Science.gov

Sample records for national network leads

  1. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  2. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  3. Transcriptional networks leading to symbiotic nodule organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soyano, Takashi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria leading to root nodules is a relatively recent evolutionary innovation and limited to a distinct order of land plants. It has long been a mystery how plants have invented this complex trait. However, recent advances in molecular genetics of model legumes has elucidated genes involved in the development of root nodules, providing insights into this process. Here we discuss how the de novo assembly of transcriptional networks may account for the predisposition to nodulate. Transcriptional networks and modes of gene regulation from the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, nitrate responses and aspects of lateral root development have likely all contributed to the emergence and development of root nodules.

  4. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  5. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  6. The Austrian National Network 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    In the year 2014, the Austrian National Network( network code OE ), operated by the Austrian Seismological Service at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, consists of 21 strong-motion sites (FBA-23 and Episensor, triggered data acquisition) and 16 broadband stations (STS-2 or STS-2.5, continuous data acquisition). Among the 16 broadband stations there are 14 sites collocated with accelerometers (FAB-23 or Episensor). The Research Group Geophysics at the Vienna University of Technology and the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics at the University of Vienna are operating temporary seismic stations, data from these instruments is integrated in the processing at the Austrian Seismic Network. Data from instruments in neighboring countries is also integrated in the processing. The Austrian Seismological Service collects and evaluates felt reports. A major upgrade of both hard- and software used for processing (Antelope 5.4, Intel based hardware) is planned for the year 2015. Some new tools for data processing processing and evaluation are presented. An overview of the seismic monitoring at the Austrian Seismological Service will be presented for the year 2014. We compare automatic processing and manual evaluation results. Performance of the automated data processing (rate of valid, false and missed events), statistics and information about significant earthquakes and earthquake sequences in Austria will be presented.

  7. The National Network of Fusion Centers: Perception and Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NETWORK OF FUSION CENTERS: PERCEPTION AND REALITY by Nicholas Klem December 2014 Thesis Co-Advisors: Lauren Wollman Patrick Miller THIS...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF FUSION CENTERS: PERCEPTION AND REALITY 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas Klem 7. PERFORMING...held of the Netv.•ork appear at times to be based on perceptions incongment with some of the realities of cw1·ent Network operations and which lead

  8. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... New England Region: University of Massachusetts Bringing the World of Medical Information to Your Neighborhood By Angela ... D., Head, NN/LM National Network Office The world's largest medical library is the National Library of ...

  9. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  10. National networks of Healthy Cities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Janss Lafond, Leah; Heritage, Zoë

    2009-11-01

    National networks of Healthy Cities emerged in the late 1980s as a spontaneous reaction to a great demand by cities to participate in the Healthy Cities movement. Today, they engage at least 1300 cities in the European region and form the backbone of the Healthy Cities movement. This article provides an analysis of the results of the regular surveys of national networks that have been carried out principally since 1997. The main functions and achievements of national networks are presented alongside some of their most pressing challenges. Although networks have differing priorities and organizational characteristics, they do share common goals and strategic directions based on the Healthy Cities model (see other articles in this special edition of HPI). Therefore, it has been possible to identify a set of organizational and strategic factors that contribute to the success of networks. These factors form the basis of a set of accreditation criteria for national networks and provide guidance for the establishment of new national networks. Although national networks have made substantial achievements, they continue to face a number of dilemmas that are discussed in the article. Problems a national network must deal with include how to obtain sustainable funding, how to raise the standard of work in cities without creating exclusive participation criteria and how to balance the need to provide direct support to cities with its role as a national player. These dilemmas are similar to other public sector networks. During the last 15 years, the pooling of practical expertise in urban health has made Healthy Cities networks an important resource for national as well as local governments. Not only do they provide valuable support to their members but they often advise ministries and other national institutions on effective models to promote sustainable urban health development.

  11. Government's Role in the National Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, William

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), and the role that interagency cooperation and government-industry cooperation have played in their formation. The role of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) and future plans are also…

  12. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  13. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  14. SREB States Continue To Lead the Nation in National Board Certified Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This paper presents statistics which show that states in the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) area lead the nation in teachers with National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification. North Carolina, Florida, and South Carolina lead the nation in total number of NBPTS certified teachers. In the 2001-02 school year, 71…

  15. The "Golden Projects": China's National Networking Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelock, Peter; Clark, Theodore C.; Petrazzini, Ben A.

    1996-01-01

    For China, information technology and communications networks are a new solution to an old problem, reconstituting hierarchical state power. This article examines China's National Networking Initiative, "Golden Projects," within the context of economic and political reform to demonstrate an alternative to traditional economic based…

  16. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awareness Human Trafficking Awareness Month Holiday Stress Homeless Youth Awareness Month Bullying Prevention Domestic Violence Awareness Month Suicide Prevention Month/World Suicide Day Sept. 11th National ...

  17. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on the... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section...

  18. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section...

  19. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on the... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section...

  20. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section...

  1. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  2. The UNESCO Global Network of National Geoparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Keever1, P.; Zouros, N.; Patzak, M.; Missotten, R.

    2009-12-01

    The UNESCO Global Network of National Geoparks was founded in 2004, following the model successfully established by the European Geoparks Network in 2000. It now comprises 63 members in 19 nations across the world. A Global Geopark is an area with geological heritage of international value but where that heritage is being used for the sustainable economic benefit if the local inhabitants, primarily through education and tourism. Supported by IUGS and IUCN, the aim of the Global Geoparks Network is to facilitate exchange and sharing between members to assist in the protection and conservation of the geological heritage of our planet but to do so in way where local communities can take ownership of these special places and where they can get some sustainable economic benefit from them. While allowing for the sustainable economic development of geoparks, the network explicitly forbids the destruction or sale of the geological value of a geopark. This paper outlines the ethos of the Global Geoparks Network and describes the typical activities of geoparks and how the network functions. Using two examples it also illustrates how members of the Global Geoparks Network provide good examples as tools not only for holistic nature conservation but also for economic development.

  3. Once Again SREB States Lead the Nation in National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    North Carolina and Florida lead the nation in total number of teachers with National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification. About 71 percent of all NBPTS certificates were awarded to teachers in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states in 2000-01. Seven SREB states were among the top 10 states in number of teachers…

  4. Innovate with the CTI National Thematic Networks.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available.

  5. USA National Phenology Network gridded products documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Marsh, R. Lee; Switzer, Jeff R.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2017-02-23

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to facilitate informed ecosystem stewardship and management by providing phenological information freely and openly. One way the USA-NPN is endeavoring to accomplish these goals is by providing data and data products in a wide range of formats, including gridded real-time, short-term forecasted, and historical maps of phenological events, patterns and trends. This document describes the suite of gridded phenologically relevant data products produced and provided by the USA National Phenology Network, which can be accessed at www.usanpn.org/data/phenology_maps and also through web services at geoserver.usanpn.org/geoserver/wms?request=GetCapabilities.

  6. From patchwork to national network: working collaboratively to create a national environmental public health tracking network.

    PubMed

    Li, Jennifer; Dawson, Becky

    2008-01-01

    Partnership and collaboration are hallmarks for the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHT) Program. When CDC issued its first request for proposals for EPHT in August 2002, it required formal collaboration between state public health and environmental protection agencies. In addition, each of the grantees assembled a planning consortium or technical advisory committee to aid in the creation of the National EPHT together with local health agencies, community groups, industry, and healthcare professionals and other organizations. Partnerships have resulted in actions that protect and monitor public health; substantial the development and use of state and national tracking networks; and increase collaboration and information sharing.

  7. A national neurological excellence centers network.

    PubMed

    Pazzi, S; Cristiani, P; Cavallini, A

    1998-02-01

    The most relevant problems related to the management of neurological disorders are (i) the frequent hospitalization in nonspecialist departments, with the need for neurological consultation, and (ii) the frequent requests of GPs for highly specialized investigations that are very expensive and of little value in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In 1996, the Consorzio di Bioingegneria e Informatica Medica in Italy realized the CISNet project (in collaboration with the Consorzio Istituti Scientifici Neuroscienze e Tecnologie Biomediche and funded by the Centro Studi of the National Public Health Council) for the implementation of a national neurological excellence centers network (CISNet). In the CISNet project, neurologists will be able to give on-line interactive consultation and off-line consulting services identifying correct diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, evaluating the need for both examination in specialist centers and admission to specialized centers, and identifying the most appropriate ones.

  8. Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidrih, R.; Godec, M.; Gosar, A.; Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Zivcic, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Seismology Office is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. In the year 2000 the project Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network started. The purpose of a modernized seismic network is to enable fast and accurate automatic location of earthquakes, to determine earthquake parameters and to collect data of local, regional and global earthquakes. The modernized network will be finished in the year 2004 and will consist of 25 Q730 remote broadband data loggers based seismic station subsystems transmitting in real-time data to the Data Center in Ljubljana, where the Seismology Office is located. The remote broadband station subsystems include 16 surface broadband seismometers CMG-40T, 5 broadband seismometers CMG-40T with strong motion accelerographs EpiSensor, 4 borehole broadband seismometers CMG-40T, all with accurate timing provided by GPS receivers. The seismic network will cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network is planned in this way; more seismic stations will be around bigger urban centres and in regions with greater vulnerability (NW Slovenia, Krsko Brezice region). By the end of the year 2002, three old seismic stations were modernized and ten new seismic stations were built. All seismic stations transmit data to UNIX-based computers running Antelope system software. The data is transmitted in real time using TCP/IP protocols over the Goverment Wide Area Network . Real-time data is also exchanged with seismic networks in the neighbouring countries, where the data are collected from the seismic stations, close to the Slovenian border. A typical seismic station consists of the seismic shaft with the sensor and the data acquisition system and, the service shaft with communication equipment (modem, router) and power supply with a battery box. which provides energy in case

  9. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes.

  10. Celebrating 25 Years. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Leading the Way in Dropout Prevention; (2) The 15 Effective Strategies in Action; (3) Technology Changes 1986-2011 (Marty Duckenfield); (4) 25 Years of Research and Support…

  11. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... to: supply chain/distribution network considerations including flows of key commodities; connections... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice defines the planned process for the...

  12. A national streamflow network gap analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiang, Julie E.; Stewart, David W.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Osborne, Emily B.; Eng, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a gap analysis to evaluate how well the USGS streamgage network meets a variety of needs, focusing on the ability to calculate various statistics at locations that have streamgages (gaged) and that do not have streamgages (ungaged). This report presents the results of analysis to determine where there are gaps in the network of gaged locations, how accurately desired statistics can be calculated with a given length of record, and whether the current network allows for estimation of these statistics at ungaged locations. The analysis indicated that there is variability across the Nation’s streamflow data-collection network in terms of the spatial and temporal coverage of streamgages. In general, the Eastern United States has better coverage than the Western United States. The arid Southwestern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii were observed to have the poorest spatial coverage, using the dataset assembled for this study. Except in Hawaii, these areas also tended to have short streamflow records. Differences in hydrology lead to differences in the uncertainty of statistics calculated in different regions of the country. Arid and semiarid areas of the Central and Southwestern United States generally exhibited the highest levels of interannual variability in flow, leading to larger uncertainty in flow statistics. At ungaged locations, information can be transferred from nearby streamgages if there is sufficient similarity between the gaged watersheds and the ungaged watersheds of interest. Areas where streamgages exhibit high correlation are most likely to be suitable for this type of information transfer. The areas with the most highly correlated streamgages appear to coincide with mountainous areas of the United States. Lower correlations are found in the Central United States and coastal areas of the Southeastern United States. Information transfer from gaged basins to ungaged basins is also most likely to be successful

  13. Geophysicist picked to lead US National Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Maria Zuber, a planetary geophysicist who is vice-president for research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US, has been elected chair of the country's National Science Board (NSB) - the body that oversees the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  14. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  15. ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the CDC's efforts to develop a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Tracking Network) with particular focus on air related issues and collaboration with EPA. A Tracking Network is needed in the United States to improve the health of communit...

  16. The National Biomedical Communications Network as a Developing Structure *

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ruth M.

    1971-01-01

    The National Biomedical Communications Network has evolved both from a set of conceptual recommendations over the last twelve years and an accumulation of needs manifesting themselves in the requests of members of the medical community. With a short history of three years this network and its developing structure have exhibited most of the stresses of technology interfacing with customer groups, and of a structure attempting to build itself upon many existing fragmentary unconnected segments of a potentially viable resourcesharing capability. In addition to addressing these topics, the paper treats a design appropriate to any network devoted to information transfer in a special interest user community. It discusses fundamentals of network design, highlighting that network structure most appropriate to a national information network. Examples are given of cost analyses of information services and certain conjectures are offered concerning the roles of national networks. PMID:5542912

  17. Former Fermilab boss to lead Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Particle physicist Michael Witherell - current vice-chancellor for research at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) - has been appointed the next director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL).

  18. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  19. National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Monitoring Network Basin Boundary Geospatial Dataset, 2008–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report and the accompanying geospatial data were created to assist in analysis and interpretation of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and by the U.S. Coastal Waters and Tributaries National Monitoring Network (NMN), which is a cooperative monitoring program of Federal, regional, and State agencies. The report describes the methods used to develop the geospatial data, which was primarily derived from the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. The geospatial data contains polygon shapefiles of basin boundaries for 33 NASQAN and 5 NMN streamflow and water-quality monitoring stations. In addition, 30 polygon shapefiles of the closed and noncontributing basins contained within the NASQAN or NMN boundaries are included. Also included is a point shapefile of the NASQAN and NMN monitoring stations and associated basin and station attributes. Geospatial data for basin delineations, associated closed and noncontributing basins, and monitoring station locations are available at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/metadata/usgswrd/XML/ds641_nasqan_wbd12.xml.

  20. Boundary networks and Rochester's "smart" lead law: the use of multidisciplinary information in a collaborative policy process.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith

    2010-01-01

    The Rochester, New York, Coalition to Prevent Lead Poisoning formed in 2001 with the goal of eliminating childhood lead poisoning by 2010. The Coalition recruited diverse community stakeholders into a collaborative process committed to using the best available science. The Coalition successfully infused the debate about a new lead poisoning law with local data, national analyses, and the latest medical research. We argue that this was facilitated by a boundary network of individuals who provided technical input throughout the process. As a result of the Coalition's advocacy, in 2005 the Rochester City Council unanimously passed an ordinance that has been hailed as one of the nation's "smartest" lead laws. Many communities are looking to Rochester's new lead ordinance as a model. Both the process and outcome of this case provide valuable lessons for collaborative efforts to promote scientifically sound local environmental health policy.

  1. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  2. Education Nation: Six Leading Edges of Innovation in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Milton

    2010-01-01

    As a result of constant innovation, learning is no longer limited by traditional confines and we're moving beyond students tied to their chairs, desks, and textbooks-and teachers locked away in classrooms. In "Education Nation" author Milton Chen draws from extensive experience in media-from his work on Sesame Street in its nascent years to his…

  3. SREB States Lead the Nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal; Lenard, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses continue to receive national recognition for their rigorous curricula, and many colleges and universities award credit to students who score well on end-of-course exams in AP classes. Research suggests that students are better prepared for college if they take these courses and…

  4. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  5. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  6. Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation: The Role of Leaders, Partnerships, and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. Our project represents a cross-disciplinary partnership among climate scientists, social and cognitive scientists, and informal education practitioners. We have built a growing national network of more than 250 alumni, including approximately 15-20 peer leaders who co-lead both in-depth training programs and introductory workshops. We have found that this alumni network has been assuming increasing importance in providing for ongoing learning, support for implementation, leadership development, and coalition building. As we look toward the future, we are exploring potential partnerships with other existing networks, both to sustain our impact and to expand our reach. This presentation will address what we have learned in terms of network impacts, best practices, factors for success, and future directions.

  7. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  8. Implementation of the NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is launching a new clinical trials research network intended to improve treatment for the more than 1.6 million Americans diagnosed with cancer each year. The new system, NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), will facilitate the rapid initia

  9. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, James, Comp.

    This bibliography brings together sources, through August 1991, on the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and related topics, including computer networks, databases, information technology, library automation, microcomputers, and online systems. Where possible, a brief biographical note on the author is included, and most of the…

  10. Models for a National Public School Computing Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses a possible national education computer network that would include elementary, secondary, and higher education institutions. Topics addressed include Internet; common standards; distributed computing; open access; equity concerns; and examples of two successful public school networks in Virginia and Texas that are linked through the…

  11. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Lead Smelting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  12. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology reviews conducted as required under sections 112(d)(6) and (f)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). These proposed amendments include revisions to the emission limits for lead, the addition of a lead concentration in......

  13. Review of the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Owen, Timothy W.

    2015-08-24

    The panel recommends that the USA–NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) establish an implementation plan that addresses all of the panel recommendations, with priorities, timelines, and assumptions to move the program forward successfully.

  14. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home Find a Lead-Safe Certified firm Before you renovate Before you buy or rent a home built before 1978 Test your home's drinking water Test for lead in paint, dust or soil ...

  15. Assessment of Social Network Change in a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, L. Philip; Laumann, Edward O.; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults’ egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents’ networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Method. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. Results. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents’ confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. Discussion. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. PMID:25360026

  16. The New Swedish National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bödvarsson, R.; Slunga, R.; Lund, B.; Roberts, R.; Holmqvist, C.; Olsson, S.; Erlendsson, P.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last few years a completely new permanent seismic network has been installed in Sweden. The network is still in part under construction but currently consists of about 60 broad band stations, using mostly 100 s Guralp sensors and digitizers, forming an array about 1400 km long and 400 km wide. The system automatically detects, locates and analyses all local events, and data from all teleseisms of potential interest is retained. The excellent recording conditions in Sweden, with little or no sedimentary cover and low ambient noise, mean that data quality is in general excellent. For events within the network, all events above about magnitude 0.5 are detected, located and have focal mechanisms estimated. While Sweden is generally of low seismicity, local events are continuously detected. Many of these can be associated with post-glacial faults which are believed to have moved significantly during the end of the last glaciation a few thousand years ago. Events on these faults are estimated to have been up to magnitude 8 or more. Initial analyses of teleseismic data include teleseismic P-wave tomography, where significant structures to depths of several hundred kilometers are clearly resolved, and receiver function studies, which also clearly reveal structures within the upper mantle. A study of the core-mantle boundary has been initiated where the high quality of the data significantly contributes to the analysis. Examples of data and interpretations will be presented.

  17. The impact of capacity growth in national telecommunications networks.

    PubMed

    Lord, Andrew; Soppera, Andrea; Jacquet, Arnaud

    2016-03-06

    This paper discusses both UK-based and global Internet data bandwidth growth, beginning with historical data for the BT network. We examine the time variations in consumer behaviour and how this is statistically aggregated into larger traffic loads on national core fibre communications networks. The random nature of consumer Internet behaviour, where very few consumers require maximum bandwidth simultaneously, provides the opportunity for a significant statistical gain. The paper looks at predictions for how this growth might continue over the next 10-20 years, giving estimates for the amount of bandwidth that networks should support in the future. The paper then explains how national networks are designed to accommodate these traffic levels, and the various network roles, including access, metro and core, are described. The physical layer network is put into the context of how the packet and service layers are designed and the applications and location of content are also included in an overall network overview. The specific role of content servers in alleviating core network traffic loads is highlighted. The status of the relevant transmission technologies in the access, metro and core is given, showing that these technologies, with adequate research, should be sufficient to provide bandwidth for consumers in the next 10-20 years.

  18. A national wind erosion research network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concern about wind erosion in the United States is high. This concern has arisen as a consequence of changing and intensifying land use pressures which can lead to increased soil loss and dust emission. However, there is relatively little research to support improved management. While much at...

  19. "It Takes a Network": Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. More than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the U.S. population. These visitors expect reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Beyond providing in-depth training, we have found that our "alumni network" is assuming an increasingly important role in achieving our goals: 1. Ongoing learning - Training must be ongoing given continuous advances in climate and social science research. 2. Implementation support - Social support is critical as interpreters move from learning to practice, given complex and potentially contentious subject matter. 3. Leadership development - We rely on a national cadre of interpretive leaders to conduct workshops, facilitate study circle trainings, and support alumni. 4. Coalition building - A peer network helps to build and maintain connections with colleagues, and supports further dissemination through the informal science community. We are experimenting with a variety of online and face to face strategies to support the growing alumni network. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national

  20. National Geographic Society Kids Network: Report on 1994 teacher participants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, National Geographic Society Kids Network, a computer/telecommunications-based science curriculum, was presented to elementary and middle school teachers through summer programs sponsored by NGS and US DOE. The network program assists teachers in understanding the process of doing science; understanding the role of computers and telecommunications in the study of science, math, and engineering; and utilizing computers and telecommunications appropriately in the classroom. The program enables teacher to integrate science, math, and technology with other subjects with the ultimate goal of encouraging students of all abilities to pursue careers in science/math/engineering. This report assesses the impact of the network program on participating teachers.

  1. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  2. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  3. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead NAAQS: 1978 Final Rule (43 FR 46246 & 46264)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the October 5, 1978 Final Rules for National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead (Pb) NAAQS.

  4. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  5. Health and Physical Education Programs in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguro, Joseph F.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the Health and Physical Education programs in the National Diffusion Network. These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. While all of the programs have been validated as effective by the U.S. Department of Education's Program…

  6. A National Network of Neurotechnology Centers for the BRAIN Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; Roukes, Michael L.; Yuste, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    We propose the creation of a national network of neurotechnology centers to enhance and accelerate the BRAIN Initiative and optimally leverage the effort and creativity of individual laboratories involved in it. As “brain observatories,” these centers could provide the critical interdisciplinary environment both for realizing ambitious and complex technologies and for providing individual investigators with access to them. PMID:26481036

  7. The National Clean Plant Network for Berries in Corvallis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clean plant program at the USDA-ARS in Corvallis, Oregon was initiated in 1967 in cooperation with the Oregon and Washington State Departments of Agriculture and berry growers in the region. The program officially became part of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) in 2009 with the establish...

  8. A National Network of Neurotechnology Centers for the BRAIN Initiative.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Greenspan, Ralph J; Roukes, Michael L; Yuste, Rafael

    2015-11-04

    We propose the creation of a national network of neurotechnology centers to enhance and accelerate the BRAIN Initiative and optimally leverage the effort and creativity of individual laboratories involved in it. As "brain observatories," these centers could provide the critical interdisciplinary environment both for realizing ambitious and complex technologies and for providing individual investigators with access to them.

  9. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria... detailed lists of individual routes in the appendix, the routes have been designated on the basis of...

  10. SpecialNet. A National Computer-Based Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alfred J.

    1986-01-01

    "SpecialNet," a computer-based communications network for educators at all administrative levels, has been established and is managed by National Systems Management, Inc. Users can send and receive electronic mail, share information on electronic bulletin boards, participate in electronic conferences, and send reports and other documents to each…

  11. The Sky is the Limit: Benefits from Partnering with the Project ASTRO National Network!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Zevin, D.; van der Veen, W.; Fraknoi, A.; Wilson, R.; Gurton, S.; White, V.; Clemens, C.; Harvey, J.

    2006-12-01

    As a partner for EPO programs, the Project ASTRO National Network offers access to hundreds of trained educators and astronomer-educator partnerships across the country. This makes the Network extremely suitable for dissemination and/or testing of new science education products, in particular those that benefit from support by scientists and/or (through Family ASTRO) those that target families/communities. For example, the Network is currently being leveraged (through NASA funding) to create and disseminate nationally new hands-on classroom activities on solar physics. Project ASTRO is a national program that partners professional and amateur astronomers with local educators at regional sites around the country. Developed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Project ASTRO provides training for astronomer-educator partnerships in hands-on, inquiry-based science activities while emphasizing the importance of student preconceptions as a starting point for learning. During an intensive two-day training workshop, a partnership is forged that blends the teacher's knowledge of instructional methods and classroom management with the astronomer's knowledge of and passion for science and astronomy. Nationwide, over 500 active astronomer-educator partnerships bring the excitement of astronomy to over 20,000 students annually. All Project ASTRO sites follow the same model for partnership training and support and meet annually to discuss common strategies and share new ideas. Many sites also target families/communities through the Family ASTRO sister program. Each site (there are 15 total in the Network) is managed by a Lead Institution supported by a Local Coalition of scientific and educational organizations who help with recruiting of new participants, programming, and fund-raising. This poster will detail why the Project ASTRO National Network is an ideal partner for EPO programs. For more information on various ways your organization can partner with the Project

  12. Lead and cognitive function in VDR genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Butler, Mary Ann; Chang, Man-Huei; Liu, Tiebin; Yesupriya, Ajay; Dowling, Nicole; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different VDR genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16 years old, performance on the digit span and arithmetic tests as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185 and VDR rs731236 genotypes. Decreases in performance occurred in some genotypes, but not in others. In adults 20 to 59 years old, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185-rs731236 haplotype. In the 12 to 16 year old children and adults 60 or more years old, the relationship between the serum homocysteine and blood lead concentrations varied by VDR genotype. The mean blood lead concentrations of the children and adults did not vary by VDR genotype.

  13. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  14. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--ADA National Network Regional...

  15. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

    2001-10-19

    The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

  16. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  17. From Caprio's lilacs to the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2012-01-01

    Continental-scale monitoring is vital for understanding and adapting to temporal changes in seasonal climate and associated phenological responses. The success of monitoring programs will depend on recruiting, retaining, and managing members of the public to routinely collect phenological observations according to standardized protocols. Here, we trace the development of infrastructure for phenological monitoring in the US, culminating in the USA National Phenology Network, a program that engages scientists and volunteers.

  18. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  19. Dynamite Networking for Dynamite Jobs. 101 Interpersonal, Telephone and Electronic Techniques for Getting Job Leads, Interviews and Offers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krannich, Caryl Rae; Krannich, Ronald L.

    This book guides job seekers in using communication approaches that will generate useful information, advice, and referrals that lead to job interviews and offers. The book provides guidance on how to do the following: organize effective job networks; prospect for job leads; write networking letters; make cold calls; join electronic networks;…

  20. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users.

  1. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  2. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  3. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  4. Lead testing of children and homes: results of a national telephone survey.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, S; Matte, T D; Kresnow, M; Houston, B; Sacks, J J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was designed to estimate the percentage of young children in the United States who have been tested for lead and the percentage of dwellings in the United States in which the paint has been tested for lead. METHODS. A national random digit dial telephone survey of 5238 households was conducted in 1994. Weighted national estimates and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes of interest were calculated. RESULTS. About 24% of U.S. children ages 0 to 6 years were estimated to have been tested for lead. Higher rates of testing were reported for children living in homes constructed prior to 1960, those living in homes with low household income, those living in rental units, and those living in the Northeast. Lead paint testing was performed for only an estimated 9% of U.S. housing units. Older homes were not more likely to have been tested than newer ones. CONCLUSION. A high proportion of pre-school children have apparently not been screened for lead exposure, even among subgroups at increased risk. Most dwellings of pre-school children have not been tested for lead paint. These data suggest that most at-risk children are not being reached by current approaches to lead poisoning prevention. PMID:8711102

  5. 76 FR 38129 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge Translation... Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--The ADA National Network Knowledge Translation Center Notice inviting... April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The ADA National Network Knowledge Translation Center priority is from...

  6. Evolution of emotions on networks leads to the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Xie, Neng-Gang; Ye, Ye; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-04-01

    We show that the resolution of social dilemmas in random graphs and scale-free networks is facilitated by imitating not the strategy of better-performing players but, rather, their emotions. We assume sympathy and envy to be the two emotions that determine the strategy of each player in any given interaction, and we define them as the probabilities of cooperating with players having a lower and a higher payoff, respectively. Starting with a population where all possible combinations of the two emotions are available, the evolutionary process leads to a spontaneous fixation to a single emotional profile that is eventually adopted by all players. However, this emotional profile depends not only on the payoffs but also on the heterogeneity of the interaction network. Homogeneous networks, such as lattices and regular random graphs, lead to fixations that are characterized by high sympathy and high envy, while heterogeneous networks lead to low or modest sympathy but also low envy. Our results thus suggest that public emotions and the propensity to cooperate at large depend, and are in fact determined by, the properties of the interaction network.

  7. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  8. Using mixed methods to evaluate the Pediatric Lead Assessment Network Education Training Program (PLANET).

    PubMed

    Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary V; Sharrock, Timberlee

    2009-03-01

    The Pediatric Lead Assessment Network Education Training Program (PLANET) is a peer-to-peer in-person 1-hr lead poisoning prevention educational program for health professionals. This evaluation was designed to determine the impact of the PLANET program. Evaluation methods included analyzing data from PLANET sign-in sheets, evaluation forms, pre/postknowledge tests, claims data, and focus groups (FGs) and interviews (IVs) with PLANET attendees and nonattendees. Claims data were used to compare blood lead testing rates for physicians attending and those not attending a PLANET program. Over 2,000 health professionals attended the 192 PLANET presentations delivered between June 2001 and December 2006; most were registered nurses or physicians. Written evaluations were overwhelmingly positive. Posttests indicated increased provider knowledge about childhood lead poisoning prevention, and assessment of blood lead testing rates showed higher testing rates for PLANET attendees. FG and IV participants suggesting improvements including using alternative delivery modes.

  9. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  10. Evolving plans for the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Breshears, David D.; Brewer, Carol A.; Frazer, Gary; Gross, John E.; Mazer, Susan J.; Reed, Bradley C.; Wilson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events, how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, and how they modulate the abundance, diversity, and interactions of organisms. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is currently being organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and citizen scientists. The first USA-NPN planning workshop was held August 2005, in Tucson, Ariz. (Betancourt et al. [2005]; http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/npn/; by 1 June 2007, also see http://www.usanpn.org). With sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NASA, the second USA-NPN planning workshop was held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 10–12 October 2006 to (1) develop lists of target species and observation protocols; (2) identify existing networks that could comprise the backbone of nationwide observations by 2008; (3) develop opportunities for education, citizen science, and outreach beginning in spring 2007; (4) design strategies for implementing the remote sensing component of USA-NPN; and (5) draft a data management and cyberinfrastructure plan.

  11. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  12. A Cyberinfrastructure for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, D.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an NSF-funded project designed to provide physical and information infrastructure to support the development of continental-scale, quantitative ecological sciences. The network consists of sixty sites located in the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, each site hosting terrestrial and aquatic sensors and observational apparati that acquire data across multiple ecoclimatic domains. As well, an airborne remote sensing platform provides spectral and LiDAR data, and acquisition of data sets from external agencies allows for land-use studies. Together, this data is ingested, vetted, processed, and curated by a standards-based, provenance-driven, metadata-rich cyberinfrastructure, which will provide not only access to but discovery and manipulation of NEON data, and the construction of integrative data products and inputs for ecological forecasting that address fundamental processual questions in climate change, land use change, and invasive species.

  13. US earthquake observatories: recommendations for a new national network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report is the first attempt by the seismological community to rationalize and optimize the distribution of earthquake observatories across the United States. The main aim is to increase significantly our knowledge of earthquakes and the earth's dynamics by providing access to scientifically more valuable data. Other objectives are to provide a more efficient and cost-effective system of recording and distributing earthquake data and to make as uniform as possible the recording of earthquakes in all states. The central recommendation of the Panel is that the guiding concept be established of a rationalized and integrated seismograph system consisting of regional seismograph networks run for crucial regional research and monitoring purposes in tandem with a carefully designed, but sparser, nationwide network of technologically advanced observatories. Such a national system must be thought of not only in terms of instrumentation but equally in terms of data storage, computer processing, and record availability.

