimated to be 1,011 Mton. The Honam Basin has the sandstone volume of 8 km3 and the coal volume of 0.27 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Honam Basin is 1.9%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Honam Basin are estimated to be 2 Mton and 5 Mton, respectively. The Mungyeong Basin has the sandstone volume of 60 km3 and the coal volume of 0.66 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Mungyeong Basin is 2.0%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Mungyeong Basin are estimated to be 13 Mton and 11 Mton, respectively. The Taebaeksan Basin has the sandstone volume of 71 km3 and the coal volume of 0.73 km3. The

  3. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tour, James M; Kittrell, Carter

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  4. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C.

  5. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China.

  6. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  7. Volumetric hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Yang, Q. H.; Tong, Y.; Cong, H. T.; Cheng, H. M.

    2002-04-01

    Macroscopically long ropes of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), synthesized by a hydrogen and argon arc discharge method, were cold pressed into tablets without any binder for measurements of their volumetric hydrogen storage capacity. The typical apparent density of the tablets was measured to be around 1.7 g/cm3 with respect to a molding pressure of 0.75 Gpa. A volumetric and mass hydrogen storage capacity of 68 kg H2/m3 and 4.0 wt %, respectively, was achieved at room temperature under a pressure of 11 MPa for suitably pretreated SWNT tablets, and more than 70% of the hydrogen adsorbed can be released under ambient pressure at room temperature. Pore structure analysis indicated that the molding process diminished the mesopore volume of the SWNT ropes, but exerts little influence on their intrinsic pore textures.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  10. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ∼10(6) m s(-1). Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.

  11. Computational Modeling of Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Qiao, Rui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for electrical double layers formed by ion adsorption in nanoscale carbon pores. In this work a combination of computational methods, including first-principles and classical modeling, are used to explain the onset of an anomalous increase in capacitance for small pores. The study highlights the key role played by pore curvature and nanoconfinement on the capacitance performance. We emphasize the role of modeling in providing a precise understanding of the processes responsible for capacitive energy storage, and how simulations can be used to enhance desired properties and suppress unwanted ones.

  12. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  13. Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

    2005-12-01

    Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very

  14. Limited opportunities for management-induced soil carbon storage in New South Wales, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Lonergan, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has been promoted internationally and in Australia as a means of storing additional soil carbon to offset greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) elsewhere. Despite considerable investment in research in Australia, difficulties with reliable detection and estimation of soil carbon change remain as significant barriers to soil carbon accounting and trading. Here we present examples from an extensive dataset across the diverse production landscapes of New South Wales, Australia generated from both the NSW Statewide Soil Monitoring Program and the National Soil Carbon Research Program. Issues relating to climate, spatial variability, historical and contemporary land-management are highlighted to illustrate the challenges of detecting and estimating management-induced soil carbon change. We further demonstrate that, where it is possible to detect soil carbon change resulting from agricultural management, the quantities stored are unlikely to make a significant contribution to reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions. Historical factors and non-agricultural land-use options are likely to provide more significant potential for long-term soil carbon storage in this environment.

  15. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  16. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  17. Faster decomposition under increased atmospheric CO₂ limits soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Qi, Xuan; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-05-02

    Soils contain the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon (C) and are a major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, they may play a key role in modulating climate change. Rising atmospheric CO2 is expected to stimulate plant growth and soil C input but may also alter microbial decomposition. The combined effect of these responses on long-term C storage is unclear. Combining meta-analysis with data assimilation, we show that atmospheric CO2 enrichment stimulates both the input (+19.8%) and the turnover of C in soil (+16.5%). The increase in soil C turnover with rising CO2 leads to lower equilibrium soil C stocks than expected from the rise in soil C input alone, indicating that it is a general mechanism limiting C accumulation in soil.

  18. Storage of Hydrogen in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A. C.; Jones, K. M.; Bekkedahl, T. A.; Kiang, C. H.; Bethune, D. S.; Heben, M. J.

    1997-03-27

    Pores of molecular dimensions can adsorb large quantities of gases owing to the enhanced density of the adsorbed material inside the pores, a consequence of the attractive potential of the pore walls. Pederson and Broughton have suggested that carbon nanotubes, which have diameters of typically a few nanometres, should be able to draw up liquids by capillarity, and this effect has been seen for low-surface-tension liquids in large-diameter, multi-walled nanotubes. Here we show that a gas can condense to high density inside narrow, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). Temperature-programmed desorption spectroscopy shows that hydrogen will condense inside SWNTs under conditions that do not induce adsorption within a standard mesoporous activated carbon. The very high hydrogen uptake in these materials suggests that they might be effective as a hydrogen-storage material for fuel-cell electric vehicles.

  19. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly considered as an option to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere. There is today a significant interest from Swedish heavy industry in CCS-technology. Large point sources are found within process industry related to e.g. production of paper and steel (operating under European Union regulations). There is also significant emission of CO2 from burning of biomass for energy production. However, this process is considered to be climate neutral and thus the emissions are not included in the carbon trading schemes. Based on recent work at the Geological Survey of Sweden and by other organizations we discuss the possibilities for geological storage of CO2 in Sweden, including the locations of the potential storage sites and the main CO2 emitters. In this context, we also review the relevant geophysical data available at the Geological Survey, focusing on the seismic data but also including gravity and magnetic data. Deep saline aquifers are presently considered as the most realistic storage alternative in Sweden. Sedimentary bedrock containing such layers and which could be suitable for CO2 storage is mainly found within the southern Baltic Sea and around southernmost Sweden, close to Denmark. The knowledge about the sedimentary bedrock in these areas is mainly based on seismic measurements and drilling in connection with hydrocarbon prospecting during the 70’s and the 80’s. Approximately 40.000 km’s of seismic reflection profiles were acquired, mostly in the potential CO2 storage areas mentioned above. Data from these profiles are now archived at the Geological Survey, and currently the magnetic tapes (8000-9000 reels) are being transcribed to modern storage media, a work that will likely be finished during 2011. Despite the hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas there are remaining uncertainties regarding the suitability of the sedimentary bedrock for CO2 storage, in particular related to the porosity and

  20. [Long-term effects of thinning on carbon storage in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Liang; Mao, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Mu-Kui

    2014-07-01

    The stand environment and tree growth could be changed as well as carbon storage be affected by thinning. Thus it is important to conduct the research on changes of carbon stock in plantations after thinning for assessing the dynamics of forest ecosystem carbon pool. The carbon storage and its distribution of various components in 22-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations were studied with control and different treatments such as moderate and heavy thinning. Moderate (thinning intensity was 35%) and heavy (thinning intensity was 50%) thinning treatments were conducted twice at the age of 7 and 14 years, respectively. The stand of control was thinned 15% in the 14th year. The results showed that the proportion of stem carbon storage increased with the increasing thinning intensity, while the proportion of carbon storage in branches, leaves and roots slightly decreased, which suggested that thinning was beneficial for carbon stocking in stem. However, the carbon storage in arbor layer decreased with the thinning intensity in C. lanceolata plantation under moderate and heavy thinning treatments, accounted for 89.0% and 83.1% of the control, respectively. The arbor carbon storage decreased in followed two years after the first thinning. The carbon storage in arbor layer had a fast recovery rate within eight years after the second thinning, and the increment of carbon storage in arbor layer had no difference with the control for the heavy thinning treatment. The carbon storage in understory vegetation, litter and soil layers also had no significant difference under the different thinning treatments. Generally total ecosystem carbon storage under the control, moderate and heavy thinning treatments reached 169.34, 156.65 and 154.37 t x hm(-2), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three treatments. Therefore, it could be concluded that the carbon storage in C. lanceolata plantation did not reduce after thinning in more than 15 years.

  1. Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hans; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav S

    2003-07-24

    The total amount of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans and other near-surface reservoirs is thought to be negligible compared to that stored in the Earth's mantle. Although the mode of carbon storage in the mantle is largely unknown, observations of microbubbles on dislocations in minerals from mantle xenoliths has led to the suggestion that carbon may be soluble in silicates at high pressure. Here we report measurements of carbon solubility in olivine, the major constituent of the upper mantle, at pressures up to 3.5 GPa. We have found that, contrary to previous expectations, carbon solubility in olivine is exceedingly low--of the order of 0.1 to 1 parts per million by weight. Together with similar data for pyroxenes, garnet and spinel, we interpret this to imply that most carbon must be present as a separate phase in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, probably as a carbonate phase. Large-scale volcanic eruptions tapping such a carbonate-bearing mantle reservoir might therefore rapidly transfer large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, consistent with models that link global mass extinctions to flood basalt eruptions via a sudden increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  2. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  3. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  4. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  5. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  6. Structural evolution of turbostratic carbon: Implications in H2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Priyanka; Banerjee, Seemita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Structural evolution of turbostratic carbon samples as a function of annealing temperature has been investigated in detail using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. From these studies, it is established that, samples heated at lower temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) consist carbon particles with rough surfaces forming structure of surface fractal in nature. Whereas the sample heated at higher temperature (900 °C) consists of larger clusters with nearly smooth surface as well as smaller size particles forming dense mass fractal structure. For this sample, solid state NMR and Raman Spectroscopic studies indicate an increased extent of overlapping of 2pz orbital of carbon atoms due to improved long range ordering and clustering. Hydrogen adsorption studies further substantiated that energetically more homogeneous surface exists for particles of 900 °C heated sample as compared to those of 700 °C and 800 °C heated samples. A highest hydrogen storage capacity of 0.152 H/M has been observed at 123 K and 45 bar pressure for the sample heated at 900 °C.

  7. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  8. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  9. [Characteristics of carbon storage and its allocation in Erythrophleum fordii plantations with different ages].

    PubMed

    Ming, An-Gang; Jia, Hong-Yan; Tian, Zu-Wei; Tao, Yi; Lu, Li-Hu; Cai, Dao-Xiong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Wang, Wei-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Carbon storage and its allocation of 7-, 29- and 32-year-old Erythrophleum fordii plantation ecosystems in Guangxi were studied on the basis of biomass survey. The results showed that the carbon contents in different organs of E. fordii, ranging from 509.0 to 572.4 g x kg(-1), were in the order of stem > branch > root > bark > leaf. No significant differences in carbon content were observed among the shrub, herb and litter layers of the E. fordii plantations with different ages. Carbon content in the soil layer (0-100 cm) decreased with increasing the soil depth, but increased with increasing the stand age. The carbon storage of the arbor layer was 21.8, 100.0 and 121.6 t x hm(-2) for 7-, 29- and 32-year-old stands, respectively, and the order of carbon storage allocation in different organs was same as the order of carbon content. The 7-, 29- and 32-year-old E. fordii plantation ecosystems stored carbon at 132.6, 220.2 and 242.6 t x hm(-2), respectively. The arbor layer and soil layer were the main carbon pools, accounting for more than 97% of carbon storage in the ecosystem. Carbon storage allocation increased in arbor layer but decreased in soil layer with increasing the stand age. The influence of stand age on carbon storage allocation in shrub, herb and litter layers did not show a obvious regular pattern.

  10. Carbon storage in Organic Soils (COrS): Quantifying past variations in carbon accumulation in peatlands of South Wales, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carless, Donna; Kulessa, Bernd; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Davies, Siwan; Sinnadurai, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Globally, peatlands comprise a vital terrestrial carbon sink, currently estimated to be around 500 PgC (Yu et al., 2011, Gorham, 1991). Within the UK, peatlands represent the single most important terrestrial carbon store (IUCN, 2011). In particular, blanket and raised bogs account for around 23,000 square kilometres or 9.5 percent of the UK land area, with current estimates indicating that they store approximately 3.2 PgC (IUCN, 2011). Recent studies suggest that carbon-sequestration rates have been highly variable during the Holocene (Frolking & Roulet, 2007). Reconstructing these past fluctuations is essential to assess how peatlands will respond to future climate change, particularly the possibility that large amounts of respired below-ground carbon will be released as a result of enhanced rates of decomposition, causing positive climate feedback. Quantitative estimates of past variations in carbon accumulation provide valuable insights into the factors controlling carbon budgets. Recent developments have illustrated how ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can improve constraints on peat thickness (Holden et al., 2002, Warner et al., 1990), facilitating site-specific peat-volume estimates for carbon quantification. We shall present initial results from the COrS project, which brings together a novel combination of geophysical and proxy techniques to reconstruct variations in long-term carbon accumulation in 6 ombrotrophic peat bogs, located across the Brecon Beacons National Park (BBNP), South Wales, UK (51°55'30" N, 3°29'18" W). Detailed GPR surveys are being used to provide comprehensive estimates of total peat extent and thickness at these sites. Combined with surface-elevation data from LiDAR imagery, 3D models are being created, from which total peat-volume estimates will be extracted. Carbon-accumulation rates will be inferred from these bog-volume estimates, coupled with total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and high-resolution radiocarbon dating. In

  11. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David

    2016-06-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  12. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes produced by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A.; Pierard, N.; Tollis, S.; Bister, G.; Konya, Z.; Nagaraju, N.; Nagy, J. B.

    2002-06-01

    Single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of methane and acetylene, respectively were studied for their hydrogen adsorption capacity in their hollow and on their outer surface. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples was measured for pressures 0-9 bar at 295 K and at 77 K. The results at different temperatures on the crude sample (closed tubes 10-50 um long), on the purified sample (open tubes 10-50 μm long) and on the purified and broken sample (open tubes 0.1-0.7 pm long) show that breaking the nanotubes allows one to adsorb hydrogen in their hollow. In addition, the relative amounts of hydrogen adsorbed in the hollow and outer parts of the nanotubes can be distinguished.

  13. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    PubMed

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO < 10 ppm) CO2 and H2. The reaction takes place under mild experimental conditions and it is able to generate high pressure H2 (up to 600 bar). The cleavage of HCOOH is catalysed by several hydrophilic Ru(II) phosphine complexes (meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, mTPPTS, being the most efficient one), either in homogeneous systems or as immobilised catalysts. We have also shown that the iron(II)--hydrido tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine complex catalyses with an exceptionally high rate and efficiency (turnover frequency, TOF = 9425 h(-1)mol(-1); turnover number, TON = 92400) the formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this

  14. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  15. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  16. Development of Large Capacity Lead-Carbon Hybrid Ultracapacitors for Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    storage devices. Among various hybrid ultraultracapacitors, PbO2 ? Activated Carbon is an attractive system owing to its high cell voltage that...provides it both high energy and power densities. In this project, we have designed and developed 12V / kF-range Lead-Carbon (LC) HUCs with absorbent-glass...electrode. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ultra capacitors, ultra capacitors, power storage, power storage, Magneto-optical imaging , Magneto-optical imaging , lead

  17. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y

    2013-05-21

    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  18. Increased fire frequency optimization of black carbon mixing and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Lacey; Masiello, Caroline; Clark, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon makes up a substantial part of the global carbon budget and black carbon (BC - produced from incomplete combustion of biomass) can be significant fraction of soil carbon. Soil BC cycling is still poorly understood - very old BC is observed in soils, suggesting recalcitrance, yet in short term lab and field studies BC sometimes breaks down rapidly. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of fires, which will increase global production of BC. As up to 80% of BC produced in wildfires can remain at the fire location, increased fire frequency will cause significant perturbations to soil BC accumulation. This creates a challenge in estimating soil BC storage, in light of a changing climate and an increased likelihood of fire. While the chemical properties of BC are relatively well-studied, its physical properties are much less well understood, and may play crucial roles in its landscape residence time. One important property is density. When BC density is less than 1 g/cm3 (i.e. the density of water), it is highly mobile and can easily leave the landscape. This landscape mobility following rainfall may inflate estimates of its degradability, making it crucial to understand both the short- and long term density of BC particles. As BC pores fill with minerals, making particles denser, or become ingrown with root and hyphal anchors, BC is likely to become protected from erosion. Consequently, how quickly BC is mixed deeper into the soil column is likely a primary controller on BC accumulation. Additionally the post-fire recovery of soil litter layers caps BC belowground, protecting it from erosional forces and re-combustion in subsequent fires, but still allowing bioturbation deeper into the soil column. We have taken advantage of a fire chronosequence in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey to investigate how density of BC particles change over time, and how an increase in fire frequency affects soil BC storage and soil column movement. Our plots have

  19. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates.

  20. Investigation of Hydrogen Storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cells-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    1 Final Report Title: Investigation of hydrogen storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for fuel cells - 2 AFOSR/AOARD...SUBTITLE Investigation of hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes for fuel cells-2 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914157 5b. GRANT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in 2-propanol are deposited on the alumina substrate using drop caste

  1. Deployment models for commercialized carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Richard A; Monroe, Larry S; Friedman, Julio S

    2011-01-01

    Even before technology matures and the regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been developed, electrical utilities will need to consider the logistics of how widespread commercial-scale operations will be deployed. The framework of CCS will require utilities to adopt business models that ensure both safe and affordable CCS operations while maintaining reliable power generation. Physical models include an infrastructure with centralized CO(2) pipelines that focus geologic sequestration in pooled regional storage sites or supply CO(2) for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and a dispersed plant model with sequestration operations which take place in close proximity to CO(2) capture. Several prototypical business models, including hybrids of these two poles, will be in play including a self-build option, a joint venture, and a pay at the gate model. In the self-build model operations are vertically integrated and utility owned and operated by an internal staff of engineers and geologists. A joint venture model stresses a partnership between the host site utility/owner's engineer and external operators and consultants. The pay to take model is turn-key external contracting to a third party owner/operator with cash positive fees paid out for sequestration and cash positive income for CO(2)-EOR. The selection of a business model for CCS will be based in part on the desire of utilities to be vertically integrated, source-sink economics, and demand for CO(2)-EOR. Another element in this decision will be how engaged a utility decides to be and the experience the utility has had with precommercial R&D activities. Through R&D, utilities would likely have already addressed or at least been exposed to the many technical, regulatory, and risk management issues related to successful CCS. This paper provides the framework for identifying the different physical and related prototypical business models that may play a role for electric utilities in

  2. Toward an effective governance regime for geologic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, B. K.; Socolow, R. H.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is currently poised to play a significant role in mitigating CO2 emissions from future fossil fuel combustion, especially from coal-fired power plants, which are expected to rapidly increase in number over the next several decades. At the same time, large-scale deployment of CCS continues to be impeded by concerns about the long-term integrity of geologic storage reservoirs. In this study, we apply established concepts of learning-by-doing to the problem of reservoir leakage. Our results suggest that when learning is present, traditional measures of (initial) reservoir integrity do not sufficiently capture the time- integrated behavior of the system that is most relevant to the global CO2 problem. In one formulation, we find that when learning is explicitly incorporated into a reservoir model, total leakage is always finite and scales approximately quadratically with the learning time constant and inversely with the initial retention time constant. To highlight the policy relevance of this study, we consider the implications of these results for the larger site licensing process. We expect that an upper bound on total allowable leakage will be decided by policymakers. Armed with this number and some informed, expert-driven judgments about the rate at which learning will proceed, a regulator could use our model, or a more sophisticated variant, to calculate an upper bound on the maximum initial leakage rate. This criterion would then be one of several prerequisites to certification. The entire process could be amended over time as new data is made available. We hope that our model will provide a platform for scholars from different fields to engage one another and to work toward an acceptable, compelling and long-lasting management framework for CCS.

  3. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  4. Hierarchically structured carbon nanotubes for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng

    As the world population continues to increase, large amounts of energy are consumed. Reality pushes us to find new energy or use our current energy more efficiently. Researches on energy conversion and storage have become increasingly important and essential. This grand challenge research has led to a recent focus on nanostructured materials. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play a critical role in all of these nanotechnology challenges. CNTs have a very large surface area, a high electrochemical accessibility, high electronic conductivity and strong mechanical properties. This combination of properties makes them promising materials for energy device applications, such as FETs, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and lithium batteries. This study focuses on exploring the possibility of using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) as the electrode materials in these energy applications. For the application of electrode materials, electrical conductive, vertically aligned CNTs with controllable length and diameter were synthesized. Several CVD methods for VA-CNT growth have been explored, although the iron / aluminum pre-coated catalyst CVD system was the main focus. A systematic study of several factors, including growth time, temperature, gas ratio, catalyst coating was conducted. The mechanism of VA-CNTs was discussed and a model for VA-CNT length / time was proposed to explain the CNT growth rate. Furthermore, the preferential growth of semiconducting (up to 96 atom% carbon) VA-SWNTs by using a plasma enhanced CVD process combined with fast heating was also explored, and these semiconducting materials have been directly used for making FETs using simple dispersion in organic solvent, without any separation and purification. Also, by inserting electron-accepting nitrogen atoms into the conjugated VA-CNT structure during the growth process, we synthesized vertically aligned nitrogen containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs). After purification of

  5. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  6. Carbon Storage in an Extensive Karst-distributed Region of Southwestern China based on Multiple Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Ni, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon storage is crucial to better understand the processes of global and regional carbon cycles and to more precisely project ecological and economic scenarios for the future. Southwestern China has broadly and continuously distribution of karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats which might lead to rocky desertification, an ecological disaster which has significantly hindered vegetation succession and economic development in karst regions of southwestern China. In this study we evaluated the carbon storage in eight political divisions of southwestern China based on four methods: forest inventory, carbon density based on field investigations, CASA model driven by remote sensing data, and BIOME4/LPJ global vegetation models driven by climate data. The results show that: (1) The total vegetation carbon storage (including agricultural ecosystem) is 6763.97 Tg C based on the carbon density, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage (above 20cm depth) is 12475.72 Tg C. Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) possess the highest carbon storage in both vegetation and soil (1736.47 Tg C and 4056.56 Tg C, respectively) among the eight political divisions because of the higher carbon density and larger distribution area. The vegetation carbon storage in Hunan Province is the smallest (565.30 Tg C), and the smallest SOC storage (1127.40 Tg C) is in Guangdong Province; (2) Based on forest inventory data, the total aboveground carbon storage in the woody vegetation is 2103.29 Tg C. The carbon storage in Yunnan Province (819.01 Tg C) is significantly higher than other areas while tropical rainforests and seasonal forests in Yunnan contribute the maximum of the woody vegetation carbon storage (account for 62.40% of the total). (3) The net primary production (NPP) simulated by the CASA model is 68.57 Tg C/yr, while the forest NPP in the non-karst region (account for 72.50% of the total) is higher than that in the karst region. (4) BIOME4 and LPJ

  7. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  8. Directed precipitation of hydrated and anhydrous magnesium carbonates for carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Edward J; Fricker, Kyle J; Sun, Michael; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2014-11-14

    Magnesite is the most desirable phase within the magnesium carbonate family for carbon storage for a number of reasons: magnesium efficiency, omission of additional crystal waters and thermodynamic stability. For large-scale carbonation to be a viable industrial process, magnesite precipitation must be made to occur rapidly and reliably. Unfortunately, the formation of metastable hydrated magnesium carbonate phases (e.g. MgCO3·3H2O and Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) interferes with the production of anhydrous magnesite under a variety of reaction conditions because magnesite crystals are slower to both nucleate and grow compared to the hydrated carbonate phases. Furthermore, the reaction conditions required for the formation of each magnesium carbonate phases have not been well understood with conflicting literature data. In this study, the effects of both magnesite (MgCO3) and inert (Al2O3) seed particles on the precipitation of magnesium carbonates from a Mg(OH)2 slurry were explored. It was interesting that MgCO3 seeding was shown to accelerate anhydrous magnesite growth at temperatures (80-150 °C), where it would normally not form in short time scale. Since the specific surface areas of MgCO3 and Al2O3 seeding particles were similar, this phenomenon was due to the difference in the surface chemistry of two seeding particles. By providing a template with similar chemistry for the growth of magnesite, the precipitation of anhydrous magnesite was demonstrated. The effect of temperature on seeded carbonation was also investigated. A comparison with published MgCO3 precipitation rate laws indicated that the precipitation of magnesite was limited by either CO2 adsorption from the gas phase or the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)2.

  9. Carbon storage and late Holocene chronostratigraphy of a Mississippi River deltaic marsh, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    Today, the causes, results, and time scale(s) of climate change, past and potential, are the focus of much research, news coverage, and pundit speculation. Many of the US government scientific agencies have some funds earmarked for research into past and (or) future climate change (National Science and Technology Council, 1997). The Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP) is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) effort in global change research . The project is motivated by the need to increase our understanding of the role of terrestrial carbon in the global carbon cycle, particularly in the temperate latitudes of North America. The global land area between 30 O and 60 O N is thought to be a large sink for atmospheric CO2 (IPCC, 1996). The identity of this sink is unknown, but is in part the soil and sediment that makes up the upper several meters of the Earth's surface. The MBCP focuses on the Mississippi River basin, the third largest river system in the world (fig. 1), that drains an area of 3.3 x 10 6 km 2 (1.27 x 10 6 mi 2 ). The Mississippi River basin includes more than 40 percent of the land surface, and is the home of more than one-third of the population, of the conterminous United States. Because climate, vegetation, and land use vary greatly within the Mississippi River basin, the primary terrestrial sinks for carbon need to be identified and quantified for representative parts of the basin. The primary goal of the MBCP is to quantify the interactive effects of land-use, erosion, sedimentation, and soil development on carbon storage and nutrient cycles within the Mississippi River basin. The project includes spatial analysis of a wide variety of geographic data, estimation of whole-basin and sub-basin carbon and sediment budgets, development and implementation of terrestrial carbon-cycle models, and site-specific field studies of relevant processes. Areas can be studied and compared, and estimates can be made for whole-basin carbon storage and flux.

  10. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-0871; FRL-9688-8] RIN 2060-AR00 National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent Systems and Control Devices; and Revisions to the National... Emission Standards for Storage Vessels and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent...

  11. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  12. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  13. Biomass and carbon storage of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoungho; Oh, Junyeong; Kim, Sangchul; Huang, Jianhui; Wang, Pengyun

    2014-09-01

    Marine macroalgae can absorb carbon and play an important role in carbon sequestration. As an important economic macroalga, Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has the potential to significantly affect carbon absorption and storage in wave-sheltered intertidal reef systems. However, detailed knowledge on seasonal biomass changes and carbon storage of G. lemaneiformis is lacking, especially in many small and scattered ecosystems. Considering the influence of human activities on wild distribution of G. lemaneiformis, the understanding of seasonal dynamics of an economically important species in nature is necessary. In this study, we first investigated seasonal variations in biomass, coverage area, and carbon storage during low tide from August 2011 to July 2012 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China. Furthermore, we estimated the carbon storage potential of wild G. lemaneiformis using light use efficiency (LUE). The results show that the standing biomass and coverage area changed significantly with season. However, seasonal variations in carbon content and water content were not obvious, with an average content of 35.1% and 83.64%, respectively. Moreover, carbon storage in individual months varied between 0.67 and 47.03 g C/m2, and the value of carbon storage was the highest in August and June and the lowest in February. In Zhanshan Bay, LUE of G. lemaneiformis was only 0.23%. If it is increased to the theoretical maximum (5%-6%), the carbon storage will have an increase of at least 21 times compared with the current, which suggested that carbon storage of wild G. lemaneiformis had a high enhancement potential. The study will help to assess a potential role of G. lemaneiformis in reducing atmospheric CO2.

  14. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = −ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1–1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites.  Implications: This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:27111469

  15. Carbon storage and emissions offset potential in an African dry forest, the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Glenday, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Concerns about rapid tropical deforestation, and its contribution to rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, increase the importance of monitoring terrestrial carbon storage in changing landscapes. Emerging markets for carbon emission offsets may offer developing nations needed incentives for reforestation, rehabilitation, and avoided deforestation. However, relatively little empirical data exists regarding carbon storage in African tropical forests, particularly for those in arid or semi-arid regions. Kenya's 416 km(2) Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF) is the largest remaining fragment of East African coastal dry forest and is considered a global biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000), but has been significantly altered by past commercial logging and ongoing extraction. Forest carbon storage for ASF was estimated using allometric equations for tree biomass, destructive techniques for litter and herbaceous vegetation biomass, and spectroscopy for soils. Satellite imagery was used to assess land cover changes from 1992 to 2004. Forest and thicket types (Cynometra webberi dominated, Brachystegia spiciformis dominated, and mixed species forest) had carbon densities ranging from 58 to 94 Mg C/ha. The ASF area supported a 2.8-3.0 Tg C carbon stock. Although total forested area in ASF did not change over the analyzed time period, ongoing disturbances, quantified by the basal area of cut tree stumps per sample plot, correlated with decreased carbon densities. Madunguni Forest, an adjoining forest patch, lost 86% of its forest cover and at least 76% of its terrestrial carbon stock in the time period. Improved management of wood harvesting in ASF and rehabilitation of Madunguni Forest could substantially increase terrestrial carbon sequestration in the region.

  16. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  17. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  18. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  19. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  20. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  1. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility.

  2. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  3. Rapid assessment of U.S. forest and soil organic carbon storage and forest biomass carbon-sequestration capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3–7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within ±1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0–0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increase soil carbon storage: molecular signatures of mycorrhizal competition driving soil C storage at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, C.; Barry, B. K.; Hawkes, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon storage and decay is regulated by the activity of free-living decomposer microbes, which can be limited by nitrogen availability. Many plants associate with symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi on their roots, which produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes and may be able to compete with free-living decomposers for soil organic nitrogen. By doing so, ectomycorrhizal fungi may able to induce nitrogen limitation and reduce activity of free-living microbial decomposition by mining soil organic nitrogen. The implication is that ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems should have increased soil carbon storage relative to non-ectomycorrhizal systems, which has been confirmed at a global scale. To investigate these effects, we analyzed 364 globally distributed observations of soil fungal communities using 454 sequencing of the ITS region, along with soil C and N concentrations, climate and chemical data. We assigned operational taxonomic units using the QIIME pipeline and UNITE fungal database and assigned fungal reads as ectomycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal based on current taxonomic knowledge. We tested for associations between ectomycorrhizal abundance, climate, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Sites with greater soil carbon had quantitatively more ectomycorrhizal fungi within the soil microbial community based on fungal sequence abundance, after accounting for soil nitrogen availability. This is consistent with our hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal fungi induce nitrogen-limitation of free-living decomposers and thereby increase soil carbon storage. The strength of the mycorrhizal effect increased non-linearly with ectomycorrhizal abundance: the greater the abundance, the greater the effect size. Mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture and soil pH were also significant predictors in the final AIC selected model. This analysis suggests that molecular data on soil microbial communities can be used to make quantitative biogeochemical predictions. The

  5. Sustained growth of the Southern Ocean carbon storage in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takamitsu; Bracco, Annalisa; Deutsch, Curtis; Frenzel, Hartmut; Long, Matthew; Takano, Yohei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the mechanisms controlling the evolution of Southern Ocean carbon storage under a future climate warming scenario. A subset of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models predicts that the inventory of biologically sequestered carbon south of 40°S increases about 18-34 Pg C by 2100 relative to the preindustrial condition. Sensitivity experiments with an ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model illustrates the impacts of the wind and buoyancy forcings under a warming climate. Intensified and poleward shifted westerly wind strengthens the upper overturning circulation, not only leading to an increased uptake of anthropogenic CO2 but also releasing biologically regenerated carbon to the atmosphere. Freshening of Antarctic Surface Water causes a slowdown of the lower overturning circulation, leading to an increased Southern Ocean biological carbon storage. The rectified effect of these processes operating together is the sustained growth of the carbon storage in the Southern Ocean, even under the warming climate with a weaker global ocean carbon uptake.

  6. Toward quantifying the deep Atlantic carbon storage increase during the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations during peak glacial time were ~30% lower than the levels during interglacial periods. The terrestrial biosphere carbon stock was likely reduced during glacials. Increased carbon storage in the deep ocean is thought to play an important role in lowering glacial atmospheric CO2. However, it has been challenging to quantify carbon storage changes in the deep ocean using existing proxy data. Here, we present deepwater carbonate ion reconstructions for a few locations in the deep Atlantic. These data allow us to estimate the minimum carbon storage increase in the deep Atlantic Ocean during the last glaciation. Our results show that, despite its relative small volume, the deep Atlantic Ocean may contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2 variations at major climate transitions. Furthermore, our results suggest a strong coupling of ocean circulation and carbon cycle in the deep Atlantic during the last glaciation.

  7. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC. PMID:26617054

  8. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-11-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  9. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X; Bhatti, Jagtar S

    2015-11-30

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  10. [Carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Yun; Fan, Wei; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Wan, Meng

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain, the poplar-crop ecosystems with different ages (5, 9, 11, and 13 years old) of poplar were selected, and each of them was further divided into four subsystems, i. e. , forest, crop, litterfall, and soil. In the poplar-crop ecosystems with 5, 9, 11, and 13 years old poplar, the carbon storage of the subsystems forest and litterfall was summed as 7.86, 42.07, 44.31, and 60.71 t x hm(-2), respectively. Subsystem crop averagely sequestrated 6. 8 t x hm(-2) of CO2 per year, and the carbon storage of subsystem soil achieved 45.55, 51.06, 55.94, and 60.49 t x hm(-2), respectively. The total carbon storage of these four poplar-crop ecosystems reached 60.81, 100.09, 106.76, and 127.34 t x hm(-2), respectively, much higher than that in mono-cultured farmland (49.36 t x hm(-2)). For the test poplar-crop ecosystems, the carbon storage of subsystems forest and soil occupied a large proportion, accounting for 87.1%-93.1% of the total carbon storage, while that of subsystems crop and litterfall occupied a relatively small proportion, being 6.9%-12.9% of the total, illustrating that agroforestry ecosystem had a high potential in carbon absorption and sequestration.

  11. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity.

  12. Front page or "buried" beneath the fold? Media coverage of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Paveglio, Travis B

    2014-05-01

    Media can affect public views and opinions on science, policy and risk issues. This is especially true of a controversial emerging technology that is relatively unknown. The study presented here employs a media content analysis of carbon capture and storage (CCS), one potential strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The authors analyzed all mentions of CCS in two leading Canadian national newspapers and two major western regional newspapers from the first article that discussed CCS in 2004 to the end of 2009 (825 articles). An in-depth content analysis was conducted to examine factors relating to risk from CCS, how the technology was portrayed and if coverage was negatively or positively biased. We conclude by discussing the possible impact of media coverage on support or opposition to CCS adoption.

  13. Induced seismicity from fracking and carbon storage is focus of study and hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events, as the method is currently implemented, according to a 15 June report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). However, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to induce larger seismic events because of the large net volume of injected fluids involved in that process, according to the report. Scientists testifying at a 19 June hearing held by the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources said they largely agreed with the report's findings. Neither the report nor the hearing focused on potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing, which is commonly known as fracking.

  14. Total Storage and Landscape Partitioning of Soil Organic Carbon and Phytomass Carbon in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, M. B.; Hanisch, J.; Weiss, N.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) from two study sites in Siberia. The study sites in the Tundra (Kytalyk) and the Taiga (Spasskaya Pad) reflect two contrasting environments in the continuous permafrost zone. In total 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 per study site respectively) have have been sampled for SOC and PC along transects cutting across different land covers. In Kytalyk the sampling depth for the soil pedons was 1 m depth. In Spasskaya Pad where the active layer was significantly deeper, we aimed for 2 m depth or tried to include at least the top of the permafrost. Here the average depth of soil profiles was 152 cm. PC was sampled from 1x1 m ground coverage plots. In Spasskaya Pad tree phytomass was also estimated on a 5x5 m plot. The SOC storage was calculated separately for the intervals 0-30 cm, 30-100 cm and 100-200 cm (the latter only for Spasskaya Pad), as well as for organic layer vs. mineral soil, active layer vs. permafrost and for cryoturbated soil horizons. Landscape partitioning was performed by thematic up-scaling using a vegetation based land cover classification of very high resolution (2x2 m) satellite imagery. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was used to explore the relationship of SOC with PC and different soil and permafrost related variables. The results show that the different land cover classes can be considered distinct storages of SOC, but that PC is not significantly related to total SOC storage. At both study sites the 30-100 cm SOC storage is more important for the total SOC storage than the 0-30 cm interval, and large portions of the total SOC are stored in the permafrost. The largest contribution comes from wetland pedons, but highly cryoturbated individual non-wetland pedons can match these. In Kytalyk the landscape partitioning of SOC mostly follows large scale geomorphological features, while in Spasskaya pad forest type also has a large

  15. Organoaqueous calcium chloride electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in carbon nanotubes at sub-zero-temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Qin, Zhanbin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xiaomian; Chen, George Z

    2015-07-11

    Solutions of calcium chloride in mixed water and formamide are excellent electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in partially oxidised carbon nanotubes at unprecedented sub-zero-temperatures (e.g. 67% capacitance retention at -60 °C).