  14. A National Water Network for Future Impacts Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J. A.; Troy, T.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    Water availability is driven by both climate and socioeconomicinteractions, and in some cases needs to be studied at a large scalethat spans multiple watersheds. To understand how regions will beimpacted as precipitation and demand patterns shift, this projectbuilds a national water network for the United States, incorporatinggauges, reservoirs, canals, and their interactions with counties. Thebasic structure of the network follows the HydroSHEDS dataset, anddownstream and demand interactions are modeled using all availablemonthly data from the USGS GAGES II database. As a diagnostic, we usethe database to study the extent that snowmelt supports downstreamstreamflow. Using these models, we can also estimate streamflowsduring unrecorded years, expanding the dataset. We then use thenetwork to develop a model of optimal extraction, and consider athought experiment for reallocating U.S. cropland to generate the mosteconomic benefit for irrigation.

  15. Four health data networks illustrate the potential for a shared national multipurpose big-data network.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Lesley H; Brown, Jeffrey; Platt, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Information in electronic health data that are drawn from large populations of patients is transforming health care, public health practice, and clinical research. This article describes our experience in developing data networks that repurpose electronic health records and administrative data. The four programs we feature are the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program (which focuses on medical product safety), the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet, comparative effectiveness research), the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Distributed Research Network (biomedical research), and ESPnet (public health surveillance). Challenges to these uses of electronic health data include understanding the factors driving the collection, coding, and preservation of the data; the extensive customization of different systems that collect similar data; the fragmentation of the US health care delivery system and its records; and privacy and proprietary considerations. We view these four programs as examples of the first stage in the development of a shared national big-data resource that leverages the investments of many agencies and organizations for the benefit of multiple networks and users.

  16. Building Capacity: The National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. These informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. After two years of project implementation, key findings include: 1. Importance of adaptive management - We continue to make ongoing changes in training format, content, and roles of facilitators and participants. 2. Impacts on interpreters - We have multiple lines of evidence for changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. 3. Social radiation - Trained interpreters have a significant influence on their friends, family and colleagues. 4. Visitor impacts - "Exposure to "strategically framed" interpretation does change visitors' perceptions about climate change. 5. Community of practice - We are seeing evidence of growing participation, leadership, and sustainability. 6. Diffusion of innovation - Peer networks are facilitating dissemination throughout the informal science education community. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education

  17. National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network: Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Christopher R.; Schable, Barbara A.; Onorato, Ida M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network was established in 1996 to perform a 5-year, prospective study of the usefulness of genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to tuberculosis control programs. Seven sentinel sites identified all new cases of tuberculosis, collected information on patients and contacts, and obtained patient isolates. Seven genotyping laboratories performed DNA fingerprinting analysis by the international standard IS6110 method. BioImage Whole Band Analyzer software was used to analyze patterns, and distinct patterns were assigned unique designations. Isolates with six or fewer bands on IS6110 patterns were also spoligotyped. Patient data and genotyping designations were entered in a relational database and merged with selected variables from the national surveillance database. In two related databases, we compiled the results of routine contact investigations and the results of investigations of the relationships of patients who had isolates with matching genotypes. We describe the methods used in the study. PMID:12453342

  18. Interdependent Networks: Reducing the Coupling Strength Leads to a Change from a First to Second Order Percolation Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshani, Roni; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-07-01

    We study a system composed from two interdependent networks A and B, where a fraction of the nodes in network A depends on nodes of network B and a fraction of the nodes in network B depends on nodes of network A. Because of the coupling between the networks, when nodes in one network fail they cause dependent nodes in the other network to also fail. This invokes an iterative cascade of failures in both networks. When a critical fraction of nodes fail, the iterative process results in a percolation phase transition that completely fragments both networks. We show both analytically and numerically that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. The scaling of the percolation order parameter near the critical point is characterized by the critical exponent β=1.

  19. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  20. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. At Dioxin 2000, we reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June 1998 through June 1999. By the end of 1999, NDAMN had expanded to 21 sampling stations. Then, at Dioxin 2001, we reported the results of the first 18 months of operation of NDAMN at 15 rural and 6 National Park stations in the United States. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 17 rural and 8 National Park NDAMN stations operational over 4 sampling moments during calendar year 2000. Two stations located in suburban Washington DC and San Francisco, CA are more urban in character and serve as an indicator of CDD/F and cop

  1. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  2. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  3. [Integrated headache care network. Kiel Migraine and Headache Center and German National Headache Treatment Network].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Petersen, I; Göbel, A; Heinze, A

    2013-04-01

    Migraine and other headaches affect 54 million people in Germany. They rank among the ten most severely disabling complaints and the three most expensive neurological disorders. Nevertheless, they are not adequately recognized in the healthcare system with sketchy diagnoses and inadequate treatment. This inadequate care is not primarily due to a lack of medical and scientific knowledge on the development and treatment of headaches but is predominantly due to organizational deficits in the healthcare system and in the implementation of current knowledge. To overcome the organizational barriers the national headache treatment network was initiated in Germany. For the first time it allows national cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary links between inpatient and outpatient care. A hand in hand treatment programme, better education, better information exchange between all partners and combined efforts using clearly defined treatment pathways and goals are the basis for state of the art and efficient treatment results. The treatment network is geared towards the specialized treatment of severely affected patients with chronic headache disorders. A national network of outpatient and inpatient pain therapists in both practices and hospitals works hand in hand to optimally alleviate pain in a comprehensive cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary manner. For therapy refractive disorders, a high-intensive supraregional fully inpatient treatment can be arranged. This concept offers for the first time a nationwide coordinated treatment without limitation by specialization and bureaucratic remuneration sectors.

  4. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task.

  5. Global Reference Frame Realization on National Level Based on the Integration of National CORS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, A.; Caporali, A.; Horvath, T.; Baron, A.; Doncker, F. D.; Droscak, B.; Duret, A.; Franke, P.; Georgiev, I.; Gianniou, M.; Hansen, D.; Huisman, L.; Morozova, K.; Nagl, J.; Pihlak, P.; Stangl, G.; Valdes, M.; Ryczywolski, M.; Zurutuza, J.

    2015-12-01

    The national permanent GNSS networks are not only serving the general surveying practice in real-time mode, but they are deployed at reference frame maintenance and geodynamic studies relying on their homogeneously analyzed long-term data series. The ongoing EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densification targets the integration of the national CORS networks and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is derived using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. The homogeneous cumulative solution relies on the national weekly SINEX products in order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities). The integration is done with the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) using the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better realization of ETRS89 over tectonically active regions. This work is very well inline with the goals of other European initiatives as EPOS and EUPOS. The preparatory work is well in progress, several years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed. The database contains more than 2000 stations stemming from 15 contributing Analysis Centres. A significant effort is devoted to the cleaning and organization of the station metadata and publish on the EPNCB website, which is necessary to improve the quality and reliabilty of the combination product.This presentation, beyond the publication of the state-of the-art combination results partly focuses on the analysis of existing reference frame realization issues caused by the GNSS antenna PCV updates not yet eliminated on the national CORS level.

  6. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. Designed in 1997, NDAMN has been implemented in phases, with the first phase consisting of 9 monitoring stations. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through June 19991. The one-year measurement at the 9 stations indicated an annual mean TEQDF–WHO98 air concentration of 12 fg m-3. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 22 NDAMN stations operational over 9 sampling moments from June 1998 to December 1999. Fifteen stations are in rural areas, and 6 are located in National Parks. One station is located in suburban Wa

  7. The USA National Phenology Network: A national observatory for assessment of biotic response to environmental variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; USA National Phenology Network National Coordinating Office

    2011-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climatic variability and change. Core functions of the National Coordinating Office (NCO) of USA-NPN are to provide a national information management system including databases, develop and implement internationally standardized phenology monitoring protocols, create partnerships with a variety of organizations including field stations for implementation, facilitate research and the development of decision support tools, and promote education and outreach activities related to phenology and climate change. This presentation will describe programs, tools and materials developed by USA-NPN to facilitate science, management and education related to phenology of plants, animals and landscapes within protected areas at local, regional and national scales. Particular emphasis will be placed on the on-line integrated animal and plant monitoring program, Nature's Notebook, which provides standardized protocols for phenological status monitoring and data management for over 500 animal and plant species. The monitoring system facilitates collection of sampling intensity, absence data, considerable metadata (from site to observation). We recently added functionality for recording estimates of animal abundance and plant canopy development. Real-time raw data for plants (from 2009 to present) and animals (from 2010 to present), including FGDC-compliant metadata and documented methodology, are now available for download from the website. A new data exploration tool premiered in spring 2010 allows sophisticated graphical visualization of integrated phenological and meteorological data. The network seeks to develop partnerships with other organizations interested in (1) implementing vetted, standardized protocols for phenological or ecological monitoring, and (2

  8. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  9. A National Climate Change Adaptation Network for Protecting Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, A.; Sauchyn, D.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water security and resource-dependent community-survival are being increasingly challenged as a consequence of climate change, and it is urgent that we plan now for the security of our water supplies which support our lives and livelihoods. However, the range of impacts of climate change on water availability, and the consequent environmental and human adaptations that are required, is so complex and serious that it will take the combined work of natural, health and social scientists working with industries and communities to solve them. Networks are needed that will identify crucial water issues under climate change at a range of scales in order to provide regionally-sensitive, solutions-oriented research and adaptation. We suggest national and supra-national water availability and community sustainability issues must be addressed by multidisciplinary research and adaptation networks. The work must be driven by a bottom-up research paradigm — science in the service of community and governance. We suggest that interdisciplinary teams of researchers, in partnership with community decision makers and local industries, are the best means to develop solutions as communities attempt to address future water demands, protect their homes from infrastructure damage, and meet their food, drinking water, and other essential resource requirements. The intention is to cover: the impact of climate change on Canadian natural resources, both marine and terrestrial; issues of long-term sustainability and resilience in human communities and the environments in which they are embedded; the making and moving of knowledge, be that between members of Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, researchers of different disciplines, communities, industry, policymakers and the academy and the crucial involvement of the various orders of government in the response to water problems, under conditions of heightened uncertainty. Such an adaptation network must include a national

  10. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  11. Building A National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium (NEAq) has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science education institutions (ISEIs) to effectively communicate about the impacts of climate change on the oceans. NEAq is now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI's design is based on best practices in informal science learning, cognitive/social psychology, community and network building: Interpreters as Communication Strategists - Interpreters can serve not merely as educators disseminating information, but can also be leaders in influencing public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Communities of Practice - Learning is a social activity that is created through engagement in a supportive community context. Social support is particularly important in addressing a complex, contentious and distressing subject. Diffusion of Innovation - Peer networks are of primary importance in spreading innovations. Leaders serve as 'early adopters' and influence others to achieve a critical mass of implementation. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a

  12. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  13. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Barbara M. Martin, National Animal Health Laboratory Network... Senate; the Chairman, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives; and...

  14. Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  15. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Current Perspectives. Proceedings of the National Conference (Indianapolis, Indiana, December 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development.

    Since childhood lead poisoning first gained recognition as an important public health problem, the concept of lead poisoning has been examined and revised repeatedly. This national conference was convened to review and examine the current state of the problem, prevention activities, and recent studies on the toxic effects of lead at very low…

  16. Update on Plans to Establish a National Phenology Network in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, J.; Schwartz, M.; Breshears, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Inouye, D.; Post, E.; Reed, B.; Gray, S.

    2005-12-01

    The passing of the seasons is the most pervasive source of climatic and biological variability on Earth, yet phenological monitoring has been spotty worldwide. Formal phenological networks were recently established in Europe and Canada, and we are now following their lead in organizing a National Phenology Network (NPN) for the U.S.A. With support from federal agencies (NSF, USGS, NPS, USDA-FS, EPA, NOAA, NASA), on Aug. 22-26 we organized a workshop in Tucson, Arizona to begin planning a national-scale, multi-tiered phenological network. A prototype for a web-based NPN and preliminary workshop results are available at http://www.npn.uwm.edu. The main goals of NPN will be to: (1) facilitate thorough understanding of phenological phenomena, including causes and effects; (2) provide ground truthing to make the most of heavy public investment in remote sensing data; (3) allow detection and prediction of environmental change for a wide of variety of applications; (4) harness the power of mass participation and engage tens of thousands of "citizen scientists" in meeting national needs in Education, Health, Commerce, Natural Resources and Agriculture; (5) develop a model system for substantive collaboration across different levels of government, academia and the private sector. Just as the national networks of weather stations and stream gauges are critical for providing weather, climate and water-related information, NPN will help safeguard and procure goods and services that ecosystems provide. We expect that NPN will consist of a four-tiered, expandable structure: 1) a backbone network linked to existing weather stations, run by recruited public observers; 2) A smaller, second tier of intensive observations, run by scientists at established research sites; 3) a much larger network of observations made by citizen scientists; and 4) remote sensing observations that can be validated with surface observations, thereby providing wall-to-wall coverage for the U.S.A. Key to

  17. Sampling microbial communities in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. E.; Parnell, J.; Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform to enable the community to assess impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at regional and continental scales. The NEON Observatory will collect data on aquatic organisms over 30 years in 36 sites across the United States, including Alaska and Puerto Rico as well as terrestrial organisms at 60 sites including Hawaii. Included in the biological measurements are microbial measurements in terrestrial and aquatic environments, including small, wadeable streams and shallow lakes. Microbial sampling in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats is being planned to coincide with biogeochemical sampling due to similarity of time scale and influence of external drivers. Aquatic sampling is geared toward species diversity and function. Terrestrial sampling aims to collect data on diversity, function, and spatial distribution dynamics. We are in the process of prioritizing data products, so that the most dynamic processes such as enzymatic activity will be measured more frequently and more intensive measures such as metagenome sequence data will be measured on a periodic basis. Here we present our initial microbial sampling strategy and invite the community to provide comment on the design and learn about microbial data products from the Observatory.

  18. The USA-National Phenology Network Biophysical Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losleben, M. V.; Crimmins, T. M.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    On January 1, 2009, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) launched the USA-NPN Biophysical Program. The overarching goal of the Biophysical Program (BP) is to link phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, with climate through the integration of phenology observations, meteorological, and spectral remote sensing measurements at sites across a broad a spectrum of environments. Phenology is critical for understanding a changing world. Many of the recurring plant and animal life cycle stages such as leafing and flowering of plants, maturation of agricultural crops, emergence of insects, and migration of birds are sensitive to climatic variation and change, and are simple to observe and record. Such changes can effect, for example, timing mismatches between the emergence of food sources and the arrival of migrating populations, or create new disease and invasive species vectors via increasingly suitable growing seasons relative to the climatic life cycle requirements of hosts or the organisms themselves. New vectors or crashing populations can have major repercussions on entire ecosystems and regional economics. Thus, to track phenology and build a national database, the USA-NPN is providing standard phenology monitoring protocols. Further, the integration of weather stations with phenological data provides an opportunity to understand how a changing climate is altering phenology. Thus, the USA-NPN Biophysical Program is developing an integrative biology-climate site template for widespread dissemination, in collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL, http://rmbl.org/rockymountainbiolab/). This poster presents the USA-NPN Biophysical Program, and the results of the collaboration with RMBL during the summer of 2009, including the installation of an elevational network of climate stations. The National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation (NSF’s MRI) program provides funding

  19. Joining Forces Between National Scientific Community and National Agencies: The Spanish GEOSS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, J.; Díaz, P.; Pons, X.; Serral, I.; Belda, F.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, 86 countries are Group on Earth Observations (GEO) members. Mainly, GEO points are relevant national agencies that ensure the national participation in the GEOSS implementation efforts. AEMet (the Spanish Meteorological Office) is the direct responsible for GEOSS in Spain and they participate in GEO Committees and tasks. Also, the European Commission is actively funding European research projects to develop GEOSS using innovative conceptual frameworks and technologies. The success of GEO strongly depends on the contributions from science communities. Unfortunately, difficulties in the development and use of GEOSS resources have been identified in these communities including the earth observation one. Furthermore, up to now, these activities resemble a bottom-up approach, and depend on the initiative of national groups and individuals. There is a lack of a comprehensive outreach and engagement program, to which these activities could be linked, and there is a lack of top-down activities. The 7th framework program project "Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS" (EGIDA) will coordinate and cooperate with national agencies and existing research projects and will provide network methodologies. CREAF is EGIDA partner and will facilitate the implementation of the EGIDA methodology in Spain. Official Spanish representatives in GEOSS were contacted to explore the possibility of creating a permanent GEOSS-Spain network formed by both national administration bodies and relevant research initiatives. Also to assess the situation, CREAF prepared a questionnaire based on 5 simple questions that are conceived to start a dialog. 14 interviews were done so far by phone to public, private organizations and universities from 9 different European funded projects (EARLINETASOS, EuroSITES, ENVIROGRIDS, EuroGEOSS, ECOOP, GeoViQua, GFG2, HEREPLUS, and HERMIONE) and will be extended to other relevant communities in the near future

  20. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  1. An Intellectual Utility for Science and Technology: The National Research and Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen B.

    1990-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of primary computer network structures serving the academic research community and discusses plans for the transformation of Internet into a National Research and Education Network (NREN). The scope of resources likely to be available to users through the NREN are described, the concept of national collaboratives is…

  2. NCAnet: Building a Network of Networks to Support the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.; Cloyd, E. T.; Baglin, C.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA), a major product of the US Global Change Research Program, is an important resource for understanding and communicating climate change science and impacts in the United States. The process for the 2013 NCA report and subsequent products is envisioned as a sustained effort focusing considerable attention on establishing a strong stakeholder engagement process throughout the development, production, and release of NCA products. In order to engage a diverse group of producers and users of assessment information, the NCA is building long-term partnerships with organizations in public, private, and non-profit sectors through a new network, NCAnet. With more than 50 organizations representing local, state, and national-level interests in a variety of disciplines, NCAnet builds long-term capacity to conduct and use assessments and to support decisions about responding to climate change. Partners contribute to the NCA through, e.g., submission of technical inputs, hosting discussions on methods for assessment and communication, and convening conversations about climate information needs. NCAnet is also organizing around "affinity groups" related to partners' interests, discussing methods for building capacity within their networks to communicate about climate change, and preparing to engage members and stakeholders in reviewing the 2013 NCA report draft.

  3. Assessing Interorganizational Networks as a Dimension of Community Capacity: Illustrations from a Community Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Helen Harber; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    Network analysis is often cited as a method for assessing collaboration among organizations as an indicator of community capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) document patterns of collaboration in organizational networks related to lead poisoning prevention in a Native American community and (2) examine measurement issues in using…

  4. European national healthy city networks: the impact of an elite epistemic community.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Zoë; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    National healthy cities networks (NNs) were created 20 years ago to support the development of healthy cities within the WHO Europe Region. Using the concept of epistemic communities, the evolution and impact of NNs is considered, as is their future development. Healthy cities national networks are providing information, training and support to member cities. In many cases, they are also involved in supporting national public health policy development and disseminating out healthy city principles to other local authorities. National networks are a fragile but an extremely valuable resource for sharing public health knowledge.

  5. A Community-Based Approach to Leading the Nation in Smart Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    Project Objectives The AEP Ohio gridSMART® Demonstration Project (Project) achieved the following objectives: • Built a secure, interoperable, and integrated smart grid infrastructure in northeast central Ohio that demonstrated the ability to maximize distribution system efficiency and reliability and consumer use of demand response programs that reduced energy consumption, peak demand, and fossil fuel emissions. • Actively attracted, educated, enlisted, and retained consumers in innovative business models that provided tools and information reducing consumption and peak demand. • Provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) information to evaluate technologies and preferred smart grid business models to be extended nationally. Project Description Ohio Power Company (the surviving company of a merger with Columbus Southern Power Company), doing business as AEP Ohio (AEP Ohio), took a community-based approach and incorporated a full suite of advanced smart grid technologies for 110,000 consumers in an area selected for its concentration and diversity of distribution infrastructure and consumers. It was organized and aligned around: • Technology, implementation, and operations • Consumer and stakeholder acceptance • Data management and benefit assessment Combined, these functional areas served as the foundation of the Project to integrate commercially available products, innovative technologies, and new consumer products and services within a secure two-way communication network between the utility and consumers. The Project included Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Management System (DMS), Distribution Automation Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR), Volt VAR Optimization (VVO), and Consumer Programs (CP). These technologies were combined with two-way consumer communication and information sharing, demand response, dynamic pricing, and consumer products, such as plug-in electric vehicles and smart appliances. In addition, the Project

  6. Repertoire Networks among National Board-Certified Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse Lee; Woods, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly three decades after its publication, "A Nation at Risk" continues to impact our educational establishment. Most notably, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was established as a result of "A Nation Prepared," Carnegie's response to "A Nation at Risk." Some contend that the national board has…

  7. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  8. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database Is a Resource Ripe for Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of July 2011, over 200,000 observation records encompassing three years of plant phenology observations and two years of animal phenology observations have been contributed by participants in Nature's Notebook, the online phenology observation program developed by the National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN, and are available for download and analysis (www.usanpn.org/results/data). Participants in Nature's Notebook follow protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring, rather than "event" monitoring. On each visit to their site, the observer indicates the status of each phenophase for an individual plant or an animal species with a 'yes' if the phenophase is occurring and 'no' if it is not. This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring, enabling researchers to move beyond a focus on first events (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). These strengths will ultimately improve our understanding of changes in the timing of seasonal events. We will describe event monitoring and ways this rich form of data can be intepreted in detail in this presentation. Patterns in the data collected by Nature's Notebook participants are beginning to emerge, even at this early stage, demonstrating the value of this data resource. In addition to year to year variability in the dates of onset and commencement of various phenophases, the observations show

  9. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... systems (including their brains) arising from Pb exposure may include intelligence quotient (IQ)...

  10. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  11. The network modifier and former role of the bismuth ions in the bismuth-lead-germanate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rada, M; Rus, L; Rada, S; Culea, E; Rusu, T

    2014-11-11

    The present work is focused on the enhancement of network former environment in lead-germanate glasses by bismuth ions doping. A series of bismuth-lead-germanate glasses with the xBi2O3·(100-x)[7GeO2·3PbO] composition glass where 0≤x≤30 mol% Bi2O3 were synthesized by melt-quenching method. The FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were conducted on these samples to evaluate the doping effect of structure of the host matrix network. Our results indicate that direct incorporation of Bi2O3 into the lead-germanate network modifies the lead-germanate network and the internal structure of glass network is rearranged. The structural flexibility of the lead-germanate network is possible due to its incapacity to accommodate with the excess of oxygen atoms and the creation of bridging oxygen ions. Optical gap energy and refractive index were obtained as a function of Bi2O3 content. Gap energy values decrease as Bi2O3 content increased from 0 to 10 mol%. Further increase of Bi2O3 concentration beyond 10 mol% increased the gap energy values. These behaviors of the glass system can be explained by two mechanisms: (i) for x≤10 mol% Bi2O3--increase of degree of disorder of the host matrix because Bi2O3 is network modifier and (ii) for x>10 mol%--Bi2O3 acts as a network former. Cyclic voltammetry measurements using the glass system with 10Bi2O3·90[7GeO2·3PbO] composition as working electrode show the mobility of the lead ions, in agreement with UV-VIS data.

  12. Planning and Establishment of a National Teledocumentation Network--Guidelines Based on the Spanish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, F. V., Ed.

    Finding that the promotion of a national information industry can best be pursued through the planning and establishment of a national teledocumentation network, this study (based on the experiences of Spain) offers a model that may be of interest to UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) member states wishing to…

  13. Optimizing the organ procurement process: organizational prerequisites and monitoring strategies in a national network.

    PubMed

    Venettoni, S; Rizzato, L; Gabbrielli, F; Ciancio, B; Di Ciaccio, P; Delvecchio, C; Ferraro, C; Nanni Costa, A

    2004-12-01

    The current project sought to collect detailed information on the Italian donation system and in particular on the organization and functioning of the local coordinating centers. The final objective was to provide local and regional institutions with the information required to improve the system. While improving the knowledge of current Italian donation system, the project had constructive purposes. Our intention was to analyze how the national system is working, what the coordinating centers are actually doing, how they are organized, to what extent existing rules are obeyed, and what are the main limits of the system. This analysis sought to lead to the development of a set of proposals that can be summarized in two categories: (1) "intrinsic" actions, that is, those established and implemented at the hospital level; and (2) supporting "extrinsic" actions, that is, those identified by the National Transplant Centre and addressed to the regional and interregional coordinating networks. Finally, the analysis of the application of the existing rules should lead to the development of practice guidelines such that each center conforms to the existing regulations established by European directives.

  14. Long-Lead Quantitative Flood Forecasts in Ungauged Basins Using Bayesian Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Yoo, J.

    2004-05-01

    Previously, Kim and Barros (2001) demonstrated the use of a hierarchy of neural network models to forecast flood peaks in four small and medium size ungauged basins (750 to about 9,000 km-sq) in the Northern Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania. Using regional rainfall, radiosonde and mesoscale infrared (IR) satellite imagery, their approach consisted of identifying the presence and type of convective activity from the IR imagery, information which was subsequently used to characterize the dominant synoptic scale weather patters and predict storm path and evolution using rainfall and radiosonde data far away from the forecast location. In this regard, the organizational skeleton of the inputs is built to mimic our understanding of physical processes associated with rainstorms. The approach was very successful with skill scores on the order of 80-90 per cent for 18-hour lead-time forecasts of winter and spring floods in response to heavy rainfall (i.e. not associated with snowmelt alone). One weakness of this work was however the lack of a measure of forecast uncertainty, or alternatively a measure of forecast reliability that could be used in hydrometeorological operations. To address this question, we have modified and adapted the existing neural network models according to the principles of Bayesian statistics. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. One additional advantage of this methodology is that it provides an objective basis for selecting the best model during learning based on the posterior distribution of the parameters. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. An intercomparison study against Kim and Barros (2001) shows that the 18- and 24-hour lead time BNN forecasts are statistically more robust than those generated by the standard backward-learning NNs. We submit that given the consistently

  15. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  16. Climatic and hydrologic processes leading to wetland losses in Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schook, Derek M.; Cooper, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are vital habitats and can be used as landscape indicators because they integrate catchment-scale processes. Wetland drying during the recent decades in Yellowstone National Park's Northern Range has incited concern among National Park managers and the public at large. Our research was focused on developing an understanding of the processes controlling wetland water levels and the changes contributing to wetland decline in the Northern Range. We integrated analyses of hydrology, climate, soils, and vegetation. In 2009, 24 study wetlands were instrumented each with an average of five shallow groundwater monitoring well and piezometer nests. We mapped hydric soils, analyzed aerial photographs, and identified geomorphic indicators of higher water to quantify historic wetland area. The Trumpeter Lake study site was intensively studied to resolve watershed processes driving water table changes through time, and it was used to identify the timescale on which a regionally critical wetland varies. Climate data indicated that warming and drying occurred during the last century, but that this pattern was within the natural range of variation for the study region over the past 800 years, as determined from tree ring data. Hydrologic data revealed that study sites included locations of groundwater discharge, recharge, and flow-through as well as water perched above the regional water table. Hydrologic regimes were classified using a shape-magnitude framework and seven wetland classes were characterized, and the robustness of this classification is assessed using longer-term datasets. Aerial photographs and hydric soil delineation both confirmed formerly greater wetland abundance. Changes varied by wetland class and the presence or absence of surface water outlets. Wetland plant species inhabited distinct habitats of water table depth and variation, and can be used to infer subsurface hydrologic regime in the absence of extensive monitoring well networks. A subset of

  17. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). NDAMN started with 10 sampling sites, adding more over time until the final count of 34 sites was reached by the beginning of 2003. Samples were taken quarterly, and the final sample count was 685. All samples were measured for 17 PCDD/PCDF congeners, 8 PCDD/PCDF homologue groups, and 7 dl-PCBs (note: 5 additional dl-PCBs were added for samples starting in the summer of 2002; 317 samples had measurements of 12 dl-PCBs). The overall average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the United States was 11.2 fg TEQ m−3 with dl-PCBs contributing 0.8 fg TEQ m−3 (7%) to this total. The archetype dioxin and furan background air congener profile was seen in the survey averages and in most individual samples. This archetype profile is characterized by low and similar concentrations for tetra – through hexa PCDD/PCDF congeners, with elevations in four congeners – a hepta dioxin and furan congener, and both octa congeners. Sites were generally categorized as urban (4 sites), rural (23 sites), or remote (7 sites). The average TEQ concentrations over all sites and samples within these cat

  18. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  19. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used five programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and two programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the NADP/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN) during 2004. An intersite-comparison program was used to estimate accuracy and precision of field-measured pH and specific-conductance. The variability and bias of NADP/NTN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using the sample-handling evaluation (SHE), field-audit, and interlaboratory-comparison programs. Overall variability of NADP/NTN data was estimated using a collocated-sampler program. Variability and bias of NADP/MDN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using a system-blank program and an interlaboratory-comparison program. In two intersite-comparison studies, approximately 89 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the pH measurement accuracy goals, and 94.7 to 97.1 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. Field chemistry measurements were discontinued by NADP at the end of 2004. As a result, the USGS intersite-comparison program also was discontinued at the end of 2004. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data due to sample handling and shipping were estimated from paired-sample concentration differences and specific conductance differences obtained for the SHE program. Median absolute errors (MAEs) equal to less than 3 percent were indicated for all measured analytes except potassium and hydrogen ion. Positive bias was indicated for most of the measured analytes except for calcium, hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Negative bias for hydrogen ion and specific conductance indicated loss of hydrogen ion and decreased specific conductance from contact of the sample with

  20. Upgrade of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, A.; Murphy, M. J.; Pifer, A.; Cummins, K. L.; Cramer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Updates were made in 2013 to the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network™ (NLDN™) that will lead to performance improvements. Vaisala's LS7002 sensors were deployed, replacing the older generation LS7001 and IMPACT sensors. This new sensor improves the sensitivity of the network to low amplitude lightning-generated signals. We will examine the maximum and minimum peak currents reported by the upgraded NLDN for different lightning types. Additionally, the ratio of the number of cloud lightning pulses to the number of cloud-to-ground lightning return strokes detected by a network can serve as a measure of change in the network's cloud lightning detection efficiency from one time-period to another if regional, seasonal, and storm-to-storm variations in IC-to-CG ratio are minimized. For the May-June period over the U.S. Central Great Plains, the hourly IC-to-CG ratio was approximately in the range of 0.07 to 3.4 for the 2010 data with the arithmetic mean ratio being 0.84. For the 2013 data, the IC-to-CG ratio is approximately in the range of 0.22 to 21 with the arithmetic mean ratio being 4.0. This indicates, roughly, a factor-of-four increase in the IC-to-CG ratio after the 2013 upgrade and hence an increase in the detection efficiency of cloud lightning pulses by a factor of four under the assumption of constant CG detection efficiency. Finally, the use of onset corrections (which accurately determine the arrival time of electromagnetic waveforms from lightning events at a sensor), propagation corrections, and speed of lightning electromagnetic wave correction reduce the timing error and improve the accuracy with which lightning events can be geolocated. This leads to an improvement in the median location accuracy (given by the length of the semi-major axis of the 50% error ellipse) of the NLDN from about 300 m to about 150 m in the interior of the network. All these performance characteristics continue to be validated by triggered lightning, tower strikes

  1. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  2. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  3. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0053, December 9, 2008. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R&IEN) network identified Internet Protocol addresses with medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  4. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0185, June 30, 2009. Vulnerability testing conducted in May 2009 of EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office network identified Internet Protocol addresses with several high-risk vulnerabilities associated with one device.