  16. Rates of mineral fluid interaction in a carbon storage environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, B.; Kilpatrick, A.; Rosenqvist, J.

    2013-12-01

    The design of geological carbon storage projects will seek to maximise rapid trapping in more stable forms than simple stratigraphic or structural trapping, and minimise damage to caprocks. In order to do this, the mineral-fluid interactions that arise through CO2 injection must be understood in the context of the injection environment, rather than simply extrapolated from classic mineral dissolution studies. For example, pore waters are unlikely to dissolve additional Si as a consequence of acidification, but will increase their load of metal cations. We have investigated rates of mineral reaction in response to the introduction of CO2 at a range of conditions relevant to undersaturated pore waters close to a CO2 plume. Addition of CO2 to water results in a drop in pH, but where calcite is present, pH rises again rapidly. At room temperature and 3.3 MPa, pH in CO2-saturated water rises from c. 3.4 to 4.5 in 20 hours. Once pore water has been displaced by CO2 and the remaining, residually-trapped water has 'dried out' by evaporation into the flowing CO2, reactions effectively cease, even at 70 degrees C with water-saturated CO2. Dolomite reacts less rapidly than calcite, and continues to dissolve extensively after pH has almost stabilised. Silicate reactivity is slower than for carbonates and leads to progressive transformation of one silicate phase to another via the medium of the pore fluid over an extended period if PCO2 remains high. The cation imbalance generated by rapid carbonate dissolution can be corrected by ion-exchange with clay minerals, if present, thereby accommodating further conversion of silicates. Permeability contrasts between beds mean that injected CO2 advances along the most permeable layers, rapidly displacing water ahead of it but retaining more stable contacts with water in less permeable layers above and below. While calcite dissolution may still be significant ahead of the advancing plume within permeable beds, silicate reactions will be

  17. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  18. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  19. Estimating Carbon Storage in Eelgrass Meadows in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J.; McDowell, B.; Sacarny, M.; Colarusso, P.

    2014-12-01

    Seagrass meadows can be hotspots for carbon storage and sequestration, but the data currently available shows an enormous amount of variability. Carbon storage varies with seagrass species and region, and with meadow condition, where healthy meadows sequester carbon but those that are declining may be sources of inorganic carbon to the atmosphere. Very little is known about carbon storage in Zostera marina (eelgrass) meadows in the Gulf of Maine, where they are threatened by poor water quality and physical disturbance. In 2014 we studied two eelgrass meadows in coastal Massachusetts, U.S.A. We sampled biomass and measured carbon content in above- and below-ground plant tissues, sediments, and particulate organic matter in the water column. We estimated bed density and extent using a combination of sonar, visual imaging, and diver surveys. To investigate persistence of carbon storage in sediments, we also sampled sediments from an area where a meadow had historically existed, but had died back in 2012. Results of this work will not only support eelgrass restoration and protection measures locally, but will also help clarify our global understanding of carbon storage in blue habitats.

  20. Land Use Effects on Carbon Storage in Thailand Tropical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, F.; Tostado, E.; Chidthaisong, A.; Tyler, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of stable isotopes of C have proved to be of value in estimating soil organic C turnover times and in partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) from different sources. Typically, the contrast between sources and estimates of C turnover have been studied in ecosystems where C-3 photosynthetic plants such as hardwoods have been replaced by C-4 photosynthetic plants from agriculture such as corn or sugarcane. Here we report concentrations and stable C isotope ratios of SOC from Thailand coastal mangrove forests and intrusive coastal aquaculture in the form of shrimp and wastewater treatment ponds. There are clear changes in both magnitude and 13C/12C of SOC at former mangrove sites which have been altered to make ponds for shrimp farming and wastewater treatment. For instance, total per cent C from 0-40 cm soil depth (average of four 10 cm layers at 2 sites) was 6.2±2.8% for mature mangrove, while it was only 0.5±0.4% for a 10-year old shrimp pond and 1.3±0.4% for an 8-year old water treatment pond. Previous studies of mangrove organic C balance have indicated that these inter-tidal forest ecosystems are a sink for C and that significant C is vested in both above- and below-ground biomass and stored in sediments. Mangrove forest disturbance by human activities clearly has the potential to affect C storage. Our data indicates that stable C isotope tracing will be of value in tracking changes in coastal forest-aquaecosystems just as it has been for forest-agroecosystems

  1. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  2. Microporous carbon nanosheets with redox-active heteroatoms for pseudocapacitive charge storage.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y S; Kim, D-H; Hong, S J; Park, M H; Park, Y W; Kim, B H; Jin, H-J; Kang, K

    2015-10-07

    We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors.

  3. The role of stakeholders in developing an international regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, C. M.; Broad, K.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be used to achieve between 15% and 55% of the carbon emission reductions necessary to avoid dangerous levels of climate change. It is also believed that achieving emission reduction goals will be less costly with CCS than without it. The expansion of active CCS sites over the past decade, from three to 53 demonstrates the value that industry sees in CCS as a transition technology for governments seeking to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, to continue developing CCS for industry scale implementation, it is essential to provide the regulatory certainty needed to foster energy industry wide adoption of CCS. Existing CCS regulatory regimes are inadequate, fragmented and contradictory. There is a need for comprehensive, unifying regulations for CCS that are flexible enough to adapt as the technology develops. Governments are limited by the fact that carbon capture and storage is a multidisciplinary issue that touches on the fields of oil drilling, groundwater quality, greenhouse gas management, air quality, and risk management. Though it is in part a technological, environmental and management issue there is also a complex political element to tackling the CCS problem. Due to its cross-cutting nature, CCS regulations should be based off the best practices and standards developed by industry stakeholders. Industry standards are stakeholder developed and consensus based, created through a democratic and collaborative process by bodies such as the International Standards Organization, the National Institutes of Standards and Testing (USA), ASTM International, and the Canadian Standards Organization. Standards can typically be broken down into six general categories: test methods, specifications, classifications, practices, guides, and terminology. These standards are created by stakeholders across the industry and across geographic boundaries to create an trade-wide, rather than nationwide, consensus and

  4. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  5. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Simultaneous reproduction of global carbon exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial carbon cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both carbon exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial carbon budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, carbon exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of carbon budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial carbon fluxes and often neglected carbon storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to carbon fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial carbon cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as carbon fluxes in the system of carbon cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the global assessment of both carbon budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of carbon allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. Carbon allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as carbon fluxes by controlling the carbon content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of carbon budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the

  7. Impacts of Soil Organic Stability on Carbon Storage in Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands store vast amounts of organic carbon, globally, and are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of anthropogenic sea level rise. Recently, we used ramped pyrolysis/oxidation decomposition characteristics as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC) stability to understand the fate of carbon storage in coastal wetlands (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes) comprising the Mississippi River deltaic plain, undergoing rapid rates of local sea level rise. At equivalent soil depths, we observed that fresh marsh SOC was more thermochemically stable than brackish and salt marsh SOC. The differences in stability imply stronger carbon sequestration potential of fresh marsh soil carbon, compared to that of salt and brackish marshes. Here, we expand upon these results of differential organic carbon stability/reactivity and model how projected changes in salinity due to sea-level rise and other environmental changes will impact carbon storage in this region with implications globally.

  8. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Paul E.; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  9. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  10. Effect of Forest Structural Change on Carbon Storage in a Coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides Stand

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2013-01-01

    Forest structural change affects the forest's growth and the carbon storage. Two treatments, thinning (30% thinning intensity) and underplanting plus thinning, are being implemented in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest shelterbelt in Eastern China. The vegetation carbon storage significantly increased in the underplanted and thinned treatments compared with that in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The soil and litterfall carbon storage in the underplanted treatment were significantly higher than those in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The total forest ecosystem carbon storage in the underplanted and thinned treatments increased by 35.3% and 26.3%, respectively, compared with that in the unthinned treatment, an increase that mainly came from the growth of vegetation aboveground. Total ecosystem carbon storage showed no significant difference between the underplanted and thinned treatments (P > 0.05). The soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was significantly higher at the 0–15 cm soil layer in the thinned and underplanted stands compared with that in the unthinned stand (P < 0.05). The soil respiration of the underplanted treatment was significantly higher than that of the unthinned treatment only in July (P < 0.05). This study concludes that 30% thinning and underplanting after thinning could be more favorable to carbon sequestration for M. glyptostroboides plantations in the coastal areas of Eastern China. PMID:24187525

  11. Spatial Simulation of Land Use based on Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Coastal Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Wang, Wanjing; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2014-01-01

    This paper optimises projected land-use structure in 2020 with the goal of increasing terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and simulates its spatial distribution using the CLUE-S model. We found the following: The total carbon densities of different land use types were woodland > water area > cultivated land > built-up land > grassland > shallows. Under the optimised land-use structure projected for 2020, coastal Jiangsu showed the potential to increase carbon storage, and our method was effective even when only considering vegetation carbon storage. The total area will increase by reclamation and the original shallows will be exploited, which will greatly increase carbon storage. For built-up land, rural land consolidation caused the second-largest carbon storage increase, which might contribute the most as the rural population will continue to decrease in the future, while the decrease of cultivated land will contribute the most to carbon loss. The area near the coastline has the greatest possibility for land-use change and is where land management should be especially strengthened. PMID:25011476

  12. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted... CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  13. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted... CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  14. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted... CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  15. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26–44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage. PMID:27278688

  16. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-06-09

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26-44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage.

  17. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming.

  18. Storage ring development at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, S.; Bittner, J.; Fauchet, A.M.; Johnson, E.D.; Keane, J.; Murphy, J.; Nawrocky, R.J.; Rogers, J.; Singh, O.V.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Transverse Beam Profile Monitor; Bunch Length Measurements in the VUV Storage Ring; Photoelectric Effect Photon Beam Position Monitors; RF Receivers for Processing Electron Beam Pick-up Electrode Signals; Real-Time Global Orbit Feedback Systems; Local Orbit Feedback; Active Interlock System for High Power Insertion Devices in the X-ray Ring; Bunch Lengthening Cavity for the VUV Ring; SXLS Storage Ring Design.

  19. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  20. Increased carbon flux with rising mean annual temperature does not alter ecosystem carbon storage in a tropical montane wet forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmants, P.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory and existing studies agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in the absence of water and nutrient limitations. However, it remains unclear how increased carbon input to and loss from terrestrial ecosystems will affect overall ecosystem carbon storage, which has important implications for potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we use a well-constrained model ecological gradient to quantify how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects carbon fluxes and ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across nine permanent plots representing a 5.2ο C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Aboveground net primary productivity increased by 1 Mg ha-1 y-1 and the residence time of carbon in the forest floor declined by ~3 months for each 1ο C rise in MAT across the gradient, indicating a substantial increase in both carbon input and output with rising MAT. Despite these large increases in carbon flux, ecosystem carbon storage showed minimal sensitivity to MAT. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of temperature. Detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg ha-1 for each 1ο C rise in temperature, but this decline was driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter, which together make up < 10% on average of total ecosystem C across the MAT gradient. The largest detrital pool, soil carbon, did not vary with MAT, averaging 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the gradient. Overall, total ecosystem carbon storage did not vary with MAT, averaging ~550 Mg ha-1 across the gradient. In addition, the distribution of ecosystem carbon in live biomass vs. detritus remained relatively constant at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. Because our MAT gradient does not vary with respect to factors other than temperature (i.e., dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), these

  1. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Nitash Balsara

    2016-07-12

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  2. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  3. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity for all unconventional reservoirs may be modeled using a volumetric equation starting with the extent of the rock unit and adjusted using these key factors and reaction terms. The ideas that were developed during this workshop can be used by USGS scientists to develop a methodology to assess the CO2 storage resource in unconventional reservoirs. This methodology could then be released for public comment and peer review. After completing this development process, the USGS could then use the methodology to assess the CO2 storage resource in unconventional reservoirs.

  4. 110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Porras, Daniel F; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the long-term dynamics of urban vegetation is essential in determining trends in the provision of key resources for biodiversity and ecosystem services and improving their management. Such studies are, however, extremely scarce due to the lack of suitable historical data. We use repeat historical photographs from the 1900s, 1950s, and 2010 to assess general trends in the quantity and size distributions of the tree stock in urban Sheffield and resultant aboveground carbon storage. Total tree numbers declined by a third from the 1900s to the 1950s, but increased by approximately 50% from the 1900s-2010, and by 100% from the 1950s-2010. Aboveground carbon storage in urban tree stocks had doubled by 2010 from the levels present in the 1900s and 1950s. The initial decrease occurred at a time when national and regional tree stocks were static and are likely to be driven by rebuilding following bombing of the urban area during the Second World War and by urban expansion. In 2010, trees greater than 10 m in height comprised just 8% of those present. The increases in total tree numbers are thus largely driven by smaller trees and are likely to be associated with urban tree planting programmes. Changes in tree stocks were not constant across the urban area but varied with the current intensity of urbanization. Increases from 1900 to 2010 in total tree stocks, and smaller sized trees, tended to be greatest in the most intensely urbanized areas. In contrast, the increases in the largest trees were more marked in areas with the most green space. These findings emphasize the importance of preserving larger fragments of urban green space to protect the oldest and largest trees that contribute disproportionately to carbon storage and other ecosystem services. Maintaining positive trends in urban tree stocks and associated ecosystem service provision will require continued investment in urban tree planting programmes in combination with additional measures, such as

  5. 110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Porras, Daniel F; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the long-term dynamics of urban vegetation is essential in determining trends in the provision of key resources for biodiversity and ecosystem services and improving their management. Such studies are, however, extremely scarce due to the lack of suitable historical data. We use repeat historical photographs from the 1900s, 1950s, and 2010 to assess general trends in the quantity and size distributions of the tree stock in urban Sheffield and resultant aboveground carbon storage. Total tree numbers declined by a third from the 1900s to the 1950s, but increased by approximately 50% from the 1900s–2010, and by 100% from the 1950s–2010. Aboveground carbon storage in urban tree stocks had doubled by 2010 from the levels present in the 1900s and 1950s. The initial decrease occurred at a time when national and regional tree stocks were static and are likely to be driven by rebuilding following bombing of the urban area during the Second World War and by urban expansion. In 2010, trees greater than 10 m in height comprised just 8% of those present. The increases in total tree numbers are thus largely driven by smaller trees and are likely to be associated with urban tree planting programmes. Changes in tree stocks were not constant across the urban area but varied with the current intensity of urbanization. Increases from 1900 to 2010 in total tree stocks, and smaller sized trees, tended to be greatest in the most intensely urbanized areas. In contrast, the increases in the largest trees were more marked in areas with the most green space. These findings emphasize the importance of preserving larger fragments of urban green space to protect the oldest and largest trees that contribute disproportionately to carbon storage and other ecosystem services. Maintaining positive trends in urban tree stocks and associated ecosystem service provision will require continued investment in urban tree planting programmes in combination with additional measures, such

  6. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-20

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  7. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha‑1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  8. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    PubMed Central

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha−1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  9. Tailoring of nanoscale porosity in carbide-derived carbons for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Gogotsi, Yury; Dash, Ranjan K; Yushin, Gleb; Yildirim, Taner; Laudisio, Giovanna; Fischer, John E

    2005-11-23

    The poor performance of hydrogen storage materials continues to hinder development of fuel cell-powered automobiles. Nanoscale carbons, in particular (activated carbon, exfoliated graphite, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanohorns), have not fulfilled their initial promise. Here we show that carbon materials can be rationally designed for H2 storage. Carbide-derived carbons (CDC), a largely unknown class of porous carbons, are produced by high-temperature chlorination of carbides. Metals and metalloids are removed as chlorides, leaving behind a collapsed noncrystalline carbon with up to 80% open pore volume. The detailed nature of the porosity-average size and size distribution, shape, and total specific surface area (SSA)-can be tuned with high sensitivity by selection of precursor carbide (composition, lattice type) and chlorination temperature. The optimum temperature is bounded from below by thermodynamics and kinetics of chlorination reactions and from above by graphitization, which decreases SSA and introduces H2-sorbing surfaces with binding energies too low to be useful. Intuitively, pores of different size and shape should not contribute equally to hydrogen storage. By correlating pore properties with 77 K H2 isotherms from a wide variety of CDCs, we experimentally confirm that gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity normalized to total pore volume is optimized in materials with primarily micropores ( approximately 1 nm) rather than mesopores. Thus, in agreement with theoretical predictions, a narrow size distribution of small pores is desirable for storing hydrogen, while large pores merely degrade the volumetric storage capacity.

  10. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  11. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723

  12. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  13. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  14. The potential storage of carbon caused by eutrophication of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. J.; Melillo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase has been reduced due to increased net storage of carbon in forests, coastal oceans, and the open sea, caused by eutrophication of the biosphere with nitrogen and phosphorus, is examined. The potential for carbon storage, the balance of C, N, and P, and man's influence on the forests, rivers, coastal oceans, and the open sea is studied and discussed. It is concluded that biotic carbon sinks are small relative to the rate of CO2 release from fossil fuel; therefore, storage is limited. Man has reduced the stocks of carbon held in forests and soils and there is a redistribution of C, N, and P from the land to the oceans.