  5. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  6. Computer Network Availability at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM: Measurement and Perception

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,SPENCER D.; TOLENDINO,LAWRENCE F.

    1999-11-01

    The desire to provide a measure of computer network availability at Sandia National Laboratories has existed for along time. Several attempts were made to build this measure by accurately recording network failures, identifying the type of network element involved, the root cause of the problem, and the time to repair the fault. Recognizing the limitations of available methods, it became obvious that another approach of determining network availability had to be defined. The chosen concept involved the periodic sampling of network services and applications from various network locations. A measure of ''network'' availability was then calculated based on the ratio of polling success to failure. The effort required to gather the information and produce a useful metric is not prohibitive and the information gained has verified long held feelings regarding network performance with real data.

  7. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Extension of public comment period... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established...

  8. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Extension of public comment period... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established...

  9. Primary Strategy Learning Networks: A Local Study of a National Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tessa A.; Rutherford, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    The use of networks as a means of communicating knowledge and ideas and in promoting innovation among schools has emerged globally over the past decade. Currently, inter-school collaboration is not only at the fore nationally in England, but also has become integral to the school improvement agenda. However, networking theory is a disparate field…

  10. Developing a Mission for the National Education Network: The Challenge of Seamless Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David; Sutton, Stuart A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the potential mission of the National Education Network (NEN) in light of the emerging global learning infrastructure made possible by the Internet. Develops a five-part framework for exploring the nature of education information provision in a networked digital environment and examines government-sponsored and private sector initiatives.…

  11. A Report on Facilitating Educational Change with Local School Districts through the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Ralph

    The National Diffusion Network was initiated in 1974 by the United States Office of Education (USOE). Thirty states developed state facilitators the first year and 36 states had facilitators the second year. Among the facilitators in the network, there appears to be considerable difference in the approaches that are taken to diffuse the projects…

  12. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Update 1991. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann P.

    Federal legislation authorizing the creation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN)--i.e., the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194)--was signed into law by the President in December 1991. This network is envisioned as an expansion and enhancement of the existing U.S. Internet, the collection of interconnected…

  13. Operations and Management of the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Becky J.; And Others

    A study examined the operations and management of the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education (NNCCVTE) and developed information to assist in the design of an evaluative study of the network's impact on users of its services. (Since its inception in 1972, the NNCCVTE has provided a mechanism for state…

  14. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Promise of New Information Environments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann P.

    This digest describes proposed legislation for the implementation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Issues and implications for teachers, students, researchers, and librarians are suggested and the emergence of the electronic network as a general communication and research tool is described. Developments in electronic…

  15. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient... include IQ loss, poor academic achievement, long- term learning disabilities, and an increased risk...

  16. Bias and precision of selected analytes reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated a blind audit sample program during 1974 to test the effects of the sample handling and shipping procedures used by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network on the quality of wet deposition data produced by the combined networks. Blind audit samples, which were dilutions of standard reference water samples, were submitted by network site operators to the central analytical laboratory disguised as actual wet deposition samples. Results from the analyses of blind audit samples were used to calculate estimates of analyte bias associated with all network wet deposition samples analyzed in 1984 and to estimate analyte precision. Concentration differences between double blind samples that were submitted to the central analytical laboratory and separate analyses of aliquots of those blind audit samples that had not undergone network sample handling and shipping were used to calculate analyte masses that apparently were added to each blind audit sample by routine network handling and shipping procedures. These calculated masses indicated statistically significant biases for magnesium, sodium , potassium, chloride, and sulfate. Median calculated masses were 41.4 micrograms (ug) for calcium, 14.9 ug for magnesium, 23.3 ug for sodium, 0.7 ug for potassium, 16.5 ug for chloride and 55.3 ug for sulfate. Analyte precision was estimated using two different sets of replicate measures performed by the central analytical laboratory. Estimated standard deviations were similar to those previously reported. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Lead or Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) Test Facility - R&D Requirements, Design Criteria, Design Concept, and Concept Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Loewen; Paul Demkowicz

    2005-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility will advance the state of nuclear technology relative to heavy-metal coolants (primarily Pb and Pb-Bi), thereby allowing the U.S. to maintain the pre-eminent position in overseas markets and a future domestic market. The end results will be a better qualitative understanding and quantitative measure of the thermal physics and chemistry conditions in the molten metal systems for varied flow conditions (single and multiphase), flow regime transitions, heat input methods, pumping requirements for varied conditions and geometries, and corrosion performance. Furthering INL knowledge in these areas is crucial to sustaining a competitive global position. This fundamental heavy-metal research supports the National Energy Policy Development Group’s stated need for energy systems to support electrical generation.1 The project will also assist the Department of Energy in achieving goals outlined in the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee Long Term Nuclear Technology Research and Development Plan,2 the Generation IV Roadmap for Lead Fast Reactor development, and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative research and development. This multi-unit Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility with its flexible and reconfigurable apparatus will maintain and extend the U.S. nuclear knowledge base, while educating young scientists and engineers. The uniqueness of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility is its integrated Pool Unit and Storage Unit. This combination will support large-scale investigation of structural and fuel cladding material compatibility issues with heavy-metal coolants, oxygen chemistry control, and thermal hydraulic physics properties. Its ability to reconfigure flow conditions and piping configurations to more accurately approximate prototypical reactor designs will provide a key resource for Lead Fast Reactor research and development. The other principal elements of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility

  18. National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...

  19. Career and Technical Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Why Do I Have to Learn This?; (2) 2008 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Effective Freshman Transition for School Improvement (David Livingston, John Greene, and Lindy Stahlman); (4)…

  20. Native Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 23, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Traditional Native American Education; (2) Who Counts as Native? (Dawn Mackety); (3) GAINS in the Bering Strait (Carl White); (4) SIENA: Comprehensive Education for Native…

  1. Service-Learning. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Dropouts and Democracy (Robert Shumer); (2) 2011 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Service-Learning as Dropout Intervention and More (Michael VanKeulen); and (4) Teacher…

  2. Summer Learning. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) A New Vision of Summer Learning (Brenda McLaughlin); (2) Using Summers More Strategically to Bridge the 8th-9th Grade Transition (Brenda McLaughlin and Hillary Hardt); (3)…

  3. Teacher Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) At the Crossroads of Teacher Education (Nancy Cassity Dunlap); (2) School Climate--There Should Be No Debate for Teacher Educators (Terry Pickeral); (3) Call Me MISTER: A Unique…

  4. Project UNIFY. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Special Olympics Project UNIFY (Andrea Cahn); (2) The Impact of Project UNIFY; (3) Project UNIFY Brings Youth Together to Learn and Graduate (William H. Hughes); (4)…

  5. Early Childhood Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Laying the Foundation for Success (Mary Caputo); (2) Ready or Not? (Laura Koenig); (3) Every Child A School-Ready Child (Leah Newkirk Meunier); (4) Parents As Teachers (Erin Garner);…

  6. Literacy. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Reading Is Vital!; (2) The Significance of Early Literacy Efforts in Preventing Later Failure (Susan King Fullerton); (3) Middle School Intervention Strategies For At-Risk Youth…

  7. Middle College. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 17, Number 4, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) College As A Bridge to High School Graduation (Terry Cash); (2) 2005 NDPN Crystal Star Awards of Excellence; (3) Mott Middle College (Chery S. Wagonlander); (4) Gateway to…

  8. Family Engagement. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Family/School Relationships: Relationships That Matter; (2) Program Profile; (3) Engaging Families in the Pathway to College: Lessons From Schools That Are Beating the Odds (Anne T.…

  9. Evaluation of the National Diffusion Network. Final Report. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA.

    Major findings, interpretations, and policy recommendations developed from a national, in-depth evaluation of the National Diffusion Network (NDN) are presented. Features of the NDN approach to the dissemination of educational innovation include: local change as a goal, use of specialized change agents, emphasis on interpersonal tactics to effect…

  10. winderosionnetwork.org - Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; Herrick, J. E.; Clingan, S.; Cooper, B.; Courtright, E.; LaPlante, V.; Van Zee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its controlling factors. Data will be used to support model development and identification of improved land management strategies that have global applications. By applying standard methods, the Network will overcome the common challenge of synthesizing independent studies to assess local-to-national scale wind erosion and dust emission. Twelve intensively instrumented Network sites will be operational by spring 2016, providing high-resolution measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions and soil and vegetation properties. These initial sites are located across rangelands and croplands in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington. A primary objective of the Network is to facilitate collaboration among Network sites and the wider research community to address basic research questions about aeolian processes, model development, and evaluate practical management options. In support of Network activities, winderosionnetwork.org was developed to serve as a Network data portal, and provide online information about the National Wind Erosion Research Network including protocols and results. The website provides a comprehensive resource for scientists and managers interested in engaging with the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides exciting opportunities to engage in a national long-term wind erosion research program that promises significant impact for our understanding and ability to predict and evaluate aeolian processes across land cover types and land use systems.

  11. U.S. National PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Monitoring Networks – CSN and IMPROVE: Description of Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the national PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network (CSN) in 2000 to support evaluation of long-term trends and to better quantify the impact of sources on particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the size range belo...

  12. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water-Quality Networks (WQN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.; Briel, L.I.; Buttleman, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM set contains data from two USGS national stream water-quality networks, the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), operated during the past 30 years. These networks were established to provide national and regional descriptions of stream water-quality conditions and trends, based on uniform monitoring of selected watersheds throughout the United States, and to improve our understanding of the effects of the natural environment and human activities on water quality. The HBN, consisting of 63 relatively small, minimally disturbed watersheds, provides data for investigating naturally induced changes in streamflow and water quality and the effects of airborne substances on water quality. NASQAN, consisting of 618 larger, more culturally influenced watersheds, provides information for tracking water-quality conditions in major U.S. rivers and streams.

  13. Internet access in the libraries of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, B J; Stavri, P Z; Hochstein, D C; Nardini, H G

    1998-01-01

    As the National Library of Medicine expands access to its products and services by making them available on the Internet, more accurate information about current and future access in medical libraries is needed. The National Network Office of the National Library of Medicine conducted a survey of all network member libraries to determine the extent of connectivity and the barriers preventing 100% connectivity. Respondents called a toll-free number and, using interactive voice technology, answered questions concerning Internet access in their library. Seventy-eight percent of the network member libraries responded. Four percent of academic libraries, 27% of hospital libraries, and 10% of "other" libraries reported that they were not connected. Computer cost, lack of in-house expertise, and lack of management support were the highest ranked barriers to connecting. The National Library of Medicine and the Regional Medical Libraries will use information from this survey to develop strategies to help all member libraries achieve full connectivity. PMID:9803289

  14. Lidar vegetation mapping in national parks: Gulf Coast Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Segura, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is an active remote sensing technique used to collect accurate elevation data over large areas. Lidar provides an extremely high level of regional topographic detail, which makes this technology an essential component of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science strategy. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has collaborated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Park Service (NPS) to acquire dense topographic lidar data in a variety of coastal environments.

  15. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Flint, Paul L.; Smith, Milton R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993–1995. Lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (≥0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  16. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions limits for reverberatory and electric furnaces... equivalency quotient THC total hydrocarbons TTN Technology Transfer Network UMRA Unfunded Mandates Reform Act... and technology reviews. Finalizing first-time total hydrocarbon (THC) and dioxin and furan...

  17. Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

  18. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  19. Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Guidance Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains implementation guidance documents for the 1978 and 2008 Lead (Pb) NAAQS. Some of the topics covered are: RACM/RACT, RFP, new source review, designations, emissions inventories, attainment dates, and transition policy

  20. Letter from Thomas J Graves on Concerns about National Public Awareness Campaign on Childhood Lead Poisoning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Request for correction of information by EPA withdrawal from sponsorship and participation in the print and video depictions used in the childhood lead poisoning PSAs are misleading and misrepresent the paint industry

  1. 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 lead NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  2. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. A state-based national network for effective wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meretsky, Vicky J.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Davis, Frank W.; Stoms, David M.; Scott, J. Michael; Figg, Dennis; Goble, Dale D.; Griffith, Brad; Henke, Scott E.; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Yaffee, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    State wildlife conservation programs provide a strong foundation for biodiversity conservation in the United States, building on state wildlife action plans. However, states may miss the species that are at the most risk at rangewide scales, and threats such as novel diseases and climate change increasingly act at regional and national levels. Regional collaborations among states and their partners have had impressive successes, and several federal programs now incorporate state priorities. However, regional collaborations are uneven across the country, and no national counterpart exists to support efforts at that scale. A national conservation-support program could fill this gap and could work across the conservation community to identify large-scale conservation needs and support efforts to meet them. By providing important information-sharing and capacity-building services, such a program would advance collaborative conservation among the states and their partners, thus increasing both the effectiveness and the efficiency of conservation in the United States.

  4. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Hongchang

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  5. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  6. Operational research leading to rapid national policy change: tuberculosis-diabetes collaboration in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N C; Chadha, S S; Gupta, D; Nair, S; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    In 2011, bi-directional screening for tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), although how best to implement the activity was not clear. In India, with early engagement of national programme managers and all important stakeholders, a countrywide, multicentre operational research (OR) project was designed in October 2011 and completed in 2012. The results led to a rapid national policy decision to routinely screen all TB patients for DM in September 2012. The process, experience and enablers of implementing this unique and successful collaborative model of operational research are presented.

  7. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  8. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  9. Use of social network sites and instant messaging does not lead to increased offline social network size, or to emotionally closer relationships with offline network members.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Thomas V; Roberts, Sam G B; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Internet use on social relationships is still a matter of intense debate. This study examined the relationships between use of social media (instant messaging and social network sites), network size, and emotional closeness in a sample of 117 individuals aged 18 to 63 years old. Time spent using social media was associated with a larger number of online social network "friends." However, time spent using social media was not associated with larger offline networks, or feeling emotionally closer to offline network members. Further, those that used social media, as compared to non-users of social media, did not have larger offline networks, and were not emotionally closer to offline network members. These results highlight the importance of considering potential time and cognitive constraints on offline social networks when examining the impact of social media use on social relationships.

  10. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  11. Blood pressure in relation to environmental lead exposure in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 μg/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 μg/dL). In multivariable analyses of all participants, blood lead doubling was associated with higher (P≤0.0007) systolic and diastolic pressure (+0.76 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.13 and +0.43 mm Hg; 0.18-0.68), but not with the odds of hypertension (0.95; 0.90-1.01; P=0.11). Associations with blood lead were nonsignificant (P≥0.09) for systolic pressure in women and for diastolic pressure in non-whites. Among men, systolic pressure increased with blood lead (P≤0.060) with effect sizes associated with blood lead doubling ranging from +0.65 mm Hg in whites to +1.61 mm Hg in blacks. For systolic pressure, interactions of ethnicity and sex with blood lead were all significant (P≤0.019). In conclusion, small and inconsistent effect sizes in the associations of blood pressure with blood lead likely exclude current environmental lead exposure as a major hypertension cause in the United States.

  12. 75 FR 65511 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network... seq. (``the Act''), Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. (``NCOIC'') has filed written... Red Cross, Washington, DC; University of Maryland, Center for Satellite & Hybrid...

  13. Federated queries of clinical data repositories: Scaling to a national network.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M

    2015-06-01

    Federated networks of clinical research data repositories are rapidly growing in size from a handful of sites to true national networks with more than 100 hospitals. This study creates a conceptual framework for predicting how various properties of these systems will scale as they continue to expand. Starting with actual data from Harvard's four-site Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE), the framework is used to imagine a future 4000 site network, representing the majority of hospitals in the United States. From this it becomes clear that several common assumptions of small networks fail to scale to a national level, such as all sites being online at all times or containing data from the same date range. On the other hand, a large network enables researchers to select subsets of sites that are most appropriate for particular research questions. Developers of federated clinical data networks should be aware of how the properties of these networks change at different scales and design their software accordingly.

  14. Assessment of a national network: the case of the French teacher training colleges' health education network.

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Jourdan, Didier

    2009-06-01

    The French teacher training colleges' health education (HE) network was set up in 2005 to encourage the inclusion of HE in courses for primary and secondary school teachers. A systematic process of monitoring the activity and the impact of this initiative was implemented. This analysis was systematically compared with the perceptions of teaching staff involved in the network. This paper assesses the network after 2 years using documents produced and interviews with 24 coordinators. Twenty-nine teacher training colleges out of a total of 31 are involved in the network. The network has helped to create links between teacher training colleges, extend HE training and encourage partnerships with other public health organizations. By 2007, HE was included in courses offered by 19 teacher training colleges as opposed to only 3 in 2005. This study not only showed the positive impact of the network but also revealed issues in its management and presented new challenges to ensure the effectiveness of the network. The network has succeeded in attracting and training trainers who were already providing or were interested in HE. Reaching other trainers who are not familiar with HE remains a challenge for the future.

  15. Anticipated Ethics and Regulatory Challenges in PCORnet: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Ali, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, seeks to establish a robust national health data network for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. This article reports the results of a PCORnet survey designed to identify the ethics and regulatory challenges anticipated in network implementation. A 12-item online survey was developed by leadership of the PCORnet Ethics and Regulatory Task Force; responses were collected from the 29 PCORnet networks. The most pressing ethics issues identified related to informed consent, patient engagement, privacy and confidentiality, and data sharing. High priority regulatory issues included IRB coordination, privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, and data sharing. Over 150 IRBs and five different approaches to managing multisite IRB review were identified within PCORnet. Further empirical and scholarly work, as well as practical and policy guidance, is essential if important initiatives that rely on comparative effectiveness research are to move forward.

  16. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  17. New American High Schools: Profiles of the Nation's Leading Edge Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet profiles "leading edge" schools committed to ensuring that all students meet challenging academic standards and are prepared for college and careers. In 1996, these 10 New American High Schools were chosen by the U.S. Department of Education for their innovation and commitment to academic excellence. As these award-winning,…

  18. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Methods Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Findings Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Conclusion Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children. PMID:23284193

  19. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Based upon these and other findings, ecotoxicological monitoring and research investigations of terrestrial vertebrates are warranted at several National Parks. These include Shenandoah National Park, Richmond National Battlefield, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Valley Forge National Historic Park, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Monocacy National Battlefield, and Harpers Ferry National Historic Park. The types of investigations vary according to the species present at these parks and potential contaminant threats, but should focus on contemporary use pesticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, and perhaps, emerging contaminants including antibiotics, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants. Other management recommendations include additional training for natural resource staff members in the area of ecotoxicology, inclusion of terrestrial vertebrate contaminant monitoring and the Contaminant Assessment Process (U.S. Geological Survey Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project) into the National Park Service Vital Signs Program, development of protocols for hand ling and toxicological analysis of dead or seemingly affected wildlife, consideration of some alternative methods and compounds for pest management and weed control, and use of non-toxic fishing tackle by visitors. 

  20. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  1. Overview of the biomedical and environmental programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 6 chapters presented by the six divisions involved in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The introduction is not covered by an abstract and deals with the environmental, health and safety considerations of energy technology decisions, the major initiatives now being taken by these 6 divisions, and recent major accomplishments in the biomedical and environmental science program. (KRM)

  2. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  3. Plant gravitropic signal transduction: A network analysis leads to gene discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Although a significant body of research has helped define the events of gravity perception, the role of the plant growth regulator auxin, and the mechanisms resulting in the gravity response, the events of signal transduction, those that link the biophysical action of perception to a biochemical signal that results in auxin redistribution, those that regulate the gravitropic effects on plant growth, remain, for the most part, a “black box.” Using a cold affect, dubbed the gravity persistent signal (GPS) response, we developed a mutant screen to specifically identify components of the signal transduction pathway. Cloning of the GPS genes have identified new proteins involved in gravitropic signaling. We have further exploited the GPS response using a multi-faceted approach including gene expression microarrays, proteomics analysis, and bioinformatics analysis and continued mutant analysis to identified additional genes, physiological and biochemical processes. Gene expression data provided the foundation of a regulatory network for gravitropic signaling. Based on these gene expression data and related data sets/information from the literature/repositories, we constructed a gravitropic signaling network for Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. To generate the network, both a dynamic Bayesian network approach and a time-lagged correlation coefficient approach were used. The dynamic Bayesian network added existing information of protein-protein interaction while the time-lagged correlation coefficient allowed incorporation of temporal regulation and thus could incorporate the time-course metric from the data set. Thus the methods complemented each other and provided us with a more comprehensive evaluation of connections. Each method generated a list of possible interactions associated with a statistical significance value. The two networks were then overlaid to generate a more rigorous, intersected

  4. Social network type and health-related behaviors: Evidence from an American national survey

    PubMed Central

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between social network type and engagement in physical activity, alcohol abuse and use of complementary and alternative medicine by older Americans. Data from the National Social Life, Health & Aging Project were employed. Multivariate logistic regressions conducted separately for each health behavior showed that older people embedded in less resourceful network types were at greater risk for alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and less use of complementary and alternative medicine, net of the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, health, and the quality of the social relationships. The study underscores the importance of the construct of social network type for understanding healthy lifestyle in late life. PMID:22682660

  5. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  6. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for "National Drug File - Reference Terminology" Chemical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT's Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.'s DDI knowledgebase.

  7. The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Anson, Jose; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national well-being by the United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, we have also proposed and evaluated a global connectivity degree measure applying multiplex theory across the six networks that accounts for the strength of relationships between countries. We conclude by showing how countries with shared community membership over multiple networks have similar socioeconomic profiles. Combining multiple flow data sources can help understand the forces which drive economic activity on a global level. Such an ability to infer proxy indicators in a context of incomplete information is extremely timely in light of recent discussions on measurement of indicators relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27248142

  8. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses. PMID:24780722

  9. The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Desislava; Rutherford, Alex; Anson, Jose; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national well-being by the United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, we have also proposed and evaluated a global connectivity degree measure applying multiplex theory across the six networks that accounts for the strength of relationships between countries. We conclude by showing how countries with shared community membership over multiple networks have similar socioeconomic profiles. Combining multiple flow data sources can help understand the forces which drive economic activity on a global level. Such an ability to infer proxy indicators in a context of incomplete information is extremely timely in light of recent discussions on measurement of indicators relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals.

  10. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses.

  11. How Hepatitis C Virus Leads to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Network-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Poortahmasebi, Vahdat; Poorebrahim, Mansour; Najafi, Saeideh; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Ghavami, Saeid; Alavian, Seyed Ehsan; Rezaei Moghadam, Adel; Amiri, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been known as a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the distinct molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HCV proteins on the HCC progression have remained unclear. Objectives: In the present study, we studied the possible role of HCV in the HCC initiation and invasion using topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Materials and Methods: After analysis with GEO2R, a PPI network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was constructed for both chronic HCV and HCC samples. The STRING and GeneMANIA databases were used to determine the putative interactions between DEGs. In parallel, the functional annotation of DEGs was performed using g: Profiler web tool. The topological analysis and network visualization was carried outperformed using Cytoscape software and the top hub genes were identified. We determined the hub genes-related miRNAs using miRTarBase server and reconstructed a miRNA-Hubgene network. Results: Based on the topological analysis of miRNA-Hubgene network, we identified the key hub miRNAs. In order to identify the most important common sub-network, we aligned two PPI networks using NETAL tool. The c-Jun gene was identified as the most important hub gene in both HCV and HCC networks. Furthermore, the hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-24, hsa-miR-744 and hsa-miR-92a were recognized as the most important hub miRNAs with positive correlation in the chronic HCV and HCC samples. Functional annotation of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) using the tool for annotations of human miRNAs (TAM) revealed that there is a considerable overlap between miRNA gene expression profiles of HCV-infected and HCC cells. Conclusions: Our results revealed the possible crucial genes and miRNAs involved in the initiation and progression of HCC cells infected with HCV. PMID:27148389

  12. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  13. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  14. Implementing a U.S. national phenology network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, J.L.; Schwartz, M.D.; Breshears, D.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.; Inouye, D.W.; Post, E.; Reed, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The passing of seasons, as gauged by annual events or phenophases in organisms' life cycles, is arguably one of the most pervasive environmental variations on Earth. Shifts in seasonal timing, or phenology, are observed in flowering and other stages of plant development, animal migration and reproduction, hibernation, and the seasonal activity of cold-blooded animals [e.g., Schwartz, 2003; Root et al., 2005]. As an important life history trait, phenology is an object of natural selection; depending on timescales, shifts in phenology can lead to evolutionary change. Thus, phenology is not only an indicator of pattern in environmental science, but also its variation has fitness consequences for individuals, and these can scale up to broader ecological dynamics.

  15. The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Caroline S.; Park, Han Woo; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2015-01-01

    Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global science, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, a global network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive ‘cliques’. This suggests that power relationships are not reproducing those of the political system. The network has features an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National governments could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies and strategies designed to maximize network benefits—a model different from those designed for national systems. PMID:26196296

  16. The Best of "Parent News": A Sourcebook on Parenting from the National Parent Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Comp.

    The National Parent Information Network (NPIN) was created in 1993 to collect and disseminate information about high-quality resources for parents. One of the services provided by NPIN is "Parent News," an Internet magazine that focuses on topics of interest to parents and to professionals who work with parents. Compiled in response to…

  17. National Plant Diagnostic Network Five-Year Review: Report of the Review Panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) was established by the U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service from federal funds in 2002 to fill a major gap in timely, effective and state-of-the art diagnostic capability for threatening and emerging disease...

  18. The National Broadband Network and the Challenges of Creating Connectivity in Education: The Case of Tasmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Sue; Watson, Jane; Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Tasmania, one of the first locations to have communities connected to the national broadband network (NBN), provided the context within which to ask significant questions about the implications of the NBN for all levels and sectors of education. This paper reports findings from a research project that developed innovative methodology to explore…

  19. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a…

  20. winderosionnetwork.org – Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its control...

  1. DDT AND DIELDRIN IN RIVERS: A REPORT OF THE NATIONAL WATER QUALITY NETWORK.

    PubMed

    BREIDENBACH, A W; LICHTENBERG, J J

    1963-09-06

    As a part of the waterquality surveillance activities of the National Water Quality Network at 101 sampling stations, insecticides were identified in 38 samples from ten rivers during the period May through December 1962. Both DDT and dieldrin were identified by infrared and gas chromatographic analysis of carbon adsorption extracts.

  2. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  3. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing. Volume VIII, November 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenburg, Karen, Ed.; Slaughter, Ginny, Ed.

    This newsletter contains 32 abstracts of approximately 1000 words each of papers presented at the 1988 conference of the National Testing Network in Writing. Abstracts, listed with their authors, include "Instructional Directions from Large Scale K-12 Writing Assessments" (C. Chew); "Portfolio Assessment across the Curriculum: Early Conflicts" (C.…

  4. Rationale and methods for the National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kenneth G; Jaffe, Harold W

    2002-11-01

    Our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) transmission dynamics has been refined by genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network was designed and implemented to systematically evaluate the role of genotyping technology in improving TB prevention and control activities. Genotyping proved a useful adjunct to investigations of outbreaks, unusual clusters, and laboratory cross-contamination.

  5. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal.

    PubMed

    Séror, Ann C

    2008-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a longer article that appeared in Séror, A. A Case analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2006;8(1). Access this article in original publication http://www.jmir.org/2006/1/e1.

  6. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Research and Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; And Others

    This book provides an overview and status report on the progress made in developing the National Research and Education Network (NREN) as of early 1991. It reports on a number of investigations that provide a research and policy perspective on the NREN and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and brings together key source documents that have…

  7. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  8. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM... adaptation of curriculum materials; (4) Maintaining liaison with dissemination systems described in § 412.32... CCCs that includes activities such as displays of current curriculum materials from each CCC,...

  9. METHODS INTERCOMPARISON OF SAMPLERS FOR EPA'S NATIONAL PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this sampler intercomparison field study is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the chemical components of PM2.5 by the chemical speciation monitors developed for the national PM2.5 network relative to each other, to the Federal R...

  10. Disseminating Competency-Based Adult Education through the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Elaine

    1980-01-01

    Defines competency-based adult education; provides a brief history of the Adult Performance Level (APL) Curriculum and Competency-Based High School Diploma program; explains the National Diffusion Network; examines how the APL staff offers training and technical assistance; and focuses on nontraditional APL program implementation. (CT)

  11. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural…

  12. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) - Some questions and answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficke, John F.; Hawkinson, Richard O.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major new efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey is the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). This circular is intended to answer some of the frequently asked questions concerning concepts used in establishing NASQAN, its purposes, design, value, and future plans.

  13. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  14. The health benefits of network growth: new evidence from a national survey of older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O

    2015-01-01

    Scholars who study how social networks affect older adults' health are often concerned with the prospect of declining social connectedness in late life. This paper shifts the focus to older adults' tendencies to cultivate new social ties. This process of network growth can improve access to social resources, boost self-esteem, reduce loneliness, and increase physical activity. We therefore examine the link between tie cultivation and health using new longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which recorded changes in older adults' confidant network rosters over a period of about five years. Most respondents (81.8%) added at least one new network member during the study period, and most (59.4%) cultivated multiple new confidant relationships. Longitudinal analyses suggest that the addition of new confidants is associated with improvements in functional, self-rated, and psychological health, net of baseline connectedness as well as any network losses that occurred during the same period. Network losses were associated with physical but not psychological well-being. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between concurrent processes that underlie social network change in later life, and highlight the need for additional research on the mechanisms by which network change may improve health.

  15. The Health Benefits of Network Growth: New Evidence from a National Survey of Older Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars who study how social networks affect older adults’ health are often concerned with the prospect of declining social connectedness in late life. This paper shifts the focus to older adults’ tendencies to cultivate new social ties. This process of network growth can improve access to social resources, boost self-esteem, reduce loneliness, and increase physical activity. We therefore examine the link between tie cultivation and health using new longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which recorded changes in older adults’ confidant network rosters over a period of about five years. Most respondents (81.8%) added at least one new network member during the study period, and most (59.4%) cultivated multiple new confidant relationships. Longitudinal analyses suggest that the addition of new confidants is associated with improvements in functional, self-rated, and psychological health, net of baseline connectedness as well as any network losses that occurred during the same period. Network losses were associated with physical but not psychological well-being. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between concurrent processes that underlie social network change in later life, and highlight the need for additional research on the mechanisms by which network change may improve health. PMID:24128674

  16. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber.

    PubMed

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-05-24

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization.