  15. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g−1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage. PMID:28074899

  16. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g‑1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  17. Using conservative and reactive tracers to monitor and verify permanent carbon dioxide storage in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. L.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Bausch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage methods can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming. Long term, thermodynamically stable storage of carbon dioxide through mineral carbonation is one such method, in which divalent cations released from rocks such as basalt react with CO2 to form carbonates. [1] Currently used monitoring techniques for geologic CO2 storage fail to detect dissolved or chemically transformed CO2. We use conservative and reactive tracers in an ongoing pilot CO2 injection project in Iceland to characterize subsurface CO2 transport and in situ CO2-water-rock reactions. The Carbfix project in Iceland is a field scale pilot project where CO2 and H2S emissions from the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant are dissolved in groundwater and injected into a permeable basalt formation at ~500 m depth below surface. Trifluormethylsulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) are added as conservative tracers to the injected CO2 for the purpose of characterizing the migration of the injected CO2 in the basaltic storage reservoir. Furthermore, the injected CO2 is labeled with radiocarbon (14C) to monitor the extent of CO2-water-rock reactions and mineral carbonation. Initial results from the monitoring wells show a fast dispersion and reaction of the injected CO2. Breakthrough curves of SF6, SF5CF3 and 14C can be observed in nearby monitoring wells from samples collected and analyzed by gas chromatography or accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Changes in the ratios between reactive and conservative tracers demonstrate that mixing and CO2-water-rock reactions are occurring. The use of conservative and reactive tracers contributes to the monitoring, verification and accounting information needed to establish the extent and security of carbon storage and be helpful in furthering the public acceptance of geological CO2 storage via mineral carbonation as a contribution to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. [1] Oelkers, et

  18. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles.

  19. Preparation and characterization of ordered porous carbons for increasing hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-10-15

    We prepared ordered porous carbons (PCs) by using a replication method that had well-organized mesoporous silica as a template with various carbonization temperatures in order to investigate the possibility of energy storage materials. The microstructure and morphologies of the samples are characterized by XRD, TEM, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms are analyzed by the t-plot method, as well as the BET and the H-K method in order to characterize the specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the samples, respectively. The capacity of the hydrogen adsorption of the samples is evaluated by BEL-HP at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results, we are able to confirm that the synthesis of the samples can be accurately governed by the carbonization temperature, which is one of the effective parameters for developing the textural properties of the carbon materials, which affects the behaviors of the hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: It is described that the considerable long-range ordering and the presence of mono-dimensional aligned channels between the two aligned nanorods of the porous framework from the SBA-15 was retained in the T-950 sample during the carbonization process. Highlights: > Ordered porous carbons (PCs) are synthesized with various carbonization temperatures by using a replication method. > Carbonization temperature plays an important role in shrinking the micropores during the carbonization process of PCs. > The textural and structural properties of the PCs are good parameters for enhancing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  20. FeS@C on Carbon Cloth as Flexible Electrode for Both Lithium and Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Li, Weihan; Shi, Jin-an; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-12-23

    Flexible and self-supported carbon-coated FeS on carbon cloth films (denoted as FeS@C/carbon cloth) is prepared by a facial hydrothermal method combined with a carbonization treatment. The FeS@C/carbon cloth could be directly used as electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). The synthetic effects of the structure, highly electron-conductive of carbon cloth, porous structure for electrolyte access, and uniform carbon shell on FeS surface to accommodate the volume change lead to improved cyclability and rate capability. For lithium storage, the FeS@C/carbon cloth electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 420 mAh g(-1) even after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.15 C and 370 mAh g(-1)at a high current density of 7.5 C (1 C = 609 mA g(-1). When used for sodium storage, it keeps a reversible capacity of 365 mAh g(-1)after 100 cycles at 0.15 C. Similar process can be utilized for the formation of various cathode and anode composites on carbon cloth for flexible energy storage devices.

  1. Cyanophycin mediates the accumulation and storage of fixed carbon in non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria from coniform mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Wu, T.; Vali, H.; Wang, C.; Bosak, T.

    2013-12-01

    Thin, filamentous, non-heterocystous, benthic cyanobacteria (Subsection III) in some marine and thermal environments aggregate into macroscopic cones and conical stromatolites. We investigated the uptake and storage of inorganic carbon by cone-forming cyanobacteria from Yellowstone National Park using high-resolution stable isotope mapping of labeled carbon (H13CO3-) and immunoassays. Observations and incubation experiments in actively photosynthesizing enrichment cultures and field samples reveal the presence of abundant cyanophycin granules in the active growth layer of cones. These granules are ultrastructurally heterogeneous and rapidly accumulate newly fixed carbon, storing about 20% of the total particulate labeled carbon after 2 hours of incubation. These experiments demonstrate an unexpectedly large contribution of PEP carboxylase to carbon fixation, and a large flow of carbon and nitrogen toward cyanophycin in thin filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. This pattern does not occur in obvious response to a changing N or C status. Instead, it suggests an unusual interplay between the regulation of carbon concentration mechanisms and accumulation of photorespiratory products in cone-forming cyanobacteria.

  2. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  3. Changes in Carbon Storage and Net Carbon Exchange After a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. A.; Rodrigues, C. A.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Dail, D. B.; Goltz, S. M.; Malerba, P.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2003-12-01

    While many forests are actively sequestering carbon, little research has examined the direct effects of forest management practices on carbon sequestration. This is a critical issue in North America, where a large proportion of forests are managed. At the Howland Forest in Maine, we are using eddy covariance, biometric techniques and modeling to evaluate changes in carbon storage following a shelterwood cut that removed just under 30% of aboveground biomass. This management regime is becoming increasingly common throughout the region. Prior to harvest, the stand contained about 76 Mg C ha-1 (30 m2ha-1 basal area) in above- and below-ground live biomass. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=2.1), and created about 5.3 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index and litterfall declined by about 40% with harvest. Approximately half of the harvested wood was used for paper products (half-life of 3.5 years) and half for longer-lived wood products (half-life of 45 years). In a nearby, unharvested stand, eddy covariance measurements indicated that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) averages about 1.8 Mg C ha-1 y-1. A comparison of NEE at unharvested and harvested stands, both pre- and post-harvest, indicated that NEE declined following the harvest by about 18%, which is less than expected based on basal area and LAI changes. Both daily uptake and nocturnal respiration declined after harvest. Soil respiration declined slightly with harvest, suggesting no major soil C loss after harvest; harvesting had little effect on soil moisture and temperature. When decay of paper and wood products is included in a preliminary carbon budget, we predict that the forest will be a net C source to the atmosphere for at least 5 years, assuming pre-harvest growth rates of trees. How quickly the carbon balance becomes positive will depend largely on whether post-harvest tree growth rates increase.

  4. [Biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes under six types of young coniferous forest plantations].

    PubMed

    Bao, Weikai; Lei, Bo; Leng, Li

    2005-10-01

    This paper studied the biomass and carbon storage of the ground bryophytes under young Picea balfouriana (P), Pinus tabulaeformis (Y), Pinus armandii (H), Larix kaempferi (L), Picea balfouriana-Pinus tabulaeformis (P-Y), and Pinus tabulaeformis-Pinus armandii (Y-H) forest plantations in the upper reach of Minjiang River, Sichuan Province. The results showed that total biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes were relatively low, being 3.11 - 460.36 kg x hm(-2) and 1.12 +/- 0.03 x 168.95 +/- 0.92 kg x hm(-2), respectively. On plot level, only the bryophyte biomass between forest P and others, and the carbon storage between forest L and others were significantly different. The ground bryophyte had the highest biomass and carbon storage under forest P, while the lowest ones under forest H. Comprehensive analysis suggested that forest type and its structural feature might be the important factors determining the biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes, and thinning was an important measure to improve ground bryophyte growth and biomass production.

  5. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    PubMed

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L; Platts, Philip J; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D; Lovett, Jon C; Ahrends, Antje; Bayliss, Julian; Doggart, Nike; Doody, Kathryn; Fanning, Eibleis; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Jaclyn; Howell, Kim L; Marchant, Rob; Marshall, Andrew R; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Munishi, Pantaleon K T; Owen, Nisha; Swetnam, Ruth D; Topp-Jorgensen, Elmer J; Lewis, Simon L

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon) for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74) Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced for a relatively

  6. Installation Restoration Program Field Investigation Report, Hazardous Waste Storage Area, Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Columbus, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    storage drums, or in the four 25,000 gallon underground storage tanks . The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the soil or ground water...investigations were recommended to define the lateral and vertical extent and magnitude of contamination Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Hazardous waste storage area, deicing fluid, underground storage tanks .

  7. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Schnitzer, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests. PMID:26460031

  8. Carbon storage in Chinese grassland ecosystems: Influence of different integrative methods.

    PubMed

    Ma, Anna; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui; Wen, Ding; Peng, Shunlei

    2016-02-17

    The accurate estimate of grassland carbon (C) is affected by many factors at the large scale. Here, we used six methods (three spatial interpolation methods and three grassland classification methods) to estimate C storage of Chinese grasslands based on published data from 2004 to 2014, and assessed the uncertainty resulting from different integrative methods. The uncertainty (coefficient of variation, CV, %) of grassland C storage was approximately 4.8% for the six methods tested, which was mainly determined by soil C storage. C density and C storage to the soil layer depth of 100 cm were estimated to be 8.46 ± 0.41 kg C m(-2) and 30.98 ± 1.25 Pg C, respectively. Ecosystem C storage was composed of 0.23 ± 0.01 (0.7%) above-ground biomass, 1.38 ± 0.14 (4.5%) below-ground biomass, and 29.37 ± 1.2 (94.8%) Pg C in the 0-100 cm soil layer. Carbon storage calculated by the grassland classification methods (18 grassland types) was closer to the mean value than those calculated by the spatial interpolation methods. Differences in integrative methods may partially explain the high uncertainty in C storage estimates in different studies. This first evaluation demonstrates the importance of multi-methodological approaches to accurately estimate C storage in large-scale terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. GEOLOGIC CARBON STORAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE RULES OF THE UNDERGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2), an emerging option for carbon management. Few studies have explored the regulatory needs of GS or compared these needs with regulations governing underground injection on the U.S. mainland. Our treatment...

  10. Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, Margaret S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Hendricks, David M.

    1997-09-01

    A large source of uncertainty in present understanding of the global carbon cycle is the distribution and dynamics of the soil organic carbon reservoir. Most of the organic carbon in soils is degraded to inorganic forms slowly, on timescales from centuries to millennia. Soil minerals are known to play a stabilizing role, but how spatial and temporal variation in soil mineralogy controls the quantity and turnover of long-residence-time organic carbon is not well known. Here we use radiocarbon analyses to explore interactions between soil mineralogy and soil organic carbon along two natural gradients-of soil-age and of climate-in volcanic soil environments. During the first ~150,000 years of soil development, the volcanic parent material weathered to metastable, non-crystalline minerals. Thereafter, the amount of non-crystalline minerals declined, and more stable crystalline minerals accumulated. Soil organic carbon content followed a similar trend, accumulating to a maximum after 150,000 years, and then decreasing by 50% over the next four million years. A positive relationship between non-crystalline minerals and organic carbon was also observed in soils through the climate gradient, indicating that the accumulation and subsequent loss of organic matter were largely driven by changes in the millennial scale cycling of mineral-stabilized carbon, rather than by changes in the amount of fast-cycling organic matter or in net primary productivity. Soil mineralogy is therefore important in determining the quantity of organic carbon stored in soil, its turnover time, and atmosphere-ecosystem carbon fluxes during long-term soil development; this conclusion should be generalizable at least to other humid environments.

  11. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  12. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1993-05-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  13. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1991-09-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is therefore especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  14. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  15. Microporous carbon nanosheets with redox-active heteroatoms for pseudocapacitive charge storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y. S.; Kim, D.-H.; Hong, S. J.; Park, M. H.; Park, Y. W.; Kim, B. H.; Jin, H.-J.; Kang, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors.We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04231c

  16. Estimates of Carbon Sequestration and Storage in Tidal Coastal Wetlands Along the US East Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, salt marshes are reported to sequester carbon (210 g C m-2 y -1), and along with mangroves in the US, they are reported to account for 1–2 % of the carbon sink for the conterminous US. Using the published salt marsh carbon sequestration rate and National Wetland Invent...

  17. In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Matter, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    The rate of natural carbonation of tectonically exposed mantle peridotite during weathering and low-temperature alteration can be enhanced to develop a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail ophiolite, an uplifted slice of oceanic crust and upper mantle in the Sultanate of Oman, is surprisingly rapid. Carbonate veins in mantle peridotite in Oman have an average 14C age of ≈26,000 years, and are not 30–95 million years old as previously believed. These data and reconnaissance mapping show that ≈104 to 105 tons per year of atmospheric CO2 are converted to solid carbonate minerals via peridotite weathering in Oman. Peridotite carbonation can be accelerated via drilling, hydraulic fracture, input of purified CO2 at elevated pressure, and, in particular, increased temperature at depth. After an initial heating step, CO2 pumped at 25 or 30 °C can be heated by exothermic carbonation reactions that sustain high temperature and rapid reaction rates at depth with little expenditure of energy. In situ carbonation of peridotite could consume >1 billion tons of CO2 per year in Oman alone, affording a low-cost, safe, and permanent method to capture and store atmospheric CO2.

  18. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  19. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  20. Capture and storage of Carbon dioxid: a method for countering climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the options aimed at preventing climatic changes is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide, a method with a great potential for reducing greenhouse gases. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide in the soil involves new benefits for the communities in the respective areas. Those benefits also follow from the fact that the organic compound has an essential factor in the soil, determining its properties. The paper presents several results concerning the determination of the quantity of carbon dioxide in different types of soil and it is intended to be the beginning of the process of data collection and the analysis of the reserves and the flow of carbon.

  1. Spatial Variations in Carbon Storage along Headwater Fluvial Networks with Differing Valley Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Polvi, L. E.; Sutfin, N. A.; Bazan, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    We distinguish multiple valley types along headwater fluvial networks in the Colorado Front Range based on valley geometry (downstream gradient and valley-bottom width relative to active channel width) and the presence of biotic drivers (beaver dams or channel-spanning logjams associated with old-growth forest) capable of creating a multi-thread channel pattern. Valley type influences storage of fine sediment, organic matter, and carbon. Deep, narrow valleys have limited storage potential, whereas wide, shallow valleys with multi-thread channels have substantial storage potential. Multi-thread channels only occur in the presence of a biotic driver. Given the importance of headwater streams in the global carbon cycle, it becomes important to understand the spatial distribution and magnitude of carbon storage along these streams, as well as the processes governing patterns of storage. We compare carbon stored in three reservoirs: riparian vegetation (live, dead, and litter), instream and floodplain large wood, and floodplain soils for 100-m-long valley segments in seven different valley types. The valley types are (i) laterally confined valleys in old-growth forest, (ii) partly confined valleys in old-growth forest, (iii) laterally unconfined valleys with multi-thread channels in old-growth forest, (iv) laterally unconfined valleys with single-thread channels in old-growth forest, (v) laterally confined valleys in younger forest, (vi) recently abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with multi-thread channels and willow thickets, and (vii) longer abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with single-thread channels and very limited woody vegetation. Preliminary results suggest that, although multi-thread channel segments driven by beavers or logjams cover less than 25 percent of the total length of headwater river networks in the study area, they account for more than three-quarters of the carbon stored along the river network. Historical loss of beavers and old-growth forest has

  2. Role of rock/fluid characteristics in carbon (CO2) storage and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2005-01-01

    The presentation ? Role of Rock/Fluid Characteristics in Carbon (CO2) Storage and Modeling ? was prepared for the meeting of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Houston, Tex., on April 6?7, 2005. It provides an overview of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and a summary of their effects on the Earth?s atmosphere. It presents methods of mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases, and the role of rock and fluid properties on CO2 storage mechanisms. It also lists factors that must be considered to adequately model CO2 storage.

  3. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  5. On the use of data mining for estimating carbon storage in the trees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forests contribute to climate change mitigation by storing carbon in tree biomass. The amount of carbon stored in this carbon pool is estimated by using either allometric equations or biomass expansion factors. Both of the methods provide estimate of the carbon stock based on the biometric parameters of a model tree. This study calls attention to the potential advantages of the data mining technique known as instance-based classification, which is not used currently for this purpose. The analysis of the data on the carbon storage in 30 trees of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) shows that the instance-based classification provides as relevant estimates as the conventional methods do. The coefficient of correlation between the estimated and measured values of carbon storage in tree biomass does not vary significantly with the choice of the method. The use of some other measures of method performance leads to the same result. In contrast to the convention methods the instance-based classification does not presume any specific form of the function relating carbon storage to the biometric parameters of the tree. Since the best form of such function is difficult to find, the instance-based classification could outperform the conventional methods in some cases, or simply get rid of the questions about the choice of the allometric equations. PMID:23758745

  6. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  7. [Spatiotemporal variation of carbon storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong-De; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tang, Xiao

    2007-12-01

    Based on the modeling of forest biomass and timber volume and the 1974-2004 forest inventory data, the spatiotemporal variation of carbon density and storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province was studied. The results showed that the forest carbon storage was increased from 300.02 Tg in 1974 to 469.96 Tg in 2004, with an annual increment of 1.51%, which suggested that the forests in Sichuan Province were the sink of CO2. However, owing to the increase of plantations, the average carbon density of forest vegetation decreased from 49.91 Mg x hm(-2) to 37.39 Mg x Shm(-2), implying that Sichuan forests had a great potential of carbon sequestration through artificial forest management. The carbon storage in Sichuan forests had a spatial heterogeneity, and the ranked order was northwest alpine gorge area > southwest mountainous area > low-mountain area > hilly area > western plain. Forest carbon density increased from southwest area to northwest area, with the order of hilly area < northern plain < southwest mountain area < low-mountain area < northwest alpine gorge area. It was suggested that forest management according to different sub-regions would improve the potential of carbon sequestration in Sichuan forests.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories Electrochemical Storage System Abuse Test Procedure Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Unkelhaeuser, Terry; Smallwood David

    1999-07-01

    The series of tests described in this report are intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions and internally initiated failures that may be experienced in electrochemical storage systems (ECSS). These tests were derived from Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, user input, and historical abuse testing. The tests are to provide a common framework for various ECSS technologies. The primary purpose of testing is to gather response information to external/internal inputs. Some tests and/or measurements may not be required for some ECSS technologies and designs if it is demonstrated that a test is not applicable, and the measurements yield no useful information.