  17. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber

    PubMed Central

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S.; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A.; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization. PMID:27162354

  18. Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  19. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  20. Conditions leading to a recent small hydrothermal explosion at Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Thompson, J.M.; Cunningham, C.G.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Porkchop Geyser, in Yellowstone National Park, was the site of a small hydrothermal explosion on September 5, 1989. The geyser column suddenly rose to a height of 20-30 m, followed immediately by the explosive ejection of sinter blocks up to 1.88 m in maximum dimension and formation of an irregular crater 13.9 m long and 11.7 m wide. The ejected blocks show a variety of siliceous deposits indicative of changing environments of deposition with time, and possibly of prior hydrothermal explosive activity at this site. Water samples from Porkchop were collected and analyzed once in the 1920s, again in 1951, ten times between 1960 and mid-1989, and once in January 1990 after the explosion. It is hypothesized that a sudden breaking loose of the constriction at the exit of the geyser tube, likely triggered by a seasonal increase in subsurface boiling throughout Norris Basin, allowed water and steam to be discharged from Porkchop much more rapidly than previously. This resulted in a drop in pressure within the geyser tube, causing water in adjacent connected chambers to become superheated. An ensuing rapid flashing of superheated water to steam within relatively confined spaces resulted in the hydrothermal explosion. -after Authors

  1. Leading a Learning Organisation: Australian Early Years Centres as Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmer, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1940, Lady Gowrie Child Centres in Australia provide integrated early childhood programs and develop and share project work, information, resources and training at local and national levels. While changes in social policy compromised their provision of integrated programs, the centre in Adelaide has made real strides towards moving…

  2. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network during 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, Randolph B.; Schroder, LeRoy J.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    1988-01-01

    During 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey operated three programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network. An intersite-comparison program was used to assess the accuracy of onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations at quarterly intervals. The blind-audit program was used to assess the effect of routine sample handling on the precision and bias of program and network wet-deposition data. Analytical results from four laboratories, which routinely analyze wet-deposition samples, were examined to determine if differences existed between laboratory analytical results and to provide estimates of the analytical precision of each laboratory. An average of 78 and 89 percent of the site operators participating in the intersite-comparison met the network goals for pH and specific conductance. A comparison of analytical values versus actual values for samples submitted as part of the blind-audit program indicated that analytical values were slightly but significantly (a = 0.01) larger than actual values for pH, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate; analytical values for specific conductance were slightly less than actual values. The decreased precision in the analyses of blind-audit samples when compared to interlaboratory studies indicates that a large amount of uncertainty in network deposition data may be a result of routine field operations. The results of the interlaboratory comparison study indicated that the magnitude of the difference between laboratory analyses was small for all analytes. Analyses of deionized, distilled water blanks by participating laboratories indicated that the laboratories had difficulty measuring analyte concentrations near their reported detection limits. (USGS)

  3. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  5. School meals in French secondary state schools: Do national recommendations lead to healthier nutrition on offer?

    PubMed

    Bertin, Mélanie; Lafay, Lionel; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dubuisson, Carine

    2012-02-01

    To improve the dietary offering in schools, the French authorities published recommendations on nutrition in 1999, which were then revised in 2007. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional offering in secondary school meals and the extent to which the recommendations promote balanced nutritional offerings. In 2005, a national survey was conducted on a representative sample of secondary schools, either administrated by the Ministry of Education (ES) or the Ministry of Agriculture (AS). Information on school-catering organisation and twenty consecutive meals was collected from each of the 707 secondary schools surveyed. Nutritional composition was estimated according to the French food composition database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of food-group frequency guidelines (FFG) on nutritional offering. It was found that 15 and 26 % of ES and AS schools, respectively, had high compliance with the FFG, at lunch. Macronutrient content was unbalanced in ES school lunches in which 42·8 % lipids, 21·5 % proteins and 35·7 % carbohydrates contributed to the energy. Nevertheless, proper offerings in Fe, Ca and vitamin C content were observed. In addition, a lower offering in lipids and a higher offering in proteins, Ca, vitamin C and Fe were found when the FFG were applied (P < 0·001). Similar results were found for AS schools. This paper confirms the effectiveness of FFG in providing nutritionally balanced school meals. However, others measures such as nutrition promotion and actions to improve children's food habits have to be introduced to make the recommendations more effective and easier to understand.

  6. Brain cancer mortality and potential occupational exposure to lead: findings from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 1979-1989.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dosemeci, Mustafa

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the association between potential occupational lead exposure and the risk of brain cancer mortality in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), which is a prospective census-based cohort study of mortality among the noninstitutionalized United States population (1979-1989). The present study was limited to individuals for whom occupation and industry were available (n = 317,968). Estimates of probability and intensity of lead exposure were assigned using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Risk estimates for the impact of lead on brain cancer mortality were computed using standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and proportional hazards and Poisson regression techniques, adjusting for the effects of age, gender and several other covariates. Brain cancer mortality rates were greater among individuals in jobs potentially involving lead exposure as compared to those unexposed (age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-2.3) with indications of an exposure-response trend (probability: low HR = 0.7 (95% CI = 0.2-2.2), medium HR = 1.4 (95% CI = 0.8-2.5), high HR = 2.2 (95% CI = 1.2-4.0); intensity: low HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 0.7-2.1), medium/high HR = 1.9 (95% CI = 1.0-3.4)). Brain cancer risk was greatest among individuals with the highest levels of probability and intensity (HR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-4.2). These findings provide further support for an association between occupational lead exposure and brain cancer mortality, but need to be interpreted cautiously due to the consideration of brain cancer as one disease entity and the absence of biological measures of lead exposure.

  7. Blood lead, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Butler, Mary Ann

    2009-03-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between blood lead, serum folate, red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20-59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The three neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. Serum folate, red blood cell folate, and serum vitamin B12 decreased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine increased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine decreased as the serum folate and serum vitamin B12 concentrations increased. Neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the blood lead, serum folate, or serum vitamin B12 concentrations. In adults 20-39 years old, performance on the serial digit learning test improved as the serum homocysteine concentration increased. In adults 40-59 years old, neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the serum homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine may impair cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and improve cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate or gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.

  8. 76 FR 21405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network.... (``the Act''), Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. (``NCOIC'') has filed written... TURKEY; Terrestar Networks, Inc,. Reston, VA; ] ABG SPIN S.A., Warsaw, POLAND; AMPER Programas...

  9. Self-organized neural network for the quality control of 12-lead ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2012-09-01

    Telemedicine is very important for the timely delivery of health care to cardiovascular patients, especially those who live in the rural areas of developing countries. However, there are a number of uncertainty factors inherent to the mobile-phone-based recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals such as personnel with minimal training and other extraneous noises. PhysioNet organized a challenge in 2011 to develop efficient algorithms that can assess the ECG signal quality in telemedicine settings. This paper presents our efforts in this challenge to integrate multiscale recurrence analysis with a self-organizing map for controlling the ECG signal quality. As opposed to directly evaluating the 12-lead ECG, we utilize an information-preserving transform, i.e. Dower transform, to derive the 3-lead vectorcardiogram (VCG) from the 12-lead ECG in the first place. Secondly, we delineate the nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics underlying the 3-lead VCG signals into multiple time-frequency scales. Furthermore, a self-organizing map is trained, in both supervised and unsupervised ways, to identify the correlations between signal quality and multiscale recurrence features. The efficacy and robustness of this approach are validated using real-world ECG recordings available from PhysioNet. The average performance was demonstrated to be 95.25% for the training dataset and 90.0% for the independent test dataset with unknown labels.

  10. Implementing and Investigating Distributed Leadership in a National University Network--SaMnet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manjula D.; Rifkin, Will; Tzioumis, Vicky; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth; Varsavsky, Cristina; Jones, Susan; Beames, Stephanie; Crampton, Andrea; Zadnik, Marjan; Pyke, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that collaborative approaches to leadership, such as distributed leadership, are essential for supporting educational innovators in leading change in teaching in universities. This paper briefly describes the array of activities, processes and resources to support distributed leadership in the implementation of a network,…

  11. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  12. From partnerships to networks: new approaches for measuring U.S. National Heritage Area effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Laven, Daniel N; Krymkowski, Daniel H; Ventriss, Curtis L; Manning, Robert E; Mitchell, Nora J

    2010-08-01

    National Heritage Areas (NHAs) are an alternative and increasingly popular form of protected area management in the United States. NHAs seek to integrate environmental objectives with community and economic objectives at regional or landscape scales. NHA designations have increased rapidly in the last 20 years, generating a substantial need for evaluative information about (a) how NHAs work; (b) outcomes associated with the NHA process; and (c) the costs and benefits of investing public moneys into the NHA approach. Qualitative evaluation studies recently conducted at three NHAs have identified the importance of understanding network structure and function in the context of evaluating NHA management effectiveness. This article extends these case studies by examining quantitative network data from each of the sites. The authors analyze these data using both a descriptive approach and a statistically more robust approach known as exponential random graph modeling. Study findings indicate the presence of transitive structures and the absence of three-cycle structures in each of these networks. This suggests that these networks are relatively ''open,'' which may be desirable, given the uncertainty of the environments in which they operate. These findings also suggest, at least at the sites reported here, that the NHA approach may be an effective way to activate and develop networks of intersectoral organizational partners. Finally, this study demonstrates the utility of using quantitative network analysis to better understand the effectiveness of protected area management models that rely on partnership networks to achieve their intended outcomes.

  13. Bi-national Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants’ long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical debate on transnationalism is the lack of data on the social networks that connect migrants to each other and to non-migrants in communities of origin. To address this shortcoming, our analysis uses unique bi-national data on the social network connecting an immigrant sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico, to two destination areas in the United States. We test for the effect of respondents’ positions in cross-border networks on their migration intentions and attitudes towards the United States using data on the opinions of their peers, their participation in cross border and local communication networks, and their structural position in the network. The results indicate qualified empirical support for a network-based model of transnationalism; in the U.S. sample we find evidence of network clustering consistent with peer effects, while in the Mexican sample we find evidence of the importance of cross-border communication with friends. PMID:25750462

  14. Bi-national Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism.

    PubMed

    Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-08-01

    While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants' long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical debate on transnationalism is the lack of data on the social networks that connect migrants to each other and to non-migrants in communities of origin. To address this shortcoming, our analysis uses unique bi-national data on the social network connecting an immigrant sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico, to two destination areas in the United States. We test for the effect of respondents' positions in cross-border networks on their migration intentions and attitudes towards the United States using data on the opinions of their peers, their participation in cross border and local communication networks, and their structural position in the network. The results indicate qualified empirical support for a network-based model of transnationalism; in the U.S. sample we find evidence of network clustering consistent with peer effects, while in the Mexican sample we find evidence of the importance of cross-border communication with friends.

  15. Smoothing of cost function leads to faster convergence of neural network learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Qun; Hall, Trevor J.

    1994-03-01

    One of the major problems in supervised learning of neural networks is the inevitable local minima inherent in the cost function f(W,D). This often makes classic gradient-descent-based learning algorithms that calculate the weight updates for each iteration according to (Delta) W(t) equals -(eta) (DOT)$DELwf(W,D) powerless. In this paper we describe a new strategy to solve this problem, which, adaptively, changes the learning rate and manipulates the gradient estimator simultaneously. The idea is to implicitly convert the local- minima-laden cost function f((DOT)) into a sequence of its smoothed versions {f(beta t)}Ttequals1, which, subject to the parameter (beta) t, bears less details at time t equals 1 and gradually more later on, the learning is actually performed on this sequence of functionals. The corresponding smoothed global minima obtained in this way, {Wt}Ttequals1, thus progressively approximate W-the desired global minimum. Experimental results on a nonconvex function minimization problem and a typical neural network learning task are given, analyses and discussions of some important issues are provided.

  16. Sequential Functionalization of a Natural Crosslinker Leads to Designer Silicone Networks.

    PubMed

    Laengert, Scott E; Schneider, Alyssa F; Lovinger, Eric; Chen, Yang; Brook, Michael A

    2017-03-10

    Precise silicone networks are difficult to prepare from multiple starting materials because of poor spatial control over crosslink location, competing side reactions, and incompatible catalysts among other reasons. We demonstrate that cure processes catalyzed by B(C6 F5 )3 (the Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction) and platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation are perfectly compatible, and can be used in either order. It is possible to perform three different, selective, sequential reactions in the same pot using H-terminated silicones as chain extenders in all cases to give explicit networks. Eugenol, a readily available aromatic compound, acts as a trifunctional crosslinker (HO, MeO, HC=CH2 ), each functional group of which can be induced to undergo selective reaction. With platinum catalysis, the reaction of SiH groups with alkenes is fastest, while B(C6 F5 )3 catalyzes reaction at phenols much faster than methoxybenzene. Thus, a variety of H-terminated telechelic siloxanes can be used to form chain extended polymers or elastomers or foams in which the morphology of the material and its constituent parts can be manipulated at will.

  17. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. Objective The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Methods Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Results Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. Conclusions INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology

  18. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  19. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  20. Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

  1. Breaking network connectivity leads to ultralow thermal conductivities in fully dense amorphous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jeffrey L.; King, Sean W.; Giri, Ashutosh; Gaskins, John T.; Sato, Masanori; Fujiseki, Takemasa; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to reduce the thermal conductivity of fully dense (above the rigidity percolation threshold) amorphous thin films below the minimum limit by systematically changing the coordination number through hydrogenation. Studying a-SiO:H, a-SiC:H, and a-Si:H thin films, we measure the thermal properties using time-domain thermoreflectance to show that thermal conductivity can be reduced below the amorphous limit by a factor of up to two. By experimentally investigating the thermophysical parameters that determine thermal conductivity, we show that sound speed, atomic density, and heat capacity cannot explain the measured reduction in thermal conductivity, revealing that the coordination number can significantly alter the scattering length scale of heat carriers. Reformulating the minimum limit to consider the propensity for energy to transfer through the non-hydrogen network of atoms, we observe greatly improved agreement with experimental data.

  2. Network and pharmacological mechanisms leading to epileptiform synchronization in the limbic system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Avoli, Massimo; D'Antuono, Margherita; Louvel, Jacques; Köhling, Rüdiger; Biagini, Giuseppe; Pumain, René; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Tancredi, Virginia

    2002-10-01

    Seizures in patients presenting with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy result from the interaction among neuronal networks in limbic structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most common forms of partial epilepsy in adulthood, is generally accompanied by a pattern of brain damage known as mesial temporal sclerosis. Limbic seizures can be mimicked in vitro using preparations of combined hippocampus-entorhinal cortex slices perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing convulsants or nominally zero Mg(2+), in order to produce epileptiform synchronization. Here, we summarize experimental evidence obtained in such slices from rodents. These data indicate that in control animals: (i) prolonged, NMDA receptor-dependent epileptiform discharges, resembling electrographic limbic seizures, originate in the entorhinal cortex from where they propagate to the hippocampus via the perforant path-dentate gyrus route; (ii) the initiation and maintenance of these ictal discharges is paradoxically contributed by GABA (mainly type A) receptor-mediated mechanisms; and (iii) CA3 outputs, which relay a continuous pattern of interictal discharge at approximately 1Hz, control rather than sustain ictal discharge generation in entorhinal cortex. Recent work indicates that such a control is weakened in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy (presumably as a result of CA3 cell damage). In addition, in these experiments electrographic seizure activity spreads directly to the CA1-subiculum regions through the temporoammonic pathway. Studies reviewed here indicate that these changes in network interactions, along with other mechanisms of synaptic plasticity (e.g. axonal sprouting, decreased activation of interneurons, upregulation of bursting neurons) can confer to the epileptic, damaged limbic system, the ability to produce recurrent limbic seizures as seen in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  3. The time and frequency comparisons via Loran-C and National TV Network in Yugoslavia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markovic, Z. M.; Hajdukovic, S.

    1984-01-01

    Time comparisons were made between cesium clocks in Yugoslavia and other cesium clocks in the country by the Laboratory of Federal Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals. Regional standard frequency and time signals dissemination is over National TV network by so called active TV system. International comparisons are performed via Loran-C system and by clock transportation. The method of calculation and approximation of the time signal propagation delays is given. Settled comparison results of the cesium clocks via TV network, Loran-C, and by clock transportation are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  5. Effects of equipment performance on data quality from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and the Mercury Deposition Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Rhodes, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance project (PCQA) to provide independent, external quality-assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). NADP is composed of five monitoring networks that measure the chemical composition of precipitation and ambient air. PCQA and the NADP Program Office completed five short-term studies to investigate the effects of equipment performance with respect to the National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) data quality: sample evaporation from NTN collectors; sample volume and mercury loss from MDN collectors; mercury adsorption to MDN collector glassware, grid-type precipitation sensors for precipitation collectors, and the effects of an NTN collector wind shield on sample catch efficiency. Sample-volume evaporation from an NTN Aerochem Metrics (ACM) collector ranged between 1.1–33 percent with a median of 4.7 percent. The results suggest that weekly NTN sample evaporation is small relative to sample volume. MDN sample evaporation occurs predominantly in western and southern regions of the United States (U.S.) and more frequently with modified ACM collectors than with N-CON Systems Inc. collectors due to differences in airflow through the collectors. Variations in mercury concentrations, measured to be as high as 47.5 percent per week with a median of 5 percent, are associated with MDN sample-volume loss. Small amounts of mercury are also lost from MDN samples by adsorption to collector glassware irrespective of collector type. MDN 11-grid sensors were found to open collectors sooner, keep them open longer, and cause fewer lid cycles than NTN 7-grid sensors. Wind shielding an NTN ACM collector resulted in collection of larger quantities of precipitation while also preserving sample integrity.

  6. National Development Education Network: Framework Plan for the Period from 1 August 1986 to 1 August 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghoff, Hans

    In 1982 the Netherlands National Institute for Curriculum Development (SLO), with the support of Parliament, devised the framework for the Development Education Project (EPOS). This project concerns a national development education network, which is to be supported for a new period, 1986 to 1991. EPOS is comprised of national organizations,…

  7. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures.

  8. [The management strategy of the Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks].

    PubMed

    Maia, Paulo Ricardo da Silva; Novak, Franz Reis; Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra de; Silva, Danielle Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks (REDEBLH), with its headquarters in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, is experiencing rapid growth. The Network's activity has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization and received the Sasakawa Health Award in 2001 for best public health project. One of the main challenges is to ensure continuing development of competencies to respond to the needs arising from such growth. A new strategy is being pursued to deal with the Network's management issues. This article aims to develop a conceptual framework to contribute to the elaboration of a theoretical framework for new management strategies in the REDEBLH. Using such concepts, the aim is to draw on the typology of networks described in the specialized literature to identify the institutional profile of the REDEBLH. Based on the understanding that it is necessary to identify and understand the processes occurring within networks, and after which to consider management-related issues, the study used a proposal developed for the formation of innovation networks as its analytical tool.

  9. Commentary: physician-scientist attrition: stemming the tide through national networks for training and development.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan L

    2011-09-01

    Future advances in medicine depend on a reliable pipeline of physician-scientists. However, the changing demographics of physician-scientists, including the advanced age of new MD investigators, and attrition along the physician-scientist developmental pathway are cause for concern. Recently developed National Institutes of Health-funded national networks for physician-scientist training and development-such as the Advanced Research Institute in Geriatric Mental Health and the Pediatric Scientist Development Program-offer valuable approaches to supporting and retaining these trainees.

  10. Arts, health & wellbeing: reflections on a national seminar series and building a UK research network

    PubMed Central

    Stickley, Theo; Parr, Hester; Atkinson, Sarah; Daykin, Norma; Clift, Stephen; De Nora, Tia; Hacking, Sue; Camic, Paul M; Joss, Tim; White, Mike; Hogan, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An account is provided of a UK national seminar series on Arts, Health and Wellbeing funded by the Economic and Social Research Council during 2012–13. Four seminars were organised addressing current issues and challenges facing the field. Details of the programme and its outputs are available online. A central concern of the seminar programme was to provide a foundation for creating a UK national network for researchers in the field to help promote evidence-based policy and practice. With funding from Lankelly Chase Foundation, and the support of the Royal Society for Public Health, a Special interest Group for Arts, Health and Wellbeing was launched in 2015. PMID:28163778

  11. Arts, health & wellbeing: reflections on a national seminar series and building a UK research network.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Theo; Parr, Hester; Atkinson, Sarah; Daykin, Norma; Clift, Stephen; De Nora, Tia; Hacking, Sue; Camic, Paul M; Joss, Tim; White, Mike; Hogan, Susan J

    2017-01-02

    An account is provided of a UK national seminar series on Arts, Health and Wellbeing funded by the Economic and Social Research Council during 2012-13. Four seminars were organised addressing current issues and challenges facing the field. Details of the programme and its outputs are available online. A central concern of the seminar programme was to provide a foundation for creating a UK national network for researchers in the field to help promote evidence-based policy and practice. With funding from Lankelly Chase Foundation, and the support of the Royal Society for Public Health, a Special interest Group for Arts, Health and Wellbeing was launched in 2015.

  12. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum lead the hippocampal network during theta activity.

    PubMed

    Hangya, Balázs; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Szilágyi, Nóra; Freund, Tamás F; Varga, Viktor

    2009-06-24

    Information processing in the hippocampus critically relies on its reciprocal interaction with the medial septum (MS). Synchronization of the septo-hippocampal system was demonstrated during both major hippocampal activity states, the regular theta rhythm and the large amplitude irregular activity. Previous experimental and modeling data suggest that the MS provides rhythmic drive to the hippocampus, and hippocampo-septal feedback synchronizes septal pacemaker units. However, this view has recently been questioned based on the possibility of intrahippocampal theta genesis. Previously, we identified putative pacemaker neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) and/or the pacemaker hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation channel (HCN) in the MS. In this study, by analyzing the temporal relationship of activity between the PV/HCN-containing medial septal neurons and hippocampal local field potential, we aimed to uncover whether the sequence of events during theta formation supports the classic view of septal drive or the challenging theory of hippocampal pacing of theta. Importantly, by implementing a circular statistical method, a temporal lead of these septal neurons over the hippocampus was observed on the course of theta synchronization. Moreover, the activity of putative hippocampal interneurons also preceded hippocampal local field theta, but by a shorter time period compared with PV/HCN-containing septal neurons. Using the concept of mutual information, the action potential series of PV/HCN-containing neurons shared higher amount of information with hippocampal field oscillation than PV/HCN-immunonegative cells. Thus, a pacemaker neuron population of the MS leads hippocampal activity, presumably via the synchronization of hippocampal interneurons.

  13. De novo HAPLN1 expression hallmarks Wnt-induced stem cell and fibrogenic networks leading to aggressive human hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mebarki, Sihem; Désert, Romain; Sulpice, Laurent; Sicard, Marie; Desille, Mireille; Canal, Frédéric; Schneider, Hélène Dubois-Pot; Bergeat, Damien; Turlin, Bruno; Bellaud, Pascale; Lavergne, Elise; Guével, Rémy Le; Corlu, Anne; Perret, Christine; Coulouarn, Cédric; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    About 20% hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) display wild-type β-catenin, enhanced Wnt signaling, hepatocyte dedifferentiation and bad outcome, suggesting a specific impact of Wnt signals on HCC stem/progenitor cells. To study Wnt-specific molecular pathways, cell fates and clinical outcome, we fine-tuned Wnt/β-catenin signaling in liver progenitor cells, using the prototypical Wnt ligand Wnt3a. Cell biology assays and transcriptomic profiling were performed in HepaRG hepatic progenitors exposed to Wnt3a after β-catenin knockdown or Wnt inhibition with FZD8_CRD. Gene expression network, molecular pathology and survival analyses were performed on HCCs and matching non-tumor livers from 70 patients by real-time PCR and tissue micro-array-based immunohistochemistry. Wnt3a reprogrammed liver progenitors to replicating fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells displaying stem and invasive features. Invasion was inhibited by 30 nM FZD7 and FZD8 CRDs. Translation of these data to human HCCs revealed two tight gene networks associating cell surface Wnt signaling, stem/progenitor markers and mesenchymal commitment. Both networks were linked by Hyaluronan And Proteoglycan Link Protein 1 (HAPLN1), that appeared de novo in aggressive HCCs expressing cytoplasmic β-catenin and stem cell markers. HAPLN1 was independently associated with bad overall and disease-free outcome. In vitro, HAPLN1 was expressed de novo in EPCAM−/NCAM+ mesoderm-committed progenitors, upon spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition and de-differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells to liver progenitors. In these cells, HAPLN1 knockdown downregulated key markers of mesenchymal cells, such as Snail, LGR5, collagen IV and α-SMA. In conclusion, HAPLN1 reflects a signaling network leading to stemness, mesenchymal commitment and HCC progression. PMID:27191501

  14. Evaluation of national seismograph network detection capabilities: Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Barker, T.G.; Bennett, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    This final report presents detection thresholds, detection probabilities, and location error ellipse projections for the US National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without real-time cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations in the USNSN and other stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. The USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all of the eastern and central US at the magnitude 3.8 level. When real-time cooperative stations are used in conjunction with the USNSN, the network should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. The planned expansion of the USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2 to 0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for the USNSN should be significantly improved by addition of real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes in the eastern and central US depend strongly upon location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 square km in the central US and degrade to 200 square km or more offshore and to the south and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  15. Evaluation of National Seismograph Network detection capabilities. Annual report, July 1994--July 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Bennett, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    This first annual report presents detection thresholds and probabilities, and location error ellipse projects for the United States National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all the eastern and central US at magnitude 3.8 level. When cooperative stations are added, the network should be able to detect 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. Planned expansion of USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2-0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for USNSN can be improved by adding real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes depend strongly on location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 km{sup 2} in the central US and degrade to 200 km{sup 2} or more offshore and sosuth and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  17. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  18. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol.

    PubMed

    Liriano, Melissa L; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A; Murphy, Colin J; Lawton, Timothy J; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Therrien, Andrew J; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E Charles H

    2016-03-07

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  19. Extending natural hazard impacts: an assessment of landslide disruptions on a national road transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Disruptions to transportation networks by natural hazard events cause direct losses (e.g. by physical damage) and indirect socio-economic losses via travel delays and decreased transportation efficiency. The severity and spatial distribution of these losses varies according to user travel demands and which links, nodes or infrastructure assets are physically disrupted. Increasing transport network resilience, for example by targeted mitigation strategies, requires the identification of the critical network segments which if disrupted would incur undesirable or unacceptable socio-economic impacts. Here, these impacts are assessed on a national road transportation network by coupling hazard data with a transport network model. This process is illustrated using a case study of landslide hazards on the road network of Scotland. A set of possible landslide-prone road segments is generated using landslide susceptibility data. The results indicate that at least 152 road segments are susceptible to landslides, which could cause indirect economic losses exceeding £35 k for each day of closure. In addition, previous estimates for historic landslide events might be significant underestimates. For example, the estimated losses for the 2007 A83 ‘Rest and Be Thankful’ landslide are £80 k day-1, totalling £1.2 million over a 15 day closure, and are ˜60% greater than previous estimates. The spatial distribution of impact to road users is communicated in terms of ‘extended hazard impact footprints’. These footprints reveal previously unknown exposed communities and unanticipated spatial patterns of severe disruption. Beyond cost-benefit analyses for landslide mitigation efforts, the approach implemented is applicable to other natural hazards (e.g. flooding), combinations of hazards, or even other network disruption events.

  20. The USA National Phenology Network; taking the pulse of our planet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    People have tracked phenology for centuries and for the most practical reasons: it helped them know when to hunt and fish, when to plant and harvest crops, and when to navigate waterways. Now phenology is being used as a tool to assess climate change and its effects on both natural and modified ecosystems. How is the timing of events in plant and animal life cycles, like flowering or migration, responding to climate change? And how are those responses, in turn, affecting people and ecosystems? The USA National Phenology Network (the Network) is working to answer these questions for science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and their relationship to environmental change. The Network is a consortium of organizations and individuals that collect, share, and use phenology data, models, and related information to enable scientists, resource managers, and the public to adapt in response to changing climates and environments. In addition, the Network encourages people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology as a way to discover and explore the nature and pace of our dynamic world. The National Coordinating Office (NCO) of the Network is a resource center that facilitates and encourages widespread collection, integration, and sharing of phenology data and related information (for example, meteorological and hydrological data). The NCO develops and promotes standardized methods for field data collection and maintains several online user interfaces for data upload and download, as well as data exploration, visualization, and analysis. The NCO also facilitates basic and applied research related to phenology, the development of decision-support tools for resource managers and planners, and the design of educational and outreach materials

  1. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.

    2008-12-01

    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  2. Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between blood Pb (PbB) and a broad range of adverse health effects. The national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for Pb is set for air Pb (PbA) not PbB, to protect public health. Therefore, assessment of the association be...

  3. The USA National Phenology Network's Model for Collaborative Data Generation and Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemartin, A.; Lincicome, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Wilson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The Network was founded as an NSF-funded Research Coordination Network, for the purpose of fostering collaboration among scientists, policy-makers and the general public to address the challenges posed by global change and its impact on ecosystems and human health. With this mission in mind, the USA-NPN has developed an Information Management System (IMS) to facilitate collaboration and participatory data collection and digitization. The IMS includes components for data storage, such as the National Phenology Database, as well as a Drupal website for information-sharing and data visualization, and a Java application for collection of contemporary observational data. The National Phenology Database is designed to efficiently accommodate large quantities of phenology data and to be flexible to the changing needs of the network. The database allows for the collection, storage and output of phenology data from multiple sources (e.g., partner organizations, researchers and citizen observers), as well as integration with legacy data sets. Participants in the network can submit records (as Drupal content types) for publications, legacy data sets and phenology-related festivals. The USA-NPN’s contemporary phenology data collection effort, Nature’s Notebook also draws on the contributions of participants. Citizen scientists around the country submit data through this Java application (paired with the Drupal site through a shared login) on the life cycle stages of plants and animals in their yards and parks. The North American Bird Phenology Program, now a part of the USA-NPN, also relies on web-based crowdsourcing. Participants in this program are transcribing 6 million scanned paper cards that were collected by observers across the United States

  4. The national improvement partnership network: state-based partnerships that improve primary care quality.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Judith S; Norlin, Chuck; Gillespie, R J; Weissman, Mark; McGrath, Jane

    2013-01-01

    . Since 2008, IPs have offered credit toward Part 4 of Maintenance of Certification for participants in some of their projects. To date, IPs have focused on achieving improvements in care delivery through individual projects. Rigorous measurement and evaluation of their efforts and impact will be essential to understanding, spreading, and sustaining state/regional child health care QI programs. We describe the origins, evolution to date, and hopes for the future of these partnerships and the National Improvement Partnership Network (NIPN), which was established to support existing and nurture new IPs.

  5. Southwest Region Educational Computer Network. Final Report 1969-1972. A Technical Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, Charles H.; And Others

    Described herein are the activities of the Southwest Region Educational Computer Network (SRECN) which was established under funding from the National Science Foundation to provide, via a network, remote computing services to institutions lacking adequate facilities. The report details how SRECN sought to develop the teaching of computer science…

  6. Promising Partnership Practices, 2002: The 5th Annual Collection from Members of the National Network of Partnership Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.

    This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…

  7. Dustborne Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 μg/g (SE=0.13 μg/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors. PMID:16159634

  8. Characterizing job satisfaction and intent to leave among nationally registered emergency medical technicians: an analysis of the 2005 LEADS survey.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity G; Sanddal, Nels D; Wingrove, Gary; LaCroix, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to characterize job satisfaction with opportunities for advancement, job satisfaction with pay and benefits, and intent to leave the EMS profession among Nationally Registered EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics. A secondary data analysis was performed on the National Registry of EMTs Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study Project (LEADS) 2005 core survey. We used chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses to test for differences in job satisfaction with opportunities for advancement, job satisfaction with pay and benefits, and intent to leave the EMS profession across years of experience and work location. Among 11 measures of job satisfaction, NREMT-Basics and NREMT-Paramedics were least satisfied with opportunities for advancement and pay and benefits (67.8 and 55.2%, respectively). Nearly 6% of respondents reported intentions of leaving the profession within 12 months. In univariate analyses, job satisfaction with advancement opportunities varied across years of experience and work location. Job satisfaction with pay and benefits varied across years of experience and work location. The proportion reporting intentions of leaving the profession did not vary across the two independent variables of interest. In multivariable logistic regression, statistical differences observed in univariate analyses were attenuated to non-significance across all outcome models. Income, personal health, level of EMS certification, and type of EMS work were significant in several outcome models. EMS workforce research is at its infancy, thus our study adds to a limited but growing body of knowledge. In future and replicated research, one will need to consider different person and organizational variables in predicting different measures of job satisfaction among EMS personnel.

  9. Fielded ATM network for the Air National Guard Global Yankee Fort Drum exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Robert L.; Hague, Daniel; Maciag, Chester

    1996-06-01

    This paper will review the deployment, demonstration, and test of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network to support the Air National Guard `Global Yankee' field exercise held at Fort Drum, New York. The network provided forty five (45) megabit per second (mbps) ATM connections between the Air Operations Center (AOC) and Forward Operating Location (FOL) located at Fort Drum, the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center located in Syracuse, New York and Rome Laboratory located in Rome, New York. Connections were made with both fiber and free space equipment. The fiber connections used were part of the existing ATM New York Network (NYNet) between Rome Lab, SUNY Health Science Center and NYNEX Corporation. This network was extended to Watertown, New York by NYNEX to provide connectivity to Fort Drum. The free space links were provided by commercial DS-3 (45 mbps) radios, and 2 to 6 mbps Troposcatter Satellite Support Radios (TSSRs). This paper will also discuss significant digital Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence enhancements to the battlefield provided by the deployed ATM network. For example, videoconferencing and shared workspace capability was demonstrated over the AOC-to-FOL TSSR link, enabling remote intelligence briefings, pilot Battle Damage Assessment, and Search and Rescue coordination. Remote Medical Diagnostics videoconferencing with MRI high resolution digital imagery was demonstrated between the FOL, AOC, and SUNY Health Science Center. Finally, the network provided connectivity between the AOC and the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) radar's located at Griffiss Air Force BAse. The JSS data combined with the Rome Lab developed Radar Analysis Program provided AOC personnel with air picture areas of interest.

  10. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  11. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiring, S. M.; Lucido, J. M.; Winslow, L.; Ford, T.; Bijoy Baruah, P.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Strobel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is critical for accurate drought assessment and forecasting, identifying flood potential, climate modeling, estimation of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for reuse. Recognizing this need, the President's Climate Action Plan called for the creation of a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has completed a proof-of-concept pilot project. The pilot comprises both in-situ and assimilated soil moisture datasets. It focuses on providing real-time soil moisture data via standard web services to feed map-based visualization tools in order to meet the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The result of this pilot is a reference architecture that will inform the implementation of the national network.

  12. [The inter-university learning website: a national university network for online teaching of pathology].

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Ameisen, David; Boutonnat, Jean; Battistella, Maxime; Copie, Christiane; Garcia, Stéphane; Rigau, Valérie; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Terris, Benoit; Vergier, Béatrice; Wendum, Dominique; Bertheau, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Building online teaching materials is a highly time and energy consuming task for teachers of a single university. With the help of the Collège des pathologistes, we initiated a French national university network for building mutualized online teaching pathology cases, tests and other pedagogic resources. Nineteen French universities are associated to this project, initially funded by UNF3S (http://www.unf3s.org/). One national e-learning Moodle platform (http://virtual-slides.univ-paris7.fr/moodle/) contains texts, medias and URL pointing toward decentralized virtual slides. The Moodle interface has been explained to the teachers since september 2011 using web-based conferences with screen-sharing. The following contents have been created: 20 clinical cases, several tests with multiple choices and short answer questions, and gross examination videos. A survey with 16 teachers and students showed a 94 % satisfaction rate, most of the 16 participants being favorable to the development of e-learning, in parallel with other courses in classroom. These tools will be further developed for the different study levels of pathology. In conclusion, these tools offer very interesting perspectives for pathology teaching. The organization of a national inter-university network is a useful way to create and share numerous and good-quality pedagogic resources.

  13. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  14. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  15. From planning to practice: building the national network for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil. Methods The project consisted of a multicenter, cross-sectional study for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity including near-miss, in Brazil. Results Following the development of a conceptual framework, centers were selected for inclusion in the network, consensus meetings were held among the centers, an electronic data collection system was identified, specific software and hardware tools were developed, research material was prepared, and the implementation process was initiated and analyzed. Conclusion The conceptual framework developed for this network was based on the experience acquired in various studies carried out in the area over recent years and encompasses maternal and perinatal health. It is innovative especially in the context of a developing country. The implementation of the project represents the first step towards this planned management. The system online elaborated for this surveillance network may be used in further studies in reproductive and perinatal health. PMID:21549009

  16. Phylogenetic structure of European Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak correlates with national and international egg distribution network

    PubMed Central

    Inns, Thomas; Jombart, Thibaut; Ashton, Philip; Loman, Nicolas; Chatt, Carol; Messelhaeusser, Ute; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Simon, Sandra; Nikisins, Sergejs; Bernard, Helen; le Hello, Simon; Jourdan da-Silva, Nathalie; Kornschober, Christian; Mossong, Joel; Hawkey, Peter; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Grant, Kathie; Cleary, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis have long been associated with contaminated poultry and eggs. In the summer of 2014 a large multi-national outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b occurred with over 350 cases reported in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France and Luxembourg. Egg supply network investigation and microbiological sampling identified the source to be a Bavarian egg producer. As part of the international investigation into the outbreak, over 400 isolates were sequenced including isolates from cases, implicated UK premises and eggs from the suspected source producer. We were able to show a clear statistical correlation between the topology of the UK egg distribution network and the phylogenetic network of outbreak isolates. This correlation can most plausibly be explained by different parts of the egg distribution network being supplied by eggs solely from independent premises of the Bavarian egg producer (Company X). Microbiological sampling from the source premises, traceback information and information on the interventions carried out at the egg production premises all supported this conclusion. The level of insight into the outbreak epidemiology provided by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) would not have been possible using traditional microbial typing methods. PMID:28348865

  17. Large-scale structure of a nation-wide production network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Aoyama, H.

    2010-10-01

    Production in an economy is a set of firms’ activities as suppliers and customers; a firm buys goods from other firms, puts value added and sells products to others in a giant network of production. Empirical study is lacking despite the fact that the structure of the production network is important to understand and make models for many aspects of dynamics in economy. We study a nation-wide production network comprising a million firms and millions of supplier-customer links by using recent statistical methods developed in physics. We show in the empirical analysis scale-free degree distribution, disassortativity, correlation of degree to firm-size, and community structure having sectoral and regional modules. Since suppliers usually provide credit to their customers, who supply it to theirs in turn, each link is actually a creditor-debtor relationship. We also study chains of failures or bankruptcies that take place along those links in the network, and corresponding avalanche-size distribution.

  18. Phylogenetic structure of European Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak correlates with national and international egg distribution network.

    PubMed

    Dallman, Tim; Inns, Thomas; Jombart, Thibaut; Ashton, Philip; Loman, Nicolas; Chatt, Carol; Messelhaeusser, Ute; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Simon, Sandra; Nikisins, Sergejs; Bernard, Helen; le Hello, Simon; Jourdan da-Silva, Nathalie; Kornschober, Christian; Mossong, Joel; Hawkey, Peter; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Grant, Kathie; Cleary, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis have long been associated with contaminated poultry and eggs. In the summer of 2014 a large multi-national outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b occurred with over 350 cases reported in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France and Luxembourg. Egg supply network investigation and microbiological sampling identified the source to be a Bavarian egg producer. As part of the international investigation into the outbreak, over 400 isolates were sequenced including isolates from cases, implicated UK premises and eggs from the suspected source producer. We were able to show a clear statistical correlation between the topology of the UK egg distribution network and the phylogenetic network of outbreak isolates. This correlation can most plausibly be explained by different parts of the egg distribution network being supplied by eggs solely from independent premises of the Bavarian egg producer (Company X). Microbiological sampling from the source premises, traceback information and information on the interventions carried out at the egg production premises all supported this conclusion. The level of insight into the outbreak epidemiology provided by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) would not have been possible using traditional microbial typing methods.

  19. Network structures and their relevance to the policy cycle: a case study of The National Male Health Policy of Australia.

    PubMed

    Holden, Carol A; Lin, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    While focussing on influential actors within a policy network may provide insight into the shaping of policy, it fails to elucidate how the network itself may moderate the behaviours of actors when participating in the policy process. Applying Skok's (1995) structural-functional framework, this study explores whether network analysis provides an alternative analytical approach to explain how the broader structural features of the network may influence actors participating in different functional phases of the policy cycle. To illustrate the rationale for a network analysis approach to policy analysis, we introduce the 2010 Australian National Male Health Policy, as an illustrative case of a network of competing interests within the broader health policy domain. An analysis of the associated men's health network and the network structures that exist for different relational purposes identified a weak (low density) network, which lacked a hierarchical structure, and where levels of reciprocity between actors was low. Network characteristics changed depending on the relationship type between actors, highlighting the dynamic nature of networks and reflecting the different imperatives of the policy process. An understanding of network structures gained from the network analysis approach described in this study potentially provides policy-makers, and stakeholders, with an alternative tool to stakeholder analysis when considering engagement with the policy process.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  1. Disruption of Rhino Demography by Poachers May Lead to Population Declines in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sam M; Greaver, Cathy; Knight, Grant A; Knight, Mike H; Smit, Izak P J; Pienaar, Danie

    2015-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's rhinoceroses continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. When losses due to poaching exceed birth rates, declining rhino populations result. We used previously published estimates and growth rates for black rhinos (2008) and white rhinos (2010) together with known poaching trends at the time to predict population sizes and poaching rates in Kruger National Park, South Africa for 2013. Kruger is a stronghold for the south-eastern black rhino and southern white rhino. Counting rhinos on 878 blocks 3x3 km in size using helicopters, estimating availability bias and collating observer and detectability biases allowed estimates using the Jolly's estimator. The exponential escalation in number of rhinos poached per day appears to have slowed. The black rhino estimate of 414 individuals (95% confidence interval: 343-487) was lower than the predicted 835 individuals (95% CI: 754-956). The white rhino estimate of 8,968 individuals (95% CI: 8,394-9,564) overlapped with the predicted 9,417 individuals (95% CI: 7,698-11,183). Density- and rainfall-dependent responses in birth- and death rates of white rhinos provide opportunities to offset anticipated poaching effects through removals of rhinos from high density areas to increase birth and survival rates. Biological management of rhinos, however, need complimentary management of the poaching threat as present poaching trends predict detectable declines in white rhino abundances by 2018. Strategic responses such as anti-poaching that protect supply from illegal harvesting, reducing demand, and increasing supply commonly require crime network disruption as a first step complimented by providing options for alternative economies in areas abutting protected areas.

  2. Disruption of Rhino Demography by Poachers May Lead to Population Declines in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sam M.; Greaver, Cathy; Knight, Grant A.; Knight, Mike H.; Smit, Izak P. J.; Pienaar, Danie

    2015-01-01

    The onslaught on the World’s rhinoceroses continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. When losses due to poaching exceed birth rates, declining rhino populations result. We used previously published estimates and growth rates for black rhinos (2008) and white rhinos (2010) together with known poaching trends at the time to predict population sizes and poaching rates in Kruger National Park, South Africa for 2013. Kruger is a stronghold for the south-eastern black rhino and southern white rhino. Counting rhinos on 878 blocks 3x3 km in size using helicopters, estimating availability bias and collating observer and detectability biases allowed estimates using the Jolly’s estimator. The exponential escalation in number of rhinos poached per day appears to have slowed. The black rhino estimate of 414 individuals (95% confidence interval: 343-487) was lower than the predicted 835 individuals (95% CI: 754-956). The white rhino estimate of 8,968 individuals (95% CI: 8,394-9,564) overlapped with the predicted 9,417 individuals (95% CI: 7,698-11,183). Density- and rainfall-dependent responses in birth- and death rates of white rhinos provide opportunities to offset anticipated poaching effects through removals of rhinos from high density areas to increase birth and survival rates. Biological management of rhinos, however, need complimentary management of the poaching threat as present poaching trends predict detectable declines in white rhino abundances by 2018. Strategic responses such as anti-poaching that protect supply from illegal harvesting, reducing demand, and increasing supply commonly require crime network disruption as a first step complimented by providing options for alternative economies in areas abutting protected areas. PMID:26121681

  3. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  4. National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS): distributions and associations of lead, arsenic and volatile organic compounds in EPA region 5.

    PubMed

    Clayton, C A; Pellizzari, E D; Whitmore, R W; Perritt, R L; Quackenboss, J J

    1999-01-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 provides extensive exposure data on approximately 250 study participants selected via probability sampling. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained to aid in the understanding of relationships of the exposures to both contaminant sources and doses. Distributional parameters for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and four volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--benzene, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene--were estimated for each of the relevant media using weighted data analysis techniques. Inter-media associations were investigated through correlation analysis, and longitudinal correlations and models were used to investigate longitudinal patterns. Solid food appeared to be a major contributor to urine As levels, while Pb levels in household (HH) dust, personal air, and beverages all were significantly associated with blood Pb levels. Relatively high (>0.50) longitudinal correlations were observed for tap water Pb and As, as compared to only moderate longitudinal correlations for the personal air VOCs.

  5. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  6. Best Practices in Service Learning: Building a National Community College Network, 1994-1997. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gail; Barnett, Lynn

    As part of the Learn and Serve America Program of the Corporation for National Service, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has helped develop campus-based programs that have instigated a growing community college service learning network. Ten colleges, selected in a national competition for grants ranging from $2,000 to $12,000…

  7. 78 FR 42977 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network... Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq..., Atlantic Organization for Security, Brussels, BELGIUM; and Winthrop Management Services, McLean, VA,...

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF SAMPLERS FOR EPA'S NATIONAL PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NETWORK-PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM ATLANTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA bas established a national network at nearly 1100 sites to monitor PM2.5 mass for testing compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The objective of the field evaluation is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the...

  9. High-Performance Workforce. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preparing for the Demands of the New World Economy (Patrick J. O'Connor); (2) Connecting At-Risk Youth to the High-Performance Workforce (Patrick J. O'Connor); (3) Butler…

  10. 77 FR 34066 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 9, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  11. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301...

  12. 75 FR 45155 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 1, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  13. 77 FR 15394 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301...

  14. 75 FR 8116 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on January 11, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  15. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.; Quiring, S. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Baker, B.; Cosgrove, B.; Escobar, V. M.; Strobel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture data is critical for accurate drought prediction, flood forecasting, climate modeling, prediction of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for use. In recognition of these challenges, the President's Climate Action Plan articulated the need for a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response to this action plan, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has begun to develop a framework for this network and has instituted a proof-of-concept pilot study. This pilot is located in the south-central plains of the US, and will serve as a reference architecture for the requisite data systems and inform the design of the national network. The pilot comprises both in-situ and modeled soil moisture datasets (historical and real-time) and will serve the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The pilot will be implemented using a distributed network design in order to serve dispersed data in real-time directly from data providers. Standard service protocols will be used to enable future integration with external clients. The pilot network will additionally contain a catalog of data sets and web service endpoints, which will be used to broker web service calls. A mediation and aggregation service will then intelligently request, compile, and transform the distributed datasets from their native formats into a standardized output. This mediation framework allows data to be hosted and maintained locally by the data owners while simplifying access through a single service interface. These data services will then be used to create visualizations, for example, views of the current soil

  16. Markov Networks of Collateral Resistance: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Surveillance Results from Escherichia coli Isolates, 2004-2012

    PubMed Central

    Love, William J.; Zawack, Kelson A.; Booth, James G.; Grӧhn, Yrjo T.

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important component of public health. Antimicrobial drug use generates selective pressure that may lead to resistance against to the administered drug, and may also select for collateral resistances to other drugs. Analysis of AMR surveillance data has focused on resistance to individual drugs but joint distributions of resistance in bacterial populations are infrequently analyzed and reported. New methods are needed to characterize and communicate joint resistance distributions. Markov networks are a class of graphical models that define connections, or edges, between pairs of variables with non-zero partial correlations and are used here to describe AMR resistance relationships. The graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is used to estimate sparse Markov networks from AMR surveillance data. The method is demonstrated using a subset of Escherichia coli isolates collected by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2004 and 2012 which included AMR results for 16 drugs from 14418 isolates. Of the 119 possible unique edges, 33 unique edges were identified at least once during the study period and graphical density ranged from 16.2% to 24.8%. Two frequent dense subgraphs were noted, one containing the five β-lactam drugs and the other containing both sulfonamides, three aminoglycosides, and tetracycline. Density did not appear to change over time (p = 0.71). Unweighted modularity did not appear to change over time (p = 0.18), but a significant decreasing trend was noted in the modularity of the weighted networks (p < 0.005) indicating relationships between drugs of different classes tended to increase in strength and frequency over time compared to relationships between drugs of the same class. The current method provides a novel method to study the joint resistance distribution, but additional work is required to unite the underlying biological and genetic characteristics

  17. Design for mosquito abundance, diversity, and phenology sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, D.; Springer, Yuri P; Barker, C.M.; Barrera, R.; Blackmore, M.S.; Bradshaw, W.E.; Foley, D. H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Hayden, M. H.; Holzapfel, C. M.; Juliano, S. A.; Kramer, L. D.; LaDeau, S. L.; Livdahl, T. P.; Moore, C. G.; Nasci, R.S.; Reisen, W.K.; Savage, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) intends to monitor mosquito populations across its broad geographical range of sites because of their prevalence in food webs, sensitivity to abiotic factors and relevance for human health. We describe the design of mosquito population sampling in the context of NEON’s long term continental scale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design schedule, priorities and collection methods. Freely available NEON data and associated field and laboratory samples, will increase our understanding of how mosquito abundance, demography, diversity and phenology are responding to land use and climate change.

  18. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  19. Improved Seismic Acquisition System and Data Processing for the Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiali, L.; Marcocci, C.; Mele, F.; Piscini, A.

    2001-12-01

    A new system for acquiring and processing digital signals has been developed in the last few years at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The system makes extensive use of the internet communication protocol standards such as TCP and UDP which are used as the transport highway inside the Italian network, and possibly in a near future outside, to share or redirect data among processes. The Italian National Seismic Network has been working for about 18 years equipped with vertical short period seismometers and transmitting through analog lines, to the computer center in Rome. We are now concentrating our efforts on speeding the migration towards a fully digital network based on about 150 stations equipped with either broad band or 5 seconds sensors connected to the data center partly through wired digital communication and partly through satellite digital communication. The overall process is layered through intranet and/or internet. Every layer gathers data in a simple format and provides data in a processed format, ready to be distributed towards the next layer. The lowest level acquires seismic data (raw waveforms) coming from the remote stations. It handshakes, checks and sends data in LAN or WAN according to a distribution list where other machines with their programs are waiting for. At the next level there are the picking procedures, or "pickers", on a per instrument basis, looking for phases. A picker spreads phases, again through the LAN or WAN and according to a distribution list, to one or more waiting locating machines tuned to generate a seismic event. The event locating procedure itself, the higher level in this stack, can exchange information with other similar procedures. Such a layered and distributed structure with nearby targets allows other seismic networks to join the processing and data collection of the same ongoing event, creating a virtual network larger than the original one. At present we plan to cooperate with other

  20. [HIV infection. Diagnosis in the national network of laboratories in Chile].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Vera, L; Soto, G; Mora, J; Ramírez, E

    1991-11-01

    A national network including 114 blood banks and laboratories performs screening for HIV infection on approximately 250,000 blood donors a year. This represents 100% coverage of blood transfusions performed in Chile. Up to December 1990. 4956 samples had been sent to the National Reference Center for AIDS for supplementary studies. HIV infection was confirmed in 1465 (29.6%). A prior study covering the first semester of 1989 showed a 26.9% confirmation rate for HIV infection on 845 serum samples. Technical errors including sample contamination, poor cleaning, decreasing titers of controls and erratic criteria regarding the need for supplementary studies may explain the low confirmation rate reported in this study.

  1. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR WET DEPOSITION SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR THE NATIONAL TRENDS NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, LeRoy J.; Malo, Bernard A.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the National Trends Network is to delineate the major inorganic constituents in the wet deposition in the United States. The approach chosen to monitor the Nation's wet deposition is to install approximately 150 automatic sampling devices with at least one collector in each state. Samples are collected at one week intervals, removed from collectors, and transported to an analytical laboratory for chemical analysis. The quality assurance program has divided wet deposition monitoring into 5 parts: (1) Sampling site selection, (2) sampling device, (3) sample container, (4) sample handling, and (5) laboratory analysis. Each of these five components is being examined using existing designs or new designs. Each existing or proposed sampling site is visited and a criteria audit is performed.

  2. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  3. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of

  4. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the national atmospheric deposition program and the national trends network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Randolph B.; Schroder, LeRoy J.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na 2+, K +, SO 42- and Cl -1 in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contamination in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO 42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na -, K + and SO 42- and Cl - concentrations, and underestimates of H + concentrations.

  5. Results of external quality-assurance program for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network during 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    External quality assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN) was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985. The monitoring consisted of three primary programs: (1) an intersite comparison program designed to assess the precision and accuracy of onsite pH and specific conductance measurements made by NADP and NTN site operators; (2) a blind audit sample program designed to assess the effect of routine field handling on the precision and bias of NADP and NTN wet deposition data; and (3) an interlaboratory comparison program designed to compare analytical data from the laboratory processing NADP and NTN samples with data produced by other laboratories routinely analyzing wet deposition samples and to provide estimates of individual laboratory precision. An average of 94% of the site operators participated in the four voluntary intersite comparisons during 1985. A larger percentage of participating site operators met the accuracy goal for specific conductance measurements (average, 87%) than for pH measurements (average, 67%). Overall precision was dependent on the actual specific conductance of the test solution and independent of the pH of the test solution. Data for the blind audit sample program indicated slight positive biases resulting from routine field handling for all analytes except specific conductance. These biases were not large enough to be significant for most data users. Data for the blind audit sample program also indicated that decreases in hydrogen ion concentration were accompanied by decreases in specific conductance. Precision estimates derived from the blind audit sample program indicate that the major source of uncertainty in wet deposition data is the routine field handling that each wet deposition sample receives. Results of the interlaboratory comparison program were similar to results of previous years ' evaluations, indicating that the participating laboratories

  6. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geographical Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ SO42+ and Cl- in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contaminations in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na-, K+, SO42- and Cl- concentrations, and underestimates of H+ concentrations.

  7. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database: a multi-taxa, continental-scale dataset for scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of August 2012, participants in the USA-NPN national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program Nature's Notebook had contributed over 1.3 million observation records (encompassing four and three years of observations for plants and for animals, respectively). Data are freely available www.usanpn.org/results/data, and include FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. Quality assurance and quality control, and metadata data associated with field observations (e.g., effort and method reporting, site and organism condition) are also documented. Data are also available for exploration, visualization and preliminary analysis at www.usanpn.org/results/visualizations. Participants in Nature's Notebook, who include both professional and volunteer scientists, follow vetted protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring rather than "event" monitoring: when sampling, observers indicate the status of each phenophase (e.g., "breaking leaf buds" or "active individuals"). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (including estimation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and phenophase duration) and is especially well-suited for integrated multi-taxa monitoring. Further, protocols and a user interface to facilitate the description of development or abundance data (e.g., tree canopy development, animal abundance) create a robust ecological dataset. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing

  8. Mammal inventories for eight National Parks in the Southern Colorado Plateau Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Geluso, Keith; Haymond, Shauna; Valdez, Ernest W.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the Colorado Plateau has been the subject of many geological and biological explorations. J. W. Powell explored and mapped the canyon country of the Colorado River in 1869 (Powell 1961). C. H. Merriam, V. Bailey, M. Cary, and other employees of the Bureau of Biological Survey conducted biological explorations of the area in the late 1800s. In recent times, researchers such as S. D. Durrant (1952), Durrant and Robinson (1962), D. M. Armstrong (1972), J. S. Findley et al. (1975), D. F. Hoff meister (1986), and J. Fitzgerald et al. (1994) have made considerable contributions to our understanding of the fauna of the Colorado Plateau. Despite earlier efforts, biological details on many regions of the plateau have remained insufficiently explored. In an effort to gather valuable biological information, the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a nationwide program to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates on NPS lands (Stuart 2000). The U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Arid Lands Field Station became a cooperator on this effort in 2001, when we began mammalian inventories on five parks within the NPS Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN): Aztec Ruins National Monument (AZRU), El Morro National Monument (ELMO), Petroglyph National Monument (PETR), Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument (SAPU), and Yucca House National Monument (YUHO). Existing baseline data on mammalian occurrences in these parks varied from very sparse to moderate, with little information available for most parks. In most cases, information was insufficient to assess the status of species of local concern. A final report on inventory efforts on these five parks was submitted in February 2004 (Bogan et al. 2004). In 2003, biologists from the Arid Lands Field Station began work on three additional parks in the SCPN: Bandelier National Monument (BAND), Chaco Culture National Historical Park (CHCU), and El Malpaís National Monument (ELMA). The primary emphasis at

  9. Operation Outreach. National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational-Technical Education. Conference Proceedings (Denver, Colorado, July 9-13, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education.

    Proceedings are presented of the National Network for Curriculum Coordination Conference, which focused on coordinating within the Network and expanding services to vocational educators. The conference keynote address, by Marvin Feldman, was Futurism - A Technical Revolution. Other items included were (1) presentations on the National Network for…

  10. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002 the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network, funded by the National Science Foundation with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has worked to increase the understanding of the ocean and its relevance to society. The Network is currently comprised of twelve Centers located throughout the United States and a Central Coordinating Office. COSEE focuses on innovative activities that transform and broaden participation in the ocean science education enterprise. A key player in the national ocean literacy movement, COSEE’s objectives are to develop partnerships between ocean scientists and educators and foster communication and coordination among ocean science education programs nationwide. COSEE has grown into the nation's most comprehensive ocean science and education network with over 200 partners, including universities and research institutions, community colleges, school districts, informal science education institutions, and state/federal agencies. Each Center is a consortium of one or more ocean science research institutions, informal science education organizations, and formal education entities. The mission of the National COSEE Network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. Center activities include the development of catalytic partnerships among diverse institutions, the integration of ocean science research into high-quality educational materials, and the establishment of pathways that enable ocean scientists to interact with educators, students, and the public. In addition to the work and projects implemented locally and regionally by the Centers, Network-level efforts occur across Centers, such as the national promotion of Ocean Literacy Principals and encouragement of our nation’s youth to pursue ocean related areers. This presentation will offer several examples of how the National COSEE Network is playing an important and evolving role in

  11. Construction and development of IGP DMC of China National Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, J.; Lin, P.; Yao, Z.; Liang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003, CEA (China Earthquake Administration) commenced the construction of China Digital Seismological Observation Network. By the end of 2007, a new-generation digital seismological observation system had been established, which consists of 1 National Seismic Network, 32 regional seismic networks, 2 small-aperture seismic arrays, 6 volcano monitoring networks and 19 mobile seismic networks, as well as CENC (China Earthquake Network Center) DMC (Data Management Centre) and IGP (Institute of Geophysics) DMC. Since then, the seismological observation system of China has completely entered a digital time. For operational, data backup and data security considerations, the DMC at the Institute of Geophysics (IGP), CEA was established at the end of 2007. IGP DMC now receives and archives waveform data from more than 1000 permanent seismic stations around China in real-time. After the great Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, the real-time waveform data from 56 and 8 portable seismic stations deployed in the aftershock area are added to IGP DMC. The technical system of IGP DMC is designed to conduct data management, processing and service through the network of CEA. We developed and integrated a hardware system with high-performance servers, large-capacity disc arrays, tape library and other facilities, as well as software packages for real-time waveform data receiving, storage, quality control, processing and service. Considering the demands from researchers for large quantities of seismic event waveform data, IGP DMC adopts an innovative "user order" method to extract event waveform data. Users can specify seismic stations, epicenter distance and record length. In a short period of 3 years, IGP DMC has supplied about 350 Terabytes waveform data to over 200 researches of more than 40 academic institutions. According to incomplete statistics, over 40 papers have been published in professional journals, in which 30 papers were indexed by SCI. Now, IGP DMC has become an

  12. [Evaluation of the Malaria Evaluation Program in the national laboratory network in Colombia].

    PubMed

    García, Marisol; Mendoza, Nohora

    2002-06-01

    In 1995, the Parasitology Group--National Reference Laboratory--at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) started a national malaria diagnosis program with the Public Health Laboratory Network which included training, indirect quality control, external quality control, technical assistance, advisory, reference and counter-reference, together with an annual review of the program. The purpose of this study was to carry out a three year (1997-1999) analysis of the program. In the indirect quality control program, average positive and negative concordances of 98% and 97%, respectively, and a kappa index of 0.95 were obtained by the state public health laboratories. In the external quality control program, an average concordance of 74.2% was obtained with an 89.2% participation of the registered laboratories. At the municipal level, the indirect quality control had an average concordance of 91.4% in positivity, 92.5% concordance in negativity, and a kappa index of 0.84. On the other hand, indirect quality control has been scarcely implemented by the state public health laboratories in the municipalities under their jurisdiction. In general, the program shows a good performance, despite some economic and conflict-related difficulties in the country, because people responsible at all levels for the Malaria Program have permanently carried out all other activities of the network, either according to annual programming or upon request. However, it is important to improve its coverage and the participation in its activities.

  13. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  14. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (c) The terms used in this appendix are defined as follows: Annual monitoring network plan refers to... agency annual Monitoring Network Plan. If no primary monitor is designated, the Administrator will select... (or subsequent non-required Pb-TSP or Pb-PM10 data) are reported in “composite” form (i.e.,...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (c) The terms used in this appendix are defined as follows: Annual monitoring network plan refers to... agency annual Monitoring Network Plan. If no primary monitor is designated, the Administrator will select... (or subsequent non-required Pb-TSP or Pb-PM10 data) are reported in “composite” form (i.e.,...

  17. National Human Exposure Assessment Survey: analysis of exposure pathways and routes for arsenic and lead in EPA Region 5.

    PubMed

    Clayton, C A; Pellizzari, E D; Quackenboss, J J

    2002-01-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained for the study participants to aid in understanding of the relationships of exposures to both contaminant pathways and doses. Besides fulfilling the primary NHEXAS objectives, the NHEXAS data provided an opportunity to explore secondary usages, such as examining pathway to route of exposure relationships. A generic type of structural equation model was used to define the anticipated relationships among the various data types for both arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Since, by design, only a few participants provided data for all sample types, implementing this model required that some media concentrations (outdoor air and soil) be imputed for subjects with missing information by using measurements collected in the same geographic area and time period. The model, and associated pairwise correlations, generally revealed significant but weak associations among the concentrations, exposures, and doses; the strongest associations occurred for the various air measurements (indoor versus outdoor and personal). The generally weak associations were thought to be partly due to the absence of complete coverage of nonresidential environmental media and to nonsynchronization of relevant measurement times and integration periods of collection across the various sample types. In general, relationships between the NHEXAS questionnaire data and the various concentration, exposure, and body-burden measures were also weak. The model results and the modeling exercise suggest several ways for optimizing the design of future exposure assessment studies that are aimed at supporting structural modeling activities.