  9. Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    PubMed Central

    Szulczewski, Michael L.; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Herzog, Howard J.; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 y. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century. PMID:22431639

  10. Whole ecosystem estimates of carbon exchange and storage in a New England salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are wetlands situated at the interface of land and ocean. They are among the most productive ecosystems worldwide and store substantial amounts of carbon as peat. Their long-term stability is dependent on sediment accretion and carbon accumulation to avoid submergence when sea level is rising. Currently, estimates of carbon storage in salt marshes are uncertain because our understanding of the coupling between marsh plant productivity and carbon release to the adjacent ocean is limited. To evaluate the capacity to store carbon as well as the resilience of the ecosystem, long-term studies of carbon cycling considering both vertical and lateral fluxes are necessary. To study the net exchange between marsh and atmosphere, we chose the non-intrusive eddy covariance which allows nearly continuous half hourly flux measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on the ecosystem scale. Since spring 2012, we have been investigating the marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a Spartina patens high marsh at the Plum Island Ecosystems Long-Term Ecological Research site. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 exchange during summer were controlled by the phenology of S. patens. Preliminary estimates for seasonal carbon storage range from 185 to 228 g C m-2 (5/1/2012 to 10/31/2012). During the winter months we observed small fluxes, but carbon uptake still occurred during the day. We attribute this to microalgae productivity. Winter carbon release is estimated to be approximately 130 g C m-2 (12/6/2012 to 4/30/2013), when uptake by microalgae is not taken into account. This emphasizes the relevance of transitional and cold season carbon cycling for the carbon storage capacity of northern salt marshes, since a large proportion of fixed carbon is released during these periods. Direct tidal effects on the marsh-atmosphere carbon exchange are visible especially during monthly spring tides, when both daytime carbon uptake and night time respiration were reduced during

  11. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes on metal oxides and energy storage application.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Li, Xianglin; Cao, Xiehong; Fan, Yu; Xia, Xinhui; Pan, Guoxiang; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-01-29

    Nanostructured carbon is widely used in energy storage devices (e.g., Li-ion and Li-air batteries and supercapacitors). A new method is developed for the generation of carbon nanoflakes on various metal oxide nanostructures by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and glucose carbonization. Various metal oxide@nanoflake carbon (MO@f-C) core-branch nanostructures are obtained. For the mechanism, it is proposed that the ALD Al2 O3 and glucose form a composite layer. Upon thermal annealing, the composite layer becomes fragmented and moves outward, accompanied by carbon deposition on the alumina skeleton. When tested as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode, the hierarchical MO@f-C nanostructures exhibit better properties compared with the pristine metal oxides or the carbon coating without ALD. The enhancement can be ascribed to increased specific surface areas and electric conductivity due to the carbon flake coating. This peculiar carbon coating method with the unique hierarchical nanostructure may provide a new insight into the preparation of 'oxides + carbon' hybrid electrode materials for energy storage applications.

  12. Mapping the Carbon Footprint of Nations.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Moran, Daniel; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-10-04

    Life cycle thinking asks companies and consumers to take responsibility for emissions along their entire supply chain. As the world economy becomes more complex it is increasingly difficult to connect consumers and other downstream users to the origins of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the important role of subnational entities-cities, states, and companies-in GHG abatement efforts, it would be advantageous to better link downstream users to facilities and regulators who control primary emissions. We present a new spatially explicit carbon footprint method for establishing such connections. We find that for most developed countries the carbon footprint has diluted and spread: for example, since 1970 the U.S. carbon footprint has grown 23% territorially, and 38% in consumption-based terms, but nearly 200% in spatial extent (i.e., the minimum area needed to contain 90% of emissions). The rapidly growing carbon footprints of China and India, however, do not show such a spatial expansion of their consumption footprints in spite of their increasing participation in the world economy. In their case, urbanization concentrates domestic pollution and this offsets the increasing importance of imports.

  13. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Muhamad, N.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ~70 t C ha-1. Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region.

  14. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    PubMed

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  15. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  16. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    PubMed

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  17. Changes in Carbon Storage Efficiency Following a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Davidson, E. A.; Rodrigues, C. A.; Dail, B.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest disturbance has a major impact on forest carbon (C) cycling processes, yet few measurements exist of the direct impact of disturbances such as forest management practices on whole-ecosystem C exchange. We are evaluating the impact of a commercial shelterwood harvest on whole-ecosystem C sequestration at a spruce-hemlock dominated forest in Howland, Maine. Harvesting began in fall of 2001, and was completed in the spring of 2002. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=2.1) (~30%) of live biomass, and created about 5.3 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index and litterfall declined initially by about 40% with harvest. Net ecosystem carbon storage, measured using eddy covariance, went from about 1.9 Mg C ha-1y-1 (long-term average in a control stand) to 0.2 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2003, then increased to 1.1 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005 in spite of respiratory carbon losses of about 0.6 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005. Simulation results predicted annual net storage of about 0.8 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005, so carbon storage recovered faster than expected post-harvest. Forest inventory data showed that annual tree growth was similar in the harvested stand (1.8 Mg C ha-1y-1) to that in the control stand (1.6 Mg C ha-1y-1) between 2001 and 2003, then slightly higher in the harvested stand between 2003 and 2005. This was true in spite of the fact that stand basal area and leaf area index were still lower in the harvested stand in 2005 than in the control stand. This was apparently due to much higher light-use efficiency in the harvested stand, leading to a growth `release' following the harvest. Per unit of basal area, trees in the harvested stand were roughly two-fold more efficient at converting solar radiation into `stored' carbon. Trees in the harvested stand experienced a decline in water-use efficiency in order to increase carbon dioxide fixation. Whether whole-ecosystem carbon storage rates will ultimately be higher in the

  18. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  19. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Reed, Bradley C.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Reed, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to conduct a comprehensive national assessment of storage and flux (flow) of carbon and the fluxes of other greenhouse gases in ecosystems of the Eastern United States. These carbon and greenhouse gas variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and aquatic ecosystems (rivers, streams, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) in the Eastern United States in two time periods: baseline (from 2001 through 2005) and future (projections from the end of the baseline through 2050). The Great Lakes were not included in this assessment due to a lack of input data. The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  20. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N. S.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimova, A. E.; Zimova, G. M.; Chuprynin, V. I.; Chapin, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre-industrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) by 400-1300 Gt. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soils and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the PHT, C-rich frozen loess of Europe and South of Siberia thawed and lost most of its carbon. Soil carbon decreases as tundra-steppe changes to forest, steppes and tundra. As a result, over 1000 Gt C was released to the atmosphere, oceans, and other terrestrial ecosystems. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem would enhance soil C storage, while providing other important ecosystem services.

  1. Microbial Internal Storage Alters the Carbon Transformation in Dynamic Anaerobic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Batstone, Damien; Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-08-04

    Microbial internal storage processes have been demonstrated to occur and play an important role in activated sludge systems under both aerobic and anoxic conditions when operating under dynamic conditions. High-rate anaerobic reactors are often operated at a high volumetric organic loading and a relatively dynamic profile, with large amounts of fermentable substrates. These dynamic operating conditions and high catabolic energy availability might also facilitate the formation of internal storage polymers by anaerobic microorganisms. However, so far information about storage under anaerobic conditions (e.g., anaerobic fermentation) as well as its consideration in anaerobic process modeling (e.g., IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, ADM1) is still sparse. In this work, the accumulation of storage polymers during anaerobic fermentation was evaluated by batch experiments using anaerobic methanogenic sludge and based on mass balance analysis of carbon transformation. A new mathematical model was developed to describe microbial storage in anaerobic systems. The model was calibrated and validated by using independent data sets from two different anaerobic systems, with significant storage observed, and effectively simulated in both systems. The inclusion of the new anaerobic storage processes in the developed model allows for more successful simulation of transients due to lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (correction for the overestimation of volatile fatty acids), which mitigates pH fluctuations. Current models such as the ADM1 cannot effectively simulate these dynamics due to a lack of anaerobic storage mechanisms.

  2. "Not in (or under) my backyard": Geographic proximity and public acceptance of carbon capture and storage facilities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel M; Carley, Sanya R; Warren, David C; Rupp, John A; Graham, John D

    2014-03-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an innovative technical approach to mitigate the problem of climate change by capturing carbon dioxide emissions and injecting them underground for permanent geological storage. CCS has been perceived both positively, as an innovative approach to facilitate a more environmentally benign use of fossil fuels while also generating local economic benefits, and negatively, as a technology that prolongs the use of carbon-intensive energy sources and burdens local communities with prohibitive costs and ecological and human health risks. This article extends existing research on the "not in my backyard" (NIMBY) phenomenon in a direction that explores the public acceptance of CCS. We utilize survey data collected from 1,001 residents of the coal-intensive U.S. state of Indiana. Over 80% of respondents express support for the general use of CCS technology. However, 20% of these initial supporters exhibit a NIMBY-like reaction and switch to opposition as a CCS facility is proposed close to their communities. Respondents' worldviews, their beliefs about the local economic benefits that CCS will generate, and their concerns about its safety have the greatest impact on increasing or decreasing the acceptance of nearby facilities. These results lend valuable insights into the perceived risks associated with CCS technology and the possibilities for its public acceptance at both a national and local scale. They may be extended further to provide initial insights into likely public reactions to other technologies that share a similar underground dimension, such as hydraulic fracturing.

  3. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  4. Simulating impacts of Woody Biomass Harvesting on North Temperate Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, D.; Desai, A. R.; Bolstad, P.; Cook, B. D.; Scheller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Woody biomass harvesting is a common feature of forest management given its importance to society for acquisition of pulp and paper, lumber, and wood-based biofuel. Harvest affects many aspects of the forest environment such as biodiversity, soil nutrient quality, physical properties of soil, water quality, wildlife habitat, and climate feedbacks. In this study, we applied a modified CENTURY model to the Willow Creek, Wisconsin Ameriflux site for simulation of the impacts of woody biomass removal on forest carbon and nitrogen storage. Woody biomass harvesting scenarios with different harvesting types, interval, tree species, and soil properties were designed and tested in the model to explore the impact of harvesting on forest productivity, soil and biomass carbon and nitrogen storage, and net carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Comparisons of the impacts among harvesting scenarios indicate that woody biomass harvesting significantly alters long-term net soil carbon and nitrogen storage as well as carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. The simulation results also provide a framework for incorporating carbon management into sustainable forest management practices.

  5. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    PubMed Central

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  6. A general approach towards carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial architecture and its lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Ni, Jiangfeng; Wang, Wencong; Li, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Coaxial architectures consisting of metal oxide and carbon nanotube are promising for many energy applications due to their synergetic interaction. The engineering and development of coaxial structures through a simple approach are highly desirable but remain a challenge. Herein, we present a general and facile ethylene glycol bath approach to fabricate coaxial architectures in which the metal oxide component is sandwiched by carbon nanotube and amorphous carbon. These unique architectures can serve as efficient electrode for lithium storage. The internal carbon nanotube allows rapid electron transport, while the external amorphous carbon acts as flexible buffer to accommodate volume variation upon lithium uptake. When evaluated in lithium cells, the carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial material exhibits a remarkable electrochemical lithium storage. It affords a capacity of 1083 mAh g-1 over 60 cycles, and retains 529 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 5 A g-1, drastically outperforming the pure iron oxide counterpart. This facile approach is in principle applicable to constructing other coaxial electrodes, and thus holds great potential in the manipulation of battery materials for lithium storage application.

  7. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  8. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  9. Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Averill, Colin; Turner, Benjamin L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-23

    Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth's future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi. Using global data sets, we show that soil in ecosystems dominated by EEM-associated plants contains 70% more carbon per unit nitrogen than soil in ecosystems dominated by AM-associated plants. The effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon is independent of, and of far larger consequence than, the effects of net primary production, temperature, precipitation and soil clay content. Hence the effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon content holds at the global scale. This finding links the functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi to carbon storage at ecosystem-to-global scales, suggesting that plant-decomposer competition for nutrients exerts a fundamental control over the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  10. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  11. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  12. Economic and environmental evaluation of flexible integrated gasification polygeneration facilities with carbon capture and storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    One innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which ...

  13. Capturing King Coal: deploying carbon capture and storage systems in the US at scale

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, H.; Venezia, J.; Rigdon, C.; Verma, P.

    2008-05-15

    This paper examines the challenges in the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems in the USA under the four broad categories of technology, policy, legal and regulatory framework, and investment, and their implications for CCS as part of the solution to mitigate adverse climate change impacts.

  14. Large scale boron carbon nitride nanosheets with enhanced lithium storage capabilities.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Liu, Dan; Portehault, David; Liu, Zongwen; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-14

    Few-layered boron carbon nitride nanosheets are synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly process. The BCN nanosheets have 2-6 atomic layers with high surface area and show enhanced storage performance in lithium batteries, as well as a stable capacity of ~100 mA h g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) for 5000 cycles.

  15. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to translate a unique approach for the synthesis of self-assembled nanostructured carbon into industrially viable technologies for two important, large-scale applications: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (also referred to as ultracapacitors) for electrical energy storage, and capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water treatment and desalination.

  16. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  17. Developing a concept for a national used fuel interim storage facility in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Donald Wayne

    2013-07-01

    In the United States (U.S.) the nuclear waste issue has plagued the nuclear industry for decades. Originally, spent fuel was to be reprocessed but with the threat of nuclear proliferation, spent fuel reprocessing has been eliminated, at least for now. In 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 [1] was established, authorizing development of one or more spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste geological repositories and a consolidated national storage facility, called a 'Monitored Retrievable Storage' facility, that could store the spent nuclear fuel until it could be placed into the geological repository. Plans were under way to build a geological repository, Yucca Mountain, but with the decision by President Obama to terminate the development of Yucca Mountain, a consolidated national storage facility that can store spent fuel for an interim period until a new repository is established has become very important. Since reactor sites have not been able to wait for the government to come up with a storage or disposal location, spent fuel remains in wet or dry storage at each nuclear plant. The purpose of this paper is to present a concept developed to address the DOE's goals stated above. This concept was developed over the past few months by collaboration between the DOE and industry experts that have experience in designing spent nuclear fuel facilities. The paper examines the current spent fuel storage conditions at shutdown reactor sites, operating reactor sites, and the type of storage systems (transportable versus non-transportable, welded or bolted). The concept lays out the basis for a pilot storage facility to house spent fuel from shutdown reactor sites and then how the pilot facility can be enlarged to a larger full scale consolidated interim storage facility. (authors)

  18. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  19. Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-01-07

    On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include • Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that many materials with large total surface areas are sub-par performers. • Established that the distribution of pore sizes can be controlled during CDC synthesis, which opens the possibility of developing high performance materials within a common family while targeting widely disparate applications. Examples being actively pursued with other funding sources include methane storage, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors with record high specific capacitance, and perm-selective membranes which bind cytokines for control of infections and possibly hemodialysis filters.

  20. Light enables a very high efficiency of carbon storage in developing embryos of rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Fernando D; Alonso, Ana P; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B

    2005-08-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 5 microM 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 micromol m(-2) s(-1) or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP.

  1. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuguo; Liu, Changcheng; Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2), respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2), respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2), respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2), respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2), respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  2. Organic Carbon Storage in Four Ecosystem Types in the Karst Region of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m−2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m−2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m−2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m−2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m−2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. PMID:23451047

  3. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes.

  4. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  5. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1998-08-04

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g--1,000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  6. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  7. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H.; Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution. PMID:26899381

  8. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H; Shuman, Jacquelyn K; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2016-02-22

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution.

  9. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H.; Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and modeling of hydrogen storage in carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Pekala, R.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Calef, D.F.

    1995-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are a special class of open-cell foams with an ultrafine cell/pore size (<50 nm), high surface area (600-800 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected colloidal-like particles or fibers with characteristic diameters of 10 nm. These materials are usually synthesized from the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde or phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical extraction of the solvent and pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. The resultant aerogel has a nanocrystalline structure with micropores (<2 nm diameter) located within the solid matrix. Carbon aerogel monoliths can be prepared at densities ranging from 0.05-1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, leading to volumetric surface areas (> 500 m{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}) that are much larger than commercially available materials. This research program is directed at optimization of the aerogel structure for maximum hydrogen adsorption over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Computer modeling of hydrogen adsorption at carbon surfaces was also examined.