  18. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  19. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  20. Design of the National Trends Network for monitoring the chemistry of atmospheric precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.K.; Wilson, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (10 years minimum) of the chemistry of wet deposition will be conducted at National Trends Network (NTN) sites across the United States. Precipitation samples will be collected at sites that represent broad regional characteristics. Design of the NTN considered four basic elements during construction of a model to distribute 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 sites. The modeling oriented design was supplemented with guidance developed during the course of the site selection process. Ultimately, a network of 151 sites was proposed. The basic elements of the design are: (1) Assurance that all areas of the country are represented in the network on the basis of regional ecological properties (96 sites); (2) Placement of additional sites east of the Rocky Mountains to better define high deposition gradients (27 sites); (3) Placement of sites to assure that potentially sensitive regions are represented (15 sites); (4) Placement of sites to allow for other considerations, such as urban area effects (5 sites), intercomparison with Canada (3 sites), and apparent disparities in regional coverage (5 sites). Site selection stressed areas away from urban centers, large point sources, or ocean influences. Local factors, such as stable land ownership, nearby small emission sources (about 10 km), and close-by roads and fireplaces (about 0.5 km) were also considered. All proposed sites will be visited as part of the second phase of the study.

  1. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers.

  2. Study of IDC infrasound REB solutions using Egyptian National Seismic Network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Polich, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Infrasound is one of three waveform technologies which are part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT consists of 337 monitoring stations and laboratories world-wide. These facilities include 45 infrasound stations, installed world-wide and transmitting data to the International Data Centre (IDC). Since early 2010, the IDC began routine automatic and interactive processing of infrasound data; the detected and located events are systematically included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). Infrasound events are frequently characterized by a small number of infrasound phase associations. This poses a challenge to obtaining high-confidence event solutions during routine processing of infrasound data. This study focuses on six infragenic events from the REB, occurring between January 2011 and December 2014, which were thoroughly analyzed at the IDC. The selected events were characteristically seismo-acoustic, and corroborated by seismic recordings of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) operated by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG). Utilizing this additional local network data of ENSN enables sharper assessment of the IDC published event solutions. Notably, the events were recorded within Egypt and regional surroundings where infrasound waves were generated. The events were detected by IMS infrasound stations located up to 7000 kilometers away. Additional analyses, beyond the six infragenic events from the REB, will also consider some valid infragenic events that fall short of stringent REB Event Definition Criteria. The events will primarily consist of two defining stations with lower-confidence event solutions. The selected events, when confirmed by the seismic observations at ENSN, provide a unique dataset for evaluating IDC infrasound event solutions. Further objectives of the study seek to measure the performance of the IMS network for

  3. SURFRAD-A National Surface Radiation Budget Network for Atmospheric Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, John A.; Deluisi, John J.; Long, Charles N.

    2000-10-01

    A surface radiation budget observing network (SURFRAD) has been established for the United States to support satellite retrieval validation, modeling, and climate, hydrology, and weather research. The primary measurements are the downwelling and upwelling components of broadband solar and thermal infrared irradiance. A hallmark of the network is the measurement and computation of ancillary parameters important to the transmission of radiation. SURFRAD commenced operation in 1995. Presently, it is made up of six stations in diverse climates, including the moist subtropical environment of the U.S. southeast, the cool and dry northern plains, and the hot and arid desert southwest. Network operation involves a rigorous regimen of frequent calibration, quality assurance, and data quality control. An efficient supporting infrastructure has been created to gather, check, and disseminate the basic data expeditiously. Quality controlled daily processed data files from each station are usually available via the Internet within a day of real time. Data from SURFRAD have been used to validate measurements from NASA's Earth Observing System series of satellites, satellite-based retrievals of surface erythematogenic radiation, the national ultraviolet index, and real-time National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) products. It has also been used for carbon sequestration studies, to check radiative transfer codes in various physical models, for basic research and instruction at universities, climate research, and for many other applications. Two stations now have atmospheric energy flux and soil heat flux instrumentation, making them full surface energy balance sites. It is hoped that eventually all SURFRAD stations will have this capability.

  4. Federal Register Notices for National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) Lead and Copper Rule Working Group (LCRWG) Meetings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NDWAC Lead and Copper Rule Working Group was formed to provide advice to EPA in considering Long-Term Revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule. This page contains the notices announcing the group meetings.

  5. The Climate Voices Speakers Network: Collaborating with Nontraditional, National Networks to Develop Climate Literacy on a Local Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Schmidt, C.; Herrin, S.

    2015-12-01

    How can we leverage the successes of the numerous organizations in the climate change communication arena to build momentum rather than reinvent the wheel? Over the past two years, Climate Voices (climatevoices.org) has established a network of nearly 400 speakers and established partnerships to scale programs that address climate change communication and community engagement. In this presentation, we will present how we have identified and fostered win-win partnerships with organizations, such as GreenFaith Interfaith Partners for the Environment and Rotary International, to reach the broader general public. We will also share how, by drawing on the resources from the National Climate Assessment and the expertise of our own community, we developed and provided our speakers the tools to provide their audiences access to basic climate science - contributing to each audience's ability to understand local impacts, make informed decisions, and gain the confidence to engage in solutions-based actions in response to climate change. We will also discuss how we have created webinar coaching presentations by speakers who aren't climate scientists- and why we have chosen to do so.

  6. United Nations and Military Interventions: Factors for Success and Ability to Lead in Comparison with an International Coalition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Violations of Human Rights by the Congolese National Armed Forces in Goma and Kanyabayonga in October and November 2008, published 7 September 2009, http...Looting and Grave Violations of Human Rights by the Congolese National Armed Forces in Goma and Kanyabayonga in October and November 2008, published 7...Rights Office Following Widespread Looting and Grave Violations of Human Rights by the Congolese National Armed Forces in Goma and Kanyabayonga in

  7. National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) future role in US carbon cycling and budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a National Science Foundation investment designed to observe the impacts of large-scale environment changes on the nation's ecosystems for 30 years with rigorous consistency. NEON does this through the construction (and operations) of new physical infrastructure and data infrastructure distributed across the North American Continent. This includes 47 terrestrial and 32 aquatic sites. Key to its design is its ability to provide ecosystem-scale carbon measurements of carbon stores, fluxes, processes—and the means to scale them from the local-to regional scales via remote sensed aircraft. NEON design NEON will be collecting these carbon data as a facility and providing openly providing them. NEON will not preform any high-level synthesis, rather the carbon data is an open resource for research, private and public communities, alike. Overall, these data are also harmonized with other international carbon-based infrastructures to facilitate cross-continental understanding and global carbon syntheses. Products, engagement and harmonization of data to facilitate syntheses will be discussed.

  8. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network during 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilles, M.A.; Gordon, J.D.; Schroder, L.J.; Paulin, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey used four programs in 1991 to provide external quality assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). An intersite-comparison program was used to evaluate onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples on analyte determinations and an estimated precision of analyte values and concentrations were evaluated in the blind-audit program. Differences between analytical results and an estimate of the analytical precision of four laboratories routinely measuring wet deposition were determined by an interlaboratory-comparison program. Overall precision estimates for the precipitation-monitoring system were determined for selected sites by a collocated-sampler program. Results of the intersite-comparison program indicated that 93 and 86 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for pH determinations during the two intersite-comparison studies completed during 1991. The results also indicated that 96 and 97 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for specific-conductance determinations during the two 1991 studies. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping, determined in the blind-audit program indicated significant positive bias (a=.O 1) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate. Significant negative bias (or=.01) was determined for hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Only ammonium determinations were not biased. A Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there were no significant (*3t=.01) differences in analytical results from the four laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program. Results from the collocated-sampler program indicated the median relative error for cation concentration and deposition exceeded eight percent at most sites, whereas the median relative error for sample volume

  9. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  10. What is the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)? Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-09-03

    Overview of the National Geothermal Data System, a distributed, interoperable network of data repositories and state geological service providers from across the U.S. and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers.

  11. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  12. Watershed boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds (Co-op) program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release contains geo-referenced digital data and associated attributes of watershed boundaries for 113 NWQN and 3 Co-op sites. Two sites, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA"; 07381590, and "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA"; 07381600, are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. Watershed boundaries were delineated for the portion of the watersheds between "Red River near Alexandria, LA"; 07355500 and "Atchafalaya River at Melville, LA"; 07381495 to the two distributary sites respectively. Drainage area was undetermined for these two distributary sites because the main stream channel outflows into many smaller channels so that streamflow is no longer relative to the watershed area. NWQN watershed boundaries were derived from the Watershed Boundary Dataset-12-digit hydrologic units (WBD-12). The development of the WBD-12 was a coordinated effort between the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS), the USGS, and the Environmental

  13. Agricultural pesticide use estimates for the USGS National Water Quality Network, 1992-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides estimated agricultural pesticide use for 83 NWQN watersheds for 110 pesticide compounds from 1992-2014. Pesticide use was not estimated for the 30 wadeable stream reference sites, or from 3 large river coastal sites (07381590, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA3"; 07381600, "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA2"; or 15565477, "Yukon River at Pilot Station, AK"). Use was not estimated for reference sites because pesticides are not monitored at reference water-quality sampling sites. Pesticide use data are not available for Alaska and thus no data is available for the Yukon River site. The other two coastal sites (07381590 and 07381600) where use was not estimated are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. This data release provides use estimates for the same pesticide parent compounds sampled in water and analyzed by USGS, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), Schedule 2437: http://wwwnwql.cr.usgs.gov/USGS/catalog/index.cfm. Pesticide use data are not available for

  14. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  15. Tick-, mosquito-, and rodent-borne parasite sampling designs for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, Yuri P; Hoekman, David; Johnson, Pieter TJ; Duffy, Paul A; Hufft, Rebecca A.; Barnett, David T.; Allan, Brian F.; Amman, Brian R; Barker, Christopher M; Barrera, Roberto; Beard, Charles B; Beati, Lorenza; Begon, Mike; Blackmore, Mark S; Bradshaw, William E; Brisson, Dustin; Calisher, Charles H.; Childs, James E; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Douglass, Richard J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Foley, Desmond H; Foley, Janet E; Gaff, Holly D; Gardner, Scott L; Ginsberg, Howard; Glass, Gregory E; Hamer, Sarah A; Hayden, Mary H; Hjelle, Brian; Holzapfel, Christina M; Juliano, Steven A.; Kramer, Laura D.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Livdahl, Todd P.; Mills, James N.; Moore, Chester G.; Morand, Serge; Nasci, Roger S.; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Piesman, Joseph; Reisen, William K.; Savage, Harry M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Swei, Andrea; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are increasingly recognized as significant drivers of ecological and evolutionary change in natural ecosystems. Concurrently, transmission of infectious agents among human, livestock, and wildlife populations represents a growing threat to veterinary and human health. In light of these trends and the scarcity of long-term time series data on infection rates among vectors and reservoirs, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect measurements and samples of a suite of tick-, mosquito-, and rodent-borne parasites through a continental-scale surveillance program. Here, we describe the sampling designs for these efforts, highlighting sampling priorities, field and analytical methods, and the data as well as archived samples to be made available to the research community. Insights generated by this sampling will advance current understanding of and ability to predict changes in infection and disease dynamics in novel, interdisciplinary, and collaborative ways.

  16. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  17. Performance of solar collector arrays and collector controllers in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.

    1984-07-01

    The accumulated National Solar Data Network (NSDN) data has been analyzed with regard to collector and collector control performance. The collector data is presented in the ASHRAE format as efficiency vs. operating points, (Tinlet - Tambient)/insolation. Collector controls were analyzed by determining the losses caused by control problems common to the NSDN solar systems. This study of collectors and collector controls has several objectives which are: (1) to compare actual and predicted collector performance; (2) to determine which generic types of components performed well and which performed poorly; (3) to determine why predicted performance was not achieved in the field; (4) to determine the types and causes of failures; (5) to determine the reliability weaknesses; and (6) to determine whether there are any component integration problems.

  18. Landbird trends in national parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network, 2005-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, James F.; Holmgren, Amanda L.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Boetsch, John R.; Huff, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    National parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) can fulfill vital roles as refuges for bird species dependent on late-successional forest conditions and as reference sites for assessing the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on bird populations throughout the larger Pacific Northwest region. Additionally, long-term monitoring of landbirds throughout the NCCN provides information that can inform decisions about important management issues in the parks, including visitor impacts, fire management, and the effects of introduced species. In 2005, the NCCN began implementing a network-wide Landbird Monitoring Project as part of the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program. In this report, we discuss 8-year trends (2005–12) of bird populations in the NCCN, based on a sampling framework of point counts established in three large wilderness parks (Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks), 7-year trends at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (sampled in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012), and 5-year trends at San Juan Islands National Historical Park (sampled in 2007, 2009, and 2011). Our analysis encompasses a fairly short time span for this long-term monitoring program. The first 2 years of the time series (2005 and 2006) were implemented as part of a limited pilot study that included only a small subset of the transects. The subsequent 6 years (2007–12) represent just a single cycle through 5 years of alternating panels of transects in the large parks, with the first of five alternating panels revisited for the first time in 2012. Of 204 transects that comprise the six sampling panels in the large parks, only 68 (one-third) have thus been eligible for revisit surveys (34 during every year after 2005, and an additional 34 only in 2012) and can contribute to our current trend estimates. We therefore initiated the current analysis with a primary goal of testing our analytical procedures rather than detecting trends that might be strong

  19. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  20. A Framework for Action To Make Private Housing Lead-Safe: A Proposal To Focus National Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    This framework sets forth detailed proposals that are crucial to eliminating the epidemic of childhood lead poisoning in the United States. Private housing units can and must be made lead-safe, and this framework is designed to achieve that goal through specific requirements for property owners, a workable schedule, and mechanisms that reinforce…

  1. SREB States Remain on Top in the Number of Teachers Achieving National Board Certification. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jenny, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    How is it known if states are making progress toward having a qualified teacher in every classroom? One indicator of progress in the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB) "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education is when: "Licensure and certification focus on performance and lead to sufficient numbers of teachers with content…

  2. Recent Advances in the National Seismographic Network of Chile: GPS as Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Major plans were devised in 2007 for the establishment of a new National Seismographic Network for Chile comprising the existing academic instruments together with additional instruments to be acquired. In the meantime, a network of 10 observatories has been implemented by IRIS jointly with Chilean efforts. The Government approved funding in several stages allowing the acquisition of 65 broad-band stations, 297 strong motion instruments and about 130 dual-frequency devices. The 65 broad-band sites also house accelerometers and GPS devices transmitting in robust real-time links to a Central Data Processing in Santiago. Of the 297 strong motion instruments, distributed along the country with concentrated nests in large cities, it is envisioned that only a percentage will have robust communication capabilities; the rest will be connected with 3G (or 4G) means utilizing local providers. Another suit of 60-70 GPS devices will be installed along the coast, around 40-50 km from each other covering the Chilean portion of the Nazca-South America plate interaction, considered as the most seismically active segment of the country. International collaboration efforts to include real-time transmission and processing of the GPS data will complement the existing automatic seismic system. It is expected that this complementary design will not only allow rapid preliminary estimation of hypocentral parameters but also rupture location and extension as well as displacement distribution on the causative fault, essential ingredients to assess the tsunamigenic potential of large thrust-type earthquakes in Chile.

  3. The National Ecological Observatory Network's Automated Terrestrial Measurements: Data Flow and Quality Control Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Loescher, H. W.; Berukoff, S. J.; Ayres, E.; Luo, H.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network's Fundamental Instrument Unit (NEON-FIU) is responsible for making automated terrestrial observations at 60 different sites across the continent. FIU will provide data on key local physical, climate and chemical forcings, as well as the biotic responses (CO2, H2O and energy exchanges). The sheer volume of data that will be generated far exceeds that of any other ecological network or agency, (i.e., > 45 Tb/year from 10's of thousands of remotely deployed sensors). We address the question of how to develop and implement a large ecological observatory that can accommodate such a large volume of data while maintaining high quality. Here, we describe our quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program to produce quality data while leveraging cyber infrastructure tools and optimizing technician time. Results focus on novel approaches that advance the principles and dataflows used historically (DOE ARM, AmeriFlux, USDA ARS, OK Mesonet) to new state-of-the-art functionality. These automated and semi-automated approaches are also used to inform automated problem tracking to efficiently deploy field. The overarching philosophy relies on attaining the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational time, while efficiently optimizing the effort needed to produce quality data products. NEON will define its own standards for QA/QC maintenance by building upon these existing frameworks. Our preliminary results address the challenges associated with automated implementation of sensor command/control, plausibility testing, despiking, and data verification of FIU observations.

  4. SANDS: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. PMID:18434256

  5. Meteorology and hydrology in Yosemite National Park: A sensor network application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, J.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Over half of California's water supply comes from high elevations in the snowmelt-dominated Sierra Nevada. Natural climate fluctuations, global warming, and the growing needs of water consumers demand intelligent management of this water resource. This requires a comprehensive monitoring system across and within the Sierra Nevada. Unfortunately, because of severe terrain and limited access, few measurements exist. Thus, meteorological and hydrologic processes are not well understood at high altitudes. However, new sensor and wireless communication technologies are beginning to provide sensor packages designed for low maintenance operation, low power consumption and unobtrusive footprints. A prototype network of meteorological and hydrological sensors has been deployed in Yosemite National Park, traversing elevation zones from 1,200 to 3,700 m. Communication techniques must be tailored to suit each location, resulting in a hybrid network of radio, cell-phone, land-line, and satellite transmissions. Results are showing how, in some years, snowmelt may occur quite uniformly over the Sierra, while in others it varies with elevation. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.

  6. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  7. Nitrogen impacts on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrys, P. A.; Stevens, C. J.; Smart, S. M.; Maskell, L. C.; Walker, K. J.; Preston, C. D.; Crowe, A.; Rowe, E.; Gowing, D. J.; Emmett, B. A.

    2011-07-01

    Large areas of the United Kingdom currently have nitrogen (N) deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads), and are predicted to continue to do so. Previous studies have shown that this excess N can be very damaging to semi-natural ecosystems. However, such studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, possibly missing the risk that increased deposition can have on individual plant species. To address this gap in knowledge, we used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain: the vascular plant database and the Botanical Society of the British Isles local change network to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to nitrogen in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. Species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels.

  8. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  9. The National Ecological Observatory Network's Atmospheric and Terrestrial Instrumentation: Quality Control Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Luo, H.; Ayres, E.; Metzger, S. R.; Loescher, H. W.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network's Fundamental Instrument Unit (NEON-FIU) is responsible for making automated terrestrial observations at 60 different sites across the continent. FIU will provide data on key local physical, chemical, and climate forcing, as well as associated biotic responses (CO2, H2O, and energy exchanges). The sheer volume of data that will be generated far exceeds that of any other observatory network or agency, (i.e., > 45 Tb/year from 10's of thousands of remotely deployed sensors). We address the question of how to develop and implement a large ecological observatory that can accommodate such a large volume of data while maintaining high quality. Here, we describe our quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program to produce quality data while leveraging cyber infrastructure tools and optimizing technician time. Results focus on novel approaches that advance the quality control techniques that have been historically employed in other networks (DOE-ARM, AmeriFlux, USDA ARS, OK Mesonet) to new state-of-the-art functionality. These automated and semi-automated approaches are also used to inform automated problem tracking to efficiently deploy field staff. Ultimately, NEON will define its own standards for QA/QC and maintenance by building upon these existing frameworks. The overarching philosophy relies on attaining the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational time, while efficiently optimizing the effort needed to produce quality data products. Our preliminary results address the challenges associated with automated implementation of sensor command/control, plausibility testing, despiking, and data verification of FIU observations.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  13. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

  14. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for “National Drug File – Reference Terminology” Chemical Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File – Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT’s Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.’s DDI knowledgebase. PMID:26958234

  15. Implications of full compliance with the computed tomography scanning recommendations of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines for the management of head injury.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jacques; Beard, Diana; Smith, Richard; Gray, Sarah; Robertson, Colin E; Dunn, Laurence T

    2007-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted to examine clinical practices in the management of head-injured patients preinception and postinception of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines. Comparison was made between the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on their indications for computed tomography scanning. Information was available on 2827 adult patients. Two hundred and thirty-two patients satisfied one or more Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria for computed tomography scanning. Four hundred and seventy-eight patients fulfilled one or more National Institute for Clinical Excellence criteria for scanning. No patient with Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network or National Institute for Clinical Excellence indications for computed tomography scanning and who was not scanned, subsequently required neurosurgical treatment for a complication related to their injury. Full compliance with the scanning recommendations in the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines will require a significant increase in scanning resource and is unlikely to lead to the identification of a significant additional number of patients with intracranial lesions requiring neurosurgical intervention.

  16. Treatment Programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Wendt, William W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Forman, Robert; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Arfken, Cynthia; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Sindelar, Jody; Edmundson, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs and university-based research centers collaborate to test emerging therapies for alcohol and drug disorders in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Programs participating in the CTN completed organizational (n = 106 of 112; 95% response rate) and treatment unit surveys (n = 348 of 384; 91% response rate) to describe the levels of care, ancillary services, patient demographics, patient drug use and co-occurring conditions. Analyses describe the corporations participating in the CTN and provide an exploratory assessment of variation in treatment philosophies. A diversity of treatment centers participate in the CTN; not for profit organizations with a primary mission of treating alcohol and drug disorders dominate. Compared to N-SSATS (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services), programs located in medical settings are over-represented and centers that are mental health clinics are under-represented. Outpatient, methadone, long-term residential and inpatient treatment units differed on patients served and services proved. Larger programs with higher counselor caseloads in residential settings reported more social model characteristics. Programs with higher social model scores were more likely to offer self-help meetings, vocational services and specialized services for women. Conversely, programs with accreditation had less social model influence. The CTN is an ambitious effort to engage community-based treatment organizations into research and more fully integrate research and practice. PMID:17875368

  17. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  18. Incorporating Animals in Phenological Assessments: USA National Phenology Network Methods to Observe Animal Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Rushing, A. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Many assessments of phenology, particularly those operating at large scales, focus on the phenology of plants, in part because of the relevance of plants in cycles of leaf greening and browning that are visible from satellite-based remote sensing, and because plants contribute significantly to global and regional biogeochemical cycles. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), a consortium of individuals, agencies, and organizations, promotes integrated assessments of both plant and animal phenology. The network is currently developing standard methods to add animal phenology to existing assessments of plant phenology. The first phase will of the standard methods will be implemented online in spring 2010. The methods for observing animals will be similar to the standard methods for making on-the-ground observations of plants—observers will be asked to monitor a fixed location regularly throughout the year. During each visit, observers will answer a series of “yes-no” questions that address the phenological state of the species of interest: Is the species present? Is it mating? Is it feeding? And so on. We are currently testing this method in several national parks in the northeastern United States, including Acadia National Park and the Appalachian Trail. By collecting new observations of this sort for a range of animals—amphibians, birds, fish, insects, mammals, and reptiles—we will greatly increase the ability of scientists and natural resource managers to understand how temporal relationships among these species and the plants on which they depend may be changing. To bolster the data available, we are collaborating with existing monitoring programs to develop common monitoring techniques, data sharing technologies, and visualizations. We are also beginning to collect legacy datasets, such as one from North American Bird Phenology Program that includes 90 years of observations of bird migration times from across the continent. We believe that

  19. Hydrologic science, the USGS, and national observatory networks in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M.; Hirsch, R.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrologic research requires long-term monitoring and investigation of fundamental processes that govern the movement of water and constituents in the atmosphere and on the earth's surface. Numerous multiyear investigations have advanced our knowledge by using watershed-scale studies to characterize and quantify fluxes of water and constituents. Historically, most of these studies have been conducted by researchers in narrow subsets of scientific disciplines, and have been focused on small, undisturbed watersheds. As the U.S. population surpasses 300 million in 2004, hydrologic-process understanding must be expanded to include larger scale, anthropogenically disturbed environments. These types of studies present significant challenges to our scientific understanding because of factors such as: 1) the great number of human-derived constituents and contaminants in our Nation's water, many previously unknown or unmeasurable; 2) the complexities of rivers and aquifers that transcend ecologic, climatologic, and political boundaries; 3) the lack of stationarity in hydrologic and climatologic trends; and 4) the need for a multidisciplinary approach involving scientists with varied expertise. The future of field-based hydrologic science requires a combination of large-scale hydrologic monitoring and investigation that crosses the traditional interfaces of scientific discipline, as well as land-use, political, and geographic boundaries. Federal, academic, and other researchers will need to collaborate. Federal agencies such as the USGS have a record of conducting and publishing detailed scientific investigations that contribute to our scientific knowledge. Equally important, since the 19th century, the USGS and other Federal agencies have collected, archived, and provided publicly available, high-quality, internally-consistent, long-term data sets. The USGS has a history of collaboration with national observation networks such as the LTER and IRIS, and embraces future

  20. Precision and bias of selected analytes reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network, 1983; and January 1980 through September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Blind-audit samples with known analyte concentrations have been prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program 's Central Analytical Laboratory. The difference between the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network reported analyte concentrations and known analyte concentrations have been calculated, and the bias has been determined. Calcium, magnesium , sodium, and chloride were biased at the 99-percent confidence limit; potassium and sulfate were unbiased at the 99-percent confidence limit, for 1983 results. Relative-percent differences between the measured and known analyte concentration for calcium , magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate have been calculated for 1983. The median relative percent difference for calcium was 17.0; magnesium was 6.4; sodium was 10.8; potassium was 6.4; chloride was 17.2; and sulfate was -5.3. These relative percent differences should be used to correct the 1983 data before user-analysis of the data. Variances have been calculated for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate determinations. These variances should be applicable to natural-sample analyte concentrations reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network for calendar year 1983. (USGS)

  1. Relationship between blood cadmium, lead, and serum thyroid measures in US adults - the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that both cadmium (Cd) and lead have potent endocrine disrupting activity. However, studies on whether these heavy metals disrupt thyroid system in humans, especially in general populations with low levels of exposure, are sparse. The study analyzed 6,231 participants aged 20 and older with measurements from 2007-2010 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to investigate whether whole blood Cd and lead level are associated with serum thyroid hormones measures. Our study suggests that thyroid function may be disrupted by both Cd and lead exposures in the general population and the specific roles of Cd and lead exposure on thyroid axis may differ by sex. However, the mechanisms by which these heavy metals may disrupt thyroid system function in general population needs to be further investigated.

  2. Evaluation of the Experimental CAI Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Martin L.; And Others

    An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing CAI learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…

  3. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary G., Comp.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the science education programs and materials in the National Diffusion Network (NDN). These programs and materials are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the…

  4. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. National Diffusion Network.

    The National Diffusion Network (NDN) is a federally funded system that makes exemplary educational programs available for use by schools, colleges, and other institutions. This publication contains information describing the science education programs currently in the NDN, along with procedural information on how to access these programs. The…

  5. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Mary Lewis, Comp.

    These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in the classroom. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the training and materials associated with installing one of these programs in schools. Information about the National Diffusion Network (NDN) is…

  6. Science Education Programs That work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary G., Comp.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the science education programs in the National Diffusion Network (NDN). These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the training and materials…

  7. Taking Their Show on the Road: Becky Hebert & Siobhan Champ-Blackwell--National Network of Libraries of Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    They're two very different women with the same mission: outreach to medically underserved populations. Both work for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. Becky Hebert (left) covers the Southeast/Atlantic region, and Siobhan Champ-Blackwell, the mid-continental region. They spend much of their lives on the road, exhibiting at minority…

  8. National High-Performance Computing and Networking Act. Report To Accompany S. 343, Senate, 102d Congess, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    The purpose of the bill (S. 343), as reported by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, is to establish a federal commitment to the advancement of high-performance computing, improve interagency planning and coordination of federal high-performance computing and networking activities, authorize a national high-speed computer…

  9. Basic Skills--Language Arts/Writing: Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices (A Collection from the National Diffusion Network).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This booklet presents descriptions of 31 successful basic skills language arts/writing programs for prekindergarten through grade 12, collected from school districts nationwide by the National Diffusion Network. Information provided for each program includes: (1) program name and brief description; (2) audience focus (noting grade and ability…

  10. Options for the Development of a Voluntary Network of Participants in the National Environmental Data Referral Service. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXIMA Corp., Silver Spring, MD.

    Building on the findings of a survey of potential users and a descriptive review of five existing information networks, the present study represents an attempt to characterize several options for a voluntary confederation of participants in operating the National Environmental Data Referral Services (NEDRES) being developed by the Assessment and…

  11. Computational Models of Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions Lead to Improved Efficacy in the Performance of Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Alvarellos-González, Alberto; Pazos, Alejandro; Porto-Pazos, Ana B.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of astrocytes, one part of the glial system, for information processing in the brain has recently been demonstrated. Regarding information processing in multilayer connectionist systems, it has been shown that systems which include artificial neurons and astrocytes (Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks) have well-known advantages over identical systems including only artificial neurons. Since the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is unknown, we have investigated, using computational models, different astrocyte-neuron interactions for information processing; different neuron-glia algorithms have been implemented for training and validation of multilayer Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks oriented toward classification problem resolution. The results of the tests performed suggest that all the algorithms modelling astrocyte-induced synaptic potentiation improved artificial neural network performance, but their efficacy depended on the complexity of the problem. PMID:22649480

  12. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  13. Boundary networks and Rochester’s “smart” lead law: The use of multidisciplinary information in a collaborative policy process

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith

    2013-01-01

    The Rochester, New York Coalition to Prevent Lead Poisoning formed in 2001 with the goal of eliminating childhood lead poisoning by 2010. The Coalition recruited diverse community stakeholders into a collaborative process. The Coalition was committed to using the best available science. The Coalition successfully infused the debate about a new lead poisoning law with local data, national analyses, and the latest medical research. We argue that this was facilitated by a “boundary network” of individuals that provided technical input throughout the process. As a result of the Coalition’s advocacy, in 2005 the Rochester City Council unanimously passed an ordinance that has been hailed as one of the nation’s “smartest” lead laws. Many communities are looking to Rochester’s new lead ordinance as a model. Both the process and outcome of this case provide valuable lessons for collaborative efforts to promote scientifically sound local environmental health policy. PMID:20943475

  14. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  15. Feasibility study of a nation-wide Early Warning System: the application of the EEW software PRESTo on the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Brondi, Piero; Colombelli, Simona; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Marcucci, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. The leading experience of the operational early warning system implemented by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed the effectiveness of a combined onsite and network-based approach to rapidly broadcast the rapid warning after a potential damaging earthquake. At the nation-wide scale, the Japanese system makes use of real-time data streamed by the extremely dense accelerograph array (about 1000 seismic instruments) deployed across Japan. With more than 750 accelerometric stations installed over all the active seismic zones, target cities and strategic infrastructures, Italy has the potential for a nation-wide early warning system, although the communication network and data sharing must be expanded and improved. A significant number of these stations are nodes of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network) managed by the Italian national emergency management department (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, DPC), whose data are used for emergency response services. In the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the implementation of the EEW software PRESTo earthquake early warning platforms on the Italian accelerometric network (RAN) PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning. The system processes the live accelerometric streams from the stations of a seismic network to promptly provide probabilistic and evolutionary estimates of location and magnitude of detected earthquakes while they are occurring, as well as

  16. Leading from the Heart: The Passion To Make a Difference. Leadership Stories Told by Kellogg National Fellowship Program Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Roger H., Ed.

    This document presents the personal narratives of 19 participants in the National Fellowship/Leadership program. In their narratives, the Kellogg fellows recount their experiences developing leadership knowledge, skills, and competencies while addressing human, societal, and community issues. The following papers are included: "Preface"…

  17. External quality assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2013–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2016-07-05

    The Mercury Deposition Network programs include the system blank program and an interlaboratory comparison program. System blank results indicated that maximum total mercury contamination concentrations in samples were less than the third percentile of all Mercury Deposition Network sample concentrations. The Mercury Analytical Laboratory produced chemical concentration results with low bias and variability compared with other domestic and international laboratories that support atmospheric-deposition monitoring.

  18. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  19. The Plant Phenology Monitoring Design for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Jones, Katherine D.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Diez, Jeffrey M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Hufft, Rebecca A.; Jones, Matthew O.; Mazer, Susan J.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Moore, David J. P.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Phenology is an integrative science that comprises the study of recurring biological activities or events. In an era of rapidly changing climate, the relationship between the timing of those events and environmental cues such as temperature, snowmelt, water availability, or day length are of particular interest. This article provides an overview of the observer-based plant phenology sampling conducted by the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), the resulting data, and the rationale behind the design. Trained technicians will conduct regular in situ observations of plant phenology at all terrestrial NEON sites for the 30-yr life of the observatory. Standardized and coordinated data across the network of sites can be used to quantify the direction and magnitude of the relationships between phenology and environmental forcings, as well as the degree to which these relationships vary among sites, among species, among phenophases, and through time. Vegetation at NEON sites will also be monitored with tower-based cameras, satellite remote sensing, and annual high-resolution airborne remote sensing. Ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate and improve satellite-derived phenometrics. NEON's phenology monitoring design is complementary to existing phenology research efforts and citizen science initiatives throughout the world and will produce interoperable data. By collocating plant phenology observations with a suite of additional meteorological, biophysical, and ecological measurements (e.g., climate, carbon flux, plant productivity, population dynamics of consumers) at 47 terrestrial sites, the NEON design will enable continental-scale inference about the status, trends, causes, and ecological consequences of phenological change.

  20. The plant phenology monitoring design for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elmendorf, Sarah C; Jones, Katherine D; Cook, Benjamin I.; Diez, Jeffrey M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Hufft, Rebecca A.; Jones, Matthew O.; Mazer, Susan J.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Moore, David J. P.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Phenology is an integrative science that comprises the study of recurring biological activities or events. In an era of rapidly changing climate, the relationship between the timing of those events and environmental cues such as temperature, snowmelt, water availability or day length are of particular interest. This article provides an overview of the plant phenology sampling which will be conducted by the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network NEON, the resulting data, and the rationale behind the design. Trained technicians will conduct regular in situ observations of plant phenology at all terrestrial NEON sites for the 30-year life of the observatory. Standardized and coordinated data across the network of sites can be used to quantify the direction and magnitude of the relationships between phenology and environmental forcings, as well as the degree to which these relationships vary among sites, among species, among phenophases, and through time. Vegetation at NEON sites will also be monitored with tower-based cameras, satellite remote sensing and annual high-resolution airborne remote sensing. Ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate and improve satellite-derived phenometrics. NEON’s phenology monitoring design is complementary to existing phenology research efforts and citizen science initiatives throughout the world and will produce interoperable data. By collocating plant phenology observations with a suite of additional meteorological, biophysical and ecological measurements (e.g., climate, carbon flux, plant productivity, population dynamics of consumers) at 47 terrestrial sites, the NEON design will enable continentalscale inference about the status, trends, causes and ecological consequences of phenological change.

  1. Renewal of K-NET (National Strong-motion Observation Network of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Aoi, S.; Adachi, S.

    2004-12-01

    The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operates K-NET (Kyoshin Network), the national strong-motion observation network, which evenly covers the whole of Japan at intervals of 25 km on average. K-NET was constructed after the Hyogoken-Nambu (Kobe) earthquake in January 1995, and began operation in June 1996. Thus, eight years have passed since K-NET started, and large amounts of strong-motion records have been obtained. As technology has progressed and new technologies have become available, NIED has developed a new K-NET with improved functionality. New seismographs have been installed at 443 observatories mainly in southwestern Japan where there is a risk of strong-motion due to the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes. The new system went into operation in June 2004, although seismographs have still to be replaced in other areas. The new seismograph (K-NET02) consists of a sensor module, a measurement module and a communication module. A UPS, a GPS antenna and a dial-up router are also installed together with a K-NET02. A triaxial accelerometer, FBA-ES-DECK (Kinemetrics Inc.) is built into the sensor module. The measurement module functions as a conventional strong-motion seismograph for high-precision observation. The communication module can perform sophisticated processes, such as calculation of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) seismic intensity, continuous recording of data and near real-time data transmission. It connects to the Data Management Center (DMC) using an ISDN line. In case of a power failure, the measurement module can control the power supply to the router and the communication module to conserve battery power. One of the main features of K-NET02 is a function for processing JMA seismic intensity. K-NET02 functions as a proper seismic intensity meter that complies with the official requirements of JMA, although the old strong-motion seismograph (K-NET95) does not calculate seismic intensity. Another

  2. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control or source water treatment requirements for lead or copper and may issue an order establishing federal treatment requirements for a public water system pursuant to § 141.82 (d) and (f) and § 141.83(b... source water treatment determinations in a substantial number of cases or in cases affecting...

  3. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control or source water treatment requirements for lead or copper and may issue an order establishing federal treatment requirements for a public water system pursuant to § 141.82 (d) and (f) and § 141.83(b... source water treatment determinations in a substantial number of cases or in cases affecting...

  4. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control or source water treatment requirements for lead or copper and may issue an order establishing federal treatment requirements for a public water system pursuant to § 141.82 (d) and (f) and § 141.83(b... source water treatment determinations in a substantial number of cases or in cases affecting...

  5. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control or source water treatment requirements for lead or copper and may issue an order establishing federal treatment requirements for a public water system pursuant to § 141.82 (d) and (f) and § 141.83(b... source water treatment determinations in a substantial number of cases or in cases affecting...

  6. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control or source water treatment requirements for lead or copper and may issue an order establishing federal treatment requirements for a public water system pursuant to § 141.82 (d) and (f) and § 141.83(b... source water treatment determinations in a substantial number of cases or in cases affecting...

  7. Trend Analysis for Groundwater Quality at Different Depths for National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soo Jae; Yoon, Heesung; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2015-04-01

    Continuous groundwater monitoring is necessary to investigate the changes of groundwater quality with time, and trend analysis using a statistical method can be used to evaluate if the changes are significant. While groundwater quality is typically monitored and evaluated at one depth, in many cases groundwater quality can be different with depths; thus it is required that monitoring and assessment of trends of groundwater quality should be performed at different depths. In this study, we carried out trend analysis for groundwater quality data of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea to investigate the changes of groundwater quality between 2007 and 2013. The monitoring network has wells with different depths at each site, of which screens are located at about 10 m, 30 m, and 80 m. We analyzed three of the groundwater quality parameters that have sufficient time series data: pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and chloride ion. Sen's test, a non-parametric statistical method for trend analysis, was used to determine the linear trend of groundwater quality data. The trend analyses were conducted at different confidence levels (i.e., at 70, 80, 90, 95, and 99 % confidence levels). The results of groundwater monitoring and trend analysis at each location were compared with groundwater quality management standards and were classified to establish a new groundwater quality management framework of Korea. The results were further plotted in a regional scale to identify whether the trends, if any, can be grouped regionally. The results showed that wells with significant increasing or decreasing trends are far less than wells with no trends, and chloride ion has more wells with significant trends compared to pH and nitrate-nitrogen. The trends were more or less affected by local characteristics rather than reflecting a regional trend. The number of wells with trends decreased as the confidence level increased as expected, indicating that it is necessary to set an

  8. Ionosphere Threat Model Investigations by Using Turkish National Permanent GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köroǧlu, Meltem; Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Ozan

    2016-07-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) signal realibity may decrease significantly due to the variable electron density structure of ionosphere. In the literature, ionospheric disturbance is modeled as a linear semi-definite wave which has width, gradient and a constant velocity. To provide precise positioning, Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) are used. GBAS collects all measurements from GPS network receivers and computes an integrity level for the measurement by comparing the network GPS receivers measurements with the threat models of ionosphere. Threat models are computed according to ionosphere gradient characteristics. Gradient is defined as the difference of slant delays between the receivers. Slant delays are estimated from the STEC (Slant Total Electron Content) values of the ionosphere that is given by the line integral of the electron density between the receiver and GPS satellite. STEC can be estimated over Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals by using IONOLAB-STEC and IONOLAB-BIAS algorithms. Since most of the ionospheric disturbance observed locally, threat models for the GBAS systems must be extracted as locally. In this study, an automated ionosphere gradient estimation algorithm was developed by using Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN-Active) data for year 2011. The GPS receivers are grouped within 150 km radius. For each region, for each day and for each satellite all STEC values are estimated by using IONOLAB-STEC and IONOLAB-BIAS softwares (www.ionolab.org). In the gradient estimation, station-pair method is used. Statistical properties of the valid gradients are extracted as tables for each region, day and satellite. By observing the histograms of the maximum gradients and standard deviations of the gradients with respect to the elevation angle for each day, the anomalies and disturbances of the ionosphere can be detected. It is observed that, maximum gradient estimates are less than 40 mm/km and maximum standard

  9. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Kéfi, Sonia; Miele, Vincent; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities' response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., "multiplex networks"), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full "entangled bank" of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions.

  10. Location Performance and Detection Threshold of the Spanish National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Badal, José; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Baskoutas, Ioannis; Özel, Nurcan M.

    2013-11-01

    Spain is a low-to-moderate seismicity area with relatively low seismic hazard. However, several strong shallow earthquakes have shaken the country causing casualties and extensive damage. Regional seismicity is monitored and surveyed by means of the Spanish National Seismic Network, maintenance and control of which are entrusted to the Instituto Geográfico Nacional. This array currently comprises 120 seismic stations distributed throughout Spanish territory (mainland and islands). Basically, we are interested in checking the noise conditions, reliability, and seismic detection capability of the Spanish network by analyzing the background noise level affecting the array stations, errors in hypocentral location, and detection threshold, which provides knowledge about network performance. It also enables testing of the suitability of the velocity model used in the routine process of earthquake location. To perform this study we use a method that relies on P and S wave travel times, which are computed by simulation of seismic rays from virtual seismic sources placed at the nodes of a regular grid covering the study area. Given the characteristics of the seismicity of Spain, we drew maps for M L magnitudes 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0, at a focal depth of 10 km and a confidence level 95 %. The results relate to the number of stations involved in the hypocentral location process, how these stations are distributed spatially, and the uncertainties of focal data (errors in origin time, longitude, latitude, and depth). To assess the extent to which principal seismogenic areas are well monitored by the network, we estimated the average error in the location of a seismic source from the semiaxes of the ellipsoid of confidence by calculating the radius of the equivalent sphere. Finally, the detection threshold was determined as the magnitude of the smallest seismic event detected at least by four stations. The northwest of the peninsula, the Pyrenees, especially the westernmost segment

  11. Long term monitoring of mountain sites in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A.; Berukoff, S. J.; Buur, H.; DeNicholas, J.; Denslow, M.; Kampe, T. U.; Roehm, C. L.; Stewart, M.; Taylor, J. R.; Tazik, D.

    2013-12-01

    Currently under construction, the nation's first continental-scale ecological observatory, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will quantify the impacts of climate change, land use, and biological invasions by collecting instrumental and observational data for 30 years at 106 aquatic and terrestrial sites across the U.S., including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sites have been strategically selected to represent a range of vegetation, landforms, climates, and land uses. Several are located in high elevation areas, including three terrestrial and two aquatic sites in the central Rocky Mountains situated along a transect from the Great Basin in the west to the Colorado Plateau in the east. In the Intermountain West, dust resulting from urban and agricultural land use is transported over long distances. When deposited on the snowpack in the mountains, it alters the surface albedo, affecting snowmelt timing and altering local and regional feedbacks to climate and impacting water quality of streams. In addition, nitrogen compounds produced in the densely settled Front Range corridor of Colorado can be recirculated back to the mountains, affecting the local biogeochemistry and biodiversity. Standardized measurements of key climate, atmospheric, soil, organismal, and aquatic variables will allow for comparison of responses to dust and nitrogen deposition. In addition, other environmental changes between sites both along the Great Basin-central Rocky Mountains-Colorado Plateau transect and within the observatory as a whole can be evaluated. NEON is applying Systems Engineering, a discipline that uses a requirements-based approach to scope, design, build and manage complex systems throughout their lifecycle, as a critical component of the observatory to ensure standardization across sites. In this talk, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of applying Systems Engineering to an ecological observatory, utilizing the science and technical

  12. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated four external quality-assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) in 1995 and 1996: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the interlaboratory- comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assessed the precision and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. The analytical bias introduced during routine handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples and precision of analyte values was estimated using a blind-audit program. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to evaluate differences between analytical results and to estimate the analytical precision of five North American laboratories that routinely analyzed wet deposition. A collocated-sampler program estimated the precision of the overall precipitation collection and analysis system from initial sample collection through final storage of the data. Results of two intersite-comparison studies completed in 1995 indicated 94.6 and 94.4 percent of the onsite pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.2 and 98.3 percent of the specific-conductance determinations were within the established limits. The percentages of onsite determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1996 were slightly less for both pH and specific-conductance than in 1995. In 1996, 93.2 and 87.5 percent of onsite pH determinations met the accuracy goals, whereas the percentage of onsite specific-conductance measurements that met the goals was 93.9 and 94.9 percent.The blind audit program utilizes a paired sample design to evaluate the effects of routine sample handling, processing and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The portion of the blind audit sample subject to all of the normal onsite handling and processing steps of a regular weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket

  13. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lindholm, Sandy J.

    2003-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) during 1997 through 1999: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field- audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assesses the accuracy of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. In two 1997 intersite-comparison studies, 83.7 and 85.8 percent of the pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.3 and 92.4 percent of the specific-conductance determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The percentage of pH and specific-conductance determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1998 were, for the most part, higher than in 1997. In two 1998 studies, 90.9 and 90.3 percent of the pH determinations met the accuracy goals compared to 94.7 and 96.0 percent of the specific- conductance measurements meeting the accuracy goals. In one 1999 intersite-comparison study, 89.5 percent and 99.4 percent of pH and specific- conductance determinations, respectively, met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the analytical bias and precision of weekly precipitation samples. A portion of the blind-audit sample subject to the normal onsite handling and processing of a weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket portion, whereas the portion receiving only minimal handling is referred to as the bottle portion. Positive bias in regard to blind-audit results indicates that the bucket portion has a higher concentration than the bottle portion. The paired t-test for the 1997 through 1999 blind- audit data indicates that routine sample handling, processing, and shipping introduced a positive bias (a=0.05) for calcium and chloride and a negative bias (cz=0.05) for

  14. Can the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) data help resolve the controversy over low blood lead levels and neuropsychological development in children?

    PubMed

    Stone, Brice M; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2003-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) was designed to provide national estimates of the health and nutritional status of the United States population aged 2 months and above. A Youth data subset includes individuals from ages 2 months to 16 years totaling 13,944 individuals. Lanphear, Dietrich, Auinger, and Cox [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Reports, Public Health Report 2000, Vol. 115, p. 521] examined these data and concluded that deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations of less than 5microg/dl. Attempts to replicate and extend these findings reveal serious shortcomings in the NHANES III data that center around missing data, odd distributions of blood lead levels as well as cognitive and academic scores, and potential inaccuracies in the data collection itself. A review of these issues is presented along with a series of empirical analyses of the data under multiple sets of assumptions leading to the conclusion that the NHANES III data are inherently inadequate for use in addressing neurodevelopmental issues. Policy issues and scientific issues related to cognitive and other neurodevelopmental phenomena should not be considered on the basis of the NHANES III Youth dataset.

  15. The U.S. national nanotechnology infrastructure network and support of photonics research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2006-04-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research and development at the nano-scale, and particularly for photonics, is the availability of infrastructure that allows easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements, other exploratory directions of interest, and building of assemblies that utilize techniques from multiple disciplines. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometers and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex mix of knowledge that are derived from other research areas and tools that are demanding in skills and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is funded by the National Science Foundation and is a partnership of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure resources. Particularly relevant to photonics is the ability to combine optical quality materials and fabrication techniques with ultra-sensitive characterization and application to biology, fluidics, and problems of interest in optical and electronic communication. Integration to the smallest length scales through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost is essential to successful university research and industrial innovation. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron

  16. Assessing phytoplankton realized niches using a French national phytoplankton monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Fariñas, Tania; Bacher, Cédric; Soudant, Dominique; Belin, Catherine; Barillé, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Relating environmental factors to species occurrence is a fundamental step in a better understanding of the community structure, the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations and how species may respond to environmental changes. In this paper, we used phytoplankton occurrence data, from a French national phytoplankton monitoring network, and environmental variables with the aim of characterizing the realized ecological niches of phytoplankton groups. We selected 35 phytoplankton taxa representing the most important taxa in terms of occurrence frequency and abundance along the French coast of the eastern English Channel, the Southern Bight of the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. We show that environmental variables such as nutrient concentration, water temperature, irradiance and turbidity can be considered key factors controlling phytoplankton dynamics and influencing the community structure. By using a statistical framework based on an ordination technique the community structure was analyzed and interpreted in terms of niche overlap, marginality and tolerance. The most marginal taxon was Dactyliosolen and the most tolerant was Skeletonema. Non-marginal taxonomic units could be generalist and specialist, while marginal taxa were rather specialist. Specialist and marginal taxa globally showed lower values of overlap.

  17. Motivational incentives research in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy M; Peirce, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review both main findings and secondary analyses from studies of abstinence incentives conducted in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Previous research has supported the efficacy of tangible incentives provided contingent on evidence of recent drug abstinence. CTN conducted the first multisite effectiveness trial of this novel intervention. Study participants were stimulant abusers (N = 803) participating in treatment at 14 clinical sites and randomly assigned to treatment as usual with or without a prize draw incentive program. Study participants could earn up to $400 over 3 months for submission of drug-free urine and breath (BAL) specimens. Three-month retention was significantly improved by incentives offered to psychosocial counseling clients (50% incentive vs. 35% control retained), whereas ongoing stimulant drug use was significantly reduced in methadone maintenance clients (54.4% incentive vs. 38.7% control samples testing stimulant-negative). In both settings, duration of continuous abstinence achieved was improved in the incentive condition. These studies support effectiveness of one abstinence incentive intervention and highlight the different outcomes that can be expected with application in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial counseling treatment settings. Secondary analyses have shown the importance of early treatment positive versus negative urine screens in moderating the outcome of abstinence incentives and have explored both safety and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Implications for the use of motivational incentive methods in clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Estimated variability of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network measurements using collocated samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, G.A.; Gay, D.A.; Brunette, R.C.; Sweet, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) provides long-term, quality-assured records of mercury in wet deposition in the USA and Canada. Interpretation of spatial and temporal trends in the MDN data requires quantification of the variability of the MDN measurements. Variability is quantified for MDN data from collocated samplers at MDN sites in two states, one in Illinois and one in Washington. Median absolute differences in the collocated sampler data for total mercury concentration are approximately 11% of the median mercury concentration for all valid 1999-2004 MDN data. Median absolute differences are between 3.0% and 14% of the median MDN value for collector catch (sample volume) and between 6.0% and 15% of the median MDN value for mercury wet deposition. The overall measurement errors are sufficiently low to resolve between NADP/MDN measurements by ??2 ng??l-1 and ??2 ????m-2?? year-1, which are the contour intervals used to display the data on NADP isopleths maps for concentration and deposition, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  19. Ground detection of trans-ionospheric pulse pairs by stations in the National Lightning Detection Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuelsdorf, R. S.; Casler, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Franz, R.

    Trans-Ionospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs), as detected by the Blackbeard instrument on board the ALEXIS satellite, correlate with signals that the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) classifies as “cloud” lightning with a positive signal polarity (+IC). Correlation is only found for +IC pulses occurring in the 10 ms interval prior to TIPP occurrence. Apart from this single peak, there is no general change in lightning rates around TIPP time. Correlation between TIPPs and +IC strokes is statistically significant with 99.94% confidence. The amplitudes of +IC pulses that are associated with TTPPs are indistinguishable from the amplitudes of pulses that are not. The rise time of +IC pulses correlating with TIPPs, however, does appear to be longer than the noncorrelating +IC pulses, the median value being about 3 times greater than all other +IC pulses. By assuming TIPPs to be generated close to the detecting ground station, we can use the pulse separation time to calculate the source heights for the ground reflection model. The calculated height of TIPPs is consistent with a cloud source.

  20. Communicating immunization science: the genesis and evolution of the National Network for Immunization Information.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Willett, Kristen L; Kreps, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    For 10 years, the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii) has pursued its goal to "provide the public, health professionals, policy makers, and the media with up-to-date, scientifically valid information related to immunizations to help them understand the issues and to make informed decisions." This investigation provides a critical evaluation of the strategic communication planning and implementation of NNii from conception to present day. The study uses a case study methodology, developing a systematic analysis of organizational documents, the media environment, and in-depth interviews by applying Weick's model of organizing as an interpretive framework. Iterative data analysis included open coding, axial coding, and thematic saturation. Themes were compared with phases of strategic communication and present study propositions. Major themes identified included the organization's informative nature, funding credibility, nonbranding, reflective evaluation, collaborative partnerships, and media strategy. NNii meets the requirements of requisite variety, nonsummativity, and organizational flexibility proposed by Weick's model of organizing. However, a lack of systematic evaluation of organization goals prevents it from adapting communication tactics and strategies. In addition, the authors recommend that NNii, while maintaining its informative nature, adopt persuasive strategies to attract and retain the attention of its target audiences.

  1. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water-quality monitoring networks (WQN) on CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national stream water-quality monitoring networks, the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN), are now available in a two CD-ROM set. These data on CD-ROM are collectively referred to as WQN, water-quality networks. Data from these networks have been used at the national, regional, and local levels to estimate the rates of chemical flux from watersheds, quantify changes in stream water quality for periods during the past 30 years, and investigate relations between water quality and streamflow as well as the relations of water quality to pollution sources and various physical characteristics of watersheds. The networks include 679 monitoring stations in watersheds that represent diverse climatic, physiographic, and cultural characteristics. The HBN includes 63 stations in relatively small, minimally disturbed basins ranging in size from 2 to 2,000 square miles with a median drainage basin size of 57 square miles. NASQAN includes 618 stations in larger, more culturally-influenced drainage basins ranging in size from one square mile to 1.2 million square miles with a median drainage basin size of about 4,000 square miles. The CD-ROMs contain data for 63 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water (122 total constituents including analyses of dissolved and water suspended-sediment samples) collected during more than 60,000 site visits. These data approximately span the periods 1962-95 for HBN and 1973-95 for NASQAN. The data reflect sampling over a wide range of streamflow conditions and the use of relatively consistent sampling and analytical methods. The CD-ROMs provide ancillary information and data-retrieval tools to allow the national network data to be properly and efficiently used. Ancillary information includes the following: descriptions of the network objectives and history, characteristics of the network stations and water-quality data, historical

  2. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities’ response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., “multiplex networks”), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full “entangled bank” of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions. PMID:27487303

  3. Engage the Public in Phenology Monitoring: Lessons Learned from the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Lebuhn, G.; Miller-Rushing, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is a recently established network that brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. Though a handful of observers participated in the USA-NPN monitoring program in 2008, 2009 was the first truly operational year for the program. With a goal of 100,000 observers for this nationwide effort, we are working to engage participants both directly and through established organizations and agencies. The first year of operational monitoring and program advertisement has yielded many insights that are shaping how we move forward. In this presentation, we will highlight some of our most prominent “lessons learned” from our experience engaging participants, mainly through partnerships with organizations and agencies. One successful partnership that the USA-NPN established in 2009 was with the Great Sunflower Project, a citizen science effort focused on tracking bee activity. By piggy-backing on this established program, we were able to invite tens of thousands of self-selected individuals to learn about plant phenology and to contribute to the program. A benefit to the Great Sunflower Project was that monitoring phenology of their sunflowers gave observers something to do while waiting for the plant to attract bees. Observers’ experiences, data, and comments from the 2009 season are yielding insights into how this partnership can be strengthened and USA-NPN and GSP goals can more effectively be met. A second partnership initiated in 2009 was with the US National Park Service (NPS). Partnering with federal and state agencies offers great opportunities for data collection and education. In return, agencies stand to gain information that can directly influence management decisions. However, such efforts necessitate careful planning and execution. Together the USA-NPN and NPS drafted

  4. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: forging a partnership between research knowledge and community practice

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Sparenborg, Steven; Liu, David; Straus, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has faced many challenges over its first eleven years. This review explores some of these challenges and the paths the CTN took to meet these challenges, including: designing clinical trials that reflect the CTN’s mission and changing public health needs, finding the synergies in the varied expertise of clinical treatment providers and academic researchers, promoting evidence-based practices and expanding the Network into mainstream medical practices to reach a broader patient population. Included in this exploration are specific examples from CTN clinical trials. PMID:24474852

  5. Announcement: 20th Anniversary of PulseNet: the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-06-24

    PulseNet is celebrating 20 years of public health achievements in transforming the way foodborne disease outbreaks are detected and investigated. PulseNet is a national surveillance network of federal, state, and local public health laboratories that work together to detect foodborne disease outbreaks by connecting DNA fingerprints of bacteria that cause illness (1). The network facilitates the early identification of common sources of foodborne outbreaks and helps regulatory agencies identify areas where implementation of new measures are likely to improve the safety of the food supply.

  6. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    PubMed

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  7. A Social Network Analysis of the National Materials Competency at Naval Air Systems Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    management. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Social Network Analysis, Knowledge Flow, Intellectual Capital , Organization Management, Networks, Survey...19 E. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL .......................................................................21...its history and purpose; the integral role of social capital, intellectual capital , and knowledge flow in high organizational performance; the

  8. Fiscal Year 2017 National Environmental Information Exchange Network Grant Solicitation Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Exchange Network Grant Program provides funding for projects that develop the Network and enable timely, on-demand access to environmental data through innovative technologies, improved support systems, and expanded collaboration using shared tools and

  9. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  10. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  11. Physical Activity and Blood Lead Concentration in Korea: Study Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Rhie, Jeongbae; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity normally has a positive influence on health, however it can be detrimental in the presence of air pollution. Lead, a heavy metal with established adverse health effects, is a major air pollutant. We evaluated the correlation between blood lead concentration and physical activity using data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after dividing participants according to whether they were in the top 25% in the distribution of blood lead concentration (i.e., ≥ 2.76 µg/dL), with physical activity level as an independent variable and adjusting for factors such as age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, region, and occupation. The high physical activity group had greater odds of having a blood lead concentration higher than 2.76 µg/dL (odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51) compared to the low physical activity group. Furthermore, blood lead concentration is correlated with increasing physical activity.

  12. Is local selection so widespread in river organisms? Fractal geometry of river networks leads to high bias in outlier detection.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Yoan; Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Secondi, Jean; Fleurant, Cyril; Lemaire, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Identifying local adaptation is crucial in conservation biology to define ecotypes and establish management guidelines. Local adaptation is often inferred from the detection of loci showing a high differentiation between populations, the so-called FST outliers. Methods of detection of loci under selection are reputed to be robust in most spatial population models. However, using simulations we showed that FST outlier tests provided a high rate of false-positives (up to 60%) in fractal environments such as river networks. Surprisingly, the number of sampled demes was correlated with parameters of population genetic structure, such as the variance of FST s, and hence strongly influenced the rate of outliers. This unappreciated property of river networks therefore needs to be accounted for in genetic studies on adaptation and conservation of river organisms.

  13. Reference hydrologic networks I. The status and potential future directions of national reference hydrologic networks for detecting trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Higgins, Hélène; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Marsh, Terry; Looser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Identifying climate-driven trends in river flows on a global basis is hampered by a lack of long, quality time series data for rivers with relatively undisturbed regimes. This is a global problem compounded by the lack of support for essential long-term monitoring. Experience demonstrates that, with clear strategic objectives, and the support of sponsoring organizations, reference hydrologic networks can constitute an exceptionally valuable data source to effectively identify, quantify and interpret hydrological change—the speed and magnitude of which is expected to a be a primary driver of water management and flood alleviation strategies through the future—and for additional applications. Reference hydrologic networks have been developed in many countries in the past few decades. These collections of streamflow gauging stations, that are maintained and operated with the intention of observing how the hydrology of watersheds responds to variations in climate, are described. The status of networks under development is summarized. We suggest a plan of actions to make more effective use of this collection of networks.

  14. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  15. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  16. SU-E-P-19: A National Collaborative Academic Medical Physics Network: Structure, Activity and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A national Australian inter-university medical physics (MP) group was formed in 2011/12, supported by Department of Health Better Access to Radiation Oncology BARO) seed funding. Core membership includes the six universities providing postgraduate MP courses. Objectives include increasing capacity, development and efficiency of national academic MP structures/systems and hence supporting education, clinical training and research, for the MP workforce support. Although the BARO scheme focuses on Radiation Oncology, the group has wider MP interests. Methods: Two further BARO seed grants were achieved: 1) for networked academic activities, including shared-resource teaching, eg using virtual reality systems; MP outreach to schools and undergraduates; developing web-based student and registrar education/resources, etc.; and 2) for conjoint ‘translational research’ posts between universities and partner hospitals, to clinically progress advanced RT technologies and to support students and registrars. Each university received 0.5 FTE post from each grant over 2 years (total: $1.75M) and leveraged local additional partner funds. Results: Total funding: $4–5M. Overall there have been 35 (mainly overseas) postholders bringing specific expertise, beginning in early 2013. Periods in Australia have been from 0.25–2 years (median=1). As well as the education activities, research projects include lung/spine SBRT, 4D RT, FFF beams, technology assessment, complex treatment planning, imaging for radiation oncology, DIR, adaptive breast, datamining, radiomics,etc. Observed positive impacts include: increased interest in MP courses, training support, translational research infrastructure and/or clinical practice in the hospitals involved, plus increased collaboration and effectiveness between the universities. Posts are continuing beyond grant end using leveraged funds, providing the basis for sustainability of some posts. Conclusion: The BARO-funded projects have

  17. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  18. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrys, P. A.; Stevens, C. J.; Smart, S. M.; Maskell, L. C.; Walker, K. J.; Preston, C. D.; Crowe, A.; Rowe, E. C.; Gowing, D. J.; Emmett, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Large areas of Great Britain currently have nitrogen (N) deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads). Previous studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, whereas here we look at individual species. We used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to N in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg N scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys indicating increased fertility. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. A number of these species were either habitat dominants or possessed traits known to be influential in controlling ecosystem function. Many community dominants showing significant negative relationships with N deposition highlight a potentially significant loss of function. Some species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels. Some species also showed continuous changes as N deposition levels rose above the current critical load values. This work contributes to the growing evidence base suggesting species level impacts at low N deposition values.