  11. Soil burial contribution to deep soil organic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaopricha, N. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous reviews of deep soil C have focused on root inputs and the vertical transport of particulate and dissolved organic matter through mixing, gravity, and preferential flowpaths as the main modes of delivery of C to the deep subsoil. Depositional processes have received considerable attention in the context of long-range soil erosion and sedimentation on land, but the role of soil burial in the sequestration of C photosynthesized in situ at depositional sites has been largely absent from discussions of deep soil organic C (SOC) dynamics. Burial can disconnect a soil from atmospheric conditions and slow or inhibit microbial decomposition. Buried soil horizons, which are former surface soils that have been buried through various depositional processes, can store more SOC than would exist at such depths from in situ root inputs and leaching from upper horizons. Here, we discuss factors contributing to SOC storage in soils below 1 m with a focus on soil burial. We review the contributions of geomorphic and anthropogenic depositional processes to deep SOC storage and describe how environmental conditions or state factors during and since burial influence SOC persistence in buried soils. We draw from examples in the paleosol and geomorphology literature to identify the effects of soil burial by volcanic, aeolian, alluvial, colluvial, glacial, and anthropogenic processes on soil C storage. Buried soils have been traditionally studied for information about past environments and can also serve as useful case studies for understanding both the sensitivity of landscape processes to future environmental change and the mechanisms contributing to soil organic matter stabilization. Soil burial can store SOC at any depth. Here, we focus particularly on buried soil horizons at ≥ 1 m depth to highlight how much SOC exists at depths below those typically considered in SOC inventories, studies of soil organic matter dynamics, and most biogeochemical models. Understanding the

  12. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  13. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  14. Allocation to carbon storage pools in Norway spruce saplings under drought and low CO2.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate G; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are critical to maintain plant metabolism under stressful environmental conditions, but we do not fully understand how NSC allocation and utilization from storage varies with stress. While it has become established that storage allocation is unlikely to be a mere overflow process, very little empirical evidence has been produced to support this view, at least not for trees. Here we present the results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon (C) balance (young Picea abies (L.) H Karst.) using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought to reduce C sources. We measured specific C storage pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) over 21 weeks and converted concentration measurement into fluxes into and out of the storage pool. Continuous labeling ((13)C) allowed us to track C allocation to biomass and non-structural C pools. Net C fluxes into the storage pool occurred mainly when the C balance was positive. Storage pools increased during periods of positive C gain and were reduced under negative C gain. (13)C data showed that C was allocated to storage pools independent of the net flux and even under severe C limitation. Allocation to below-ground tissues was strongest in control trees followed by trees experiencing drought followed by those grown under low [CO2]. Our data suggest that NSC storage has, under the conditions of our experimental manipulation (e.g., strong progressive drought, no above-ground growth), a high allocation priority and cannot be considered an overflow process. While these results also suggest active storage allocation, definitive proof of active plant control of storage in woody plants requires studies involving molecular tools.

  15. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  16. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  17. Effects of vinylene carbonate on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    The effects of vinylene carbonate (VC) on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries are investigated. 1.3 M of LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of 3:3:4 volume ratio is used as original electrolyte for 18650 cylindrical cells with LiCoO 2 cathode and graphite anode. VC is then added to electrolyte. At the initial stage of the high temperature storage, higher open-circuit voltage (OCV) is maintained when increasing the VC concentration. As the storage time increases, OCV of higher VC concentration drops gradually, and then the gas evolution takes place abruptly. Gas analysis shows methane (CH 4) decreases with increase of the VC concentration due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the graphite. Since the residual VC after formation of the SEI layer decomposes on the cathode surface, carbon dioxide (CO 2) dramatically increases on the cathode with the VC concentration, leaving poly(VC) film at the anode surface, as suggested by XPS test results.

  18. Carbon storage in Chinese grassland ecosystems: Influence of different integrative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Anna; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui; Wen, Ding; Peng, Shunlei

    2016-02-01

    The accurate estimate of grassland carbon (C) is affected by many factors at the large scale. Here, we used six methods (three spatial interpolation methods and three grassland classification methods) to estimate C storage of Chinese grasslands based on published data from 2004 to 2014, and assessed the uncertainty resulting from different integrative methods. The uncertainty (coefficient of variation, CV, %) of grassland C storage was approximately 4.8% for the six methods tested, which was mainly determined by soil C storage. C density and C storage to the soil layer depth of 100 cm were estimated to be 8.46 ± 0.41 kg C m‑2 and 30.98 ± 1.25 Pg C, respectively. Ecosystem C storage was composed of 0.23 ± 0.01 (0.7%) above-ground biomass, 1.38 ± 0.14 (4.5%) below-ground biomass, and 29.37 ± 1.2 (94.8%) Pg C in the 0–100 cm soil layer. Carbon storage calculated by the grassland classification methods (18 grassland types) was closer to the mean value than those calculated by the spatial interpolation methods. Differences in integrative methods may partially explain the high uncertainty in C storage estimates in different studies. This first evaluation demonstrates the importance of multi-methodological approaches to accurately estimate C storage in large-scale terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Carbon storage in Amazonia during the last glacial maximum: secondary data and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Turcq, Bruno; Cordeiro, Renato C; Sifeddine, Abdefettah; Simões Filho, Francisco F L; Albuquerque, Ana Luisa S; Abrão, Jorge J

    2002-12-01

    The Amazonian forest is, due to its great size, carbon storage capacity and present-day variability in carbon uptake and release, an important component of the global carbon cycle. Paleo-environmental reconstruction is difficult for Amazonia due to the scarcity of primary palynological data and the mis-interpretation of some secondary data. Studies of lacustrine sediment records have shown that Amazonia has known periods in which the climate was drier than it is today. However, not all geomorphological features such as dunes, and slope erosion, which are thought to indicate rainforest regression, date from the time of the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) and these features do not necessarily correspond to episodes of forest regression. There is also uncertainty concerning LGM carbon storage due to rainforest soils and biomass estimates. Soil carbon content may decrease moderately during the LGM, whereas rainforest biomass may change considerably in response to changes in the global environment. Biomass per unit area in Amazonia has probably been reduced by the cumulative effects of low CO2 concentration, a drier climate and lower temperatures. As few paleo-vegetation data are available, there is considerable uncertainty concerning the amount of carbon stored in Amazonia during the LGM, which may have corresponded to 44-94% of the carbon currently stored in biomass and soils.

  20. Enhancing the Li storage capacity and initial coulombic efficiency for porous carbons by sulfur doping.

    PubMed

    Ning, Guoqing; Ma, Xinlong; Zhu, Xiao; Cao, Yanming; Sun, Yuzhen; Qi, Chuanlei; Fan, Zhuangjun; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xin; Lan, Xingying; Gao, Jinsen

    2014-09-24

    Here, we report a new approach to synthesizing S-doped porous carbons and achieving both a high capacity and a high Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle for carbon nanostructures as anodes for Li ion batteries. S-doped porous carbons (S-PCs) were synthesized by carbonization of pitch using magnesium sulfate whiskers as both templates and S source, and a S doping up to 10.1 atom % (corresponding to 22.5 wt %) was obtained via a S doping reaction. Removal of functional groups or highly active C atoms during the S doping has led to formation of much thinner solid-electrolyte interface layer and hence significantly enhanced the Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle from 39.6% (for the undoped porous carbon) to 81.0%. The Li storage capacity of the S-PCs is up to 1781 mA h g(-1) at the current density of 50 mA g(-1), more than doubling that of the undoped porous carbon. Due to the enhanced conductivity, the hierarchically porous structure and the excellent stability, the S-PC anodes exhibit excellent rate capability and reliable cycling stability. Our results indicate that S doping can efficiently promote the Li storage capacity and reduce the irreversible Li combination for carbon nanostructures.

  1. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage.

    PubMed

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy; Motta, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage - the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  2. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

    PubMed Central

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    Summary The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future. PMID:26925363

  3. [Effects of revegetation on organic carbon storage in deep soils in hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Yu-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Taking the Robinia pseudoacacia woodlands, Caragana korshinskii shrublands, and abandoned croplands with different years of revegetation in the hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China as test objects, this paper studied the profile distribution and accumulation dynamics of organic carbon storage in deep soil (100-400 cm), with those in 0-100 cm soil profile as the control. In 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage decreased significantly with the increase of soil depth; while in deep soil, the organic carbon storage had a slight fluctuation. The total organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil profile was considerably high, accounting for approximately 60% of that in 0-400 cm soil profile. The organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had a significant linear correlation with that in 100-200 and 200-400 cm soil layers, and among the organic carbon storages in the five layers in 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had the strongest correlation with that in 100-400 cm soil profile, being able to be used to estimate the organic carbon storage in deep soil in this region. The organic carbon storage in 0-20 cm soil layer in the three types of revegetation lands was significantly higher than that in slope croplands, but the organic carbon storage in deep soil had no significant difference among the land use types. The organic carbon storage in deep soil increased with the increasing years of revegetation. In R. pseudoacacia woodlands and C. korshinskii shrub lands, the average increasing rate of the organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil layer was 0.14 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which was comparable to that in the 0-100 cm soil layer in C. korshinskii shrublands. It was suggested that in the estimation of the soil carbon sequestration effect of revegetation in hilly Loess Plateau region, the organic carbon accumulation in deep soil should be taken into consideration. Otherwise, the effect of

  4. Assessing and Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Changes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Liu, S.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Stackpoole, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land changes (land use and ecosystem disturbances) are the primary driver of stability and vulnerability of ecosystem carbon sequestration. Advances in remote sensing and modeling make it possible that carbon storage in relation to land changes can be assessed and monitored at the national and regional scales. Using remote sensing and modeling tools, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a national assessment to estimate spatial and temporal distributions of carbon storage in relation to land changes. The assessment covers all major ecosystems: forests, shrub and grasslands, croplands, wetlands, and aquatic systems. Recent land changes (baseline, 1992 to current) are mapped on an annual basis using Landsat imagery; future land changes (current to 2050) are modeled by incorporating IPCC socioeconomic storylines and climate change projections (three storylines and projections used: A1B, A2, and B1, each with multiple GCM runs). Carbon storage in, and transitions between, ecosystems are modeled and estimated annually using biogeochemical models, with the baseline and future potential land use changes and fire disturbances as the primary input. Effects of land changes and management activities are analyzed. A series of regional-scale maps and datasets are produced as deliverables of the assessment. The Great Plains region of the United States is the first region to complete for the assessment. The region encompasses 2.17 million square kilometers from eastern half of Montana south to Texas and east to Minnesota and Iowa. Changes in land use between 1992 and 2050 are pronounced for major ecosystems, including 7-16% gains in agriculture, 8-17% losses of grasslands and 18-19% losses of wetlands under A1B and A2 scenarios. More environmental oriented scenarios such as B1 will see gains in wetlands (15%) while holding areas of other ecosystems stable. For fire disturbances, number, size, and severity of large wildland fires in the region are highly variable, depending on

  5. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  6. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas.

    PubMed

    Davies, Zoe G; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L; Leake, Jonathan R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities are more substantial than previously assumed. However, as more vegetation carbon densities are derived, substantial variability between these estimates is becoming apparent. Here, we review procedural differences evident in the literature, which may be drivers of variation in carbon storage assessments. Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate this quantitatively to standardised 'urbanisation' metrics, in order to facilitate comparisons.

  7. Report of the Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to a set of technologies that can greatly reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of CO{sub 2}. In its application to electricity generation, CCS could play an important role in achieving national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals. However, widespread cost-effective deployment of CCS will occur only if the technology is commercially available and a supportive national policy framework is in place. In keeping with that objective, on February 3, 2010, President Obama established an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage composed of 14 Executive Departments and Federal Agencies. The Task Force, co-chaired by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was charged with proposing a plan to overcome the barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within ten years, with a goal of bringing five to ten commercial demonstration projects online by 2016. Composed of more than 100 Federal employees, the Task Force examined challenges facing early CCS projects as well as factors that could inhibit widespread commercial deployment of CCS. In developing the findings and recommendations outlined in this report, the Task Force relied on published literature and individual input from more than 100 experts and stakeholders, as well as public comments submitted to the Task Force. The Task Force also held a large public meeting and several targeted stakeholder briefings. While CCS can be applied to a variety of stationary sources of CO{sub 2}, its application to coal-fired power plant emissions offers the greatest potential for GHG reductions. Coal has served as an important domestic source of reliable, affordable energy for decades, and the coal industry has provided stable and quality high-paying jobs for American workers. At the same time, coal-fired power

  8. Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2014-10-21

    Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation.

  9. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  10. Incorporating Peatland Plant Communities into the Enzymic 'Latch' Hypothesis: Can Vegetation Influence Carbon Storage Mechanisms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, K. J.; Daniels, A. L.; Potvin, L. R.; Kane, E. S.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Lilleskov, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    High water table conditions in peatland ecosystems are known to favor plant production over decomposition and carbon is stored. Dominant plant communities change in response to water table but little is know of how these changes affect belowground carbon storage. One hypothesis known as the enzymic 'latch' proposed by Freeman et al. suggests that oxygen limitations due to high water table conditions inhibit microorganisms from synthesizing specific extracellular enzymes essential for carbon and nutrient mineralization, allowing carbon to be stored as decomposition is reduced. Yet, this hypothesis excludes plant community interactions on carbon storage. We hypothesize that the dominant vascular plant communities, sedges and ericaceous shrubs, will have inherently different effects on peatland carbon storage, especially in response to declines in water table. Sedges greatly increase in abundance following water table decline and create extensive carbon oxidation and mineralization hotspots through the production of deep roots with aerenchyma (air channels in roots). Increased oxidation may enhance aerobic microbial activity including increased enzyme activity, leading to peat subsidence and carbon loss. In contrast, ericaceous shrubs utilize enzymatically active ericoid mycorrhizal fungi that suppress free-living heterotrophs, promoting decreased carbon mineralization by mediating changes in rhizosphere microbial communities and enzyme activity regardless of water table declines. Beginning May 2010, bog monoliths were harvested, housed in mesocosm chambers, and manipulated into three vegetation treatments: unmanipulated (+sedge, +Ericaceae), sedge (+sedge, -Ericaceae), and Ericaceae (-sedge, +Ericaceae). Following vegetation manipulations, two distinct water table manipulations targeting water table seasonal profiles were implemented: (low intra-seasonal variability, higher mean water table; high intra-seasonal variability, lower mean water table). In 2012, peat

  11. Circumpolar distribution and carbon storage of thermokarst landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Olefeldt, D.; Goswami, S.; Grosse, G.; Hayes, D.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Sannel, A.B.K.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 106 km2, thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ∼20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur. We estimate that approximately half of the below-ground organic carbon within the study region is stored in thermokarst landscapes. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering thermokarst when assessing impacts of climate change, including future landscape greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a means for assessing such impacts at the circumpolar scale. PMID:27725633

  12. Circumpolar distribution and carbon storage of thermokarst landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olefeldt, David; Goswami, S.; Grosse, G.; Hayes, D.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; McGuire, Anthony; Romanovsky, V.E.; Sannel, A.B.K.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Turetsky, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 106 km2, thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ∼20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur. We estimate that approximately half of the below-ground organic carbon within the study region is stored in thermokarst landscapes. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering thermokarst when assessing impacts of climate change, including future landscape greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a means for assessing such impacts at the circumpolar scale.

  13. Circumpolar distribution and carbon storage of thermokarst landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefeldt, D.; Goswami, S.; Grosse, G.; Hayes, D.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Sannel, A. B. K.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 106 km2, thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ~20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur. We estimate that approximately half of the below-ground organic carbon within the study region is stored in thermokarst landscapes. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering thermokarst when assessing impacts of climate change, including future landscape greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a means for assessing such impacts at the circumpolar scale.

  14. Variability in the Carbon Storage of Seagrass Habitats and Its Implications for Global Estimates of Blue Carbon Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel-Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Rozaimi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in ‘Blue Carbon’–carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09–20.14 mg Corg cm−3 for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262–4833 g Corg m−2. For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the Corg stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014–15 fixed carbon price of A$25.40 t−1 and an estimated market price of $35 t−1 in 2020, the Corg stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9–5.4 bill. The estimates of annual Corg accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y−1 (10.1 t. km−2 y−1). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage. PMID:24040052

  15. Evaluating carbon storage, timber harvest, and habitat possibilities for a Western Cascades (USA) forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey D; Harmon, Mark E; Spies, Thomas A; Morzillo, Anita T; Pabst, Robert J; McComb, Brenda C; Schnekenburger, Frank; Olsen, Keith A; Csuti, Blair; Vogeler, Jody C

    2016-10-01

    Forest policymakers and managers have long sought ways to evaluate the capability of forest landscapes to jointly produce timber, habitat, and other ecosystem services in response to forest management. Currently, carbon is of particular interest as policies for increasing carbon storage on federal lands are being proposed. However, a challenge in joint production analysis of forest management is adequately representing ecological conditions and processes that influence joint production relationships. We used simulation models of vegetation structure, forest sector carbon, and potential wildlife habitat to characterize landscape-level joint production possibilities for carbon storage, timber harvest, and habitat for seven wildlife species across a range of forest management regimes. We sought to (1) characterize the general relationships of production possibilities for combinations of carbon storage, timber, and habitat, and (2) identify management variables that most influence joint production relationships. Our 160 000-ha study landscape featured environmental conditions typical of forests in the Western Cascade Mountains of Oregon (USA). Our results indicate that managing forests for carbon storage involves trade-offs among timber harvest and habitat for focal wildlife species, depending on the disturbance interval and utilization intensity followed. Joint production possibilities for wildlife species varied in shape, ranging from competitive to complementary to compound, reflecting niche breadth and habitat component needs of species examined. Managing Pacific Northwest forests to store forest sector carbon can be roughly complementary with habitat for Northern Spotted Owl, Olive-sided Flycatcher, and red tree vole. However, managing forests to increase carbon storage potentially can be competitive with timber production and habitat for Pacific marten, Pileated Woodpecker, and Western Bluebird, depending on the disturbance interval and harvest intensity chosen

  16. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: Mathematical foundation and numeric examples

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; ...

    2016-09-16

    Terrestrial ecosystems absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial era, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling, experimental, and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under climate change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP)more » and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Furthermore, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can exactly replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. Moreover, the emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land C

  17. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: Mathematical foundation and numeric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; Xia, Jianyang; Liang, Junyi; Wang, Ying; Smith, Matthew J.; Jiang, Lifen; Ahlstrom, Anders; Chen, Benito; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Hastings, Alan; Hoffman, Forrest; Medlyn, Belinda; Niu, Shuli; Rasmussen, Martin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying -Ping

    2016-09-16

    Terrestrial ecosystems absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial era, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling, experimental, and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under climate change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times.

    Furthermore, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can exactly replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. Moreover, the emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of

  18. Carbon Uptake and Storage in Old-Growth and Second-Growth Forests in Central Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Weisser, O.