  19. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  20. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls.

  1. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  2. Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Needham, Belinda L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-01-15

    Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 µg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 µg/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 µg/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with -5.54% (95% CI: -8.70, -2.37) and -4.50% (95% CI: -8.79, -0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks.

  3. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  4. How Can the USA National Phenology Network's Data Resource Benefit You? Recent Applications of the Phenology Data and Information Housed in the National Phenology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. Since 2009, over 5,500 participants in Nature's Notebook, the national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program coordinated by the USA-NPN, have contributed nearly 6 million observation records of plants and animals. The phenology data curated by the USA-NPN are being used in a rapidly growing number of applications for science, conservation and resource management. Data and data products generated by the USA-NPN have been used in 17 peer-reviewed publications to date. Additionally, phenology data collected via Nature's Notebook is actively informing decisions ranging from efficiently scheduling street-sweeping activities to keep dropped leaves from entering inland lakes, to timing the spread of herbicide or other restoration activities to maximize their efficacy. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing system and the resultant data, and highlight several ongoing local- to national-scale projects as well as some recently published studies. Additional data-mining and exploration by interested researchers and resource managers will undoubtedly continue to demonstrate the value of these data.

  5. Creating the Evidence through Comparative Effectiveness Research for Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice by Deploying a National Intervention Network and a National Data Repository

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank; Brandt, Barbara; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Delaney, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is currently a resurgence of interest in interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) and its potential to positively impact health outcomes at both the patient level and population level, healthcare delivery, and health professions education. This resurgence of interest led to the creation of the National Center on Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and Education in October 2012. Methods: This paper describes three intertwined knowledge generation strategies of the National Center on Interprofessional Practice and Education: (1) the development of a Nexus Incubator Network, (2) the undertaking of comparative effectiveness research, and (3) the creation of a National Center Data Repository. Results: As these strategies are implemented over time they will result in the production of empirically grounded knowledge regarding the direction and scope of the impact, if any, of IPECP on well-defined health and healthcare outcomes including the possible improvement of the patient experience of care. Conclusions: Among the motivating factors for the National Center and the three strategies adopted and addressed herein is the need for rigorously produced, scientifically sound evidence regarding IPECP and whether or not it has the capacity to positively affect the patient experience of care, the health of populations, and the per capita cost of healthcare. PMID:27417753

  6. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  7. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the deterministic Tsodyks–Markram model leads to unpredictable network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jesus M.; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Veltz, Romain; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity strongly affects the neural dynamics of cortical networks. The Tsodyks and Markram (TM) model for short-term synaptic plasticity accurately accounts for a wide range of physiological responses at different types of cortical synapses. Here, we report a route to chaotic behavior via a Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation that dynamically organizes some of the responses in the TM model. In particular, the presence of such a homoclinic bifurcation strongly affects the shape of the trajectories in the phase space and induces highly irregular transient dynamics; indeed, in the vicinity of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation, the number of population spikes and their precise timing are unpredictable and highly sensitive to the initial conditions. Such an irregular deterministic dynamics has its counterpart in stochastic/network versions of the TM model: The existence of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation generates complex and irregular spiking patterns and—acting as a sort of springboard—facilitates transitions between the down-state and unstable periodic orbits. The interplay between the (deterministic) homoclinic bifurcation and stochastic effects may give rise to some of the complex dynamics observed in neural systems. PMID:24062464

  8. National Cancer Information Service in Italy: an information points network as a new model for providing information for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Truccolo, Ivana; Bufalino, Rosaria; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Caruso, Anita; Costantini, Anna; Cognetti, Gaetana; Florita, Antonio; Pero, Dina; Pugliese, Patrizia; Tancredi, Roberta; De Lorenzo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The international literature data report that good information and communication are fundamental components of a therapeutic process. They contribute to improve the patient-health care professional relationship, to facilitate doctor-patient relationships, therapeutic compliance and adherence, and to the informed consent in innovative clinical trials. We report the results of a multicentric national initiative that developed a 17-information-structure network: 16 Information Points located in the major state-funded certified cancer centers and general hospitals across Italy and a national Help-line at the nonprofit organization AIMaC (the Italian oncologic patients, families and friends association), and updated the already existing services with the aim to create the National Cancer Information Service (SION). The project is the result of a series of pilot and research projects funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The Information Service model proposed is based on some fundamental elements: 1) human interaction with experienced operators, adequately trained in communication and information, complemented with 2) virtual interaction (Help line, Internet, blog, forum and social network); 3) informative material adequate for both scientific accuracy and communicative style; 4) adequate locations for appropriate positioning and privacy (adequate visibility); 5) appropriate advertising. First results coming from these initiatives contributed to introduce issues related to "Communication and Information to patients" as a "Public Health Instrument" to the National Cancer Plan approved by the Ministry of Health for the years 2010-2012.

  9. Networking for Digital Preservation: Current Practice in 15 National Libraries. IFLA Publications 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    In 2004-2005, The National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) conducted a survey for the IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)--an alliance founded jointly by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) and the national libraries of…

  10. Canada urgently needs a national network of libraries to access evidence.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Jessie; Straus, Sharon E; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Canadian health professionals and their patients are deprived of important evidence to guide health and healthcare decisions, ensure quality and avoid unnecessary deaths because, unlike other developed countries, Canada does not have a national medical library as can be found in the United States' National Library of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Health Service.

  11. Arrhythmia Identification with Two-Lead Electrocardiograms Using Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for a Portable ECG Monitor System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shing-Hong; Cheng, Da-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    An automatic configuration that can detect the position of R-waves, classify the normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and other four arrhythmic types from the continuous ECG signals obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is proposed. In this configuration, a support vector machine (SVM) was used to detect and mark the ECG heartbeats with raw signals and differential signals of a lead ECG. An algorithm based on the extracted markers segments waveforms of Lead II and V1 of the ECG as the pattern classification features. A self-constructing neural fuzzy inference network (SoNFIN) was used to classify NSR and four arrhythmia types, including premature ventricular contraction (PVC), premature atrium contraction (PAC), left bundle branch block (LBBB), and right bundle branch block (RBBB). In a real scenario, the classification results show the accuracy achieved is 96.4%. This performance is suitable for a portable ECG monitor system for home care purposes. PMID:23303379

  12. An interpretation of differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigelow, D.S.; Sisterson, D.L.; Schroder, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring program from 1984 through 1986 are investigated. Median differences in hydrogen ion concentration between laboratory and field pH determinations at sites averaged -4.6 ??equiv/L in natural precipitation samples on an annual basis. The median difference found in external quality assurance samples analyzed during the same time period was -11 ??equiv/L. The results suggest a systematic bias in pH values reported by the NADP/NTN network. The bias appears to have a fixed component of approximately -7 ??equiv/L, which can be attributed to the sampling bucket and lid, and a seasonal and regional component that ranges from +4 to -22 ??equiv/L at the 10th and 90th percentiles. Differences were found to be independent of sample pH and sample volume. The magnitude of the bias has implications for the interpretation of previously published pH and hydrogen ion concentration and deposition values in the western United States.

  13. [The external quality assessment schemes for lead in blood organized by the French national agency for medicine and health product safety: a synthesis of 15 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Otz, Jocelyne; Guillard, Olivier; Fauconneau, Bernard; Dumont, Gilles; François-Burg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In 1992, at the request of the French labor ministry following questions on the ability of medical biology laboratories to satisfactorily measure blood lead level (PbB), a national PbB quality control came into being. Only in 1996 did this external quality control include a number of laboratories sufficient to allow for a significant retrospective evaluation. After fifteen years (1996-2011), The French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety wished to exploit the database collected. The number of participating laboratories went down from 73 to 41. On the other hand, the key finding pertained to the highly improved performance of the laboratories, which was associated with a spread decrease of the results over the entire range of tested PbBs (9 to 700 μg/L). Since 2006, we have observed increasing use of the inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometry and decreasing use of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Provided that they rely on identical metrology expertise, the two analytical techniques lead to results on all the tested concentrations that are not statistically different.

  14. A Balanced Accuracy Fitness Function Leads to Robust Analysis using Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks in the Case of Class Imbalance.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Nicholas E; Fanelli, Theresa J; Dudek, Scott M; Reif, David M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2008-01-01

    Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks (GENN) is a computational method designed to detect gene-gene interactions in genetic epidemiology, but has so far only been evaluated in situations with balanced numbers of cases and controls. Real data, however, rarely has such perfectly balanced classes. In the current study, we test the power of GENN to detect interactions in data with a range of class imbalance using two fitness functions (classification error and balanced error), as well as data re-sampling. We show that when using classification error, class imbalance greatly decreases the power of GENN. Re-sampling methods demonstrated improved power, but using balanced accuracy resulted in the highest power. Based on the results of this study, balanced error has replaced classification error in the GENN algorithm.

  15. Workshop on Incomplete Network Data Held at Sandia National Labs – Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Soundarajan, Sucheta; Wendt, Jeremy D.

    2016-06-01

    While network analysis is applied in a broad variety of scientific fields (including physics, computer science, biology, and the social sciences), how networks are constructed and the resulting bias and incompleteness have drawn more limited attention. For example, in biology, gene networks are typically developed via experiment -- many actual interactions are likely yet to be discovered. In addition to this incompleteness, the data-collection processes can introduce significant bias into the observed network datasets. For instance, if you observe part of the World Wide Web network through a classic random walk, then high degree nodes are more likely to be found than if you had selected nodes at random. Unfortunately, such incomplete and biasing data collection methods must be often used.

  16. Vapor-Phase Epitaxial Growth of Aligned Nanowire Networks of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Fu, Yongping; Samad, Leith; Dang, Lianna; Zhao, Yuzhou; Shen, Shaohua; Guo, Liejin; Jin, Song

    2017-01-11

    With the intense interest in inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites and their nanostructures for optoelectronic applications, high-quality crystalline nanomaterials with controllable morphologies and growth directions are desirable. Here, we report a vapor-phase epitaxial growth of horizontal single-crystal CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) and microwires (MWs) with controlled crystallographic orientations on the (001) plane of phlogopite and muscovite mica. Moreover, single NWs, Y-shaped branches, interconnected NW or MW networks with 6-fold symmetry, and, eventually, highly dense epitaxial network of CsPbBr3 with nearly continuous coverage were controllably obtained by varying the growth time. Detailed structural study revealed that the CsPbBr3 wires grow along the [001] directions and have the (100) facets exposed. The incommensurate heteroepitaxial lattice match between the CsPbBr3 and mica crystal structures and the growth mechanism of these horizontal wires due to asymmetric lattice mismatch were proposed. Furthermore, the photoluminescence waveguiding and good performance from the photodetector device fabricated with these CsPbBr3 networks demonstrated that these well-connected CsPbBr3 NWs could serve as straightforward platforms for fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications.

  17. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  18. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  19. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  20. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  1. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0900, September 27, 2012. Vulnerability testing of networked resources located in the NVFEL identified Internet Protocol addresses with potentially 9 critical-risk, 70 high-risk, and 297 medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  2. The Global Special Operations Forces Network from a Partner-Nation Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    as an integrator of interagency efforts, see Michael E . Gates, “Creating SOF Networks: The Role of NATO Special Operations as a Testing Ground for SOF...diss. University of Oslo, Faculty of Social Sciences and Department of Psychology. February 2012. Gates, Michael E . “Creating SOF Networks: The Role...9  3.  Relational Analysis of the Overall GSN .............................................9  E

  3. Development of a Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring Network for Emergency Response at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N; Hunter, S; Fertig, R; Laguna, G; MacQueen, D

    2004-03-08

    A real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response was developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the LLNL Livermore site perimeter to continuously monitor for a radiological condition resulting from a terrorist threat to site security and the health and safety of LLNL personnel. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors are supported by a central command center (CCC) and transmit measurement data back to the CCC computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio and computer based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. The RTRAM network has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions.

  4. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  5. [From the national competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) emerged the German Liver Foundation (Deutsche Leberstiftung)].

    PubMed

    Hardtke, S; Wiebner, B; Manns, M P

    2016-04-01

    The competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) was founded in 2002 with funding from the German government and has influenced the research on viral hepatitis in Germany. HepNet collaborator sites have been involved in numerous national and international investigator-initiated, as well as industry-sponsored, phase 1-3 studies. Within the HepNet Study-House, many groundbreaking investor-initiated trials have been completed and are still ongoing. For example, the acute hepatitis C trials and trials on chronic hepatitis D (delta), which led to therapy optimization. Continuation of the competence network on viral hepatitis has been achieved by the foundation of the German Liver Foundation, which has been an external cooperation partner of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) for two years. The well-established HepNet Study-House acts here as the clinical trial platform for all DZIF hepatitis trials.

  6. A Trusted National Fusion Center Network: Are Baseline Capabilities and Accreditation Needed?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Model NOBLE National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives NSA National Sheriff’s Association PERF Police Executive Research Forum...appointed to develop a draft model for an accreditation process. The steering committee concluded that it was desirable and feasible to move forward...6. Funding ...............................................................................................51 IV. ACCREDITATION MODELS UTILIZED BY

  7. 78 FR 68030 - Draft Guidance on Intellectual Property Rights for the National Network for Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... (301) 975-8280; email amnpo@nist.gov . Please direct media inquiries to Mark Bello, NIST Office of...), and National Science Foundation. \\2\\ http://www.commerce.gov/news/press-releases/2011/12/16/commerce... Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering in...

  8. Incidence and Characteristics of Ventilator-Associated Events Reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network in 2014*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qunna; Gross, Cindy; Dudeck, Margaret; Allen-Bridson, Katherine; Edwards, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ventilator-associated event surveillance was introduced in the National Healthcare Safety Network in 2013, replacing surveillance for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult inpatient locations. We determined incidence rates and characteristics of ventilator-associated events reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network. Design, Setting, and Patients: We analyzed data reported from U.S. healthcare facilities for ventilator-associated events that occurred in 2014, the first year during which ventilator-associated event surveillance definitions were stable. We used negative binomial regression modeling to identify healthcare facility and inpatient location characteristics associated with ventilator-associated events. We calculated ventilator-associated event incidence rates, rate distributions, and ventilator utilization ratios in critical care and noncritical care locations and described event characteristics. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,824 healthcare facilities reported 32,772 location months of ventilator-associated event surveillance data to the National Healthcare Safety Network in 2014. Critical care unit pooled mean ventilator-associated event incidence rates ranged from 2.00 to 11.79 per 1,000 ventilator days, whereas noncritical care unit rates ranged from 0 to 14.86 per 1,000 ventilator days. The pooled mean proportion of ventilator-associated events defined as infection-related varied from 15.38% to 47.62% in critical care units. Pooled mean ventilator utilization ratios in critical care units ranged from 0.24 to 0.47. Conclusions: We found substantial variability in ventilator-associated event incidence, proportions of ventilator-associated events characterized as infection-related, and ventilator utilization within and among location types. More work is needed to understand the preventable fraction of ventilator-associated events and identify patient care strategies that reduce ventilator-associated events. PMID

  9. Technology Programs That Work. A National Diffusion Network Resource of Exemplary Programs Approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Larry, Ed.

    This report presents brief descriptions of exemplary programs validated by the National Diffusion Network (NDN) and approved for national dissemination by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, which focus specifically on the effective use of technology in education. As exemplary projects called Developer Demonstrators, 12 of the programs described…

  10. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Point-of-Care Technology Research Network: Advancing Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ford Carleton, Penny; Parrish, John A.; Collins, John M.; Crocker, J. Benjamin; Dixon, Ronald F.; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Lewandrowski, Kent B.; Stahl, James E.; Klapperich, Catherine; Cabodi, Mario; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Manabe, Yukari; Wang, Tza-Huei; Rothman, Richard; Geddes, Chris D.; Widdice, Lea; Jackman, Joany; Mathura, Rishi A.; Lash, Tiffani Bailey

    2016-01-01

    To advance the development of point-of-care technology (POCT), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering established the POCT Research Network (POCTRN), comprised of Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary partnerships and close facilitation to move technologies from an early stage of development into clinical testing and patient use. This paper describes the POCTRN and the three currently funded Centers as examples of academic-based organizations that support collaborations across disciplines, institutions, and geographic regions to successfully drive innovative solutions from concept to patient care. PMID:27730014

  11. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-05

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group.

  12. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified.

  13. Social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors.

  14. The Upper Colorado River; National Water-Quality Assessment Program; surface-water-monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program in 1991. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams, rivers, and aquifers; (2) describe how water quality is changing over time; and (3) improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions (Leahy and others, 1990). To meet these goals, 60 study units representing the Nation's most important river basins and aquifers are being investigated. The program design balances the unique assessment requirements of individual study units with a nationally consistent design structure that incorporates a multiscale, interdisciplinary approach for assessment of surface and ground water.

  15. A networking approach to rehabilitation service delivery in the developing nation/states of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Kearns, W F

    1983-12-01

    The people of Micronesia , those inhabitants of a collection of over 2,000 islands and atolls encompassing three million square miles of Western Pacific Ocean, have developed by the establishment of three political entities, compacts of Free Association with the United States (United Nations Administrators of the area under the designation of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands). These emerging nations aim for self-sufficiency in all areas of national endeavor within specified periods of time. The University of Guam's Vocational Rehabilitation Training Program has addressed itself to the issue confronting not only these newly emerging nation/states of Micronesia , but indeed, those developing nations which currently struggle with the social, cultural and economic issues of providing for its citizenry , appropriate rehabilitation programming which meets criteria of high quality services to the largest number of people within an attainable cost structure. Initial findings suggest this Third World Rehabilitation community refrain from adopting a polarity of thinking approach in the design and delivery of Rehabilitation services. The logical extension of such either/or planning attempts seems only to limit current and future Rehabilitation programming effort. Rather, a comparative cost analysis of selected rehabilitation services and accompanying travel expenses related to providers from both sides and throughout the Pacific, demonstrates that an admixture approach, which includes all available sources of services, warrants further investigation as a viable programming model for the nation/states of Micronesia to utilize as they develop locally based Vocational Rehabilitation Service programs of their own.

  16. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  17. 77 FR 33229 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ..., as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, as amended). This Notice is... Resource Network. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub. L... with wide-ranging experience and skills. Agency form numbers, if applicable: SF-424, SF-424supp,...

  18. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  19. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  20. The design, implementation, and operational management of a comprehensive quality management program to support national telehealth networks.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Adam; Foster, Linda; Anderson, Carla; Goldschmidt, Leonard; Selvin, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a large integrated healthcare system with a mission to care for over 5.6 million Veteran patients annually. VHA, like other healthcare organizations, is challenged with providing access to care to those it serves when they live at a distance from a physical site of care. VHA has embraced telehealth as a way of delivering care at a distance and increase access to specialty care services. Since 2003 VHA has developed large national telehealth networks that provided care to 497,342 patients in fiscal year 2012, who received 1,429,424 episodes of care, and is recognized as a national leader in this field. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of its telehealth networks in their delivery of care VHA has implemented a dedicated quality management (QM) program for telehealth. QM data for telehealth are reviewed at 3-month intervals, and the procedures and processes in place to support telehealth in VHA are assessed biannually in an internal accreditation process called "Telehealth Conditions of Participation." This collegial, nonadversarial process has ensured that all designated telehealth programs meet minimal standards and disseminate best practice. As a result of VHA's QM program, telehealth services in VHA meet consistently high clinical outcomes and have received no adverse Joint Commission citations. The Joint Commission regularly assesses patients managed via telehealth under its tracer methodology reviews.

  1. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  2. Establishing a national knowledge translation and generation network in kidney disease: the CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden; Barrett, Brendan; Evans, Michael; Garg, Amit; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Kappel, Joanne; Klarenbach, Scott; Madore, Francois; Parfrey, Patrick; Samuel, Susan; Soroka, Steven; Suri, Rita; Tonelli, Marcello; Wald, Ron; Walsh, Michael; Zappitelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure.

  3. A National network of schizophrenia expert centres: An innovative tool to bridge the research-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Schürhoff, F; Fond, G; Berna, F; Bulzacka, E; Vilain, J; Capdevielle, D; Misdrahi, D; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is probably the most severe psychiatric disorder with much suffering for the patients and huge costs for the society. Efforts to provide optimal care by general practitioners and psychiatrists are undermined by the complexity of the disorder and difficulties in applying clinical practice guidelines and new research findings to the spectrum of cases seen in day-to-day practice. An innovative model of assessment aimed at improving global care of people with schizophrenia provided by the French national network of schizophrenia expert centres is being described. Each centre has established strong links to local health services and provides support to clinicians in delivering personalized care plans. A common set of assessment tools has been adopted by the ten centres spread over the whole French territory. A web application, e-schizo(©) has been created to record data in a common computerized medical file. This network offers systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multi-dimensional assessments of cases including a medical workup and an exhaustive neuropsychological evaluation. This strategy offers an effective way to transfer knowledge and share expertise. This network is a great opportunity to improve the global patient care and is conceived as being an infrastructure for research from observational cohort to translational research.

  4. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Wu, Erin W; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91-2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37-8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40-5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  5. Comparison of the Marginal Cost-Effectiveness of Various Recruiting Resources for High School Graduate Enlistments: Analysis of National, Local and ’Walk-in’ Leads and Yield Rates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Research Report, July, 1980) had concluded that local advertising in the classified ads and high school newspapers (i.e., LAMS) appeared to be a very...Navy national advertising x 1.26/69,709 = $80). 2.2 Local Advertising (LAMS) and Local Leads The placement costs for LAMS (classified ads in local...FOR FY80 3 2.1 National Advertising and NOIC Leads 3 2.2 Local Advertising CLAMS) and Local Leads 4 2.3 Recruiters and HSG Contracts 4 2.4 Mix of

  6. On how much biodiversity is covered in Europe by national protected areas and by the Natura 2000 network: insights from terrestrial vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, L; Amori, G; Montemaggiori, A; Rondinini, C; Santini, L; Saura, S; Boitani, L

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has made extensive biodiversity conservation efforts with the Habitats and Birds Directives and with the establishment of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, one of the largest networks of conservation areas worldwide. We performed a gap analysis of the entire Natura 2000 system plus national protected areas and all terrestrial vertebrates (freshwater fish excluded). We also evaluated the level of connectivity of both systems, providing therefore a first estimate of the functionality of the Natura 2000 system as an effective network of protected areas. Together national protected areas and the Natura 2000 network covered more than one-third of the European Union. National protected areas did not offer protection to 13 total gap species (i.e., species not covered by any protected area) or to almost 300 partial gap species (i.e., species whose representation target is not met). Together the Natura 2000 network and national protected areas left 1 total gap species and 121 partial gap species unprotected. The terrestrial vertebrates listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives were relatively well covered (especially birds), and overall connectivity was improved considerably by Natura 2000 sites that act as stepping stones between national protected areas. Overall, we found that the Natura 2000 network represents at continental level an important network of protected areas that acts as a good complement to existing national protected areas. However, a number of problems remain that are mainly linked to the criteria used to list the species in the Habitats and Birds Directives. The European Commission initiated in 2014 a process aimed at assessing the importance of the Birds and Habitats Directives for biodiversity conservation. Our results contribute to this assessment and suggest the system is largely effective for terrestrial vertebrates but would benefit from further updating of the species lists and field management.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Saudi National Seismic Network Recording of the November 1999 Dead Sea Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A.

    1999-12-01

    Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea on November 10 and 11, 1999 for the purposes of calibrating seismic travel times to improve regional network location. These explosions were large enough to be observed with good signal-to-noise ratios by seismic stations in northwestern Saudi Arabia (distances c 500 km). In this report, we present a preliminary analysis of the recordings from these shots.

  8. SANDS: An Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics. PMID:18693950

  9. A walk through the hydroclimate network in Yosemite National Park: River chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Dave; Smith, Richard; Hager, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Visitors to Yosemite National Park (YNP) are fully aware of the weather, snowmelt, waterfalls (Photo 1), and river discharge and river and lake water temperature. They are not, however, thinking about river chemistry because you can’t see, hear, or feel it. So a river chemistry article in Nature Notes needs a familiar background before we break out the instruments.

  10. From Partnerships to Networks: New Approaches for Measuring U. S. National Heritage Area Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laven, Daniel N.; Krymkowski, Daniel H.; Ventriss, Curtis L.; Manning, Robert E.; Mitchell, Nora J.

    2010-01-01

    National Heritage Areas (NHAs) are an alternative and increasingly popular form of protected area management in the United States. NHAs seek to integrate environmental objectives with community and economic objectives at regional or landscape scales. NHA designations have increased rapidly in the last 20 years, generating a substantial need for…

  11. Creating State and National Networks for Adolescent Literacy and Coaching: An Interview with Nancy L. Shanklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy L.; Moore, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Nancy L. Shanklin, an associate professor at the University of Colorado Denver, is the former director of the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse, a joint project of the International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English. She advocates secondary-school coaching programs that apply what can be learned from experienced coaches…

  12. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel; Peter J. Marshall

    2007-03-30

    In lieu of performing laboratory testing, Eaton Corporation and Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) conducted an additional field test in March 2007 at ORNL facilities. The results of this test summarized in the report entitled 'DE-FC26-04NT42071, Final Technical Report' submitted to the Department of Energy on June 27, 2007.

  13. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  14. The precision of wet atmospheric deposition data from national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network sites determined with collocated samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilles, M.A.; Gordon, J.D.; Schroder, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    A collocated, wet-deposition sampler program has been operated since October 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey to estimate the overall sampling precision of wet atmospheric deposition data collected at selected sites in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). A duplicate set of wet-deposition sampling instruments was installed adjacent to existing sampling instruments at four different NADP/NTN sites for each year of the study. Wet-deposition samples from collocated sites were collected and analysed using standard NADP/NTN procedures. Laboratory analyses included determinations of pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of major cations and anions. The estimates of precision included all variability in the data-collection system, from the point of sample collection through storage in the NADP/NTN database. Sampling precision was determined from the absolute value of differences in the analytical results for the paired samples in terms of median relative and absolute difference. The median relative difference for Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+ concentration and deposition was quite variable between sites and exceeded 10% at most sites. Relative error for analytes whose concentrations typically approached laboratory method detection limits were greater than for analytes that did not typically approach detection limits. The median relative difference for SO42- and NO3- concentration, specific conductance, and sample volume at all sites was less than 7%. Precision for H+ concentration and deposition ranged from less than 10% at sites with typically high levels of H+ concentration to greater than 30% at sites with low H+ concentration. Median difference for analyte concentration and deposition was typically 1.5-2-times greater for samples collected during the winter than during other seasons at two northern sites. Likewise, the median relative difference in sample volume for winter samples was more than double the annual median

  15. A National Wind Erosion Monitoring Network to support and all-lands wind erosion model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concern about wind erosion in the United States rangelands is increasing. This concern has arisen as a consequence of changing and intensifying land use pressures which can lead to increased soil loss and dust emissions. However, there is relatively little research to support improved managem...

  16. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  17. External quality-assurance programs managed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Quality Systems, operates the external quality-assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Beginning in 1978, six different programs have been implemented?the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the sample-handling evaluation program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program was designed to measure error contributed by specific components in the data-collection process. The intersite-comparison program, which was discontinued in 2004, was designed to assess the accuracy and reliability of field pH and specific-conductance measurements made by site operators. The blind-audit and sample-handling evaluation programs, which also were discontinued in 2002 and 2004, respectively, assessed contamination that may result from sampling equipment and routine handling and processing of the wet-deposition samples. The field-audit program assesses the effects of sample handling, processing, and field exposure. The interlaboratory-comparison program evaluates bias and precision of analytical results produced by the contract laboratory for NADP, the Illinois State Water Survey, Central Analytical Laboratory, and compares its performance with the performance of international laboratories. The collocated-sampler program assesses the overall precision of wet-deposition data collected by NADP/NTN. This report documents historical operations and the operating procedures for each of these external quality-assurance programs. USGS quality-assurance information allows NADP/NTN data users to discern between actual environmental trends and inherent measurement variability.

  18. Major trends in public health law and practice: a network national report.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health.

  19. A 24-month Evaluation of Amalgam and Resin-Based Composite Restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Michael S.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Shamp, Douglass G.; Qvist, Vibeke; Meral, Jeffrey S.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowing which factors influence restoration longevity can help clinicians make sound treatment decisions. The authors analyzed data from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network to identify predictors of early failures of amalgam and resin-based composite (RBC) restorations. Methods This prospective cohort study gathered information from clinicians and offices participating in the network. Clinicians completed a baseline data collection form at the time of restoration placement, and annually thereafter. Data collected included patient factors, practice factors, and dentist factors, and were analyzed using mixed-model logistic regression. Results A total of 226 practitioners followed 6,218 direct restorations in 3,855 patients; 386 restorations failed (6.6 percent) during the mean follow-up period of 23.7 (SD 8.8) months. The number of tooth surfaces restored at baseline predicted subsequent restoration failure; large restorations were over 4 times more likely to fail. Material was not significantly associated with longevity; neither was tooth type. Patient age was highly associated with failure (p<0.0001). The failure rate for children was 5 percent, compared to 12 percent in persons 65 years old or older. Dentist gender and practice workload were significantly associated with restoration longevity. Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, these factors significantly predicted an increased failure rate for amalgam and RBC restorations: older patient age and a higher number of surfaces restored at baseline, with other key baseline variables taken into account. Material choice was not significantly predictive in these early results. Clinical Implications Understanding risk factors for early restoration failure may lead to more-effective patient care. PMID:23729455

  20. Dynamic active telepathology over National Health Laboratory service network, South Africa: feasibility study using Nikon Coolscope.

    PubMed

    Banach, Lech; Stepien, Andrzej; Schneider, Johann; Wichrzycka-Lancaster, Elizabeth

    2008-07-15

    Telepathology recently entered a new era with the introduction of digital microscopes combined with Internet technology. The microscope allows viewing real time of whole slide (macro) as well as different chosen fields in four different magnifications. Three Nikon Coolscope were installed in NHLS laboratories in Mthatha, East London and Port Elizabeth. All these microscopes are connected to NHLS server allowing real time viewing of the full slide at any time of the day using Internet browser. Viewing is possible from any PC connected to NHLS Intranet. The challenge was to be able to view slides from other than NHLS computers due to NHLS IT Department network security measures. This was solved by installing NHLS Virtual Private Network server. About 60 cases were viewed by pathologists in Cape Town (Stellenbosh University) and Pretoria (MEDUNSA). All users assessed the system as a helpful tool allowing easy access to cases needing consultation or second opinion. The quality of images was very good. Our experience with Nikon Coolscope is positive. It is an excellent tool for remote small histopathology departments lacking specialists in such areas as dermatopathology, oncology, and haematopathology. Further studies are needed especially in the scope of full utilization of the microscopes installed and impact on laboratory services.