    2013-12-01

    Managing forests towards the goal of maximizing carbon uptake and storage provides an important tool for climate change mitigation. There is significant spatial and temporal variation among forests, even within an ecosystem type, in annual uptake and storage of carbon. Understanding the causes for that variation is important in refining management practices and restoration goals that promote carbon storage. We explore the variation in carbon storage and uptake among forests differing in age in central Vermont, comparing young, intermediate-aged, and old-growth forests. We generally expected that younger forests would have a higher annual uptake of carbon than older forests. Significant uncertainty exists, however, about the temporal trajectory from a young, rapidly growing forest to an old-growth forest that may be in a steady-state, with no net uptake of carbon. Within each forest, we compare differences among functional groups of species (e.g., hardwoods versus softwoods) in contribution to overall forest carbon uptake and storage. Our study sites include an old-growth hemlock/mixed hardwood forest that has not been directly affected by human activities, and which contains trees upwards of 350 years old; a 130-year-old mixed hardwood forest that has recolonized former pasture land; and a 90-year-old mixed hardwood forest on formerly agricultural floodplain land. Carbon storage in live and dead biomass pools was estimated from allometric equations, based on repeated measurements of tree diameters in permanently marked study plots. Historical patterns of carbon storage in living biomass were estimated by reconstructing tree diameter from measured increment cores, and then estimating the living biomass in each year. As expected, the old-growth forest stored almost twice the C in live biomass as the two second-growth forests, which stored equivalent amounts of carbon, despite the difference in age. Dead biomass was a larger pool of C in the old-growth forest than in

  19. [Effects of CO2 storage flux on carbon budget of forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Wen, Xue-fa; Yu, Gui-rui; Zhang, Lei-ming; Fu, Yu-ling; Sun, Xiao-min; Han, Shi-jie

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage flux in the air space below measurement height of eddy covariance is very important to correctly evaluate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between forest ecosystem and atmosphere. This study analyzed the dynamic variation of CO2 storage flux and its effects on the carbon budget of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountains, based on the eddy covariance flux data and the vertical profile of CO2 concentration data. The CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem had typical diurnal variation, with the maximum variation appeared during the transition from stable atmospheric layer to unstable atmospheric layer. The CO2 storage flux calculated by the change in CO2 concentration throughout a vertical profile was not significantly different from that calculated by the change in CO2 concentration at the measurement height of eddy covariance. The NEE of this forest ecosystem was underestimated by 25% and 19% at night and at daytime, respectively, without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour scale, and was underestimated by 10% and 25% at daily scale and annual scale, respectively. Without calculating the CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem, the parameters of Michaelis-Menten equation and Lloyd-Taylor equation were underestimated, and the ecosystem apparent quantum yield (alpha) and the ecosystem respiration rate (Rref) at the reference temperature were mostly affected. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) of this forest ecosystem were underestimated about 20% without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour, daily scale, and annual scale.

  20. [Soil carbon and nitrogen storage of different land use types in northwestern Shanxi Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zhong; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) storage under five different land use patterns, i. e. , poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, C. microphylla artificial shrubland, poplar plantation, bare land and cropland were studied in the hilly [ness Plateau of northwestern Shanxi. The results showed that the contents, densities and storage of SOC and TN varied remarkably under the different land-use patterns. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents and storage in the 0-20 cm soil layer were significantly higher in the 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers under each of the five land use patterns. In the same soil layer, the contents and densities of SOC and TN under the five land use patterns were in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation > C. microphylla artificial shrubland > poplar plantation > bare land > cropland. The SOC storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation (30.09 t x hm(-2)) > C. microphylla artificial shrubland (24.78 t x hm(-2)) > poplar plantation (24.14 t x hm(-2)) > bare land (22.06 t x hm(-2)) > cropland (17.59 t x hm(-2)). Soil TN storage had the same trend as SOC storage, and TN storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was the highest (4.94 t x hm(-2)) in poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, followed by C. microphylla artificial shrubland (3.53 t x hm(-2)), poplar plantation (3.51 t x hm(-2)), bare land (3.40 t x hm(-2)), and cropland (2.71 t x hm(-2)). Poplar and C. microphylla plantation and C. microphylla artificial shrubland were the good land use patterns in the process of vegetation construction and ecological restoration in the hilly Loess Plateau of northwestern Shanxi.

  1. Molecular simulation of carbon dioxide adsorption for carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Craig M.

    Capture of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants and sequestration in unmineable coal seams are achievable methods for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. To aid the development of effective CO2 capture and sequestration technologies, a series of molecular simulation studies were conducted to study the adsorption of CO2 and related species onto heterogeneous, solid adsorbents. To investigate the influence of surface heterogeneity upon adsorption behavior in activated carbons and coal, isotherms were generated via grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation for CO2 adsorption in slit-shaped pores with several variations of chemical and structural heterogeneity. Adsorption generally increased with increasing oxygen content and the presence of holes or furrows, which acted as preferred binding sites. To investigate the potential use of the flexible metal organic framework (MOF) Cu(BF4)2(bpy)2 (bpy=bipyridine) for CO2 capture, pure- and mixed-gas adsorption was simulated at conditions representative of power plant process streams. This MOF was chosen because it displays a novel behavior in which the crystal structure reversibly transitions from an empty, zero porosity state to a saturated, expanded state at the "gate pressure". Estimates of CO2 capacity above the gate pressure from GCMC simulations using a rigid MOF model showed good agreement with experiment. The CO2 adsorption capacity and estimated heats of adsorption are comparable to common physi-adsorbents under similar conditions. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N2 and CO2/H 2selectivities higher than typical microporous materials. To more closely investigate this gating effect, hybrid Monte-Carlo/molecular-dynamics (MCMD) was used to simulate adsorption using a flexible MOF model. Simulation cell volumes remained relatively constant at low gas pressures before increasing at higher pressure. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N 2 selectivities comparable to other microporous adsorbents. To

  2. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  3. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  4. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  5. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, Anthony David; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  7. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external project is

  8. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Haiqing L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  9. Carbon dioxide fixation and lipid storage by Scenedesmus obtusiusculus.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Cervantes, Alma; Morales, Marcia; Novelo, Eberto; Revah, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    An indigenous microalga was isolated from the springs in Cuatro Ciénegas, México. It was morphologically identified as Scenedesmus obtusiusculus and cultivated in bubble-column photobioreactors in batch operation mode. This microalga grows at 10% of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) showing a maximum CO(2) fixation rate of 970gm(-3)d(-1). The microalga, without any nutrient limitation, contained 20% of nonpolar lipids with a biomass productivity of 500gm(-3)d(-1) and a maximum biomass concentration of around 6,000gm(-3) at 5% CO(2) and irradiance of 134μmolm(-2)s(-1). Furthermore, it was observed that the microalga stored 55.7% of nonpolar lipids when 5% CO(2) was fed at 0.8vvm and 54.7μmolm(-2)s(-1) under nitrogen starvation. The lipid profile included C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9t, C18:1n9c, C18:3n6 with a productivity of 200g lipid m(-3)d(-1). Therefore, the microalga may have biotechnological potential producing lipids for biodiesel.

  10. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  11. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijen, M.

    2012-04-01

    • Background and Aims. The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R:P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. We aim to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilisation). • Methods. Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - we derive equations for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes which depend on only two parameters: the R:P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon into remobilisable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. • Key Results. Storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R:P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilisation before photosynthesis takes over. • Conclusions. We conclude that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints. • Reference. Van Oijen, M., Schapendonk, A. & Höglind, M

  12. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: mathematical foundation and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; Xia, Jianyang; Liang, Junyi; Jiang, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Smith, Matthew J.; Jiang, Lifen; Ahlström, Anders; Chen, Benito; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Hastings, Alan; Hoffman, Forrest; Medlyn, Belinda; Niu, Shuli; Rasmussen, Martin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed roughly 30 % of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past decades, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling and experimental and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under global change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, which is the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3-D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. In addition, the physical emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land

  13. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: Mathematical foundation and its applications

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; ...

    2017-01-12

    Terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past decades, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling and experimental and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under global change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., netmore » primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, which is the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3-D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. In addition, the physical emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions

  14. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  15. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  16. Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Comănescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

    2012-09-28

    Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH(4))(2) was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100 °C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced.

  17. Growth of Si nanowires in porous carbon with enhanced cycling stability for Li-ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Rui, Xianhong; Zhou, WenWen; Tan, Liping; Yan, Qingyu; Lu, Ziyang; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Si nanowires are successfully grown in porous carbon by supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) process, which show high specific capacities and charge-discharge cycling stability as anode materials for Li-ion storage. The enhancement capacity and cycling stability of the Si nanowires/porous carbon composite nanostructures is attributed to the porous carbon serving as a highly conductive framework and absorption of volume changes of Si nanowires during the lithiation/delithiation process. At optimized condition, the Si nanowires/porous carbon electrodes maintain reversible capacities of 1678 mAh g-1 for the 100th cycle at a current density of 420 mA g-1, which is much better as compared to that of pure Si nanowires.

  18. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schimel, D; Melillo, J; Tian, H; McGuire, A D; Kicklighter, D; Kittel, T; Rosenbloom, N; Running, S; Thornton, P; Ojima, D; Parton, W; Kelly, R; Sykes, M; Neilson, R; Rizzo, B

    2000-03-17

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO2 and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year. The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO2 and climate. The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.

  19. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimel, D.; Melillo, J.; Tian, H.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.; Kittel, T.; Rosenbloom, N.; Running, S.; Thornton, P.; Ojima, D.; Parton, W.; Kelly, R.; Sykes, M.; Neilson, R.; Rizzo, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO2 and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year. The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO2 and climate. The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.

  20. Octagraphene as a versatile carbon atomic sheet for novel nanotubes, unconventional fullerenes, and hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xian-Lei; Cui, Hui-Juan; Ye, Fei; Yan, Qing-Bo; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2012-10-01

    We study a versatile structurally favorable periodic sp2-bonded carbon atomic planar sheet with C4v symmetry by means of the first-principles calculations. This carbon allotrope is composed of carbon octagons and squares with two bond lengths and is thus dubbed as octagraphene. It is a semimetal with the Fermi surface consisting of one hole and one electron pocket, whose low-energy physics can be well described by a tight-binding model of π-electrons. Its Young's modulus, breaking strength, and Poisson's ratio are obtained to be 306 N/m, 34.4 N/m, and 0.13, respectively, which are close to those of graphene. The novel sawtooth and armchair carbon nanotubes as well as unconventional fullerenes can also be constructed from octagraphene. It is found that the Ti-absorbed octagraphene can be allowed for hydrogen storage with capacity around 7.76 wt. %.

  1. Carbon Storage and Isotopes in the Terrestrial Biosphere Over the last 21000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.; Prentice, I. C.; Knorr, W.

    2001-12-01

    Analysis of ice-core [CO2] and \\delta13C indicates that the terrestrial biosphere may be in part responsible for variability in atmospheric composition over the Holocene. We performed a series of experiments with a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) to simulate global terrestrial carbon storage, vegetation distribution, and carbon isotope composition for the last 21000 years. The DGVM experiments were driven by an atmospheric GCM climatology at 1000 year intervals, and also interpolated through time to make a continuous simulation. At the Last Glacial Maximum C4 vegetation dominated tropical and subtropical latitudes and terrestrial carbon storage was approximately 700 Gt smaller than today. Terrestrial NPP was ca. 30% less than present. The isotopic composition of global terrestrial carbon was enriched by ca. 1 per mil compared to present because of increased aridity and greater C4 plant cover. In the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, vegetation expanded rapidly into formerly glaciated areas. Terrestrial NPP increased to near present levels, sustaining a steady increase in terrestrial carbon storage which persisted throughout the Holocene. The isotopic composition of carbon in tropics was most depleted in 13C in the early Holocene (ca. 10 kya) and later became slightly more enriched as C4 dominated grasslands and savannas expanded in response to climate changes. However northern hemisphere isotopic composition become more depleted throughout the Holocene and global isotopic composition changed little. These results cannot account for the Holocene changes in atmospheric [CO2] and 13C observed in ice cores, which may instead be driven by very slow changes in ocean chemistry.

  2. Controls of Parent Material and Topography on Soil Carbon Storage in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, N. R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Lohse, K. A.; Link, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-arid environments make up a large percentage of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, and climate is a major factor influencing soil carbon storage and release. However, the roles of local controls such as parent material, aspect and microtopography have received less attention and are important for consideration in soil carbon modeling. The purpose of this study is to understand the role that parent material, aspect and micro-topography play in storage and release of soil carbon along an elevation gradient in a semi-arid climate. Johnston Draw (JD) is a first order watershed within the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in southwestern Idaho with underlining late cretaceous, granitic Idaho batholith bedrock. Upper Sheep Creek (USC) is a first order watershed consisting of basalt. Both watersheds were chosen for this project due to similar size, aspect, elevation, vegetation and for the contrast in parent material. Two transects, totaling approximately nine soil pits, were excavated on both the north and south facing slopes of each watershed running parallel to the water channel. Soil carbon was generally higher in basalt compared to the granite parent material in pits with similar aspect, elevation and vegetation. Preliminary data using soil organic matter (SOM) as a proxy for organic carbon (OC) and soil water dynamics showed that percent OC declines markedly with elevation in JD and soil depth at lower elevations and is more homogenous throughout the profile moving up elevation (1646 meters 4.3-9.7%; 1707 meters 6.87-3.83%). Similarly, aspect controls patterns of SOM at depth more strongly at lower elevations. Findings from our study suggest that parent material and topography may play as important roles in semi-arid ecosystems as climate factors in controlling soil carbon storage.

  3. Carbon storage potential of managed mountain grasslands under future conditions - Inverse modelling and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, A.; Williams, M. D.; Schoups, G.; Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical models are often difficult to calibrate due to their complex structure and/or their large number of parameters. To provide reliable results as well as defensible estimations of uncertainty any data-fusion approach has to account for and quantify all errors consisting of input, model structural and parameter estimation errors. Here we present a study of the carbon cycling of managed temperate mountain grasslands in the Austrian Alps and their carbon storage potential under future conditions using a data model fusion approach enabled to handle these uncertainties. Provided multiple data sets of different managed grassland ecosystems (consisting of micrometeorological variables, carbon dioxide fluxes, aboveground biomass and soil water content) the grassland adapted DALEC model, a big-leaf photosynthesis model as well as a soil moisture model were applied to model the carbon balance of these ecosystems. Parameter estimation of these models is done using a Bayesian inversion scheme. A vital part of this study is the correct residual handling and representation in the inverse parameter estimation scheme in order to provide a robust parameter- and predictive uncertainty estimation. This estimation is achieved by using a generalized likelihood function that, in contrast to the formal approach, does not rely on independent and identically distributed errors according to a normal distribution, with zero mean and constant variance, which does not hold in many ecological applications. Once calibrated these models are used to explore the carbon storage potential of managed grassland ecosystems under different future management- and climate-scenarios. Given these model results optimal management strategies can be provided to maximize the carbon storage potential without compromising yield.

  4. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  5. Can Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Mitigate Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Syrek-Gerstenkorn, B.

    2017-01-01

    Transport of CO2 for carbon capture and storage (CCS) uses low-cost carbon steel pipelines owing to their negligible corrosion rates in dry CO2. However, in the presence of liquid water, CO2 forms corrosive carbonic acid. In order to mitigate wet CO2 corrosion, use of expensive corrosion-resistant alloys is recommended; however, the increased cost makes such selection economically unfeasible; hence, new corrosion mitigation methods are sought. One such method is the use of thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA), which has been used to mitigate corrosion of carbon steel in seawater, but there are concerns regarding its suitability in CO2-containing solutions. A 30-day test was carried out during which carbon steel specimens arc-sprayed with aluminum were immersed in deionized water at ambient temperature bubbled with 0.1 MPa CO2. The acidity (pH) and potential were continuously monitored, and the amount of dissolved Al3+ ions was measured after completion of the test. Some dissolution of TSA occurred in the test solution leading to nominal loss in coating thickness. Potential measurements revealed that polarity reversal occurs during the initial stages of exposure which could lead to preferential dissolution of carbon steel in the case of coating damage. Thus, one needs to be careful while using TSA in CCS environments.

  6. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Flexible Integrated Gasification Polygeneration Facilities Equipped with Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, M.; Yelverton, W. H.; Dodder, R. S.; Loughlin, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Among the diverse menu of technologies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, one option involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the generation of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process reactor and combined cycle turbine produce liquid fuels and electricity, respectively. With low concentrations of sulfur and other contaminants, the synthetic fuels are expected to be cleaner than conventional crude oil products. And with CO2 as an inherent byproduct of the FT process, most of the GHG emissions can be eliminated by simply compressing the CO2 output stream for pipeline transport. In fact, the incorporation of CCS at such facilities can result in very low—or perhaps even negative—net GHG emissions, depending on the fraction of biomass as input and its CO2 signature. To examine the potential market penetration and environmental impact of coal and biomass to liquids and electricity (CBtLE), which encompasses various possible combinations of input and output parameters within the overall energy landscape, a system-wide analysis is performed using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model. With resource supplies, energy conversion technologies, end-use demands, costs, and pollutant emissions as user-defined inputs, MARKAL calculates—using linear programming techniques—the least-cost set of technologies that satisfy the specified demands subject to environmental and policy constraints. In this framework, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed both national and regional databases to characterize assorted technologies in the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and generation sectors of the U.S. energy system. Here, the EPA MARKAL database is updated to include the costs and emission characteristics of CBtLE using figures from the literature. Nested sensitivity analysis is then

  7. Scaling up carbon storage in human-dominated heterogeneous landscapes in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Kiger, S.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Humans alter vegetation worldwide for a variety of purposes, including production of timber, food, fuelwood, and biofuels. While providing key social and economic benefits, these activities alter vegetation community composition, vertical structure, ecology, and biogeochemistry including carbon cycling. Joint outcomes at the landscape scale, such as ecological and social outcomes, arise over time through coupled social-ecological processes and feedbacks. We focused on measuring and modeling carbon storage in low-density (exurban) residential landscapes in southeastern Michigan, but our findings are relevant for human-dominated vegetation more broadly, particularly scaling up carbon storage in fragmented and spatially heterogeneous tree cover. We studied soil and vegetation carbon storage in 23, 1 km-scale landscapes that had been converted to low-density residential land from agricultural land or forest remnant patches in the last 50 years. The use of three hierarchical spatial scales was key. These included (1) distinct ecological zones at the sub-parcel scale, such as dense trees and shrubs, turfgrass, and turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation; (2) traditional land-cover categories at the sub-1-km scale such as tree cover and impervious surfaces; and (3) differences among four distinct neighborhood types, distinguished by parcel size, road access, and tree cover, at the sub-township to regional scale. Low-density residential land stored ca. 19,000 g C / m2 on average, which is much lower than that of individual old-growth forest patches in the region, but surprisingly similar to C storage in regionally-averaged second-growth forests. In residential land, the presence of large trees was important to C storage but interestingly, many large trees occurred outside of forest patches. Another important location for C storage in our exurban landscapes was soil to 1 m depth, which stored greater C than comparative forests in the region. This high soil C storage arose

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO(2) nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-11-05

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO(2)) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H(2)) storage. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 µm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few µm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO(2) nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H(2) storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H(2) at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  9. Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

  10. The role of tree-fall dynamics in long-term carbon storage of tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Cobb, A.; Joosten, H.; Glaser, P. H.; Chua, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F. M.; Noren, A. J.; Kamariah, A. S.; Su'ut, N. S.; Harvey, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    The forested peatlands of the Earth's tropical belt represent a major terrestrial carbon pool that may contain over 90 petagram C. However, the mechanisms that led to the build-up of this significant pool of carbon are poorly understood. Moreover, the rates of carbon uptake by peat accumulation in these tropical settings have rarely been quantified and natural variations in uptake on decadal to millennial scales are not well constrained. We studied carbon accumulation dynamics on these timescales of a peat swamp forest dominated by the dipterocarp Shorea albida - a unique forest type that, until recently, widely covered the lowlands of northwest Borneo. The impressive Shorea albida trees may reach heights of 70 m and are therefore strongly susceptible to windthrow and lightning. Such natural disturbances cause these trees to fall and uproot - excavating over 1 m deep holes into the peat that fill with water to become tip-up pools. The analysis of high-resolution aerial photographs and radiocarbon dated peat cores from our field site in Brunei together with the construction of a simulation model of peat accumulation allowed us to determine the role of tree-fall and tip-up pools in carbon storage. In a hectare of Shorea albida forest four tip-up pools form per decade. A pool completely fills with organic matter within 200 years according to our pollen record and a dated pool deposit stored 40 kg C m-2 of the total 110 kg C m-2 large local peat carbon pool. The carbon accumulation rates in these pools reach over 800 g C m-2 yr-1 - within the range of annual litterfall in dipterocarp forests. The simulation model indicates that up to 60% of the peat deposits under Shorea albida forests could be derived from infilled pools. Tip-up pools are therefore local hotspots for carbon storage in tropical forested peatlands.

  11. Does deciduous tree species identity affect carbon storage in temperate soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungkunst, Hermann; Schleuß, Per; Heitkamp, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Forest soils contribute roughly 70 % to the global terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. It is less clear, however, whether temperate tree species identity affects SOC storage beyond the coarse differentiation between coniferous and deciduous trees. The most important driver for soil SOC storage definitely is the fine mineral fraction (clay and fine silt) because of its high sorption ability. It is difficult to disentangle any additional biotic effects since clay and silt vary considerably in nature. For experimental approaches, the process of soil carbon accumulation is too slow and, therefore, sound results cannot be expected for decades. Here we will present our success to distinguish between the effects of fine particle content (abiotic) and tree species composition (biotic) on the SOC pool in an old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient , i.e., 1- (beech), 3- (plus ash and lime tree)- and 5-(plus maple and hornbeam) species. The particle size fractions were separated first and then the carbon concentrations of each fraction was measured. Hence, the carbon content per unit clay was not calculated, as usually done, but directly measured. As expected, the variation in SOC content was mainly explained by the variations in clay content but not entirely. We found that the carbon concentration per unit clay and fine silt in the subsoil was by 30-35% higher in mixed than in monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. In contrast to the subsoil, no tree species effects was identified for the topsoil. Indications are given that the mineral phase was already carbon saturated and thus left no more room for a possible biotic effect. Underlying processes must remain speculative, but we will additionally present our latest microcosm results, including isotopic signatures, to underpin the proposed deciduous tree species

  12. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zoback, Mark D; Gorelick, Steven M

    2012-06-26

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO(2) emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO(2) [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185-5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO(2) into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO(2) repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Microbial modulators of soil carbon storage: integrating genomic and metabolic knowledge for global prediction.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic carbon performs a number of functions in ecosystems and it is clear that microbial communities play important roles in land-atmosphere carbon (C) exchange and soil C storage. In this review, we discuss microbial modulators of soil C storage, 'omics'-based approaches to characterize microbial system interactions impacting terrestrial C sequestration, and how data related to microbial composition and activities can be incorporated into mechanistic and predictive models. We argue that although making direct linkage of genomes to global phenomena is a significant challenge, many connections at intermediate scales are viable with integrated application of new systems biology approaches and powerful analytical and modelling techniques. This integration could enhance our capability to develop and evaluate microbial strategies for capturing and sequestering atmospheric CO2.

  14. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  15. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  16. Effect of climate on the storage and turnover of carbon in soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver; Amundson, Ronald; Brasher, Benny

    1994-01-01

    Climate is, in many instances, the dominant variable controlling the storage of carbon in soils. It has proven difficult, however, to determine how soil properties influenced by climate, such as soil temperature and soil moisture, actually operate to determine the rates of accumulation and decomposition of soil organic matter. Our approach has been to apply a relatively new tool, the comparison of C-14 in soil organic matter from pre- and post-bomb soils, to quantify carbon turnover rates along climosequences. This report details the progress made toward this end by work under this contract.

  17. Climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, David S.; Braswell, B. H.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; McKeown, Rebecca; Ojima, D. S.; Painter, Thomas H.; Parton, William J.; Townsend, Alan R.

    1994-09-01

    Soil carbon, a major component of the global carbon inventory, has significant potential for change with changing climate and human land use. We applied the Century ecosystem model to a series of forest and grassland sites distributed globally to examine large-scale controls over soil carbon. Key site-specific parameters influencing soil carbon dynamics are soil texture and foliar lignin content; accordingly, we perturbed these variables at each site to establish a range of carbon concentrations and turnover times. We examined the simulated soil carbon stores, turnover times, and C:N ratios for correlations with patterns of independent variables. Results showed that soil carbon is related linearly to soil texture, increasing as clay content increases, that soil carbon stores and turnover time are related to mean annual temperature by negative exponential functions, and that heterotrophic respiration originates from recent detritus (˜50%), microbial turnover (˜30%), and soil organic matter (˜20%) with modest variations between forest and grassland ecosystems. The effect of changing temperature on soil organic carbon (SOC) estimated by Century is dSOC/dT= 183e-0.034T. Global extrapolation of this relationship leads to an estimated sensitivity of soil C storage to a temperature of -11.1 Pg° C-1, excluding extreme arid and organic soils. In Century, net primary production (NPP) and soil carbon are closely coupled through the N cycle, so that as temperatures increase, accelerated N release first results in fertilization responses, increasing C inputs. The Century-predicted effect of temperature on carbon storage is modified by as much as 100% by the N cycle feedback. Century-estimated soil C sensitivity (-11.1 Pg° C-1) is similar to losses predicted with a simple data-based calculation (-14.1 Pg° C-1). Inclusion of the N cycle is important for even first-order predictions of terrestrial carbon balance. If the NPP-SOC feedback is disrupted by land use or other

  18. High Resolution Partitioning of Soil Properties and Soil Organic Carbon Storage in the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugelius, G.; Siewert, M. B.; Heim, B.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution vertical and spatial information on SOC storage and other key properties of permafrost-affected soils is key for the assessment and modeling of the vulnerability of permafrost carbon. We present findings of soil investigations from the high Arctic Lena river delta. In total 50 soil pedons have been sampled from different geomorphological units (delta terraces) in the delta in late summer 2013. All pedons have been classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy. We described and sampled 19 Turbels, 27 Orthels and 4 Histels. On average 7.9±2.7 samples have been analyzed from each profile, including samples of the upper permafrost down to one meter depth. Soil horizons are described from open soil pits and their respective thicknesses are calculated from perspective-corrected photographs. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density, as well as content of water/ice soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N). The data is aggregated for the different geomorphological units and partitioned at centimeter level. High resolution vertical depth plots of different soil properties, including C%, N%, water and ice content and soil horizon distribution, are generated to demonstrate the information density of the dataset. A high-resolution land cover classification is generated for a subregion of the delta using advanced remote sensing classification methods. The soil pedon data and the land cover classification are combined for thematic upscaling of SOC and N stocks. We identify major geomorphological units of the Lena delta to control SOC storage in the subregion. We can show that SOC storage is highly variable with depth. Strong cryoturbation contributes to much deep SOC storages on the relatively stable first and third delta terraces, while fluvial deposition controls SOC storage in the recent alluvial floodplain. Soils sampled on thermokarst-affected rims of the third terrace show lower SOC storages indicating considerable reworking of the SOC.

  19. Storage of ultracold neutrons in a volume coated with diamondlike carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, F.; Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlik, K.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Fierlinger, P.; Heule, S.; Geltenbort, P.; Plonka, C.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuzniak, M.; Meyer, C.-F.; Schultrich, B.; Stucky, Th.; Weihnacht, V.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zimmer, O.

    2006-11-15

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) with energy up to the Fermi potential were stored for the first time in a volume coated with diamondlike carbon. As a function of the UCN energy and wall temperature of the storage volume, we measured the wall loss parameter {eta} and obtained {eta}=(3.1{+-}0.9){center_dot}10{sup -4} at T=290 K and {eta}=(1.8{+-}0.2){center_dot}10{sup -4} at T=115 K.

  20. Comparing carbon storage of Siberian tundra and taiga permafrost ecosystems at very high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Matthias B.; Hanisch, Jessica; Weiss, Niels; Kuhry, Peter; Maximov, Trofim C.; Hugelius, Gustaf

    2015-10-01

    Permafrost-affected ecosystems are important components in the global carbon (C) cycle that, despite being vulnerable to disturbances under climate change, remain poorly understood. This study investigates ecosystem carbon storage in two contrasting continuous permafrost areas of NE and East Siberia. Detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) is analyzed for one tundra (Kytalyk) and one taiga (Spasskaya Pad/Neleger) study area. In total, 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 in the respective areas) have been sampled for PC and SOC, including the upper permafrost. Landscape partitioning of ecosystem C storage was derived from thematic upscaling of field observations using a land cover classification from very high resolution (2 × 2 m) satellite imagery. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to explore patterns in C distribution. In both environments the ecosystem C is mostly stored in the soil (≥86%). At the landscape scale C stocks are primarily controlled by the presence of thermokarst depressions (alases). In the tundra landscape, site-scale variability of C is controlled by periglacial geomorphological features, while in the taiga, local differences in catenary position, soil texture, and forest successions are more important. Very high resolution remote sensing is highly beneficial to the quantification of C storage. Detailed knowledge of ecosystem C storage and ground ice distribution is needed to predict permafrost landscape vulnerability to projected climatic changes. We argue that vegetation dynamics are unlikely to offset mineralization of thawed permafrost C and that landscape-scale reworking of SOC represents the largest potential changes to C cycling.

  1. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  2. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    PubMed Central

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites. PMID:27996043

  3. Carbon storage in frozen loess and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S.; Zimova, A.; Zimova, G.; Chuprynin, V.; Chapin, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre- industrial times. At the time of LGM steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some estimates of the C storage in that biome assume that it was similar to cold desert and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition by 400-1300 Gt, requiring that the world oceans be a large C source. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soil profiles and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary tundra-steppe soils became a C source of greater than 1000 Gt to the atmosphere. The implications of these model results are that the ocean was not a source of carbon but absorbed several hundreds of gigatons of C at that time. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem in northern Siberia would enhance soil C storage.

  4. Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about 1950, essentially all subsurface natural gas storage was in partially or fully depleted gas reservoirs. Presently there more than 450 underground storage sites in the US and Canada. According to 1998 figures, the gas is stored in 372 depleted reservoirs, 51 aquifers and 40 salt caverns. About 138 million metric tons (Mt) of natural gas were stored in subsurface formations in the US at the end of November 2000 (49 Mt as working or active gas and 89 Mt as base gas). The status of underground natural gas storage projects, as well as risk assessment, risk management, and risk mitigation issues pertinent to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration are reviewed.

  5. Predicting hydrogen and methane adsorption in carbon nanopores for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihm, Yungok; Morris, James; Cooper, Valentino; Morris Lab, U. tennessee Collaboration; Advanced material Group, ORNL Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    There are increasing demands for alternate fuels for transportation, which requires safe, high energy density, lightweight storage materials. Experimental measurements and theoretical predictions show relatively low hydrogen storage capacities in various porous materials, limiting hydrogen as a viable alternative for automobiles. In this work, we use a continuum model based on van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) calculations to elucidate the role that long-range interactions play in the hydrogen adsorption properties of model slit nanopores in carbon. The proper treatment of long-range interactions gives an optimal pore size for hydrogen storage of 8-9 Å (larger than previously predicted). Remarkably, we find a peak hydrogen density close to that of liquid H2 at ambient temperatures, in agreement with recent experimental results on pore-size dependent adsorption in nanoporous carbon. We then show that such nanopores would be better suited to storing methane, possibly providing an alternative to fill the gap between the capacity required by DOE goals and that attainable with current hydrogen storage technology. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Deployment of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies across the Representative Concentration Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2011-04-18

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fifth Assessment (to be published in 2013-2014) will to a significant degree be built around four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) that are intended to represent four scenarios of future development of greenhouse gas emissions, land use, and concentrations that span the widest range of potential future atmospheric radiative forcing. Under the very stringent climate policy implied by the 2.6 W/m2 overshoot scenario, all electricity is eventually generated from low carbon sources. However, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies never comprise more than 50% of total electricity generation in that very stringent scenario or in any of the other cases examined here. There are significant differences among the cases studied here in terms of how CCS technologies are used, with the most prominent being is the significant expansion of biomass+CCS as the stringency of the implied climate policy increases. Cumulative CO2 storage across the three cases that imply binding greenhouse gas constraints ranges by nearly an order of magnitude from 170GtCO2 (radiative forcing of 6.0W/m2 in 2100) to 1600GtCO2 (2.6W/m2 in 2100) over the course of this century. This potential demand for deep geologic CO2 storage is well within published estimates of total global CO2 storage capacity.

  7. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site.

    PubMed

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V

    2016-12-20

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  8. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride

  9. The economics of carbon dioxide transport by pipeline and storage in saline aquifers and oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Sean T.

    Large reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are needed to mitigate the impacts of climate change. One method of achieving such reductions is CO2 capture and storage (CCS). CCS requires the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a large industrial facility, such as a power plant, and its transport to a geological storage site where CO2 is sequestered, if implemented, CCS could allow fossil fuels to be used with little or no CO2 emissions until alternative energy sources are more widely deployed. Large volumes of CO2 are most efficiently transported by pipeline and stored either in deep saline aquifers or in oil reservoirs, where CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This thesis describes a suite of models developed to estimate the project-specific cost of CO2 transport and storage. Engineering-economic models of pipeline CO2 transport, CO2flood EOR, and aquifer storage were developed for this purpose. The models incorporate a probabilistic analysis capability that is used to quantify the sensitivity of transport and storage cost to variability and uncertainty in the model input parameters. The cost of CO2 pipeline transport is shown to be sensitive to the region of construction, in addition to factors such as the length and design capacity of the pipeline. The cost of CO2 storage in saline aquifers is shown to be most sensitive to factors affecting site characterization cost. For EOR projects, CO2 storage has traditionally been a secondary effect of oil recovery; thus, a levelized cost of CO2 storage cannot be defined. Instead EOR projects were evaluated based on the breakeven price of CO2 (i.e., the price of CO2 at which the project net present value is zero). The breakeven CO2 price is shown to be most sensitive to oil prices, losses of CO2 outside the productive zone of the reservoir, and reservoir pressure. Future research should include collection and aggregation of more specific data characterizing possible sites for aquifer storage and applications

  10. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Characterization and design of the FutureGen 2.0 carbon storage site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler; Bonneville, Alain; Sullivan, Charlotte; Kelley, Mark; Appriou, Delphine; Vermeul, Vince; White, Signe; Zhang, Fred; Bjornstad, Bruce; Cornet, Francois; Gerst, Jacqueline; Gupta, Neeraj; Hund, Gretchen; Horner, Jake; Last, George; Lanigan, Dave; Oostrom, Mart; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark; Rockhold, Mark; Elliott, Mike; Spane, Frank; Strickland, Chris; Swartz, Lucy; Thorne, Paul; Brown, Christopher; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the FutureGen 2.0 Project was to demonstrate, at the commercial scale, the technical feasibility of implementing carbon capture and storage (CCS) in a deep saline formation in Illinois, USA. Over approximately 5 years, the FutureGen Alliance conducted a detailed site-selection process and identified a site for carbon sequestration storage in Morgan County, Illinois. The storage site was fully characterized, including the collection of seismic data and the drilling and characterization of a stratigraphic borehole. The characterization data provided critical input for developing a site-specific conceptual model and subsequent numerical modeling simulations. The modeling simulations, coupled with the upstream designs of the pipeline and power plant supported the development of a detailed 90 percent design that included the injection wells and associated control and monitoring infrastructure. Collectively, all these data were used by the FutureGen Alliance to develop the required documentation to support the applications for four underground injection control (UIC) permits (one for each proposed well). In August 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued four, first-of-their-kind, Class VI UIC permits for carbon sequestration in the United States to the FutureGen Alliance. The information and data generated under this project have been made publically available through reports and publications, including this journal and others.

  12. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  13. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m‑2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  14. Impacts and effects of mesoscale ocean eddies on ocean carbon storage and atmospheric pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, D. R.; Johnson, H. L.; Marshall, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    An idealized numerical ocean model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) to changes in surface wind stress when mesoscale eddies are permitted in the flow. When wind stress increases, pCO_2 increases, and vice versa. The introduction of mesoscale eddies reduces the overall sensitivity of pCO2 by changing the sensitivity of ocean carbon